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Organofluorine chemistry

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Organofluorine chemistry describes the chemistry of the organofluorines, organic compounds that contain the carbon–fluorine bond. [1]

182 relations: Acetylacetone, Agrochemical, Air conditioning, Alkali metal, Alkene, Anesthetic, Aniline, Anode, Antimony trifluoride, Balz–Schiemann reaction, Bioaccumulation, Bioisostere, Bistriflimide, Blood substitute, Bond dipole moment, Cambridge Structural Database, Carbene, Carbon–fluorine bond, Carbonyl group, Catalysis, Chemical bond, Chemical Reviews, Chemistry, Chlorodifluoromethane, Chlorofluorocarbon, Ciprofloxacin, Cobalt(III) fluoride, Combustion, Coordination complex, Covalent radius of fluorine, Cyclopropane, Dennis P. Curran, Desflurane, Dichlorodifluoromethane, Dichlorofluoromethane, Diethyl ether, Diethylaminosulfur trifluoride, Difluorocarbene, DuPont, Electrochemical fluorination, Electrolysis, Electronegativity, Electrophile, Electrosynthesis, Enflurane, Enzyme, Ether, EuFOD, Fatty acid, Fluconazole, ..., Fludeoxyglucose (18F), Flunitrazepam, Fluorinase, Fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fluoroacetaldehyde, Fluoroacetic acid, Fluoroacetone, Fluorocarbon, Fluorocitric acid, Fluoropolymer, Fluorouracil, Fluorous chemistry, Fluoxetine, Friction, Fuel cell, G20, Global warming, Greenhouse gas, Grignard reaction, Halide, Halocarbon, Hexafluorophosphate, Hexane, Homolysis (chemistry), Hydride, Hydrodefluorination, Hydrofluorocarbon, Hydrofluoroolefin, Hydrogen, Hydrogen fluoride, Hydrophile, Hydrophobe, Hydroxy group, Igneous rock, Inhalational anaesthetic, Iodine, Ionic liquid, Isoflurane, Krytox, Leaving group, Lewis acids and bases, Ligand, Lipophilicity, Lipophobicity, Liquid-crystal display, Liquid–liquid extraction, Materials science, Medication, Mefloquine, Metamorphic rock, Metered-dose inhaler, Methoxyflurane, Montreal Protocol, Multiphasic liquid, Nafion, Natural product, Nitrogen, Noble gas compound, Non-coordinating anion, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Nucleophilic substitution, Oenothera biennis, Olah reagent, Organic compound, Organic synthesis, Organofluorine chemistry, Organometallic chemistry, Oxygen, Ozone depletion, Paclitaxel, Paris Agreement, Paroxetine, Perfluorinated carboxylic acid, Perfluorodecalin, Perfluorohexane, Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid, Perfluorooctanoic acid, Persistent organic pollutant, Phenol, Plant defense against herbivory, Pollutant, Polychlorotrifluoroethylene, Polyether ether ketone, Polytetrafluoroethylene, Polyvinylidene fluoride, Positron emission tomography, Potassium bifluoride, Pyridine, Radiative forcing, Radiopharmaceutical, Reagent, Refrigerant, Salbutamol, Salt metathesis reaction, Sandmeyer reaction, Schwartz's reagent, Science History Institute, Selectfluor, Sevoflurane, Singlet state, Solvent, Sulfur dioxide, Sulfur tetrafluoride, Supercritical carbon dioxide, Surfactant, Tetrafluoroborate, Tetrafluoroethylene, Tetrafluoromethane, Tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate, The Guardian, Toxicity, Trichloroethylene, Triflate, Triflic acid, Trifluoroacetic acid, Trifluoromethyl, Triphenylphosphine, Triplet state, United Nations Environment Programme, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Uracil, Uranium hexafluoride, Van der Waals force, Van der Waals radius, Vanillin, Volt, Ziegler–Natta catalyst, 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, 2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol, 4,4'-Difluorobenzophenone, 4-Fluoro-L-threonine, 5'-Deoxy-5'-fluoroadenosine. Expand index (132 more) »


Acetylacetone is an organic compound that exists in two tautomeric forms that interconvert rapidly and are treated as a single compound in most applications.

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An agrochemical or agrichemical, a contraction of agricultural chemical, is a chemical product used in agriculture.

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Air conditioning

Air conditioning (often referred to as AC, A/C, or air con) is the process of removing heat and moisture from the interior of an occupied space, to improve the comfort of occupants.

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Alkali metal

The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.

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In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.

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An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery, completely blocking any feeling as opposed to an analgesic.

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Aniline is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2.

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An anode is an electrode through which the conventional current enters into a polarized electrical device.

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Antimony trifluoride

Antimony trifluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula SbF3.

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Balz–Schiemann reaction

The Schiemann reaction (also called the Balz–Schiemann reaction) is a chemical reaction in which anilines (1) are transformed to aryl fluorides (3) via diazonium fluoroborates (2).

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Bioaccumulation is the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism.

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In medicinal chemistry, bioisosteres are chemical substituents or groups with similar physical or chemical properties which produce broadly similar biological properties to another chemical compound.

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Bistriflimide, systematically known as bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide and colloquially as TFSI, is a non-coordinating anion with the chemical formula −. The anion is widely used in ionic liquids, since it is less toxic and more stable than more "traditional" counterions such as tetrafluoroborate.

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Blood substitute

A blood substitute (also called artificial blood or blood surrogate) is a substance used to mimic and fulfill some functions of biological blood.

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Bond dipole moment

The bond dipole moment uses the idea of electric dipole moment to measure the polarity of a chemical bond within a molecule.

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Cambridge Structural Database

The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) is both a repository and a validated and curated resource for the three-dimensional structural data of molecules generally containing at least carbon and hydrogen, comprising a wide range of organic, metal-organic and organometallic molecules.

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In chemistry, a carbene is a molecule containing a neutral carbon atom with a valence of two and two unshared valence electrons.

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Carbon–fluorine bond

The carbon–fluorine bond is a polar covalent bond between carbon and fluorine that is a component of all organofluorine compounds.

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Carbonyl group

In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.

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Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.

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Chemical bond

A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.

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Chemical Reviews

Chemical Reviews is peer-reviewed scientific journal published twice per month by the American Chemical Society.

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Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.

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Chlorodifluoromethane or difluoromonochloromethane is a hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC).

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Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are fully halogenated paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only carbon (С), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane.

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Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.

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Cobalt(III) fluoride

Cobalt(III) fluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula CoF3.

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Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.

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Coordination complex

In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.

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Covalent radius of fluorine

The covalent radius of fluorine is a measure of the size of a fluorine atom; it is approximated at about 60 picometres.

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Cyclopropane is a cycloalkane molecule with the molecular formula C3H6, consisting of three carbon atoms linked to each other to form a ring, with each carbon atom bearing two hydrogen atoms resulting in D3h molecular symmetry.

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Dennis P. Curran

Dennis P. Curran (born June 10, 1953) is an American organic chemist and a professor of chemistry at University of Pittsburgh known for his research in the fields of organic chemistry, radical chemistry, and fluorous chemistry.

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Desflurane (1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl difluoromethyl ether) is a highly fluorinated methyl ethyl ether used for maintenance of general anesthesia.

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Dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12) is a colorless gas usually sold under the brand name Freon-12, and a chlorofluorocarbon halomethane (CFC) used as a refrigerant and aerosol spray propellant.

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Dichlorofluoromethane or Freon 21 or R 21 is a halomethane or hydrochlorofluorocarbon. It is a colorless and odorless gas. Its critical point is at 178.5 °C (451.7 K) and 5.17 MPa (51.7 bar). At temperatures from 5 K to 105 K it has one phase in the space group Pbca.

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Diethyl ether

Diethyl ether, or simply ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula, sometimes abbreviated as (see Pseudoelement symbols).

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Diethylaminosulfur trifluoride

Diethylaminosulfur trifluoride (DAST) is the organosulfur compound with the formula Et2NSF3.

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Difluorocarbene is the chemical compound with formula CF2.

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Electrochemical fluorination

Electrochemical fluorination (ECF), or electrofluorination, is a foundational organofluorine chemistry method for the preparation of fluorocarbon-based organofluorine compounds.

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In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.

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Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.

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In organic chemistry, an electrophile is a reagent attracted to electrons.

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Electrosynthesis in chemistry is the synthesis of chemical compounds in an electrochemical cell.

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Enflurane (2-chloro-1,1,2,-trifluoroethyl-difluoromethyl ether) is a halogenated ether.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups.

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EuFOD is the chemical compound with the formula Eu(OCC(CH3)3CHCOC3F7)3, also called Eu(fod)3.

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Fatty acid

In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.

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Fluconazole is an antifungal medication used for a number of fungal infections.

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Fludeoxyglucose (18F)

Fludeoxyglucose (18F) (INN), or fludeoxyglucose F 18 (USAN and USP), also commonly called fluorodeoxyglucose and abbreviated FDG, 18F-FDG or FDG, is a radiopharmaceutical used in the medical imaging modality positron emission tomography (PET).

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Flunitrazepam, also known as Rohypnol among other names, is an intermediate acting benzodiazepine used in some countries to treat severe insomnia and in fewer, early in anesthesia.

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The fluorinase enzyme (also known as adenosyl-fluoride synthase) catalyzes the reaction between fluoride ion and the co-factor S-adenosyl-L-methionine to generate L-methionine and 5'-fluoro-5'-deoxyadenosine, the first committed product of the fluorometabolite biosynthesis pathway.

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Fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

Fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (fluorine NMR or 19F NMR) is an analytical technique used to detect and identify fluorine-containing compounds.

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Fluoroacetaldehyde is a metabolic precursor of both fluoroacetate and 4-fluorothreonine in Streptomyces cattleya.

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Fluoroacetic acid

Fluoroacetic acid is a chemical compound with formula CH2FCOOH.

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Fluoroacetone is an organofluorine compound with the chemical formula.

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Fluorocarbons, sometimes referred to as perfluorocarbons or PFCs, are, strictly speaking, organofluorine compounds with the formula CxFy, i.e. they contain only carbon and fluorine, though the terminology is not strictly followed.

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Fluorocitric acid

Fluorocitric acid is a fluorinated carboxylic acid derived from citric acid by substitution of one hydrogen by a fluorine atom.

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A fluoropolymer is a fluorocarbon-based polymer with multiple carbon–fluorine bonds.

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Fluorouracil (5-FU), sold under the brand name Adrucil among others, is a medication used to treat cancer.

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Fluorous chemistry

Fluorous chemistry involves the use of perfluorinated compounds or perfluorinated substituents to facilitate recovery of a catalyst or reaction product.

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Fluoxetine, also known by trade names Prozac and Sarafem, among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.

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Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.

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Fuel cell

A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through an electrochemical reaction of hydrogen fuel with oxygen or another oxidizing agent.

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The G20 (or Group of Twenty) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union.

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Global warming

Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.

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Greenhouse gas

A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.

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Grignard reaction

The Grignard reaction (pronounced) is an organometallic chemical reaction in which alkyl, vinyl, or aryl-magnesium halides (Grignard reagents) add to a carbonyl group in an aldehyde or ketone.

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A halide is a binary phase, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative (or more electropositive) than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, astatide, or theoretically tennesside compound.

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Halocarbon compounds are chemicals in which one or more carbon atoms are linked by covalent bonds with one or more halogen atoms (fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine –) resulting in the formation of organofluorine compounds, organochlorine compounds, organobromine compounds, and organoiodine compounds.

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Hexafluorophosphate is an anion with chemical formula of.

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Hexane is an alkane of six carbon atoms, with the chemical formula C6H14.

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Homolysis (chemistry)

In chemistry, homolysis (from Greek ὅμοιος, homoios, "equal," and λύσις, lusis, "loosening") or homolytic fission is chemical bond dissociation of a molecule by a process where each of the fragments retains one of the originally bonded electrons.

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In chemistry, a hydride is the anion of hydrogen, H−, or, more commonly, it is a compound in which one or more hydrogen centres have nucleophilic, reducing, or basic properties.

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Hydrodefluorination (HDF) is a type of organic reaction in which in a substrate a carbon–fluorine bond is replaced by a carbon–hydrogen bond.

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Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), organic compounds that contain fluorine and hydrogen atoms, are the most common type of organofluorine compounds.

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Hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs) are unsaturated organic compounds composed of hydrogen, fluorine and carbon.

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Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Hydrogen fluoride

Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula.

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A hydrophile is a molecule or other molecular entity that is attracted to water molecules and tends to be dissolved by water.

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In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.

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Hydroxy group

A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.

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Igneous rock

Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic.

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Inhalational anaesthetic

An inhalational anaesthetic is a chemical compound possessing general anaesthetic properties that can be delivered via inhalation.

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Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.

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Ionic liquid

An ionic liquid (IL) is a salt in the liquid state.

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Isoflurane, sold under the trade name Forane among others, is a general anesthetic.

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Krytox is a group of colourless synthetic lubricants (oils and greases) with a variety of applications.

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Leaving group

In chemistry, a leaving group is a molecular fragment that departs with a pair of electrons in heterolytic bond cleavage.

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Lewis acids and bases

A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.

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In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.

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Lipophilicity (from Greek λίπος "fat" and φίλος "friendly"), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene.

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Lipophobicity, also sometimes called lipophobia (from the Greek λιποφοβία from λίπος lipos "fat" and φόβος phobos "fear"), is a chemical property of chemical compounds which means "fat rejection", literally "fear of fat".

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Liquid-crystal display

A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat-panel display or other electronically modulated optical device that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals.

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Liquid–liquid extraction

Liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds or metal complexes, based on their relative solubilities in two different immiscible liquids, usually water (polar) and an organic solvent (non-polar).

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Materials science

The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.

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A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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Mefloquine, sold under the brand names Lariam among others, is a medication used to prevent or treat malaria.

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Metamorphic rock

Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form".

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Metered-dose inhaler

A metered-dose inhaler (MDI) is a device that delivers a specific amount of medication to the lungs, in the form of a short burst of aerosolized medicine that is usually self-administered by the patient via inhalation.

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Methoxyflurane, formerly marketed as Penthrane, is a halogenated ether that was in clinical use as a volatile inhalational anesthetic from its introduction in 1960 until the late 1970s.

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Montreal Protocol

The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (a protocol to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer) is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone depletion.

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Multiphasic liquid

A multiphasic liquid is a mixture consisting of more than two immiscible liquid phases.

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Nafion is a sulfonated tetrafluoroethylene based fluoropolymer-copolymer discovered in the late 1960s by Walther Grot of DuPont.

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Natural product

A natural product is a chemical compound or substance produced by a living organism—that is, found in nature.

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Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Noble gas compound

Noble gas compounds are chemical compounds that include an element from the noble gases, group 18 of the periodic table.

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Non-coordinating anion

Anions that interact weakly with cations are termed non-coordinating anions, although a more accurate term is weakly coordinating anion.

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Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy or magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), is a spectroscopic technique to observe local magnetic fields around atomic nuclei.

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Nucleophilic substitution

In organic and inorganic chemistry, nucleophilic substitution is a fundamental class of reactions in which an electron rich nucleophile selectively bonds with or attacks the positive or partially positive charge of an atom or a group of atoms to replace a leaving group; the positive or partially positive atom is referred to as an electrophile.

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Oenothera biennis

Oenothera biennis (common evening-primrose, evening star, sun drop, weedy evening primrose, German rampion, hog weed, King's cure-all, or fever-plant.) is a species of Oenothera native to eastern and central North America, from Newfoundland west to Alberta, southeast to Florida, and southwest to Texas, and widely naturalized elsewhere in temperate and subtropical regions.

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Olah reagent

The Olah reagent is a nucleophilic fluorinating agent.

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Organic compound

In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.

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Organic synthesis

Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds.

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Organofluorine chemistry

Organofluorine chemistry describes the chemistry of the organofluorines, organic compounds that contain the carbon–fluorine bond.

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Organometallic chemistry

Organometallic chemistry is the study of organometallic compounds, chemical compounds containing at least one chemical bond between a carbon atom of an organic molecule and a metal, including alkaline, alkaline earth, and transition metals, and sometimes broadened to include metalloids like boron, silicon, and tin, as well.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Ozone depletion

Ozone depletion describes two related events observed since the late 1970s: a steady lowering of about four percent in the total amount of ozone in Earth's atmosphere(the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth's polar regions.

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Paclitaxel (PTX), sold under the brand name Taxol among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer.

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Paris Agreement

The Paris Agreement (Accord de Paris) is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) dealing with greenhouse gas emissions mitigation, adaptation, and finance starting in the year 2020.

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Paroxetine, also known by trade names including Paxil and Seroxat among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. It is used to treat major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. It has also been used in the treatment of hot flashes and night sweats associated with menopause. It has a similar tolerability profile to other SSRIs. The common side effects include drowsiness, dry mouth, loss of appetite, sweating, trouble sleeping and delayed ejaculation. It may also be associated with a slightly increased risk of birth defects. The rate of withdrawal symptoms in young people may be higher with paroxetine and venlafaxine than other SSRIs and SNRIs. Several studies have associated paroxetine with suicidal thinking and behavior in children and adolescents. Marketing of the drug began in 1992 by the pharmaceutical company SmithKline Beecham, known since 2000 as GlaxoSmithKline. Generic formulations have been available since 2003 when the patent expired. The United States Department of Justice fined GlaxoSmithKline $3 billion in 2012, including a sum for withholding data on paroxetine, unlawfully promoting it for under-18s and preparing an article, following one of its clinical trials, study 329, that misleadingly reported the drug was effective in treating adolescent depression.

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Perfluorinated carboxylic acid

Perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), or perfluorocarboxylic acids are compounds of the formula CnF(2n+1)CO2H.

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Perfluorodecalin is a fluorocarbon, a derivative of decalin in which all of the hydrogen atoms are replaced by fluorine atoms.

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Perfluorohexane, or tetradecafluorohexane, is a fluorocarbon.

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Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid

Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (conjugate base perfluorooctanesulfonate) (PFOS) is an anthropogenic fluorosurfactant and global pollutant.

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Perfluorooctanoic acid

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (conjugate base perfluorooctanoate), also known as C8, is a synthetic perfluorinated carboxylic acid and fluorosurfactant.

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Persistent organic pollutant

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes.

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Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.

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Plant defense against herbivory

Plant defense against herbivory or host-plant resistance (HPR) describes a range of adaptations evolved by plants which improve their survival and reproduction by reducing the impact of herbivores.

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A pollutant is a substance or energy introduced into the environment that has undesired effects, or adversely affects the usefulness of a resource.

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Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE or PTFCE) is a thermoplastic chlorofluoropolymer with the molecular formula (CF2CClF)n, where n is the number of monomer units in the polymer molecule.

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Polyether ether ketone

Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) is a colourless organic thermoplastic polymer in the polyaryletherketone (PAEK) family, used in engineering applications.

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Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications.

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Polyvinylidene fluoride

Polyvinylidene fluoride or polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) is a highly non-reactive thermoplastic fluoropolymer produced by the polymerization of vinylidene difluoride.

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Positron emission tomography

Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.

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Potassium bifluoride

Potassium bifluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula KHF2.

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Pyridine is a basic heterocyclic organic compound with the chemical formula C5H5N.

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Radiative forcing

Radiative forcing or climate forcing is the difference between insolation (sunlight) absorbed by the Earth and energy radiated back to space.

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Radiopharmaceuticals, or medicinal radiocompounds, are a group of pharmaceutical drugs which have radioactivity.

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A reagent is a substance or compound added to a system to cause a chemical reaction, or added to test if a reaction occurs.

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A refrigerant is a substance or mixture, usually a fluid, used in a heat pump and refrigeration cycle.

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Salbutamol, also known as albuterol and marketed as Ventolin among other names, is a medication that opens up the medium and large airways in the lungs.

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Salt metathesis reaction

A salt metathesis reaction (from the Greek μετάθεσις, "transposition"), sometimes called a double replacement reaction or double displacement reaction, is a chemical process involving the exchange of bonds between two reacting chemical species, which results in the creation of products with similar or identical bonding affiliations.

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Sandmeyer reaction

The Sandmeyer reaction is a chemical reaction used to synthesize aryl halides from aryl diazonium salts.

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Schwartz's reagent

Schwartz's reagent is the common name for the chemical compound with the formula (C5H5)2ZrHCl, sometimes called zirconocene hydrochloride or zirconocene chloride hydride, and is named after Jeffrey Schwartz, a chemistry professor at Princeton University.

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Science History Institute

The Science History Institute is an institution that preserves and promotes understanding of the history of science.

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1-Chloromethyl-4-fluoro-1,4-diazoniabicyclooctane bis(tetrafluoroborate) or Selectfluor, a trademark of Air Products and Chemicals, is a reagent in chemistry that is used as a fluorine donor.

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Sevoflurane (1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-(fluoromethoxy)propane; synonym, fluoromethyl hexafluoroisopropyl ether), is a sweet-smelling, nonflammable, highly fluorinated methyl isopropyl ether used as an inhalational anaesthetic for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia.

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Singlet state

In quantum mechanics, a singlet state usually refers to a system in which all electrons are paired.

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A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.

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Sulfur dioxide

Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.

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Sulfur tetrafluoride

Sulfur tetrafluoride is the chemical compound with the formula SF4.

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Supercritical carbon dioxide

Supercritical carbon dioxide (s) is a fluid state of carbon dioxide where it is held at or above its critical temperature and critical pressure.

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Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension (or interfacial tension) between two liquids, between a gas and a liquid, or between a liquid and a solid.

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Tetrafluoroborate is the anion BF4−.

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Tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) is a fluoromonomer with chemical formula C2F4.

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Tetrafluoromethane, also known as carbon tetrafluoride, is the simplest fluorocarbon (CF4).

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Tetrakisborate is an anion with chemical formula −, which is commonly abbreviated as − as the boron atom (B) is surrounded by four fluorinated aryl (ArF) groups.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.

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The chemical compound trichloroethylene is a halocarbon commonly used as an industrial solvent.

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Triflate, also known by the systematic name trifluoromethanesulfonate, is a functional group with the formula CF3SO3−.

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Triflic acid

Triflic acid, also known as trifluoromethanesulfonic acid, TFMS, TFSA, HOTf or TfOH, is a sulfonic acid with the chemical formula CF3SO3H.

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Trifluoroacetic acid

Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is an organofluorine compound with the chemical formula CF3CO2H.

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Trifluoromethyl is a functional group that has the formula -CF3.

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Triphenylphosphine (IUPAC name: triphenylphosphane) is a common organophosphorus compound with the formula P(C6H5)3 - often abbreviated to PPh3 or Ph3P.

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Triplet state

In quantum mechanics, a triplet is a quantum state of a system with a spin of quantum number s.

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United Nations Environment Programme

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency of United Nations and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.

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United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty adopted on 9 May 1992 and opened for signature at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992.

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Uracil (U) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).

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Uranium hexafluoride

Uranium hexafluoride, referred to as "hex" in the nuclear industry, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons.

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Van der Waals force

In molecular physics, the van der Waals forces, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, are distance-dependent interactions between atoms or molecules.

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Van der Waals radius

The van der Waals radius, r, of an atom is the radius of an imaginary hard sphere representing the distance of closest approach for another atom.

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Vanillin is a phenolic aldehyde, which is an organic compound with the molecular formula C8H8O3.

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The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.

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Ziegler–Natta catalyst

A Ziegler–Natta catalyst, named after Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta, is a catalyst used in the synthesis of polymers of 1-alkenes (alpha-olefins).

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1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane (also known as norflurane (INN), R-134a, Freon 134a, Forane 134a, Genetron 134a, Florasol 134a, Suva 134a, or HFC-134a) is a haloalkane refrigerant with thermodynamic properties similar to R-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane) but with insignificant ozone depletion potential and a somewhat lower global warming potential (1,430, compared to R-12's GWP of 10,900).

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2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol is the organic compound with the formula CF3CH2OH.

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4,4’-Difluorobenzophenone is an organic compound with the formula of (FC6H4)2CO.

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4-Fluoro-L-threonine is an antibacterial made by Streptomyces cattleya.

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5'-Deoxy-5'-fluoroadenosine is the first step in the biosynthesis of organic fluorides.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organofluorine_chemistry

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