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Index Orkney

Orkney (Orkneyjar), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated off the north coast of Great Britain. [1]

391 relations: Aberdeen Airport, Accent (sociolinguistics), Agravain, Alistair Carmichael, Alkali, Ancient Rome, Annexation, Arable land, Archaeology, Archbishop of York, Archbishopric of Bremen, Archipelago, Armeria maritima, Armistice, Atlantic puffin, Atlantic roundhouse, Aurora, Auskerry, Bagpipes, Balfour Castle, Basalt, Battle of Culloden, Battle of Florvåg, Battle of Stamford Bridge, BBC, BBC Radio Orkney, BBC Radio Scotland, Bede, Beef, Beer, Bishop of Orkney, Black guillemot, Brill Publishers, British Summer Time, Broad Bottom ministry, Broch, Broch of Gurness, Bronze Age, Brough of Birsay, Buckquoy spindle-whorl, Burgh, Burray, Burroughston Broch, Burwick, Orkney, Caithness, Calf of Eday, Calf of Flotta, Calluna, Camulodunum, Cava, Orkney, ..., Celtic Christianity, Celtic languages, Chalk, Chambered cairn, Cheese, Christian I of Denmark, Christopher Columbus, Churchill Barriers, Clan, Clan Sinclair, Claudius, Clay, Coat of arms of Orkney, Comhairle nan Eilean Siar election, 2007, Commercial broadcasting, Common vole, Community radio, Constitutional status of Orkney, Shetland and the Western Isles, Copinsay, Corn Holm, Crab, Croft (land), D. E. R. Watt, Damsay, Dál Riata, Deputy First Minister of Scotland, Devonian, Dike (geology), Dowry, Dublin, Duncansby Head, Dunnet Head, Earl, Earl of Angus, Earl of Caithness, Earldom of Orkney, Ecclesiastical History of the English People, Eday, Eday Airport, Edinburgh, Edinburgh Airport, Edwin Muir, Egilsay, Eifelian, Endemism, Eric Bloodaxe, Eric Linklater, Erica cinerea, Eurasian otter, European Marine Energy Centre, Eynhallow, Eynhallow Sound, Fara, Orkney, Faray, Ferry, Fish, Flag of Orkney, Flint, Flotta, Forestry Commission, Fortriu, Fossilization (linguistics), Gaels, Gaheris, Gairsay, Gareth, Gawain, Genocide, Geomorphology, George Buchanan, George Mackay Brown, Glacial erratic, Glacial striation, Glasgow Airport, Glims Holm, Gnaeus Julius Agricola, Gneiss, Goidelic languages, Graemsay, Granite, Great skua, Grey seal, Guilder, Gulf Stream, Haakon IV of Norway, Haakon Paulsson, Happy Valley (garden), Harald Fairhair, Harbor seal, Hazelnut, Heart of Neolithic Orkney, Helliar Holm, Henry I Sinclair, Earl of Orkney, Henry of Lund, Herring, High Seas Fleet, Highlands and Islands (Scottish Parliament electoral region), Highlands and Islands Airports, Historia Norwegiæ, Historic Scotland, Holm (island), Holm of Faray, Holm of Huip, Holm of Papa, Holm of Scockness, Homarus gammarus, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, Hoy, Hudson's Bay Company, Hunda, Independent politician, Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, Insular Scots, Inverness, Inverness Airport, Iron Age, Italian Chapel, Jacobite risings, James III of Scotland, Jim Wallace, Baron Wallace of Tankerness, Jon Haraldsson, Julius Pokorny, Katherine Forsyth, Kelp, Kili Holm, King Lot, Kingdom of Scotland, Kirkwall, Kirkwall Airport, Kittiwake, Knap of Howar, Lamb Holm, Lamprophyre, Latitude, Lerwick, Liam McArthur, Liberal Democrats (UK), Liberal Party (UK), Lieutenancy areas of Scotland, Limestone, Limonium, List of islands of Scotland, List of islands of the British Isles, List of places in Orkney, Local extinction, Loch, Loch of Harray, Loch of Stenness, Loganair, Maeshowe, Magnus Barefoot, Magnus Erlendsson, Earl of Orkney, Magnus II, Earl of Orkney, Mainland, Orkney, Malcolm II of Scotland, Margaret of Denmark, Queen of Scotland, Margaret, Maid of Norway, Margot Livesey, Marseille, Martello tower, Martyr, Matter of Britain, Member of parliament, Member of the Scottish Parliament, Mesolithic, Met Office, Metamorphic rock, Midden, Midgarth, Midsummer, Missionary, Moine Supergroup, Molecular Ecology, Moorland, Moraine, Moray, Moray Firth Radio, Muckle Green Holm, Neolithic, Norn language, Norsemen, North Isles, North Ronaldsay, North Ronaldsay Airport, North Ronaldsay sheep, Northern Isles, NorthLink Ferries, Ogham, Olaf Tryggvason, Old Irish, Old Man of Hoy, Old Norse, Old Red Sandstone, Orcadian Basin, Orcadian dialect, Orcadians, Ordnance Survey, Orkney (Scottish Parliament constituency), Orkney and Shetland (UK Parliament constituency), Orkney and Shetland Movement, Orkney Club, Orkney College, Orkney Ferries, Orkney International Science Festival, Orkney Islands Council, Orkney vole, Orkneyinga saga, Papa Stronsay, Papa Westray, Papa Westray Airport, Parliament of Scotland, Passage grave, Paul and Erlend Thorfinnsson, Pentland Ferries, Pentland Firth, Pentland Skerries, Permian, Picts, Pinniped, Piracy, Pledge (law), Pliny the Elder, Ploughing match, Plurality voting, Pomponius Mela, Prehistoric Scotland, Prepositional case, Primula scotica, Proto-Celtic language, Pytheas, Quarry, Raven, Rögnvald Kali Kolsson, Renewable energy in Scotland, Riksråd, Ring of Brodgar, Robert Llewellyn, Rognvald Eysteinsson, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Nidaros, Roslin Castle, Rousay, Royal Navy, Runes, Rusk Holm, Rysa Little, Salmon, Salvelinus inframundus, Sanday Airport, Sanday, Orkney, Scapa Flow, Scilla verna, Scotland, Scottish Gaelic, Scottish Green Party, Scottish Highlands, Scottish independence referendum, 2014, Scottish National Dictionary, Scottish national identity, Scottish National Party, Scottish Parliament, Scottish Parliament constituencies and regions, Scottish people, Scrabster, Seafood, Seaweed, Shapinsay, Shetland, Shires of Scotland, Sigurd Eysteinsson, Sigurd the Stout, Skara Brae, Slavery, Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Sodium carbonate, Solar eclipse of 1 May 1185, Souterrain, South Ronaldsay, South Walls, SSE plc, St Magnus Cathedral, St Magnus Festival, St Margaret's Hope, Stack (geology), Standing Stones of Stenness, Stoat, Stromness, Stronsay, Stronsay Airport, Subdivisions of Scotland, Suffix, Sule Skerry, Sule Stack, Sumburgh Airport, Sutherland, Sweyn Holm, Switha, Swona, Syncline, Tacitus, Tartan, The Orcadian, The Superstation Orkney, Thomas Malory, Thorfinn the Mighty, Thorfinn Torf-Einarsson, Thurso, Tide, Timeline of prehistoric Scotland, Tomb of the Eagles, Toponymy, Torf-Einarr, Tripolium pannonicum, Troll, Trondheim, Trow (folklore), U-boat, Udal law, UNESCO, United Kingdom census, 2011, United Kingdom constituencies, United Kingdom general election, 1987, University of Strathclyde, Value-added tax, Vikings, Volcanic rock, Walrus, Ward Hill, Hoy, Wars of Scottish Independence, Welsh language, Westray, Westray Airport, Westray to Papa Westray flight, Wheelhouse (archaeology), Whisky, Whitefish (fisheries term), Wild boar, Winter solstice, World Heritage site, World War II, Wyre, Orkney, 100% renewable energy. Expand index (341 more) »

Aberdeen Airport

Aberdeen International Airport (Port-adhair Eadar-nàiseanta Obar Dheathain) is an international airport, located at Dyce, a suburb of Aberdeen, Scotland, approximately northwest of Aberdeen city centre.

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Accent (sociolinguistics)

In sociolinguistics, an accent is a manner of pronunciation peculiar to a particular individual, location, or nation.

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Sir Agravain (sometimes spelled Agravaine) is a Knight of the Round Table in Arthurian legend.

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Alistair Carmichael

Alexander Morrison "Alistair" CarmichaelFull name is given as "CARMICHAEL, Alexander Morrison, commonly known as Alistair Carmichael" in the returning officer's (born 15 July 1965) is a Liberal Democrat politician and has served as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Orkney and Shetland since the 2001 general election.

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In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Annexation (Latin ad, to, and nexus, joining) is the administrative action and concept in international law relating to the forcible transition of one state's territory by another state.

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Arable land

Arable land (from Latin arabilis, "able to be plowed") is, according to one definition, land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops.

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Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.

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Archbishop of York

The Archbishop of York is a senior bishop in the Church of England, second only to the Archbishop of Canterbury.

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Archbishopric of Bremen

The Archdiocese of Bremen (also Archdiocese of Hamburg-Bremen, Erzbistum Bremen, not to be confused with the modern Archdiocese of Hamburg, founded in 1994) is a historical Roman Catholic diocese (787–1566/1648) and formed from 1180 to 1648 an ecclesiastical state (continued under other names until 1823), named Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen (Erzstift Bremen) within the Holy Roman Empire.

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An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.

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Armeria maritima

Armeria maritima, commonly known as thrift, sea thrift or sea pink, is a species of flowering plant in the family Plumbaginaceae.

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An armistice is a formal agreement of warring parties to stop fighting.

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Atlantic puffin

The Atlantic puffin (Fratercula arctica), also known as the common puffin, is a species of seabird in the auk family.

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Atlantic roundhouse

In archaeology, an Atlantic roundhouse is an Iron Age stone building found in the northern and western parts of mainland Scotland, the Northern Isles and the Hebrides.

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An aurora (plural: auroras or aurorae), sometimes referred to as polar lights, northern lights (aurora borealis) or southern lights (aurora australis), is a natural light display in the Earth's sky, predominantly seen in the high-latitude regions (around the Arctic and Antarctic).

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Auskerry (Austrsker, east skerry) is a small island in eastern Orkney, Scotland.

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Bagpipes are a woodwind instrument using enclosed reeds fed from a constant reservoir of air in the form of a bag.

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Balfour Castle

Balfour Castle is a historic building on the southwest of Shapinsay, Orkney Islands.

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Basalt is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon.

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Battle of Culloden

The Battle of Culloden (Blàr Chùil Lodair) was the final confrontation of the Jacobite rising of 1745.

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Battle of Florvåg

The Battle of Florvåg (Slaget ved Florvåg) was a naval battle that was fought on 3 April 1194 between King Sverre Sigurdsson, leader of the Birkebeiner party, and Sigurd Magnusson, the Øyskjegg party pretender.

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Battle of Stamford Bridge

The Battle of Stamford Bridge took place at the village of Stamford Bridge, East Riding of Yorkshire, in England on 25 September 1066, between an English army under King Harold Godwinson and an invading Norwegian force led by King Harald Hardrada and the English king's brother Tostig Godwinson.

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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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BBC Radio Orkney

BBC Radio Orkney is a local opt-out of BBC Radio Scotland for the Orkney Islands, which is based in Castle Street, Kirkwall, Orkney, in Scotland.

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BBC Radio Scotland

BBC Radio Scotland is BBC Scotland's national English-language radio network.

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Bede (italic; 672/3 – 26 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, Venerable Bede, and Bede the Venerable (Bēda Venerābilis), was an English Benedictine monk at the monastery of St.

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Beef is the culinary name for meat from cattle, particularly skeletal muscle.

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Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.

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Bishop of Orkney

The Bishop of Orkney was the ecclesiastical head of the Diocese of Orkney, one of thirteen medieval bishoprics of Scotland.

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Black guillemot

The black guillemot or tystie (Cepphus grylle) is a medium-sized alcid.

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Brill Publishers

Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.

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British Summer Time

During British Summer Time (BST), civil time in the United Kingdom is advanced one hour forward of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) (in effect, changing the time zone from UTC+0 to UTC+1), so that evenings have more daylight and mornings have less.

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Broad Bottom ministry

The Broad Bottom ministry consisted of two coalition administrations from 1744–46 and 1746–54 in the Parliament of Great Britain.

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A broch is an Iron Age drystone hollow-walled structure of a type found only in Scotland.

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Broch of Gurness

The Broch of Gurness is an Iron Age broch village on the northeast coast of Mainland Orkney in Scotland overlooking Eynhallow Sound, about 15 miles north-west of Kirkwall.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Brough of Birsay

The Brough of Birsay is an uninhabited tidal island off the north-west coast of The Mainland of Orkney, Scotland, in the parish of Birsay.

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Buckquoy spindle-whorl

The Buckquoy spindle-whorl is an Ogham-inscribed spindle-whorl dating from the Early Middle Ages, probably the 8th century, which was found in 1970 in Buckquoy, Birsay, Orkney, Scotland.

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A burgh was an autonomous municipal corporation in Scotland and Northern England, usually a town, or toun in Scots.

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Burray is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland.

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Burroughston Broch

Burroughston Broch is an Iron Age broch located on the island of Shapinsay in the Orkney Islands, in Scotland.

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Burwick, Orkney

Burwick is a small village and harbour on the island of South Ronaldsay in the Orkney Islands, Scotland.

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Caithness (Gallaibh, Caitnes; Katanes) is a historic county, registration county and lieutenancy area of Scotland.

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Calf of Eday

The Calf of Eday (Kalfr) is an uninhabited island in Orkney, Scotland, lying north east of Eday.

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Calf of Flotta

The Calf of Flotta is a small island in Scapa Flow, Orkney.

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Calluna vulgaris (known as common heather, ling, or simply heather) is the sole species in the genus Calluna in the flowering plant family Ericaceae.

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Camulodunum (camvlodvnvm), the Ancient Roman name for what is now Colchester in Essex, was an important town in Roman Britain, and the first capital of the province.

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Cava, Orkney

Cava is an uninhabited island in the Orkney archipelago in Scotland.

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Celtic Christianity

Celtic Christianity or Insular Christianity refers broadly to certain features of Christianity that were common, or held to be common, across the Celtic-speaking world during the Early Middle Ages.

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Celtic languages

The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.

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Chalk is a soft, white, porous, sedimentary carbonate rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite.

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Chambered cairn

A chambered cairn is a burial monument, usually constructed during the Neolithic, consisting of a sizeable (usually stone) chamber around and over which a cairn of stones was constructed.

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Cheese is a dairy product derived from milk that is produced in a wide range of flavors, textures, and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein.

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Christian I of Denmark

Christian I (February 1426 – 21 May 1481) was a Scandinavian monarch under the Kalmar Union.

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Christopher Columbus

Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.

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Churchill Barriers

The Churchill Barriers are a series of four causeways in Orkney, Scotland, with a total length of 1.5 miles (2.4 km).

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A clan is a group of people united by actual or perceived kinship and descent.

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Clan Sinclair

Clan Sinclair (Clann na Ceàrda) is a Highland Scottish clan who held lands in the north of Scotland, the Orkney Islands, and the Lothians.

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Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October 54 AD) was Roman emperor from 41 to 54.

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Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.

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Coat of arms of Orkney

The coat of arms of Orkney was adopted on 3 March 1975 and is among the oldest of those of the Scottish Council Areas, as the Orkney Islands Council was unaffected by the 1996 local government reform.

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Comhairle nan Eilean Siar election, 2007

Elections to Comhairle nan Eilean Siar (Western Isles council) were held on 3 May 2007, the same day as the other Scottish local government elections and the Scottish Parliament general election.

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Commercial broadcasting

Commercial broadcasting (also called private broadcasting) is the broadcasting of television programs and radio programming by privately owned corporate media, as opposed to state sponsorship.

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Common vole

The common vole (Microtus arvalis) is a European mammal.

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Community radio

Community radio is a radio service offering a third model of radio broadcasting in addition to commercial and public broadcasting.

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Constitutional status of Orkney, Shetland and the Western Isles

The constitutional status of Orkney, Shetland and the Western Isles has periodically been discussed, for example during the Scottish independence referendum campaign.

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Copinsay (Kolbeinsey) is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland, lying off the east coast of the Orkney Mainland.

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Corn Holm

Corn Holm is a small tidal island in Orkney, near Copinsay to the west.

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Crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" (abdomen) (translit.

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Croft (land)

A croft is a fenced or enclosed area of land, usually small and arable, usually, but not always, with a crofter's dwelling thereon.

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D. E. R. Watt

Donald Elmslie Robertson Watt FRSE (15 August 1926–18 April 2004) was a Scottish historian and Professor Emeritus at St Andrews University.

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Damsay is an islet in the Orkney archipelago in Scotland.

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Dál Riata

Dál Riata or Dál Riada (also Dalriada) was a Gaelic overkingdom that included parts of western Scotland and northeastern Ireland, on each side of the North Channel.

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Deputy First Minister of Scotland

The Deputy First Minister of Scotland (Leas-Phrìomh Mhinistear na h-Alba; Heid Meinister Depute o Scotland) is the deputy to the First Minister of Scotland.

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The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya.

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Dike (geology)

A dike or dyke, in geological usage, is a sheet of rock that is formed in a fracture in a pre-existing rock body.

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A dowry is a transfer of parental property, gifts or money at the marriage of a daughter.

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Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.

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Duncansby Head

Duncansby Head (Ceann Dhunngain or Dùn Gasbaith) is the most northeasterly part of the British mainland, including even the famous John o' Groats.

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Dunnet Head

Dunnet Head (Ceann Dùnaid) is a peninsula in Caithness, on the north coast of Scotland.

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An earl is a member of the nobility.

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Earl of Angus

The Mormaer or Earl of Angus was the ruler of the medieval Scottish province of Angus.

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Earl of Caithness

Earl of Caithness is a title that has been created several times in the Peerage of Scotland, and it has a very complex history.

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Earldom of Orkney

The Earldom of Orkney was a Norse feudal dignity in Scotland which had its origins from the Viking period.

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Ecclesiastical History of the English People

The Ecclesiastical History of the English People (Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum), written by the Venerable Bede in about AD 731, is a history of the Christian Churches in England, and of England generally; its main focus is on the conflict between the pre-Schism Roman Rite and Celtic Christianity.

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Eday is one of the islands of Orkney, which are located to the north of the Scottish mainland.

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Eday Airport

Eday Airport is located on Eday in Orkney, Scotland.

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Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.

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Edinburgh Airport

Edinburgh Airport (Edinburgh Airport, Port-adhair Dhùn Èideann) is an airport located in the Ingliston area of the City of Edinburgh, Scotland.

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Edwin Muir

Edwin Muir (15 May 1887 – 3 January 1959) was a Scottish poet, novelist and translator.

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Egilsay is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland, the Island of Egilsay is lying east of Rousay.

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The Eifelian is one of two faunal stages in the Middle Devonian epoch.

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Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.

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Eric Bloodaxe

Eric Haraldsson (Old Norse: Eiríkr Haraldsson, Eirik Haraldsson; c. 885 – 954), nicknamed Eric Bloodaxe (Old Norse: Eiríkr blóðøx, Eirik Blodøks), was a 10th-century Norwegian ruler.

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Eric Linklater

Eric Robert Russell Linklater (8 March 1899 – 7 November 1974) was a Welsh-born Scottish writer of novels and short stories, military history, and travel books.

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Erica cinerea

Erica cinerea (bell heather, or heather-bell) is a species of flowering plant in the heath family Ericaceae, native to western and central Europe.

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Eurasian otter

The Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra), also known as the European otter, Eurasian river otter, common otter, and Old World otter, is a semiaquatic mammal native to Eurasia.

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European Marine Energy Centre

The European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) Ltd is a UKAS accredited test and research centre focusing on wave and tidal power development based in the Orkney Islands, UK.

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Eynhallow (Old Norse: Eyinhelga) is a small, presently uninhabited island, part of Orkney, off the north coast of mainland Scotland.

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Eynhallow Sound

Eynhallow Sound is a seaway lying between Mainland Orkney and the island of Rousay in the Orkney Islands, Scotland.

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Fara, Orkney

Fara (Old Norse: Færey) is a small island in Orkney, Scotland, lying in Scapa Flow between the islands of Flotta and Hoy.

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Faray (Old Norse: Færey) is a small island in Orkney, Scotland, lying between Eday and Westray.

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A ferry is a merchant vessel used to carry passengers, and sometimes vehicles and cargo as well, across a body of water.

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Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.

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Flag of Orkney

The Flag of Orkney was the winner of a public flag consultation in February and March 2007.

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Flint is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as a variety of chert.

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Flotta is a small island in Orkney, Scotland, lying in Scapa Flow.

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Forestry Commission

The Forestry Commission is a non-ministerial government department responsible for forestry in England and Scotland (on 1 April 2013 Forestry Commission Wales merged with other agencies to become Natural Resources Wales).

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Fortriu or the Kingdom of Fortriu is the name given by historians for a Pictish kingdom recorded between the 4th and 10th centuries, and often used synonymously with Pictland in general.

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Fossilization (linguistics)

In linguistic morphology, fossilization refers to two close notions.

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The Gaels (Na Gaeil, Na Gàidheil, Ny Gaeil) are an ethnolinguistic group native to northwestern Europe.

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Gaheris (Old French: Gaheriet or Gaheriez) is a character in the Arthurian legend, a nephew of King Arthur and a knight of the Round Table, the third son of Arthur's sister or half-sister Morgause and her husband Lot, King of Orkney and Lothian.

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Gairsay (Old Norse: Gáreksey) is a small island in Orkney, Scotland, located in the parish of Rendall, off the coast, astride one of the approaches to the bays of Firth and Kirkwall.

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Sir Gareth (Old French: Guerrehet) is a Knight of the Round Table in Arthurian legend, nicknamed "Beaumains" in Sir Thomas Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur.

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Gawain (also called Gwalchmei, Gualguanus, Gauvain, Walwein, etc.) is King Arthur's nephew and a Knight of the Round Table in the Arthurian legend.

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Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.

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Geomorphology (from Ancient Greek: γῆ, gê, "earth"; μορφή, morphḗ, "form"; and λόγος, lógos, "study") is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface.

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George Buchanan

George Buchanan (Seòras Bochanan; February 1506 – 28 September 1582) was a Scottish historian and humanist scholar.

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George Mackay Brown

George Mackay Brown (17 October 1921 – 13 April 1996) was a Scottish poet, author and dramatist, whose work has a distinctly Orcadian character.

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Glacial erratic

Indian Rock in the Village of Montebello, New York A glacial erratic is a piece of rock that differs from the size and type of rock native to the area in which it rests.

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Glacial striation

Glacial striations are scratches or gouges cut into bedrock by glacial abrasion.

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Glasgow Airport

Glasgow Airport, also unofficially Glasgow International Airport, formerly Abbotsinch Airport, is an international airport in Scotland, located west of Glasgow city centre.

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Glims Holm

Glims Holm (OS: Glimps Holm; Glums Holm) is a small uninhabited islet in Orkney, Scotland.

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Gnaeus Julius Agricola

Gnaeus Julius Agricola (13 June 40 – 23 August 93) was a Gallo-Roman general responsible for much of the Roman conquest of Britain.

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Gneiss is a common distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from pre-existing formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks.

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Goidelic languages

The Goidelic or Gaelic languages (teangacha Gaelacha; cànanan Goidhealach; çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups of Insular Celtic languages, the other being the Brittonic languages.

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Graemsay is an island in the western approaches to Scapa Flow, in the Orkney Islands of Scotland.

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Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.

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Great skua

The great skua (Stercorarius skua) is a large seabird in the skua family Stercorariidae.

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Grey seal

The grey seal (Halichoerus grypus, meaning "hooked-nosed sea pig") is found on both shores of the North Atlantic Ocean.

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Guilder is the English translation of the Dutch and German gulden, originally shortened from Middle High German guldin pfenninc "gold penny".

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Gulf Stream

The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension the North Atlantic Drift, is a warm and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and stretches to the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean.

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Haakon IV of Norway

Haakon Haakonsson (c. March/April 1204 – 16 December 1263) (Old Norse: Hákon Hákonarson; Norwegian: Håkon Håkonsson), sometimes called Haakon the Old in contrast to his son with the same name, and known in modern regnal lists as Haakon IV, was the King of Norway from 1217 to 1263.

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Haakon Paulsson

Haakon Paulsson (Old Norse: Hákon Pálsson) was a Norwegian Jarl (1105–1123) and jointly ruled the Earldom of Orkney with his cousin Magnus Erlendsson.

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Happy Valley (garden)

Happy Valley is a garden created by Edwin Harrold in Stenness, Orkney, Scotland.

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Harald Fairhair

Harald Fairhair (Old Norse: Haraldr Hárfagri, Norwegian: Harald Hårfagre, (literally "Harald Hair-pleasant"); 850 – 932) is remembered by medieval historians as the first King of Norway.

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Harbor seal

The harbor (or harbour) seal (Phoca vitulina), also known as the common seal, is a true seal found along temperate and Arctic marine coastlines of the Northern Hemisphere.

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The hazelnut is the nut of the hazel and therefore includes any of the nuts deriving from species of the genus Corylus, especially the nuts of the species Corylus avellana.

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Heart of Neolithic Orkney

Heart of Neolithic Orkney refers to a group of Neolithic monuments found on the Mainland, one of the islands of Orkney, Scotland.

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Helliar Holm

Helliar Holm is an uninhabited island off the coast of Shapinsay in the Orkney Islands, Scotland.

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Henry I Sinclair, Earl of Orkney

Henry I Sinclair, Jarl of Orkney, Baron of Roslin (13451400) was a Scottish and a Norwegian nobleman.

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Henry of Lund

Henry was an 11th-century bishop and Christian missionary.

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Herring are forage fish, mostly belonging to the family Clupeidae.

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High Seas Fleet

The High Seas Fleet (Hochseeflotte) was the battle fleet of the German Imperial Navy and saw action during the First World War.

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Highlands and Islands (Scottish Parliament electoral region)

The Highlands and Islands is one of the eight electoral regions of the Scottish Parliament which were created in 1999.

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Highlands and Islands Airports

Highlands and Islands Airports Limited (HIAL) is the company that owns and operates 11 airports in the Scottish Highlands, the Northern Isles and the Western Isles.

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Historia Norwegiæ

Historia Norwegiæ is a short history of Norway written in Latin by an anonymous monk.

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Historic Scotland

Historic Scotland (Alba Aosmhor) was an executive agency of the Scottish Government from 1991 to 2015, responsible for safeguarding Scotland's built heritage, and promoting its understanding and enjoyment.

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Holm (island)

This page is a set index; for other uses of the term, see Holm (disambiguation) There are numerous islands containing the word Holm, especially in Scotland.

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Holm of Faray

The Holm of Faray is a small island in Orkney, Scotland, near Faray and Westray, which it lies between.

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Holm of Huip

The Holm of Huip is a small island in the Orkney Islands, in Spurness Sound to the north west of Stronsay.

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Holm of Papa

The Holm of Papa (or Holm of Papay, Holm of Papa Westray and known locally as the Papay Holm, Orkneyjar. Retrieved 1 April 2014.) is a very small uninhabited island in the Orkney islands.

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Holm of Scockness

The Holm of Scockness is a small island in the Orkney Islands, between Rousay and Egilsay.

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Homarus gammarus

Homarus gammarus, known as the European lobster or common lobster, is a species of clawed lobster from the eastern Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and parts of the Black Sea.

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House of Commons of the United Kingdom

The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Hoy (from Norse Háey meaning high island) is an island in Orkney, Scotland measuring — ranked largest in the archipelago after the Mainland.

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Hudson's Bay Company

The Hudson's Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie d'Hudson) is a Canadian retail business group.

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Hunda is an uninhabited island in the Orkney archipelago in Scotland.

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Independent politician

An independent or nonpartisan politician is an individual politician not affiliated with any political party.

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Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch

The Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (IEW; "Indo-European Etymological Dictionary") was published in 1959 by the Austrian-German comparative linguist and Celtic languages expert Julius Pokorny.

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Insular Scots

Insular Scots comprises varieties of Lowland Scots generally subdivided into.

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Inverness (from the Inbhir Nis, meaning "Mouth of the River Ness", Inerness) is a city in the Scottish Highlands.

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Inverness Airport

Inverness Airport (Port-adhair Inbhir Nis) is an international airport situated at Dalcross, north-east of the city of Inverness, Scotland.

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Iron Age

The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.

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Italian Chapel

The Italian Chapel is a highly ornate Catholic chapel on Lamb Holm in the Orkney Islands.

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Jacobite risings

The Jacobite risings, also known as the Jacobite rebellions or the War of the British Succession, were a series of uprisings, rebellions, and wars in Great Britain and Ireland occurring between 1688 and 1746.

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James III of Scotland

James III (10 July 1451/May 1452 – 11 June 1488) was King of Scots from 1460 to 1488.

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Jim Wallace, Baron Wallace of Tankerness

James Robert Wallace, Baron Wallace of Tankerness,, FRSE (born 25 August 1954) is a British politician and former leader of the Liberal Democrats in the House of Lords.

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Jon Haraldsson

Jon Haraldsson was Jarl of Orkney between 1206 and 1231.

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Julius Pokorny

Julius Pokorny (12 June 1887 – 8 April 1970) was an Austrian-Czech linguist and scholar of the Celtic languages, particularly Irish, and a supporter of Irish nationalism.

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Katherine Forsyth

Katherine S. Forsyth is a Scottish historian who specializes in the history and culture of Celtic peoples during the 1st millennium AD, in particular the Picts.

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Kelps are large brown algae seaweeds that make up the order Laminariales.

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Kili Holm

Kili Holm is a tidal island in the Orkney Islands, linked to Egilsay.

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King Lot

Lot or Loth is the king of Lothian in the Arthurian legend.

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Kingdom of Scotland

The Kingdom of Scotland (Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843.

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Kirkwall (Scottish Gaelic: Bàgh na h-Eaglaise) is the main settlement of the Northern Isles and capital of Orkney, an archipelago in the north of Scotland, as well as the largest island settlement in Scotland.

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Kirkwall Airport

Kirkwall Airport is the main airport serving Orkney in Scotland.

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The kittiwakes (genus Rissa) are two closely related seabird species in the gull family Laridae, the black-legged kittiwake (R. tridactyla) and the red-legged kittiwake (R. brevirostris).

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Knap of Howar

The Knap of Howar on the island of Papa Westray in Orkney, Scotland is a Neolithic farmstead which may be the oldest preserved stone house in northern Europe.

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Lamb Holm

Lamb Holm is a small uninhabited island in Orkney, Scotland.

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Lamprophyres (Greek λαµπρός (lamprós).

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In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.

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Lerwick (Scottish Gaelic: Liùrabhaig, Norwegian: Leirvik) is the main port of Shetland Islands, Scotland.

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Liam McArthur

Liam Scott McArthur (born 8 August 1967) is a Scottish Liberal Democrat politician and Member of the Scottish Parliament for Orkney since 2007.

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Liberal Democrats (UK)

The Liberal Democrats (often referred to as Lib Dems) are a liberal British political party, formed in 1988 as a merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party (SDP), a splinter group from the Labour Party, which had formed the SDP–Liberal Alliance from 1981.

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Liberal Party (UK)

The Liberal Party was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom – with the opposing Conservative Party – in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

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Lieutenancy areas of Scotland

The lieutenancy areas of Scotland (Lieutenancy auries o Scotland) are the areas used for the ceremonial lord-lieutenants, the monarch's representatives, in Scotland.

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Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.

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Limonium is a genus of 120 flowering plant species.

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List of islands of Scotland

This is a list of islands of Scotland, the mainland of which is part of the island of Great Britain.

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List of islands of the British Isles

This page is a list of the larger islands that form the British Isles, listing area and population data.

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List of places in Orkney

The List of places in Orkney is a link list for any town, village, hamlet or island in the Orkney Islands council area of Scotland.

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Local extinction

Local extinction or extirpation is the condition of a species (or other taxon) that ceases to exist in the chosen geographic area of study, though it still exists elsewhere.

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Loch is the Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Scots word for a lake or for a sea inlet.

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Loch of Harray

The Loch of Harray is the largest loch of Mainland Orkney, Scotland and is named for the nearby parish of Harray.

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Loch of Stenness

The Loch of Stenness is a large brackish loch on Mainland, OrkneyWilson, Rev.

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Loganair Limited is a Scottish regional airline founded in 1962, with its registered office on the grounds of Glasgow Airport in Paisley, Renfrewshire.

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Maeshowe (or Maes Howe; Norse: Orkhaugr) is a Neolithic chambered cairn and passage grave situated on Mainland Orkney, Scotland.

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Magnus Barefoot

Magnus Olafsson (Old Norse: Magnús Óláfsson, Norwegian: Magnus Olavsson; 1073 – 24 August 1103), better known as Magnus Barefoot (Old Norse: Magnús berfœttr, Norwegian: Magnus Berrføtt), was King of Norway (as Magnus III) from 1093 until his death in 1103.

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Magnus Erlendsson, Earl of Orkney

Saint Magnus Erlendsson, Earl of Orkney, sometimes known as Magnus the Martyr, was Earl of Orkney from 1106 to about 1115.

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Magnus II, Earl of Orkney

Magnus II (born c. 1185/1190 - d 1239) was Earl (Jarl) of Orkney.

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Mainland, Orkney

The Mainland is the main island of Orkney, Scotland.

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Malcolm II of Scotland

Malcolm II (Gaelic: Máel Coluim; c. 954 - 25 November 1034) was King of the Scots from 1005 until his death.

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Margaret of Denmark, Queen of Scotland

Margaret of Denmark (23 June 1456 – 14 July 1486), also referred to as Margaret of Norway, was Queen of Scotland from 1469 to 1486 by marriage to King James III.

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Margaret, Maid of Norway

Margaret, Maid of Norway (9 April 1283 – 26 September 1290) was a Norwegian princess who was recognised as Queen of Scots following the death of her grandfather, King Alexander III, in March 1286.

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Margot Livesey

Margot Livesey (born 1953) is a Scottish born writer.

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Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.

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Martello tower

Martello towers, sometimes known simply as Martellos, are small defensive forts that were built across the British Empire during the 19th century, from the time of the French Revolutionary Wars onwards.

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A martyr (Greek: μάρτυς, mártys, "witness"; stem μάρτυρ-, mártyr-) is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party.

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Matter of Britain

The Matter of Britain is the body of Medieval literature and legendary material associated with Great Britain, and sometimes Brittany, and the legendary kings and heroes associated with it, particularly King Arthur.

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Member of parliament

A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.

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Member of the Scottish Parliament

Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) (Ball Pàrlamaid na h-Alba (BPA) in Gaelic, Memmer o the Scots Pairliament (MSP) in Scots) is the title given to any one of the 129 individuals elected to serve in the Scottish Parliament.

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In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.

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Met Office

The Met Office (officially the Meteorological Office) is the United Kingdom's national weather service.

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Metamorphic rock

Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form".

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A midden (also kitchen midden or shell heap) is an old dump for domestic waste which may consist of animal bone, human excrement, botanical material, mollusc shells, sherds, lithics (especially debitage), and other artifacts and ecofacts associated with past human occupation.

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Midgarth, also known as the Holm of Midgarth and Linga Holm is an uninhabited Scottish island extending to approximately situated west of Stronsay island in the Orkney archipelago.

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Midsummer is the period of time centered upon the summer solstice, and more specifically the northern European celebrations that accompany the actual solstice or take place on a day between June 19 and June 25 and the preceding evening.

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A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.

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Moine Supergroup

The Moine Supergroup is a sequence of Neoproterozoic metamorphic rocks that form the dominant outcrop of the Scottish Highlands between the Moine Thrust Belt to the northwest and the Great Glen Fault to the southeast.

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Molecular Ecology

Molecular Ecology is a twice monthly scientific journal covering investigations that use molecular genetic techniques to address questions in ecology, evolution, behavior, and conservation.

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Moorland or moor is a type of habitat found in upland areas in temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands and montane grasslands and shrublands biomes, characterised by low-growing vegetation on acidic soils.

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A moraine is any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris (regolith and rock) that occurs in both currently and formerly glaciated regions on Earth (i.e. a past glacial maximum), through geomorphological processes.

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Moray (Moireibh or Moireabh, Moravia, Mýræfi) is one of the 32 Local Government council areas of Scotland.

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Moray Firth Radio

MFR or Moray Firth Radio is a group of Independent Local Radio stations, serving the Scottish Highlands, Moray, the Orkney islands and parts of north west Aberdeenshire.

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Muckle Green Holm

Muckle Green Holm is an uninhabited island in the North Isles of the Orkney archipelago in Scotland.

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The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.

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Norn language

Norn is an extinct North Germanic language that was spoken in the Northern Isles (Orkney and Shetland) off the north coast of mainland Scotland and in Caithness in the far north of the Scottish mainland.

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Norsemen are a group of Germanic people who inhabited Scandinavia and spoke what is now called the Old Norse language between 800 AD and c. 1300 AD.

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North Isles

The North Isles are the northern islands of the Shetland Islands, Scotland.

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North Ronaldsay

North Ronaldsay is the northernmost island in the Orkney archipelago of Scotland.

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North Ronaldsay Airport

North Ronaldsay Airport is located on North Ronaldsay island, northeast by north of Kirkwall, Orkney Islands, Scotland.

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North Ronaldsay sheep

The North Ronaldsay or Orkney is a breed of sheep from North Ronaldsay, the northernmost island of Orkney, off the north coast of Scotland.

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Northern Isles

The Northern Isles (Northren Isles; Na h-Eileanan a Tuath; Norðreyjar) are a pair of archipelagos off the north coast of mainland Scotland, comprising Orkney and Shetland.

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NorthLink Ferries

NorthLink Ferries (also referred to as Serco NorthLink Ferries) is an operator of passenger and vehicle ferries, as well as ferry services, between mainland Scotland and the Northern Isles of Orkney and Shetland.

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Ogham (Modern Irish or; ogam) is an Early Medieval alphabet used to write the early Irish language (in the "orthodox" inscriptions, 1st to 6th centuries AD), and later the Old Irish language (scholastic ogham, 6th to 9th centuries).

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Olaf Tryggvason

Olaf Tryggvason (960s – 9 September 1000) was King of Norway from 995 to 1000.

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Old Irish

Old Irish (Goídelc; Sean-Ghaeilge; Seann Ghàidhlig; Shenn Yernish; sometimes called Old Gaelic) is the name given to the oldest form of the Goidelic languages for which extensive written texts are extant.

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Old Man of Hoy

The Old Man of Hoy is a 449-foot (137m) sea stack on the island of Hoy, part of the Orkney archipelago off the north coast of Scotland.

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Old Norse

Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.

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Old Red Sandstone

The Old Red Sandstone is an assemblage of rocks in the North Atlantic region largely of Devonian age.

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Orcadian Basin

The Orcadian Basin is a sedimentary basin of Devonian age that formed mainly as a result of extensional tectonics in northeastern Scotland after the end of the Caledonian orogeny.

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Orcadian dialect

Orcadian dialect is a dialect of Insular Scots, itself a dialect of the Scots language.

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Orcadians are the people who live in or come from the Orkney islands of Scotland.

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Ordnance Survey

Ordnance Survey (OS) is a national mapping agency in the United Kingdom which covers the island of Great Britain.

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Orkney (Scottish Parliament constituency)

Orkney is a constituency of the Scottish Parliament (Holyrood).

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Orkney and Shetland (UK Parliament constituency)

Orkney and Shetland is a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Orkney and Shetland Movement

The Orkney and Shetland Movement was an electoral coalition formed for the 1987 general election.

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Orkney Club

The Orkney Club is situated in Kirkwall, Orkney.

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Orkney College

Orkney College is a further and higher education college in Orkney, an archipelago in northern Scotland.

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Orkney Ferries

Orkney Ferries is a Scottish company operating inter-island ferry services in the Orkney Islands.

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Orkney International Science Festival

The Orkney International Science Festival is a science festival which takes place every September in Kirkwall, Orkney Islands, Scotland and has been running since 1991.

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Orkney Islands Council

The Orkney Islands Council is the local authority for Orkney, Scotland.

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Orkney vole

The Orkney vole (Microtus arvalis orcadensis) is a population of the common vole (Microtus arvalis) found in the Orkney Islands, off the northern coast of Scotland, United Kingdom.

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Orkneyinga saga

The Orkneyinga saga (also called the History of the Earls of Orkney and Jarls' Saga) is an historical narrative of the history of the Orkney and Shetland islands and their relationship with other local polities, particularly Norway and Scotland.

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Papa Stronsay

Papa Stronsay (Papey Minni) is a small island in Orkney, Scotland, lying north east of Stronsay.

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Papa Westray

Papa Westray, also known as Papay, is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland, United Kingdom.

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Papa Westray Airport

Papa Westray Airport is located north of Kirkwall Airport on Papa Westray, Orkney Islands, Scotland.

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Parliament of Scotland

The Parliament of Scotland was the legislature of the Kingdom of Scotland.

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Passage grave

A simple passage tomb in Carrowmore near Sligo in Ireland A passage grave (sometimes hyphenated) or passage tomb consists of a narrow passage made of large stones and one or multiple burial chambers covered in earth or stone.

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Paul and Erlend Thorfinnsson

Paul Thorfinnsson (died 1098) and Erlend Thorfinnsson (died 1098) were brothers who ruled together as Earls of Orkney.

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Pentland Ferries

Pentland Ferries is a privately owned, family company which has operated a ferry service between Gills Bay in Caithness, Scotland and St Margaret's Hope on South Ronaldsay in Orkney since May 2001.

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Pentland Firth

The Pentland Firth (An Caol Arcach, meaning the Orcadian Strait) is a strait which separates the Orkney Islands from Caithness in the north of Scotland.

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Pentland Skerries

The Pentland Skerries (Old Norse: PettlandsskerPedersen, Roy (January 1992) Orkneyjar ok Katanes (map, Inverness, Nevis Print)) are a group of four uninhabited islands lying in the Pentland Firth, northeast of Duncansby Head and south of South Ronaldsay in Scotland.

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The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya.

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The Picts were a tribal confederation of peoples who lived in what is today eastern and northern Scotland during the Late Iron Age and Early Medieval periods.

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Pinnipeds, commonly known as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals.

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Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.

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Pledge (law)

A pledge is a bailment that conveys possessory title to property owned by a debtor (the pledgor) to a creditor (the pledgee) to secure repayment for some debt or obligation and to the mutual benefit of both parties.

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Pliny the Elder

Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.

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Ploughing match

A ploughing match is a contest between people who each plough part of a field.

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Plurality voting

Plurality voting is an electoral system in which each voter is allowed to vote for only one candidate, and the candidate who polls the most among their counterparts (a plurality) is elected.

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Pomponius Mela

Pomponius Mela, who wrote around AD 43, was the earliest Roman geographer.

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Prehistoric Scotland

Archaeology and geology continue to reveal the secrets of prehistoric Scotland, uncovering a complex past before the Romans brought Scotland into the scope of recorded history.

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Prepositional case

Prepositional case (abbreviated) and postpositional case (abbreviated) are grammatical cases that respectively mark the object of a preposition and a postposition.

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Primula scotica

Primula scotica, commonly known as Scottish primrose, is a species of flowering plant in the primrose family, Primulaceae.

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Proto-Celtic language

The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the reconstructed ancestor language of all the known Celtic languages.

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Pytheas of Massalia (Ancient Greek: Πυθέας ὁ Μασσαλιώτης Pythéas ho Massaliōtēs; Latin: Pytheas Massiliensis; fl. 4th century BC), was a Greek geographer and explorer from the Greek colony of Massalia (modern-day Marseille).

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A quarry is a place from which dimension stone, rock, construction aggregate, riprap, sand, gravel, or slate has been excavated from the ground.

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A raven is one of several larger-bodied species of the genus Corvus.

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Rögnvald Kali Kolsson

Rognvald Kale Kolsson (also known as St. Ronald or St. Ronald of Orkney) (c. 1103 – 1158) was an Earl of Orkney and a Norwegian saint.

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Renewable energy in Scotland

The production of renewable energy in Scotland is an issue that has come to the fore in technical, economic, and political terms during the opening years of the 21st century.

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Riksrådet (in Norwegian and Swedish), Rigsrådet (in Danish) or (English: The Council of the Realm and The Council of the State – sometimes translated as "Privy Council") is the name of the councils of the Scandinavian countries that ruled the countries together with the kings from late Middle Ages to the 17th century.

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Ring of Brodgar

The Ring of Brodgar (or Brogar, or Ring o' Brodgar) is a Neolithic henge and stone circle about 6 miles north-east of Stromness on the Mainland, the largest island in Orkney, Scotland.

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Robert Llewellyn

Robert Llewellyn (born 10 March 1956 in Northampton, Northamptonshire) is a British actor, comedian and writer best known as the mechanoid Kryten in the hit TV sci-fi sitcom Red Dwarf and as a presenter of the TV engineering gameshow Scrapheap Challenge.

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Rognvald Eysteinsson

Rognvald Eysteinsson (fl. 865) was the founding Jarl (or Earl) of Møre in Norway, and a close relative and ally of Harald Fairhair, the earliest known King of Norway.

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Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Nidaros

The Archdiocese of Nidaros (or Niðaróss) was the metropolitan see covering Norway in the later Middle Ages.

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Roslin Castle

Roslin Castle (sometimes spelt Rosslyn) is a partially ruined castle near the village of Roslin in Midlothian, Scotland.

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Rousay (Hrólfsey meaning Rolf's Island) is a small, hilly island about north of Mainland, the largest island in the Orkney Islands of Scotland, and has been nicknamed "the Egypt of the north", due to its archaeological diversity and importance.

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Royal Navy

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.

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Runes are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter.

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Rusk Holm

Rusk Holm is a small island in the Orkney Islands, near Faray to the west.

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Rysa Little

Rysa Little is an uninhabited island in the Orkney archipelago in Scotland.

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Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.

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Salvelinus inframundus

Salvelinus inframundus, also known as Orkney charr is a cold-water fish in the family Salmonidae.

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Sanday Airport

Sanday Airport is located north northeast of Kirkwall Airport on Sanday, Orkney Islands, Scotland.

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Sanday, Orkney

Sanday is one of the inhabited islands of Orkney that lies off the north coast of mainland Scotland.

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Scapa Flow

Scapa Flow viewed from its eastern end in June 2009 Scapa Flow is a body of water in the Orkney Islands, Scotland, sheltered by the islands of Mainland, Graemsay, Burray,S.

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Scilla verna

Scilla verna, commonly known as spring squill, is a flowering plant native to Western Europe.

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Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Scottish Gaelic

Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.

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Scottish Green Party

The Scottish Green Party (Pàrtaidh Uaine na h-Alba; Scots Green Pairty) is a green political party in Scotland.

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Scottish Highlands

The Highlands (the Hielands; A’ Ghàidhealtachd, "the place of the Gaels") are a historic region of Scotland.

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Scottish independence referendum, 2014

A referendum on Scottish independence from the United Kingdom took place on Thursday 18 September 2014.

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Scottish National Dictionary

The Scottish National Dictionary was published by the Scottish National Dictionary Association (SNDA) from 1931 to 1976 and documents the Modern (Lowland) Scots language.

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Scottish national identity

Scottish national identity is a term referring to the sense of national identity, as embodied in the shared and characteristic culture, languages and traditions, of the Scottish people.

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Scottish National Party

The Scottish National Party (SNP; Pàrtaidh Nàiseanta na h-Alba, Scots Naitional Pairtie) is a Scottish nationalist and social-democratic political party in Scotland.

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Scottish Parliament

The Scottish Parliament (Pàrlamaid na h-Alba; Scots: The Scots Pairlament) is the devolved national, unicameral legislature of Scotland.

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Scottish Parliament constituencies and regions

Scottish Parliament constituencies and regions were first used in 1999, in the first general election of the Scottish Parliament (Holyrood), created by the Scotland Act 1998.

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Scottish people

The Scottish people (Scots: Scots Fowk, Scottish Gaelic: Albannaich), or Scots, are a nation and ethnic group native to Scotland. Historically, they emerged from an amalgamation of two Celtic-speaking peoples, the Picts and Gaels, who founded the Kingdom of Scotland (or Alba) in the 9th century. Later, the neighbouring Celtic-speaking Cumbrians, as well as Germanic-speaking Anglo-Saxons and Norse, were incorporated into the Scottish nation. In modern usage, "Scottish people" or "Scots" is used to refer to anyone whose linguistic, cultural, family ancestral or genetic origins are from Scotland. The Latin word Scoti originally referred to the Gaels, but came to describe all inhabitants of Scotland. Considered archaic or pejorative, the term Scotch has also been used for Scottish people, primarily outside Scotland. John Kenneth Galbraith in his book The Scotch (Toronto: MacMillan, 1964) documents the descendants of 19th-century Scottish pioneers who settled in Southwestern Ontario and affectionately referred to themselves as 'Scotch'. He states the book was meant to give a true picture of life in the community in the early decades of the 20th century. People of Scottish descent live in many countries other than Scotland. Emigration, influenced by factors such as the Highland and Lowland Clearances, Scottish participation in the British Empire, and latterly industrial decline and unemployment, have resulted in Scottish people being found throughout the world. Scottish emigrants took with them their Scottish languages and culture. Large populations of Scottish people settled the new-world lands of North and South America, Australia and New Zealand. Canada has the highest level of Scottish descendants per capita in the world and the second-largest population of Scottish descendants, after the United States. Scotland has seen migration and settlement of many peoples at different periods in its history. The Gaels, the Picts and the Britons have their respective origin myths, like most medieval European peoples. Germanic peoples, such as the Anglo-Saxons, arrived beginning in the 7th century, while the Norse settled parts of Scotland from the 8th century onwards. In the High Middle Ages, from the reign of David I of Scotland, there was some emigration from France, England and the Low Countries to Scotland. Some famous Scottish family names, including those bearing the names which became Bruce, Balliol, Murray and Stewart came to Scotland at this time. Today Scotland is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens.

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Scrabster (Scraibster, Sgrabastair/Sgrabstal) is a small settlement on Thurso Bay in Caithness on the north coast of Scotland.

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Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans.

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Seaweed or macroalgae refers to several species of macroscopic, multicellular, marine algae.

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Shapinsay is one of the Orkney Islands off the north coast of mainland Scotland.

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Shetland (Old Norse: Hjaltland), also called the Shetland Islands, is a subarctic archipelago of Scotland that lies northeast of Great Britain.

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Shires of Scotland

The counties or shires of Scotland (Siorrachdan na h-Alba) are geographic subdivisions of Scotland established in the Middle Ages.

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Sigurd Eysteinsson

Sigurd Eysteinsson or Sigurd the Mighty (reigned c. 875–892Ashley, pp. 440–441) was the second Earl of Orkney – a title bequeathed to Sigurd by his brother Rognvald Eysteinsson.

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Sigurd the Stout

Sigurd Hlodvirsson (circa 960 – 23 April 1014), popularly known as Sigurd the Stout from the Old Norse Sigurðr digri,Thomson (2008) p. 59 was an Earl of Orkney.

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Skara Brae

Skara Brae is a stone-built Neolithic settlement, located on the Bay of Skaill on the west coast of Mainland, the largest island in the Orkney archipelago of Scotland.

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Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.

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Society of Antiquaries of Scotland

The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland is the senior antiquarian body of Scotland, with its headquarters in the National Museum of Scotland, Chambers Street, Edinburgh.

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Sodium carbonate

Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.

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Solar eclipse of 1 May 1185

The solar eclipse of 1 May 1185 was a total solar eclipse visible in Central America, Northern Europe, Eastern Europe, and Kazakhstan.

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Souterrain (from French sous terrain, meaning "under ground") is a name given by archaeologists to a type of underground structure associated mainly with the European Atlantic Iron Age.

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South Ronaldsay

South Ronaldsay is one of the Orkney Islands off the north coast of Scotland.

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South Walls

South Walls is an inhabited island adjacent to Hoy in Orkney, Scotland.

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SSE plc

SSE plc (formerly Scottish and Southern Energy plc) is a Scottish energy company headquartered in Perth, Scotland, United Kingdom.

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St Magnus Cathedral


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St Magnus Festival

The St Magnus International Festival is an annual, week-long arts festival which takes place at midsummer on the islands of Orkney, off the north coast of mainland Scotland.

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St Margaret's Hope

St Margaret's Hope, known locally as The Hope, is a village in the Orkney Islands, off the north-east coast of Scotland.

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Stack (geology)

A stack or sea stack is a geological landform consisting of a steep and often vertical column or columns of rock in the sea near a coast, formed by wave erosion.

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Standing Stones of Stenness

The Standing Stones of Stenness is a Neolithic monument five miles northeast of Stromness on the mainland of Orkney, Scotland.

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The stoat (Mustela erminea), also known as the short-tailed weasel or simply the weasel in Ireland where the least weasel does not occur, is a mammal of the genus Mustela of the family Mustelidae native to Eurasia and North America, distinguished from the least weasel by its larger size and longer tail with a prominent black tip.

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Stromness is the second-most populous town in Orkney, Scotland.

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Stronsay is an island in Orkney, Scotland.

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Stronsay Airport

Stronsay Airport is located northeast by north of Kirkwall Airport on Stronsay, Orkney Islands, Scotland.

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Subdivisions of Scotland

For local government purposes, Scotland is divided into 32 areas designated as "council areas", which are all governed by single-tier authorities designated as "councils".

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In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.

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Sule Skerry

Sule Skerry is a remote skerry in the North Atlantic off the north coast of Scotland.

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Sule Stack

Sule Stack or Stack Skerry is an extremely remote island or stack in the North Atlantic off the north coast of Scotland.

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Sumburgh Airport

Sumburgh Airport is the main airport serving Shetland in Scotland.

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Sutherland is a historic county, registration county and lieutenancy area in the Highlands of Scotland.

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Sweyn Holm

Note: There is also a "Sweyn Holm" off St Ninian's Isle, Shetland Sweyn Holm is a small island in the Orkney Islands, next to Gairsay.

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Switha is a small uninhabited island towards the south of Orkney, Scotland, approximately 41 hectares in area.

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Swona is an uninhabited island in the Pentland Firth off the north coast of Scotland.

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In structural geology, a syncline is a fold with younger layers closer to the center of the structure.

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Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (–) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.

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Tartan (breacan) is a pattern consisting of criss-crossed horizontal and vertical bands in multiple colours.

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The Orcadian

The Orcadian is the oldest newspaper in Orkney, Scotland, first published in 1854.

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The Superstation Orkney

The Superstation Orkney, also known as just The Superstation, was a community radio station, broadcasting to Orkney and Caithness.

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Thomas Malory

Sir Thomas Malory (c. 1415 – 14 March 1471) was an English writer, the author or compiler of Le Morte d'Arthur (originally titled, The Whole Book of King Arthur and His Noble Knights of the Round table).

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Thorfinn the Mighty

Thorfinn Sigurdsson (1009?– 1065), also known as Thorfinn the Mighty, (Old Norse: Þorfinnr inn riki) was an 11th-century Earl of Orkney.

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Thorfinn Torf-Einarsson

Thorfinn Torf-EinarssonCrawford (1987) p. 63 also known as Thorfinn Skull-splitterThomson (2008) p. 57 (from the Old Norse Þorfinnr hausakljúfr) was a 10th-century Earl of Orkney.

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Thurso (pronounced, Thursa, Inbhir Theòrsa) is a town and former burgh on the north coast of the Highland council area of Scotland.

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Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of Earth.

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Timeline of prehistoric Scotland

This timeline of prehistoric Scotland is a chronologically ordered list of important archaeological sites in Scotland and of major events affecting Scotland's human inhabitants and culture during the prehistoric period.

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Tomb of the Eagles

The Tomb of the Eagles, or Isbister Chambered Cairn, is a Neolithic chambered tomb located on a cliff edge at Isbister on South Ronaldsay in Orkney, Scotland.

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Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.

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Einarr Rognvaldarson often referred to by his byname Torf-Einarr (sometimes anglicised as Turf-Einarr), (fl. early 890s–c. 910) was one of the Norse Earls of Orkney.

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Tripolium pannonicum

Tripolium pannonicum, called sea aster or seashore aster and often known by the synonyms Aster tripolium or Aster pannonicus, is a flowering plant, native to Eurasia and northern Africa, that is confined in its distribution to salt marshes, estuaries and occasionally to inland salt works.

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A troll is a class of being in Norse mythology and Scandinavian folklore.

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Trondheim (historically Kaupangen, Nidaros and Trondhjem) is a city and municipality in Trøndelag county, Norway.

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Trow (folklore)

A trow (also trowe or drow or dtrow) is a malignant or mischievous fairy or spirit in the folkloric traditions of the Orkney and Shetland islands.

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U-boat is an anglicised version of the German word U-Boot, a shortening of Unterseeboot, literally "undersea boat".

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Udal law

Udal law is a Norse derived legal system, which is found in Shetland and Orkney, Scotland and in Manx law in the Isle of Man.

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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.

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United Kingdom census, 2011

A census of the population of the United Kingdom is taken every ten years.

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United Kingdom constituencies

In the United Kingdom (UK), each of the electoral areas or divisions called constituencies elect one member to a parliament or assembly, with the exception of European Parliament and Northern Ireland Assembly constituencies which are multi member constituencies.

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United Kingdom general election, 1987

The 1987 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 11 June 1987, to elect 650 members to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom.

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University of Strathclyde

The University of Strathclyde is a public research university located in Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom.

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Value-added tax

A value-added tax (VAT), known in some countries as a goods and services tax (GST), is a type of tax that is assessed incrementally, based on the increase in value of a product or service at each stage of production or distribution.

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Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.

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Volcanic rock

Volcanic rock (often shortened to volcanics in scientific contexts) is a rock formed from magma erupted from a volcano.

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The walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) is a large flippered marine mammal with a discontinuous distribution about the North Pole in the Arctic Ocean and subarctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere.

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Ward Hill, Hoy

Ward Hill, on the island of Hoy, is the highest hill in Orkney, Scotland.

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Wars of Scottish Independence

The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries.

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Welsh language

Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.

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Westray is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland, with a usual resident population of just under 600 people.

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Westray Airport

Westray Airport is an airport located at Aikerness, on Westray in the Orkney Islands, Scotland.

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Westray to Papa Westray flight

The Loganair Westray to Papa Westray route is the shortest scheduled passenger flight in the world.

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Wheelhouse (archaeology)

In archaeology, a wheelhouse is a prehistoric structure from the Iron Age found in Scotland.

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Whisky or whiskey is a type of distilled alcoholic beverage made from fermented grain mash.

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Whitefish (fisheries term)

Whitefish or white fish is a fisheries term for several species of demersal fish with fins, particularly Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), Caspian kutum (Rutilus kutum), whiting (Merluccius bilinearis), and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), but also hake (Urophycis), pollock (Pollachius), or others.

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Wild boar

The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.

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Winter solstice

The winter solstice (or hibernal solstice), also known as midwinter, is an astronomical phenomenon marking the day with the shortest period of daylight and the longest night of the year.

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World Heritage site

A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Wyre, Orkney

Wyre is one of the Orkney Islands, lying south-east of Rousay.

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100% renewable energy

The endeavor to use 100% renewable energy for electricity, heating and cooling, and transport is motivated by global warming, pollution and other environmental issues, as well as economic and energy security concerns.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orkney

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