119 relations: Ablative case, Affix, Affricate consonant, Afroasiatic languages, Agreement (linguistics), Alveolar consonant, Approximant consonant, Arabic script, Article (grammar), Assimilation (phonology), Aster Ganno, Bakri Sapalo, Bambassi language, Benefactive case, Bible, Bilabial consonant, Borana Oromo people, Causative, Consonant, Cushitic languages, Dative case, Definiteness, Demonstrative, Dependent clause, Derg, Dialect continuum, Dictionary.com, Eastern Oromo language, Egypt, Ejective consonant, Ethiopia, Ethnic federalism, French language, Frequentative, Fricative consonant, Ge'ez script, Gemination, Genitive case, Glottal consonant, Glottalization, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical case, Grammatical conjugation, Grammatical gender, Grammatical mood, Grammatical number, Grammatical person, Grammatical tense, Hausa language, Horn of Africa, ..., Imperative mood, Implosive consonant, Infinitive, Instrumental case, International Phonetic Alphabet, ISO 639 macrolanguage, ISO 639-3, Johann Ludwig Krapf, Jussive mood, Kenya, Kenya Broadcasting Corporation, Kwama people, Labiodental consonant, Latin script, Lemma (morphology), Lexicon, Libya, Locative case, Lowland East Cushitic languages, Mengistu Haile Mariam, Metathesis (linguistics), Mutual intelligibility, Nasal consonant, Negation, Nilo-Saharan languages, Nominative case, Omotic languages, Onesimos Nesib, Orma language, Oromia Region, Oromo language, Oromo Liberation Front, Oromo people, Oromo Peoples' Democratic Organization, Oromoid languages, Palatal consonant, Passive voice, Personal pronoun, Possessive, Possessive determiner, Postalveolar consonant, Predicative expression, Pro-drop language, Reciprocal (grammar), Reflexive pronoun, Retroflex consonant, Rhotic consonant, Russian language, Somalia, South Africa, Southern Oromo language, Stop consonant, Subject (grammar), Sudan, Suffix, Swahili language, Syllable, T–V distinction, TheFreeDictionary.com, Turkish language, University of Pennsylvania, Velar consonant, Voice (phonetics), Voice of America, Voiced retroflex implosive, Voicelessness, Vowel, Waata language, Word stem. Expand index (69 more) » « Shrink index
The ablative case (sometimes abbreviated) is a grammatical case for nouns, pronouns and adjectives in the grammar of various languages; it is sometimes used to express motion away from something, among other uses.
In linguistics, an affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.
Agreement or concord (abbreviated) happens when a word changes form depending on the other words to which it relates.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.
In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.
Aster Ganno (c.1872–1964) was an Ethiopian Bible translator who worked with the better known Onesimos Nesib as a translator of the Oromo Bible, published in 1899.
Sheikh Bakri Sapalo (born Abubakar Garad Usman; November 1895 - 5 April 1980) was an Oromo scholar, poet and religious teacher.
Bambassi is an Omotic Afroasiatic language spoken in Ethiopia around the towns of Bambasi and Didessa in the area east of Asosa in Benishangul-Gumuz Region.
The benefactive case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used where English would use "for", "for the benefit of", or "intended for", e.g. "She opened the door for Tom" or "This book is for Bob".
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.
The Borana Oromo people, also called the Boran, are a subethnic section of the Oromo people who live in southern Ethiopia (Oromia) and northern Kenya.
In linguistics, a causative (abbreviated) is a valency-increasing operationPayne, Thomas E. (1997).
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
The Cushitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".
In linguistics, definiteness is a semantic feature of noun phrases (NPs), distinguishing between referents/entities that are identifiable in a given context (definite noun phrases) and entities which are not (indefinite noun phrases).
Demonstratives (abbreviated) are words, such as this and that, used to indicate which entities are being referred to and to distinguish those entities from others.
A dependent clause is a clause that provides a sentence element with additional information, but which cannot stand alone as a sentence.
The Derg, Common Derg or Dergue (Ge'ez: ደርግ, meaning "committee" or "council") is the short name of the Coordinating Committee of the Armed Forces, Police and Territorial Army that ruled Ethiopia from 1974 to 1987.
A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.
Dictionary.com is an online dictionary whose domain was first registered on May 14, 1995.
Eastern Oromo (also known as "Ittu Oromo" or "Qottu Oromo") is a dialect of the Oromo language.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
In phonetics, ejective consonants are usually voiceless consonants that are pronounced with a glottalic egressive airstream.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Ethnic federalism is a federal system of national government in which the federated units are defined according to ethnicity.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
In grammar, a frequentative form (abbreviated or) of a word is one that indicates repeated action, but is not to be confused with iterative aspect.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Ge'ez (Ge'ez: ግዕዝ), also known as Ethiopic, is a script used as an abugida (alphasyllabary) for several languages of Ethiopia and Eritrea.
Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
Glottalization is the complete or partial closure of the glottis during the articulation of another sound.
Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar).
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).
In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.
Hausa (Yaren Hausa or Harshen Hausa) is the Chadic language (a branch of the Afroasiatic language family) with the largest number of speakers, spoken as a first language by some 27 million people, and as a second language by another 20 million.
The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.
The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.
Implosive consonants are a group of stop consonants (and possibly also some affricates) with a mixed glottalic ingressive and pulmonic egressive airstream mechanism.
Infinitive (abbreviated) is a grammatical term referring to certain verb forms existing in many languages, most often used as non-finite verbs.
The instrumental case (abbreviated or) is a grammatical case used to indicate that a noun is the instrument or means by or with which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes.
ISO 639-3:2007, Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series.
Johann Ludwig Krapf (11 January 1810 – 26 November 1881) was a German missionary in East Africa, as well as an explorer, linguist, and traveler.
The jussive (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood of verbs for issuing orders, commanding, or exhorting (within a subjunctive framework).
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
Kenya Broadcasting Corporation (KBC) is the state-run media organisation of Kenya.
The Kwama (also called Gwama and Komo), are a Nilo-Saharan-speaking community living in the Sudanese-Ethiopian borderland, mainly in the Mao-Komo special woreda of the Benishangul-Gumuz Region in Ethiopia.
In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
In morphology and lexicography, a lemma (plural lemmas or lemmata) is the canonical form, dictionary form, or citation form of a set of words (headword).
A lexicon, word-hoard, wordbook, or word-stock is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical).
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
Locative (abbreviated) is a grammatical case which indicates a location.
Lowland East Cushitic is a group of roughly two dozen diverse languages of the Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic family.
Mengistu Haile Mariam (መንግስቱ ኃይለ ማርያም, pronounced; born 21 May 1937) is an Ethiopian soldier and politician who was the dictator of Ethiopia from 1977 to 1991.
Metathesis (from Greek, from "I put in a different order"; Latin: trānspositiō) is the transposition of sounds or syllables in a word or of words in a sentence.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
In logic, negation, also called the logical complement, is an operation that takes a proposition P to another proposition "not P", written \neg P (¬P), which is interpreted intuitively as being true when P is false, and false when P is true.
The Nilo-Saharan languages are a proposed family of African languages spoken by some 50–60 million people, mainly in the upper parts of the Chari and Nile rivers, including historic Nubia, north of where the two tributaries of the Nile meet.
The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
The Omotic languages are group of languages spoken in southwestern Ethiopia.
Onesimos Nesib (Oromo: Onesimoos Nasiib; Amharic: ኦነሲሞስ ነሲብ; about 1856 – 21 June 1931) was a native Oromo who converted to Lutheran Christianity and translated the Christian Bible into the Oromo language.
Orma is a variety of Oromo spoken by the Orma people in Kenya and Somalia.
Oromia (spelled Oromiyaa in the Oromo language; ኦሮሚያ) is one of the nine ethnically based regional states of Ethiopia, covering 284,538 square kilometers.
Oromo (pron. or) is an Afroasiatic language spoken in the Horn of Africa.
The Oromo Liberation Front (Adda Bilisummaa Oromoo, abbreviated ABO; English abbreviation OLF) is an organisation established in 1973 by Oromo nationalists to promote self-determination for the Oromo people against perceived Abyssinian colonial rule.
The Oromo people (Oromoo; ኦሮሞ, ’Oromo) are an ethnic group inhabiting Ethiopia and parts of Kenya and Somalia.
The Oromo Peoples' Democratic Organization (OPDO) is a political party in Ethiopia, and part of the alliance with the Amhara National Democratic Movement, the South Ethiopian Peoples' Democratic Front and the Tigrayan Peoples' Liberation Front that forms the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF).
The Oromoid languages are a branch of Lowland East Cushitic languages that includes the most populous Cushitic language, Oromo, and the closely related Konsoid dialect cluster.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
Passive voice is a grammatical voice common in many languages.
Personal pronouns are pronouns that are associated primarily with a particular grammatical person – first person (as I), second person (as you), or third person (as he, she, it, they).
A possessive form (abbreviated) is a word or grammatical construction used to indicate a relationship of possession in a broad sense.
Possessive determiners constitute a sub-class of determiners which modify a noun by attributing possession (or other sense of belonging) to someone or something.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
A predicative expression (or just predicative) is part of a clause predicate, and is an expression that typically follows a copula (or linking verb), e.g. be, seem, appear, or that appears as a second complement of a certain type of verb, e.g. call, make, name, etc.
A pro-drop language (from "pronoun-dropping") is a language in which certain classes of pronouns may be omitted when they are pragmatically or grammatically inferable (the precise conditions vary from language to language, and can be quite intricate).
A reciprocal (abbreviated) is a linguistic structure that marks a particular kind of relationship between two noun phrases.
In language, a reflexive pronoun, sometimes simply called a reflexive, is a pronoun that is preceded or followed by the noun, adjective, adverb or pronoun to which it refers (its antecedent) within the same clause.
A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.
In phonetics, rhotic consonants, or "R-like" sounds, are liquid consonants that are traditionally represented orthographically by symbols derived from the Greek letter rho, including r in the Latin script and p in the Cyrillic script.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
Southern Oromo, or Borana (after one of its dialects), is a variety of Oromo spoken in southern Ethiopia and northern Kenya by the Borana people.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was hit by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
Swahili, also known as Kiswahili (translation: coast language), is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
In sociolinguistics, a T–V distinction (from the Latin pronouns tu and vos) is a contrast, within one language, between various forms of addressing one's conversation partner or partners that are specialized for varying levels of politeness, social distance, courtesy, familiarity, age or insult toward the addressee.
TheFreeDictionary.com is an American online dictionary and encyclopedia that gathers information from a variety of sources.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in University City section of West Philadelphia.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
Voice of America (VOA) is a U.S. government-funded international radio broadcast source that serves as the United States federal government's official institution for non-military, external broadcasting.
The voiced retroflex implosive is a type of consonantal sound.
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
Waata (Waat, Watha), or Sanye, is an Oromo language spoken by former hunter-gatherers in Kenya.
In linguistics, a stem is a part of a word.
Afaan Oromo, Afaan Oromoo, Afan Arsi, Afan Boran, Afan Oromo, Galla language, ISO 639:gaz, ISO 639:om, ISO 639:orm, Jebel Bissa, Jebel Bissa Berber, Om (language), Oromifa, Oromifa language, Oromiffa, Oromiffaa, Oromiffia, Oromigna, Oromo (language), Oromo languages, Oromoo language, Shewa language, Shoa language, Wellega-Central Oromo language, West Central Oromo language, West-Central Oromo language.