244 relations: A History of British Birds, A History of British Birds (1843), Africa, Alans, Alfred Russel Wallace, Anatomy, Ancient DNA, Ancient Greek, Aquaculture, Arbovirus, Aristotle, Arsenic, Asian koel, Assyria, Audubon (magazine), Avian ecology field methods, Aviation, Avicenna, Bal-chatri, Binoculars, Binomial nomenclature, Biodiversity, Biogeography, Bird, Bird atlas, Bird collections, Bird conservation, Bird intelligence, Bird migration, Bird observatory, Bird ringing, Bird strike, Bird vocalization, Birdlime, Birdwatching, Black boubou, Borax, Breeding bird survey, British Ornithologists' Union, Brood parasite, Bugun liocichla, California condor, Camera trap, Carl Linnaeus, Charles Darwin, Charles Sibley, Chicken, Christmas Bird Count, Christopher Merret, Citizen science, ..., Claud B. Ticehurst, Clinton Hart Merriam, Cologne, Colonialism, Common crane, Common ostrich, Comparative anatomy, Competitive exclusion principle, Conrad Gessner, Conservation biology, Cormorant, Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Croydon, Darwin's finches, David Lack, DDT, De arte venandi cum avibus, Demography, Density dependence, Dermestidae, Developmental biology, DNA–DNA hybridization, Dopamine receptor D4, E. O. Wilson, Ecological niche, Ecology, Electroporation, Elliott Coues, Embryonic stem cell, Emlen funnel, Encyclopædia Britannica, Ernst Mayr, Erwin Stresemann, Ethnoornithology, Ethology, European herring gull, Ex situ conservation, Falconry, Finch, Florence Augusta Merriam Bailey, François Levaillant, Francis Willughby, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, Freeze-drying, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, Galápagos Islands, Gene-centered view of evolution, Genotype, Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, Georgy Gause, Gerald of Wales, Gilbert White, Goose barnacle, Great tit, Group selection, Guild (ecology), Guillaume Rondelet, Habitat conservation, Hand evaluation, Hans Friedrich Gadow, Havell family, Heligoland trap, Helpers at the nest, Hibernation, History of Animals, History of biology, Holotype, House mouse, Hugh Edwin Strickland, Huns, Ibis (journal), Inclusive fitness, Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, Instinct, Insular biogeography, Ithaca, New York, Japanese encephalitis, Johann Baptist von Spix, Johann Jakob Kaup, John Crook (ethologist), John Freeman Milward Dovaston, John James Audubon, John Ray, Jon E. Ahlquist, Julian Huxley, Konrad Lorenz, Landscape ecology, Learning, Lewis and Clark Expedition, List of ornithological societies, List of ornithologists, List of ornithologists abbreviated names, List of ornithology awards, List of ornithology journals, List of recently extinct bird species, London, Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot, Louis Pasteur, Mark and recapture, Mark Catesby, Mass spectrometry, Mathurin Jacques Brisson, Max Fürbringer, Menagerie, Michael Scot, Midden, Mississippi, Mist net, Mitochondrial DNA, Moamyn, Model organism, Molecular clock, Molecular phylogenetics, Morphometrics, National Audubon Society, Natural History (Pliny), New Haven, Connecticut, Nicholas Aylward Vigors, Nikolaas Tinbergen, Nile, Normans, Ohio, Onomatopoeia, Oology, Oronsay, Inner Hebrides, Osprey, Paleontology, Palermo, Parasitism, Pest (organism), Pesticide, Phenotype, Philip Sclater, Phylogenetic tree, Phylogeography, Physiology, Pierre Belon, Planetarium, Pliny the Elder, Ploceidae, Population biology, Population density, Poultry, Prehistory, Proximate and ultimate causation, Quelea, Quinarian system, Red junglefowl, Red kite, Reginald Ernest Moreau, Robert H. MacArthur, Robert Ridgway, Rocket net, Roger Tory Peterson, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Scotland, Scythia, Seabird, Seed predation, Sequence alignment, Sibley–Ahlquist taxonomy of birds, Sociobiology, Speciation, Species, Species problem, Stone Age, Swallow, Syriac language, Telescope, The Auk, The Birds of America, The Book of Healing, The Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne, Toledo, Spain, Topographia Hibernica, Transect, Type (biology), Ulisse Aldrovandi, V. C. Wynne-Edwards, Vedas, Viral vector, Volcher Coiter, W. D. Hamilton, Water bird, West Nile virus, William John Swainson, William Sharp Macleay, William Turner (naturalist), Xenophon, Yale University Press, Zebra finch, Zoology, Zoonosis, 10th edition of Systema Naturae. Expand index (194 more) » « Shrink index
A History of British Birds
A History of British Birds is a natural history book by Thomas Bewick, published in two volumes.
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A History of British Birds (1843)
William Yarrell's A History of British Birds was first published as a whole in three volumes in 1843, having been serialized, three sheets every two months, over the previous six years.
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Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
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The Alans (or Alani) were an Iranian nomadic pastoral people of antiquity.
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Alfred Russel Wallace
Alfred Russel Wallace (8 January 18237 November 1913) was an English naturalist, explorer, geographer, anthropologist, and biologist.
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Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
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Ancient DNA (aDNA) is DNA isolated from ancient specimens.
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The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
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Aquaculture (less commonly spelled aquiculture), also known as aquafarming, is the farming of fish, crustaceans, molluscs, aquatic plants, algae, and other organisms.
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Arbovirus is an informal name used to refer to any viruses that are transmitted by arthropod vectors.
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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
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Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
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The Asian koel (Eudynamys scolopaceus) is a member of the cuckoo order of birds, the Cuculiformes.
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Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
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Audubon is the flagship journal of the National Audubon Society.
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Avian ecology field methods
There are many field methods available for conducting avian ecological research.
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Aviation, or air transport, refers to the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry.
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Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
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Bal-chatri (/bɑːl tʃʌθri/) are traps designed to catch birds of prey (raptors).
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Binoculars or field glasses are two telescopes mounted side-by-side and aligned to point in the same direction, allowing the viewer to use both eyes (binocular vision) when viewing distant objects.
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Binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system") also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages.
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Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
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Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time.
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Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
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A bird atlas is an ornithological work that attempts to provide information on the distribution, abundance, long-term change as well as seasonal patterns of bird occurrence and make extensive use of maps.
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Bird collections are curated repositories of scientific specimens consisting of birds and their parts.
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Bird conservation is a field in the science of conservation biology related to threatened birds.
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Bird intelligence deals with the definition of intelligence and its measurement as it applies to birds.
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Bird migration is the regular seasonal movement, often north and south along a flyway, between breeding and wintering grounds.
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A bird observatory is a centre for the study of bird migration and bird populations.
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Bird ringing or bird banding is the attachment of a small, individually numbered metal or plastic tag to the leg or wing of a wild bird to enable individual identification.
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A bird strike—sometimes called birdstrike, bird ingestion (for an engine), bird hit, or bird aircraft strike hazard (BASH)—is a collision between an airborne animal (usually a bird or bat) and a manmade vehicle, especially an aircraft.
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Bird vocalization includes both bird calls and bird songs.
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Birdlime or bird lime is an adhesive substance used in trapping birds.
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Birdwatching, or birding, is a form of wildlife observation in which the observation of birds is a recreational activity or citizen science.
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The black boubou, Somali boubou, Erlanger's boubou, or coastal boubou (Laniarius nigerrimus) is a medium-size bushshrike.
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Borax, also known as sodium borate, sodium tetraborate, or disodium tetraborate, is an important boron compound, a mineral, and a salt of boric acid.
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Breeding bird survey
A breeding bird survey monitors the status and trends of bird populations.
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British Ornithologists' Union
The British Ornithologists' Union (BOU) aims to encourage the study of birds ("ornithology") in Britain, Europe and around the world, in order to understand their biology and to aid their conservation.
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Brood parasites are organisms that rely on others to raise their young.
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The Bugun liocichla (Liocichla bugunorum) is a passerine bird species from the Leiothrichidae family closely related to the Emei Shan liocichla.
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The California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) is a New World vulture, the largest North American land bird.
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A camera trap is a remotely activated camera that is equipped with a motion sensor or an infrared sensor, or uses a light beam as a trigger.
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Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
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Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
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Charles Gald Sibley (August 7, 1917 – April 12, 1998) was an American ornithologist and molecular biologist.
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The chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a type of domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the red junglefowl.
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Christmas Bird Count
The Christmas Bird Count (CBC) is a census of birds in the Western Hemisphere, performed annually in the early Northern-hemisphere winter by volunteer birdwatchers and administered by the National Audubon Society.
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Christopher Merret FRS (16 February 1614/5 – 19 August 1695), also spelt Merrett, was an English physician and scientist.
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Citizen science (CS; also known as community science, crowd science, crowd-sourced science, civic science, volunteer monitoring, or networked science) is scientific research conducted, in whole or in part, by amateur (or nonprofessional) scientists.
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Claud B. Ticehurst
Claud Buchanan Ticehurst FRGS (8 January 1881 – 17 February 1941) was a British ornithologist.
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Clinton Hart Merriam
Clinton Hart Merriam (December 5, 1855 – March 19, 1942) was an American zoologist, mammalogist, ornithologist, entomologist, ethnographer, and naturalist.
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Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).
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Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
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The common crane (Grus grus), also known as the Eurasian crane, is a bird of the family Gruidae, the cranes.
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The ostrich or common ostrich (Struthio camelus) is either of two species of large flightless birds native to Africa, the only living member(s) of the genus Struthio, which is in the ratite family.
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Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of different species.
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Competitive exclusion principle
In ecology, the competitive exclusion principle, sometimes referred to as Gause's law, is a proposition named for Georgy Gause that two species competing for the same limiting resource cannot coexist at constant population values.
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Conrad Gessner (Conradus Gesnerus; Conrad Geßner or Cůnrat Geßner; 26 March 1516 – 13 December 1565) was a Swiss physician, naturalist, bibliographer, and philologist.
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Conservation biology is the management of nature and of Earth's biodiversity with the aim of protecting species, their habitats, and ecosystems from excessive rates of extinction and the erosion of biotic interactions.
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Phalacrocoracidae is a family of approximately 40 species of aquatic birds commonly known as cormorants and shags.
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Cornell Lab of Ornithology
The Cornell Lab of Ornithology is a member-supported unit of Cornell University in Ithaca, New York which studies birds and other wildlife.
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Croydon is a large town in south London, England, south of Charing Cross.
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Darwin's finches (also known as the Galápagos finches) are a group of about fifteen species of passerine birds.
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David Lambert Lack FRS (16 July 1910 – 12 March 1973) was a British evolutionary biologist who made contributions to ornithology, ecology and ethology.
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Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, commonly known as DDT, is a colorless, tasteless, and almost odorless crystalline chemical compound, an organochlorine, originally developed as an insecticide, and ultimately becoming infamous for its environmental impacts.
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De arte venandi cum avibus
De Arte Venandi cum Avibus, literally On The Art of Hunting with Birds, is a Latin treatise on ornithology and Falconry written in the 1240s by Frederick II, and dedicated to his son Manfred.
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Demography (from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, implies "writing, description or measurement") is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings.
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In population ecology, density-dependent processes occur when population growth rates are regulated by the density of a population.
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Dermestidae are a family of Coleoptera that are commonly referred to as skin beetles.
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Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop.
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DNA–DNA hybridization generally refers to a molecular biology technique that measures the degree of genetic similarity between pools of DNA sequences.
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Dopamine receptor D4
The dopamine receptor D4 is a dopamine D2-like G protein-coupled receptor encoded by the gene on chromosome 11 at 11p15.5.
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E. O. Wilson
Edward Osborne Wilson (born June 10, 1929), usually cited as E. O. Wilson, is an American biologist, researcher, theorist, naturalist and author.
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In ecology, a niche (CanE, or) is the fit of a species living under specific environmental conditions.
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Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.
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Electroporation, or electropermeabilization, is a microbiology technique in which an electrical field is applied to cells in order to increase the permeability of the cell membrane, allowing chemicals, drugs, or DNA to be introduced into the cell.
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Elliott Coues (September 9, 1842 – December 25, 1899) was an American army surgeon, historian, ornithologist and author.
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Embryonic stem cell
Embryonic stem cells (ES cells or ESCs) are pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, an early-stage pre-implantation embryo.
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An Emlen funnel is a bird cage shaped like an inverted cone, used to study bird behaviour, in particular birds' migratory instincts.
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The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
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Ernst Walter Mayr (5 July 1904 – 3 February 2005) was one of the 20th century's leading evolutionary biologists.
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Erwin Stresemann (22 November 1889, Dresden – 20 November 1972, East Berlin) was a German naturalist and ornithologist.
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Ethnoornithology (also ethno-ornithology) is the study of the relationship between people and birds (from "ethno-" - relating to people and culture - and "ornithology" - the study of birds).
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Ethology is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait.
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European herring gull
The European herring gull (Larus argentatus) is a large gull (up to long).
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Ex situ conservation
Ex situ conservation literally means, "off-site conservation".
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Falconry is the hunting of wild animals in their natural state and habitat by means of a trained bird of prey.
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The true finches are small to medium-sized passerine birds in the family Fringillidae.
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Florence Augusta Merriam Bailey
Florence Augusta Merriam Bailey (August 8, 1863 – September 22, 1948) was an American ornithologist and nature writer.
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François Levaillant (born Vaillant, later in life as Le Vaillant, "The Valiant") (6 August 1753 – 22 November 1824) was a French author, explorer, naturalist, zoological collector, and noted ornithologist.
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Francis Willughby (sometimes spelt Willoughby) (22 November 1635 – 3 July 1672) was an English ornithologist and ichthyologist.
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Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor
Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250; Fidiricu, Federico, Friedrich) was King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225.
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Freeze drying, also known as lyophilisation or cryodessication, is a low temperature dehydration process which involves freezing the product, lowering pressure, then removing the ice by sublimation.
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Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling
Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (27 January 1775 – 20 August 1854), later (after 1812) von Schelling, was a German philosopher.
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The Galápagos Islands (official name: Archipiélago de Colón, other Spanish name: Las Islas Galápagos), part of the Republic of Ecuador, are an archipelago of volcanic islands distributed on either side of the equator in the Pacific Ocean surrounding the centre of the Western Hemisphere, west of continental Ecuador.
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Gene-centered view of evolution
The gene-centered view of evolution, gene's eye view, gene selection theory, or selfish gene theory holds that adaptive evolution occurs through the differential survival of competing genes, increasing the allele frequency of those alleles whose phenotypic trait effects successfully promote their own propagation, with gene defined as "not just one single physical bit of DNA all replicas of a particular bit of DNA distributed throughout the world".
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The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines one of its characteristics (phenotype).
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Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon
Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (7 September 1707 – 16 April 1788) was a French naturalist, mathematician, cosmologist, and encyclopédiste.
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Georgii Frantsevich Gause (Гео́ргий Фра́нцевич Га́узе; December 27, 1910 – May 4, 1986), was a Russian biologist who proposed the competitive exclusion principle, fundamental to the science of ecology.
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Gerald of Wales
Gerald of Wales (Giraldus Cambrensis; Gerallt Gymro; Gerald de Barri) was a Cambro-Norman archdeacon of Brecon and historian.
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Gilbert White FRS (18 July 1720 – 26 June 1793) was a "parson-naturalist", a pioneering English naturalist and ornithologist.
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Goose barnacles (order Pedunculata), also called stalked barnacles or gooseneck barnacles, are filter-feeding crustaceans that live attached to hard surfaces of rocks and flotsam in the ocean intertidal zone.
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The great tit (Parus major) is a passerine bird in the tit family Paridae.
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Group selection is a proposed mechanism of evolution in which natural selection acts at the level of the group, instead of at the more conventional level of the individual.
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A guild (or ecological guild) is any group of species that exploit the same resources, or who exploit different resources in related ways.
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Guillaume Rondelet (27 September 150730 July 1566), known also as Rondeletus (Rondeletius), was Regius professor of medicine at the University of Montpellier in southern France and Chancellor of the University between 1556 and his death in 1566.
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Habitat conservation is a management practice that seeks to conserve, protect and restore habitat areas for wild plants and animals, especially conservation reliant species, and prevent their extinction, fragmentation or reduction in range.
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In contract bridge, various bidding systems have been devised to enable partners to describe their hands to each other so that they may reach the optimum contract.
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Hans Friedrich Gadow
Hans Friedrich Gadow (8 March 1855 – 16 May 1928) was a German ornithologist.
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The Havell family of Reading, Berkshire, England, included a number of notable engravers, etchers and painters, as well as writers, publishers, educators, and musicians.
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A Heligoland trap (or funnel trap) is a large, building-sized, funnel-shaped, rigid structure of wire mesh or netting used to trap birds, so that they can be banded or otherwise studied by ornithologists.
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Helpers at the nest
Helpers at the nest is a term used in behavioural ecology and evolutionary biology to describe a social structure in which juveniles and sexually mature adolescents of either one or both sexes, remain in association with their parents and help them raise subsequent broods or litters, instead of dispersing and beginning to reproduce themselves.
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Hibernation is a state of inactivity and metabolic depression in endotherms.
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History of Animals
History of Animals (Τῶν περὶ τὰ ζῷα ἱστοριῶν, Ton peri ta zoia historion, "Inquiries on Animals"; Historia Animālium "History of Animals") is one of the major texts on biology by the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, who had studied at Plato's Academy in Athens.
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History of biology
The history of biology traces the study of the living world from ancient to modern times.
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A holotype is a single physical example (or illustration) of an organism, known to have been used when the species (or lower-ranked taxon) was formally described.
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The house mouse (Mus musculus) is a small mammal of the order Rodentia, characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, and a long naked or almost hairless tail.
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Hugh Edwin Strickland
Hugh Edwin Strickland (2 March 1811 – 14 September 1853) was an English geologist, ornithologist, naturalist and systematist.
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The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe, between the 4th and 6th century AD.
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Ibis, subtitled the International Journal of Avian Science, is the peer-reviewed scientific journal of the British Ornithologists' Union.
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In evolutionary biology, inclusive fitness is one of two metrics of evolutionary success as defined by W. D. Hamilton in 1964.
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Influenza A virus subtype H5N1
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species.
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Instinct or innate behavior is the inherent inclination of a living organism towards a particular complex behavior.
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Insular biogeography or island biogeography is a field within biogeography that examines the factors that affect the species richness of isolated natural communities.
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Ithaca, New York
Ithaca is a city in the Finger Lakes region of New York.
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Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infection of the brain caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV).
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Johann Baptist von Spix
Johann Baptist Ritter von Spix (9 February 1781 – 13 March 1826) was a German biologist.
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Johann Jakob Kaup
Johann Jakob von Kaup (10 April 1803 – 4 July 1873) was a German naturalist.
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John Crook (ethologist)
John Hurrell Crook (27 November 1930 – 15 July 2011) was a British ethologist who filled a pivotal role in British primatology.
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John Freeman Milward Dovaston
John Freeman Milward Dovaston (30 December 1782 – 8 August 1854) was a British poet and naturalist.
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John James Audubon
John James Audubon (born Jean Rabin; April 26, 1785 – January 27, 1851) was an American ornithologist, naturalist, and painter.
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John Ray FRS (29 November 1627 – 17 January 1705) was an English naturalist widely regarded as one of the earliest of the English parson-naturalists.
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Jon E. Ahlquist
Jon Edward Ahlquist (born 1944) is an American molecular biologist and ornithologist who has specialized in molecular phylogenetics.
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Sir Julian Sorell Huxley FRS (22 June 1887 – 14 February 1975) was a British evolutionary biologist, eugenicist, and internationalist.
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Konrad Zacharias Lorenz (7 November 1903 – 27 February 1989) was an Austrian zoologist, ethologist, and ornithologist.
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Landscape ecology is the science of studying and improving relationships between ecological processes in the environment and particular ecosystems.
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Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.
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Lewis and Clark Expedition
The Lewis and Clark Expedition from May 1804 to September 1806, also known as the Corps of Discovery Expedition, was the first American expedition to cross the western portion of the United States.
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List of ornithological societies
The following is a list of regional ornithological societies.
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List of ornithologists
This is a list of ornithologists who have articles, in alphabetical order by surname.
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List of ornithologists abbreviated names
This list of ornithologists abbreviated names is based on information from the older books on birds.
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List of ornithology awards
This is a list of ornithology awards.
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List of ornithology journals
The following is a list of journals and magazines relating to birding and ornithology.
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List of recently extinct bird species
Since 1500, over 190 species of birds have become extinct, and this rate of extinction seems to be increasing.
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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
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Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot
Louis Pierre Vieillot (May 10, 1748, Yvetot – August 24, 1830, Sotteville-lès-Rouen) was a French ornithologist.
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Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.
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Mark and recapture
Mark and recapture is a method commonly used in ecology to estimate an animal population's size.
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Mark Catesby (24 March 1683 – 23 December 1749) was an English naturalist.
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Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.
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Mathurin Jacques Brisson
Mathurin Jacques Brisson (30 April 1723 – 23 June 1806) was a French zoologist and natural philosopher.
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Max Carl Anton Fürbringer (January 30, 1846 – March 6, 1920) was a German anatomist, known for his anatomical investigations of vertebrates and especially for his studies in ornithology on avian morphology and classification.
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A menagerie is a collection of captive animals, frequently exotic, kept for display; or the place where such a collection is kept, a precursor to the modern zoological garden.
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Michael Scot (Latin: Michael Scotus; 1175 –) was a mathematician and scholar in the Middle Ages.
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A midden (also kitchen midden or shell heap) is an old dump for domestic waste which may consist of animal bone, human excrement, botanical material, mollusc shells, sherds, lithics (especially debitage), and other artifacts and ecofacts associated with past human occupation.
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Mississippi is a state in the Southern United States, with part of its southern border formed by the Gulf of Mexico.
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Mist nets are used by ornithologists and bat biologists to capture wild birds and bats for banding or other research projects.
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Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
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Moamyn (or Moamin) was the name given in Medieval Europe to an Arabic author of an 5 chapter treatise on falconry, important for early Europeans, which was most popular as translated by the Syriac Theodore of Antioch under the title De Scientia Venandi per Aves in 1240 to 1241.
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A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
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The molecular clock is a technique that uses the mutation rate of biomolecules to deduce the time in prehistory when two or more life forms diverged.
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Molecular phylogenetics is the branch of phylogeny that analyzes genetic, hereditary molecular differences, predominately in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.
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Morphometrics (from Greek μορϕή morphe, "shape, form", and -μετρία metria, "measurement") or morphometry refers to the quantitative analysis of form, a concept that encompasses size and shape.
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National Audubon Society
The National Audubon Society (Audubon) is a non-profit environmental organization dedicated to conservation.
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Natural History (Pliny)
The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.
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New Haven, Connecticut
New Haven is a coastal city in the U.S. state of Connecticut.
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Nicholas Aylward Vigors
Nicholas Aylward Vigors (1785 – 26 October 1840) was an Irish zoologist and politician.
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Nikolaas "Niko" Tinbergen (15 April 1907 – 21 December 1988) was a Dutch biologist and ornithologist who shared the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Karl von Frisch and Konrad Lorenz for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behavior patterns in animals.
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The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
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The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
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Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States.
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An onomatopoeia (from the Greek ὀνοματοποιία; ὄνομα for "name" and ποιέω for "I make", adjectival form: "onomatopoeic" or "onomatopoetic") is a word that phonetically imitates, resembles or suggests the sound that it describes.
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Oology (or oölogy) is a branch of ornithology studying bird eggs, nests and breeding behaviour.
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Oronsay, Inner Hebrides
Oronsay (Scottish Gaelic: Orasaigh), also sometimes spelt and pronounced Oransay by the local community, is a small tidal island south of Colonsay in the Scottish Inner Hebrides with an area of.
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The osprey or more specifically the western osprey (Pandion haliaetus) — also called sea hawk, river hawk, and fish hawk — is a diurnal, fish-eating bird of prey with a cosmopolitan range.
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Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).
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Palermo (Sicilian: Palermu, Panormus, from Πάνορμος, Panormos) is a city of Southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Metropolitan City of Palermo.
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In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
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A pest is a plant or animal detrimental to humans or human concerns including crops, livestock, and forestry.
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Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
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A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
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Philip Lutley Sclater (4 November 1829 – 27 June 1913) was an English lawyer and zoologist.
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A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.
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Phylogeography is the study of the historical processes that may be responsible for the contemporary geographic distributions of individuals.
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Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
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Pierre Belon (1517–1564) was a French traveler, naturalist, writer and diplomat.
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A planetarium (plural planetaria or planetariums) is a theatre built primarily for presenting educational and entertaining shows about astronomy and the night sky, or for training in celestial navigation.
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Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
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The Ploceidae are a family of small passerine birds, many of which are called weavers or weaverbirds.
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Population biology is an interdisciplinary field combining the areas of ecology and evolutionary biology.
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Population density (in agriculture: standing stock and standing crop) is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density.
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Poultry are domesticated birds kept by humans for their eggs, their meat or their feathers.
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Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.
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Proximate and ultimate causation
A proximate cause is an event which is closest to, or immediately responsible for causing, some observed result.
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Quelea is a genus of small passerine birds that belongs to the weaver family Ploceidae, confined to Africa.
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The Quinarian system was a method of zoological classification which had a brief period of popularity in the mid 19th century, especially among British naturalists.
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The red junglefowl (Gallus gallus) is a tropical member of the family Phasianidae.
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The red kite (Milvus milvus) is a medium-large bird of prey in the family Accipitridae, which also includes many other diurnal raptors such as eagles, buzzards, and harriers.
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Reginald Ernest Moreau
Reginald Ernest Moreau, (29 May 1897 – 30 May 1970), was an English civil servant who worked as an accountant in Africa and later contributed to ornithology.
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Robert H. MacArthur
Robert Helmer MacArthur (April 7, 1930 – November 1, 1972) was a Canadian-born American ecologist who made a major impact on many areas of community and population ecology.
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Robert Ridgway (July 2, 1850 – March 25, 1929) was an American ornithologist specializing in systematics.
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Rocket nets and cannon nets are types of animal traps used to trap a large number of live animals, usually birds, but they also have been used to catch large animals such as various species of deer.
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Roger Tory Peterson
Roger Tory Peterson (August 28, 1908 – July 28, 1996) was an American naturalist, ornithologist, artist, and educator, and held to be one of the founding inspirations for the 20th-century environmental movement.
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Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) is a charitable organisation registered in England and Wales and in Scotland.
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Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
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Scythia (Ancient Greek: Σκυθική, Skythikē) was a region of Central Eurasia in classical antiquity, occupied by the Eastern Iranian Scythians, encompassing Central Asia and parts of Eastern Europe east of the Vistula River, with the eastern edges of the region vaguely defined by the Greeks.
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Seabirds (also known as marine birds) are birds that are adapted to life within the marine environment.
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Seed predation, often referred to as granivory, is a type of plant-animal interaction in which granivores (seed predators) feed on the seeds of plants as a main or exclusive food source,Hulme, P.E. and Benkman, C.W. (2002) "Granivory", pp.
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In bioinformatics, a sequence alignment is a way of arranging the sequences of DNA, RNA, or protein to identify regions of similarity that may be a consequence of functional, structural, or evolutionary relationships between the sequences.
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Sibley–Ahlquist taxonomy of birds
The Sibley–Ahlquist taxonomy is a bird taxonomy proposed by Charles Sibley and Jon Edward Ahlquist.
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Sociobiology is a field of biology that aims to examine and explain social behavior in terms of evolution.
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Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species.
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In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
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The species problem is the set of questions that arises when biologists attempt to define what a species is.
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The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.
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The swallows and martins, or Hirundinidae, are a family of passerine birds found around the world on all continents except Antarctica.
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Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.
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A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).
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The Auk: Ornithological Advances is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal and the official publication of the American Ornithological Society (AOS).
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The Birds of America
The Birds of America is a book by naturalist and painter John James Audubon, containing illustrations of a wide variety of birds of the United States.
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The Book of Healing
The Book of Healing (Arabic: کتاب الشفاء Kitāb al-Šifāʾ, Latin: Sufficientia) is a scientific and philosophical encyclopedia written by Abū Alī ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) from ancient Persia, near Bukhara in Greater Khorasan.
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The Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne
The Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne, or just The Natural History of Selborne is a book by English naturalist and ornithologist Gilbert White.
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Toledo is a city and municipality located in central Spain; it is the capital of the province of Toledo and the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha.
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Topographia Hibernica (Latin for Topography of Ireland), also known as Topographia Hiberniae, is an account of the landscape and people of Ireland written by Gerald of Wales around 1188, soon after the Norman invasion of Ireland.
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A transect is a path along which one counts and records occurrences of the species of study (e.g. plants).
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In biology, a type is a particular specimen (or in some cases a group of specimens) of an organism to which the scientific name of that organism is formally attached.
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Ulisse Aldrovandi (11 September 1522 – 4 May 1605) was an Italian naturalist, the moving force behind Bologna's botanical garden, one of the first in Europe.
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V. C. Wynne-Edwards
Vero Copner Wynne-Edwards, CBE, FRS, FRSE (4 July 1906 – 5 January 1997) was an English zoologist.
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The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
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Viral vectors are tools commonly used by molecular biologists to deliver genetic material into cells.
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Volcher Coiter (also spelled Coyter or Koyter) (1534 – 2 June 1576) was a Dutch anatomist who established the study of comparative osteology and first described cerebrospinal meningitis.
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W. D. Hamilton
William Donald Hamilton, FRS (1 August 1936 – 7 March 2000) was an English evolutionary biologist, widely recognised as one of the most significant evolutionary theorists of the 20th century.
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The term water bird, waterbird or aquatic bird (not to be confused with wading birds) is used to refer to birds that live on or around water.
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West Nile virus
West Nile virus (WNV) is a single-stranded RNA virus that causes West Nile fever.
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William John Swainson
William John Swainson FLS, FRS (8 October 1789 – 6 December 1855), was an English ornithologist, malacologist, conchologist, entomologist and artist.
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William Sharp Macleay
William Sharp Macleay or McLeay (21 July 1792 – 26 January 1865) was a British civil servant and entomologist.
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William Turner (naturalist)
William Turner MA (1509/10 – 13 July 1568) was an English divine and reformer, a physician and a natural historian.
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Xenophon of Athens (Ξενοφῶν,, Xenophōn; – 354 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates.
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Yale University Press
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
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The zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), is the most common estrildid finch of Central Australia and ranges over most of the continent, avoiding only the cool moist south and some areas of the tropical far north.
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Zoology or animal biology is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems.
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Zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans.
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10th edition of Systema Naturae
The 10th edition of Systema Naturae is a book written by Carl Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature.
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Bird watching towers, Birdlore, History of ornithology, Ornathology, Ornithological, Ornithologist, Ornothology, Orthinology, Science of birds, Study of Birds.