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Orthodox Judaism

Index Orthodox Judaism

Orthodox Judaism is a collective term for the traditionalist branches of Judaism, which seek to maximally maintain the received Jewish beliefs and observances and which coalesced in opposition to the various challenges of modernity and secularization. [1]

231 relations: Abraham Isaac Kook, Age of Enlightenment, Agudat Yisrael, Agudath Israel of America, American Jews, Amoraim, Anti-Zionism, Apophatic theology, Arba'ah Turim, Ashkenazi Jews, Azriel Hildesheimer, Baal Shem Tov, Baal teshuva, Babylon, Bais Yaakov, Baltimore, Benjamin Brown (scholar), Beth Medrash Govoha, Biblical Mount Sinai, Blasphemy, Book of Numbers, Borough Park, Brooklyn, Boroughs of New York City, Braunschweig, British Jews, Brooklyn, California, Caucasus, Central Asia, Central Rabbinical Congress, Chabad, Chabad messianism, Chardal, Chicago, Chief Rabbinate of Israel, Conservative Judaism, Credo, Crown Heights, Brooklyn, Da'as Torah, Daniel J. Elazar, Degel HaTorah, Democratic Party (United States), Diaspora, Divine providence in Judaism, Dogma, Dor Daim, Eastern Europe, Edah, Englewood, New Jersey, Fair Lawn, New Jersey, ..., Florida, Freehold Township, New Jersey, Garden of Eden, Gehenna, Geonim, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, German language, Gloss (annotation), God in Judaism, Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain, Gush Emunim, Halakha, Hamburg, Haredi Judaism, Hashkafa, Hasidic Judaism, Hasidic philosophy, Haskalah, Hebrew language, Heresy in Judaism, Hillel the Elder, History of the Jews in Germany, Hudson Valley, Interfaith marriage in Judaism, Isaac Luria, Israel, Israel Meir Kagan, Israeli Jews, Jackson Township, New Jersey, Jacob Ettlinger, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, Jerusalem Talmud, Jewish emancipation, Jewish history, Jewish mysticism, Jewish National Front, Jewish philosophy, Jewish prayer, Jewish principles of faith, Jewish religious movements, Jews as the chosen people, Joseph Albo, Joseph B. Soloveitchik, Joseph Karo, Joshua, Judaism, Kabbalah, Kashrut, Katowice, Kiryas Joel, New York, Kitniyot, Kollel, Korah, Kresy, Lakewood Township, New Jersey, Liberalism, List of Baalei teshuva, Lithuanian Jews, Los Angeles, Machon Meir, Maimonides, Marc B. Shapiro, Maryland, Meimad, Mercaz HaRav Kook, Messiah in Judaism, Miami Beach, Florida, Minhag, Mishnah, Mishnah Berurah, Mishneh Torah, Mitzvah, Mizrachi (religious Zionism), Mizrahi Jews, Modern Orthodox Judaism, Modernity, Monotheism, Monroe (village), New York, Monsey, New York, Moses, Moses Isserles, Mount Sinai, Mount Washington, Baltimore, Musar movement, Names of God in Judaism, National Council of Young Israel, National Religious Party, National Union (Israel), Nationalism, Negiah, Neo-Kantianism, Nevi'im, New Jersey, New Square, New York, New York (state), New York City, New York metropolitan area, Niddah, Oral Torah, Orthodox Judaism outreach, Orthodox Union, Park Heights, Baltimore, Passaic, New Jersey, Passover, Personal god, Pikesville, Maryland, Pirkei Avot, Poland, Posek, Prussia, Rabbi Akiva, Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary, Rabbinic Judaism, Rabbinic literature, Rabbinical Council of America, Ramapo, New York, Rebbe, Reform Judaism, Religious Zionism, Republican Party (United States), Responsa, Resurrection of the dead, Revelation, Right-wing politics, Rockland County, New York, Rohr Jewish Learning Institute, Romaniote Jews, Saadia Gaon, Samson Raphael Hirsch, Satmar (Hasidic dynasty), Secularism, Secularization, Sephardi Jews, Sephardic law and customs, Shabbat, Shaliach (Chabad), Shammai, Shas, Sheol, Shidduch, Shlomo Aviner, Shneur Zalman of Liadi, Shulchan Aruch, Shulchan Aruch HaRav, Snood (headgear), Social norm, Spanish and Portuguese Jews, SUNY Press, Talmud, Tamar Ross, Tanya, Teaneck, New Jersey, The New York Times, Theology, Three Oaths, Tikkun olam, Torah, Torah im Derech Eretz, Torah Judaism, Torah Umadda, Total fertility rate, Tzohar (organization), Union of Orthodox Rabbis, Upsherin, Western Europe, Williamsburg, Brooklyn, World Agudath Israel, World view, World War II, Yaakov Chaim Sofer, Yalkut Yosef, Yemenite Jews, Yeshayahu Leibowitz, Yeshiva, Yeshiva University, Yeshivat Chovevei Torah, Yiddish, Yitzhak HaLevi Herzog, Yosef Hayyim, Zalman Shazar, Zionism. Expand index (181 more) »

Abraham Isaac Kook

Abraham Isaac Kook (Abraham Yitshak ha-Kohen Kuk; 8 September 1865 – 11 September 1935) was an Orthodox rabbi, the first Ashkenazi chief rabbi of British Mandatory Palestine, the founder of Yeshiva Mercaz HaRav Kook (The Central Universal Yeshiva), a Jewish thinker, Halakhist, Kabbalist, and a renowned Torah scholar.

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Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".

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Agudat Yisrael

Agudat Yisrael (אֲגוּדָּת יִשְׂרָאֵל, lit. Union of Israel, also transliterated Agudath Israel, or, in Yiddish, Agudas Yisroel) is an ultra-Orthodox Jewish political party in Israel.

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Agudath Israel of America

Agudath Israel of America (אגודת ישראל באמריקה) (sometimes called Agudah) is an Orthodox Jewish organization in the United States loosely affiliated with the international World Agudath Israel.

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American Jews

American Jews, or Jewish Americans, are Americans who are Jews, whether by religion, ethnicity or nationality.

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Amoraim (Aramaic: plural, singular Amora; "those who say" or "those who speak over the people", or "spokesmen") refers to the Jewish scholars of the period from about 200 to 500 CE, who "said" or "told over" the teachings of the Oral Torah.

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Anti-Zionism is opposition to Zionism.

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Apophatic theology

Apophatic theology, also known as negative theology, is a form of theological thinking and religious practice which attempts to approach God, the Divine, by negation, to speak only in terms of what may not be said about the perfect goodness that is God.

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Arba'ah Turim

Arba'ah Turim (אַרְבָּעָה טוּרִים), often called simply the Tur, is an important Halakhic code composed by Jacob ben Asher (Cologne, 1270 – Toledo, Spain c. 1340, also referred to as Ba'al Ha-Turim).

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Ashkenazi Jews

Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.

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Azriel Hildesheimer

Azriel Hildesheimer (also Esriel and Israel, עזריאל הילדעסהיימער; 11 May 1820 – 12 July 1899) was a German rabbi and leader of Orthodox Judaism.

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Baal Shem Tov

Israel ben Eliezer (born circa 1700, died 22 May 1760), known as the Baal Shem Tov (בעל שם טוב) or as the Besht, was a Jewish mystical rabbi considered the founder of Hasidic Judaism.

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Baal teshuva

A ba'al teshuvah' (בעל תשובה; for a woman,, or; plural,,, "master of return ").

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Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.

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Bais Yaakov

Bais Yaakov (בית יעקב also written Beit Yaakov, Beth Jacob, or Beis Yaakov—literally "House Jacob" in Hebrew) is a genericized name for Orthodox full-time, Jewish elementary and secondary schools throughout the world for Jewish girls from religious families.

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Baltimore is the largest city in the U.S. state of Maryland, and the 30th-most populous city in the United States.

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Benjamin Brown (scholar)

Benjamin Brown (born July 1, 1966 in Tel Aviv) is an Israeli professor, researcher of Judaism and Jewish thought, lecturer at the Department of Jewish thought at Hebrew University and a researcher at the Israel Democracy Institute.

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Beth Medrash Govoha

Beth Medrash Govoha (בית מדרש גבוה, lit: Higher, or advanced, House of Study) is a Haredi yeshiva and kollel located in Lakewood, New Jersey.

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Biblical Mount Sinai

According to the Book of Exodus, Mount Sinai (Hebrew: הר סיני, Har Sinai) is the mountain at which the Ten Commandments were given to Moses by God.

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Blasphemy is the act of insulting or showing contempt or lack of reverence to a deity, or sacred things, or toward something considered sacred or inviolable.

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Book of Numbers

The Book of Numbers (from Greek Ἀριθμοί, Arithmoi; בְּמִדְבַּר, Bəmiḏbar, "In the desert ") is the fourth book of the Hebrew Bible, and the fourth of five books of the Jewish Torah.

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Borough Park, Brooklyn

Borough Park (also spelled Boro Park) is a neighborhood in the southwestern part of the borough of Brooklyn, in New York City, United States.

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Boroughs of New York City

New York City encompasses five county-level administrative divisions called boroughs: Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, The Bronx, and Staten Island.

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Braunschweig (Low German: Brunswiek), also called Brunswick in English, is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, north of the Harz mountains at the farthest navigable point of the Oker river which connects it to the North Sea via the Aller and Weser rivers.

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British Jews

British Jews (often referred to collectively as Anglo-Jewry) are British citizens who are ethnically and/or religiously Jewish.

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Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with a census-estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017.

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California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.

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The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.

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Central Asia

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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Central Rabbinical Congress

The Central Rabbinical Congress (in full: Central Rabbinical Congress of the U.S.A. and Canada, commonly abbreviated to CRC; in Hebrew: Hisachdus HaRabbonim DeArtzos HaBris VeCanada התאחדות הרבנים) is a rabbinical organization that is a consortium of various Orthodox Jewish groups including the Satmar Hasidic group.

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Chabad, also known as Lubavitch, Habad and Chabad-Lubavitch, is an Orthodox Jewish, Hasidic movement.

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Chabad messianism

Chabad messianism, or Lubavitch messianism,also: Habad messianism, Lubavitcher messianism, mishichism, meshichism.

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Chardal (or Hardal; חרד"ל, acronym for, Charedi Le-umi, lit., "National Haredi", plural Chardalim) usually refers to the portion of the Religious Zionist Jewish community in Israel which inclines significantly toward Haredi ideology (whether in terms of outlook on the secular world, or in their stringent Khumra approach to Halakha); however, it is sometimes used to refer to the portion of the Haredi Jewish community in Israel which inclines significantly toward Religious Zionist ideology.

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Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.

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Chief Rabbinate of Israel

The Chief Rabbinate of Israel (הרבנות הראשית לישראל, Ha-Rabanut Ha-Rashit Li-Yisra'el) is recognized by law as the supreme rabbinic and spiritual authority for Judaism in Israel.

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Conservative Judaism

Conservative Judaism (known as Masorti Judaism outside North America) is a major Jewish denomination, which views Jewish Law, or Halakha, as both binding and subject to historical development.

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A credo (pronounced, Latin for "I believe") is a statement of religious belief, such as the Apostles' Creed.

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Crown Heights, Brooklyn

Crown Heights is a neighborhood in the central portion of the New York City borough of Brooklyn.

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Da'as Torah

Da'as Torah (or Da'at Torah, Da'as Toyreh) (דעת תורה, literally "Knowledge of Torah"), is a concept in Haredi Judaism according to which Jews should seek the input of rabbinic scholars not just on matters of Jewish law, but on all important life matters, on the grounds that knowledge of the Torah aids everything in life.

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Daniel J. Elazar

Daniel Judah Elazar (August 25, 1934 – December 2, 1999) was a professor of political science at Bar-Ilan University (Israel) and Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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Degel HaTorah

Degel HaTorah (דגל התורה, lit. Banner of the Torah) is an Ashkenazi Haredi political party in Israel.

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Democratic Party (United States)

The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).

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A diaspora (/daɪˈæspərə/) is a scattered population whose origin lies in a separate geographic locale.

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Divine providence in Judaism

Divine providence (השגחה פרטית Hashgochoh Protis or Hashgaha Peratit, lit. divine supervision of the individual) is discussed throughout Rabbinic literature, by the classical Jewish philosophers, and by the tradition of Jewish mysticism.

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The term dogma is used in pejorative and non-pejorative senses.

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Dor Daim

The Dardaim or Dor daim (דרדעים), are adherents of the Dor Deah movement in Orthodox Judaism.

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Eastern Europe

Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.

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Edah was a Modern Orthodox Jewish organization, generally associated with the liberal wing of Orthodox Judaism in the United States and with the Religious Zionism movement of Israel.

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Englewood, New Jersey

Englewood is a city located in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States.

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Fair Lawn, New Jersey

Fair Lawn is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States, and a suburb located from New York City. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 32,457, reflecting an increase of 820 (+2.6%) from the 31,637 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 1,089 (+3.6%) from the 30,548 counted in the 1990 Census. Fair Lawn was incorporated as a borough by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 6, 1924, as "Fairlawn," from portions of Saddle River Township.Snyder, John P., Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. p. 77. Accessed May 18, 2012. The name was taken from Fairlawn, David Acker's estate home, that was built in 1865 and later became the Fair Lawn Municipal Building. In 1933, the official spelling of the borough's name was split into its present two-word form as "Fair Lawn" Borough. Radburn, one of the first planned communities in the United States, is an unincorporated community located within Fair Lawn and was founded in 1929 as "a town for the motor age." Fair Lawn is home to a large number of commuters to New York City, to which it is connected by train from two railroad stations on NJ Transit's Bergen County Line, the Radburn and Broadway stations. Fair Lawn's motto, coined by Jake Janso, is "A great place to visit and a better place to live."Leggate, Jim., Fair Lawn - Saddle Brook Patch, November 19, 2013. Accessed November 1, 2014. "Fair Lawn's motto is that it's 'a great place to visit and a better place to live.'" Fair Lawn has been rated as one of the top 10 best places to live in New Jersey. According to Nerdwallet, Fair Lawn witnessed a 5.3% increase in its working-age population between 2009 and 2011.

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Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.

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Freehold Township, New Jersey

Freehold Township is a township in Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States.

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Garden of Eden

The Garden of Eden (Hebrew גַּן עֵדֶן, Gan ʿEḏen) or (often) Paradise, is the biblical "garden of God", described most notably in the Book of Genesis chapters 2 and 3, and also in the Book of Ezekiel.

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Gehenna (from Γέεννα, Geenna from גיא בן הינום, Gei Ben-Hinnom; Mishnaic Hebrew: /, Gehinnam/Gehinnom) is a small valley in Jerusalem.

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Geonim (גאונים;; also transliterated Gaonim- singular Gaon) were the presidents of the two great Babylonian, Talmudic Academies of Sura and Pumbedita, in the Abbasid Caliphate, and were the generally accepted spiritual leaders of the Jewish community worldwide in the early medieval era, in contrast to the Resh Galuta (Exilarch) who wielded secular authority over the Jews in Islamic lands.

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Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Gloss (annotation)

A gloss is a brief notation, especially a marginal one or an interlinear one, of the meaning of a word or wording in a text.

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God in Judaism

In Judaism, God has been conceived in a variety of ways.

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Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain

The golden age of Jewish culture in Spain coincided with the Middle Ages in Europe, a period of Muslim rule throughout much of the Iberian Peninsula.

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Gush Emunim

Gush Emunim (גּוּשׁ אֱמוּנִים, Bloc of the Faithful) was an Israeli Orthodox Jewish, messianic, right-wing activist movement committed to establishing Jewish settlements in the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and the Golan Heights.

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Halakha (הֲלָכָה,; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah or halocho) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.

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Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.

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Haredi Judaism

Haredi Judaism (חֲרֵדִי,; also spelled Charedi, plural Haredim or Charedim) is a broad spectrum of groups within Orthodox Judaism, all characterized by a rejection of modern secular culture.

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Hashkafa (השקפה; lit. "outlook") is the Hebrew term for worldview and guiding philosophy, used almost exclusively within Orthodox Jewish communities.

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Hasidic Judaism

Hasidism, sometimes Hasidic Judaism (hasidut,; originally, "piety"), is a Jewish religious group.

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Hasidic philosophy

Hasidic philosophy or Hasidism (חסידות), alternatively transliterated as Hasidut or Chassidus, consists of the teachings of the Hasidic movement, which are the teachings of the Hasidic rebbes, often in the form of commentary on the Torah (the Five books of Moses) and Kabbalah (Jewish mysticism).

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The Haskalah, often termed Jewish Enlightenment (השכלה; literally, "wisdom", "erudition", Yiddish pronunciation Heskole) was an intellectual movement among the Jews of Central and Eastern Europe, with certain influence on those in Western Europe and the Muslim world.

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Hebrew language

No description.

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Heresy in Judaism

Jewish heretics (minim, from minuth, Hebrew for "heretic") are Jewish individuals (often historically, philosophers) whose works have, in part or in whole, been condemned as heretical by significant persons or groups in the larger Jewish community based on the classical teachings of Rabbinic Judaism and derived from halakha (Jewish religious law).

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Hillel the Elder

Hillel (הלל; variously called Hillel HaGadol, or Hillel HaZaken, Hillel HaBavli or HaBavli,. was born according to tradition in Babylon c. 110 BCE, died 10 CE in Jerusalem) was a Jewish religious leader, one of the most important figures in Jewish history.

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History of the Jews in Germany

Jewish settlers founded the Ashkenazi Jewish community in the Early (5th to 10th centuries CE) and High Middle Ages (circa 1000–1299 CE).

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Hudson Valley

The Hudson Valley comprises the valley of the Hudson River and its adjacent communities in the U.S. state of New York, from the cities of Albany and Troy southward to Yonkers in Westchester County.

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Interfaith marriage in Judaism

Interfaith marriage in Judaism (also called mixed marriage or intermarriage) was historically looked upon with very strong disfavour by Jewish leaders, and it remains a controversial issue among them today.

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Isaac Luria

Isaac (ben Solomon) Luria Ashkenazi (1534Fine 2003, p. – July 25, 1572) (יִצְחָק בן שלמה לוּרְיָא אשכנזי Yitzhak Ben Sh'lomo Lurya Ashkenazi), commonly known in Jewish religious circles as "Ha'ARI" (meaning "The Lion"), "Ha'ARI Hakadosh" or "ARIZaL", was a foremost rabbi and Jewish mystic in the community of Safed in the Galilee region of Ottoman Syria.

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Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Israel Meir Kagan

Israel Meir (HaKohen) Kagan (January 26, 1839 – September 15, 1933), known popularly as the Chofetz Chaim (Hebrew: חפץ חיים, Hafetz Chaim), was an influential rabbi of the Musar movement, a Halakhist, posek, and ethicist whose works continue to be widely influential in Jewish life.

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Israeli Jews

Israeli Jews (יהודים ישראלים, Yehudim Yisraelim), also known as Jewish Israelis, refers to Israeli citizens of the Jewish ethnicity or faith, and also the descendants of Israeli-Jewish emigrants outside of Israel.

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Jackson Township, New Jersey

Jackson Township, named after Andrew Jackson, is a township in Ocean County, New Jersey, United States.

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Jacob Ettlinger

Jacob Ettlinger (17 March 1798 – 7 December 1871) (יעקב עטלינגר) was a German rabbi and author, and one of the leaders of Orthodox Judaism.

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Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs

The Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs (JCPA) is an Israeli research institute specializing in public diplomacy and foreign policy founded in 1976.

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Jerusalem Talmud

The Jerusalem Talmud (תַּלְמוּד יְרוּשַׁלְמִי, Talmud Yerushalmi, often Yerushalmi for short), also known as the Palestinian Talmud or Talmuda de-Eretz Yisrael (Talmud of the Land of Israel), is a collection of Rabbinic notes on the second-century Jewish oral tradition known as the Mishnah.

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Jewish emancipation

Jewish emancipation was the external (and internal) process in various nations in Europe of eliminating Jewish disabilities, e.g. Jewish quotas, to which Jewish people were then subject, and the recognition of Jews as entitled to equality and citizenship rights on a communal, not merely individual, basis.

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Jewish history

Jewish history is the history of the Jews, and their religion and culture, as it developed and interacted with other peoples, religions and cultures.

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Jewish mysticism

Academic study of Jewish mysticism, especially since Gershom Scholem's Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism (1941), distinguishes between different forms of mysticism across different eras of Jewish history.

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Jewish National Front

The Jewish National Front (חֲזִית יְהוּדִית לְאוּמִּית, Hazit Yehudit LeUmit), commonly known in Israel by its Hebrew acronym, Hayil (Hebrew: חי"ל), was a far-right political party in Israel.

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Jewish philosophy

Jewish philosophy includes all philosophy carried out by Jews, or in relation to the religion of Judaism.

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Jewish prayer

Jewish prayer (תְּפִלָּה, tefillah; plural תְּפִלּוֹת, tefillot; Yiddish תּפֿלה tfile, plural תּפֿלות tfilles; Yinglish: davening from Yiddish דאַוון daven ‘pray’) are the prayer recitations and Jewish meditation traditions that form part of the observance of Rabbinic Judaism.

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Jewish principles of faith

There is no established formulation of principles of faith that are recognized by all branches of Judaism.

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Jewish religious movements

Jewish religious movements, sometimes called "denominations" or "branches", include different groups which have developed among Jews from ancient times.

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Jews as the chosen people

In Judaism, "chosenness" is the belief that the Jews, via descent from the ancient Israelites, are the chosen people, i.e. chosen to be in a covenant with God.

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Joseph Albo

Joseph Albo (יוסף אלבו; c. 1380–1444) was a Jewish philosopher and rabbi who lived in Spain during the fifteenth century, known chiefly as the author of Sefer ha-Ikkarim ("Book of Principles"), the classic work on the fundamentals of Judaism.

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Joseph B. Soloveitchik

Joseph Ber Soloveitchik (יוסף דב הלוי סולובייצ׳יק Yosef Dov ha-Levi Soloveychik; February 27, 1903 - April 9, 1993) was a major American Orthodox rabbi, Talmudist, and modern Jewish philosopher.

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Joseph Karo

Joseph ben Ephraim Karo, also spelled Yosef Caro, or Qaro (1488 – March 24, 1575, 13 Nisan 5335 A.M.), was author of the last great codification of Jewish law, the Shulchan Aruch, which is still authoritative for all Jews pertaining to their respective communities.

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Joshua or Jehoshua (יְהוֹשֻׁעַ Yehōšuʿa) or Isho (Aramaic: ܝܼܫܘܿܥ ܒܲܪ ܢܘܿܢ Eesho Bar Non) is the central figure in the Hebrew Bible's Book of Joshua.

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Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.

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Kabbalah (קַבָּלָה, literally "parallel/corresponding," or "received tradition") is an esoteric method, discipline, and school of thought that originated in Judaism.

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Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus) is a set of Jewish religious dietary laws.

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Katowice (Katowicy; Kattowitz; officially Miasto Katowice) is a city in southern Poland, with a population of 297,197 and the center of the Silesian Metropolis, with a population of 2.2 million.

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Kiryas Joel, New York

Kiryas Joel (קרית יואל, Kiryas Yoyel,, often locally abbreviated as KJ) is a village within the town of Monroe in Orange County, New York, United States.

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Kitniyot (קִטְנִיּוֹת, qitniyyot) is a Hebrew word meaning legumes.

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A kolel or kollel (כולל, pl., kollelim, a "gathering" or "collection") is an institute for full-time, advanced study of the Talmud and rabbinic literature.

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Korah or Kórach (Hebrew: קֹרַח, Standard Qóraḥ Tiberian Qōraḥ; "Baldness; ice; hail; frost", Arabic: قارون Qārūn) is a name which is associated with at least two men in the Hebrew Bible.

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Kresy Wschodnie or Kresy (Eastern Borderlands, or Borderlands) was the Eastern part of the Second Polish Republic during the interwar period constituting nearly half of the territory of the state.

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Lakewood Township, New Jersey

Lakewood Township is a township in Ocean County, New Jersey, United States.

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Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.

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List of Baalei teshuva

This article lists some notable Baalei Teshuva, Jews who may or may not have been raised in Orthodox Jewish households but at one time did not practice Orthodox Judaism and then later took up or returned to Orthodox practices.

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Lithuanian Jews

Lithuanian Jews or Litvaks are Jews with roots in the present-day Lithuania, Belarus, Latvia, northeastern Suwałki and Białystok region of Poland and some border areas of Russia and Ukraine.

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Los Angeles

Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.

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Machon Meir

Machon Meir (מכון מאיר) is a religious Zionist outreach organization and yeshiva situated in the Jerusalem neighborhood of Kiryat Moshe, close to Givat Shaul.

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Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.

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Marc B. Shapiro

Marc B. Shapiro (Hebrew: מלך שפירא, born 1966) is a professor and the author of various books and articles on Jewish history, philosophy, theology, and rabbinic literature.

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Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east.

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Meimad (מימד, an acronym for Medina Yehudit, Medina Demokratit, lit., Jewish State, Democratic State) is a left-wing religious Zionist political party in Israel.

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Mercaz HaRav Kook

Mercaz HaRav Kook (מרכז הרב קוק., lit. "The Rav Kook Center") is a national-religious yeshiva in Jerusalem, founded in 1924 by Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook.

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Messiah in Judaism

The messiah in Judaism is a savior and liberator of the Jewish people.

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Miami Beach, Florida

Miami Beach is a coastal resort city in Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States.

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Minhag (מנהג "custom", pl. מנהגים, minhagim) is an accepted tradition or group of traditions in Judaism.

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The Mishnah or Mishna (מִשְׁנָה, "study by repetition", from the verb shanah, or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written collection of the Jewish oral traditions known as the "Oral Torah".

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Mishnah Berurah

The Mishnah Berurah (משנה ברורה "Clarified Teaching") is a work of halakha (Jewish law) by Rabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan (Poland, 1838–1933), also colloquially known by the name of another of his books, Chofetz Chaim "Desirer of Life".

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Mishneh Torah

The Mishneh Torah (מִשְׁנֵה תּוֹרָה, "Repetition of the Torah"), subtitled Sefer Yad ha-Hazaka (ספר יד החזקה "Book of the Strong Hand"), is a code of Jewish religious law (Halakha) authored by Maimonides (Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, also known as RaMBaM or "Rambam").

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In its primary meaning, the Hebrew word (meaning "commandment",,, Biblical:; plural, Biblical:; from "command") refers to precepts and commandments commanded by God.

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Mizrachi (religious Zionism)

The Mizrachi (תנועת הַמִזְרָחִי, Tnuat HaMizrahi, an acronym for Merkaz Ruhani lit. Religious centre) is the name of the religious Zionist organization founded in 1902 in Vilnius at a world conference of religious Zionists called by Rabbi Yitzchak Yaacov Reines.

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Mizrahi Jews

Mizrahi Jews, Mizrahim (מִזְרָחִים), also referred to as Edot HaMizrach ("Communities of the East"; Mizrahi Hebrew), ("Sons of the East"), or Oriental Jews, are descendants of local Jewish communities in the Middle East from biblical times into the modern era.

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Modern Orthodox Judaism

Modern Orthodox Judaism (also Modern Orthodox or Modern Orthodoxy) is a movement within Orthodox Judaism that attempts to synthesize Jewish values and the observance of Jewish law, with the secular, modern world.

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Modernity, a topic in the humanities and social sciences, is both a historical period (the modern era), as well as the ensemble of particular socio-cultural norms, attitudes and practices that arose in the wake of Renaissance, in the "Age of Reason" of 17th-century thought and the 18th-century "Enlightenment".

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Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.

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Monroe (village), New York

Monroe is a village in Orange County, New York, United States.

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Monsey, New York

Monsey is a hamlet and census-designated place in the town of Ramapo, Rockland County, New York, United States, located north of Airmont; east of Viola; south of New Hempstead; and west of Spring Valley.

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Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.

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Moses Isserles

Moses Isserles (משה בן ישראל איסרלישׂ, Mojżesz ben Israel Isserles) (February 22, 1530 / Adar I, 5290 – May 11, 1572 / Iyar), was an eminent Polish Ashkenazic rabbi, talmudist, and posek.

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Mount Sinai

Mount Sinai (Ṭūr Sīnāʼ or lit; ܛܘܪܐ ܕܣܝܢܝ or ܛܘܪܐ ܕܡܘܫܐ; הַר סִינַי, Har Sinai; Όρος Σινάι; Mons Sinai), also known as Mount Horeb or Gabal Musa, is a mountain in the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt that is a possible location of the biblical Mount Sinai, which is considered a holy site by the Abrahamic religions.

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Mount Washington, Baltimore

Mount Washington is an area of northwest Baltimore, Maryland.

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Musar movement

The Musar movement (also Mussar movement) is a Jewish ethical, educational and cultural movement that developed in 19th century Lithuania, particularly among Orthodox Lithuanian Jews.

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Names of God in Judaism

The name of God most often used in the Hebrew Bible is the Tetragrammaton (YHWH). It is frequently anglicized as Jehovah and Yahweh and written in most English editions of the Bible as "the " owing to the Jewish tradition viewing the divine name as increasingly too sacred to be uttered.

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National Council of Young Israel

The National Council of Young Israel (NCYI) or Young Israel (in Hebrew: Yisrael Hatza'ir, ישראל הצעיר), is a synagogue-based Orthodox Judaism organization in the United States with a network of affiliated "Young Israel" synagogues.

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National Religious Party

The National Religious Party (מִפְלָגָה דָּתִית לְאֻומִּית, Miflaga Datit Leumit, commonly known in Israel by its Hebrew acronym Mafdal, was a political party in Israel representing the religious Zionist movement. Formed in 1956, at the time of its dissolution in 2008, it was the second-oldest surviving party in the country after Agudat Yisrael, and was part of every government coalition until 1992. Traditionally a practical centrist party, in its later years, it drifted to the right, becoming increasingly associated with Israeli settlers, and towards the end of its existence, it was part of a political alliance with the strongly right-wing National Union. The 2006 elections saw the party slump to just three seats, the worst electoral performance in its history. In November 2008, party members voted to disband the party in order to join the new Jewish Home party created by a merger of the NRP and most of the National Union factions. However, most of the National Union left the merger shortly after its implementation.

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National Union (Israel)

The National Union (האיחוד הלאומי, HaIhud HaLeumi) was an alliance of right-wing and nationalist political parties in Israel.

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Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.

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Negiah (נגיעה), literally "touch", is the concept in Jewish law (Halakha) that forbids or restricts physical contact with a member of the opposite sex (except for one's spouse, children, siblings, grandchildren, parents, and grandparents).

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Neo-Kantianism (Neukantianismus) is a revival of the 18th century philosophy of Immanuel Kant.

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Nevi'im (נְבִיאִים Nəḇî'îm, lit. "spokespersons", "Prophets") is the second main division of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh), between the Torah (instruction) and Ketuvim (writings).

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New Jersey

New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.

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New Square, New York

New Square (ניו סקווער, שיכון סקווירא) is an all-Hasidic village in the town of Ramapo, Rockland County, New York, United States.

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New York (state)

New York is a state in the northeastern United States.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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New York metropolitan area

The New York metropolitan area, also referred to as the Tri-State Area, is the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass, at 4,495 mi2 (11,642 km2).

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Niddah (or nidah; נִדָּה), in Judaism, describes a woman during menstruation, or a woman who has menstruated and not yet completed the associated requirement of immersion in a mikveh (ritual bath).

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Oral Torah

According to Rabbinic Judaism, the Oral Torah or Oral Law (lit. "Torah that is on the mouth") represents those laws, statutes, and legal interpretations that were not recorded in the Five Books of Moses, the "Written Torah" (lit. "Torah that is in writing"), but nonetheless are regarded by Orthodox Jews as prescriptive and co-given.

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Orthodox Judaism outreach

Orthodox Jewish outreach, often referred to as Kiruv or Keruv (קירוב, קֵרוּב "bringing close"), is the collective work or movement of Orthodox Judaism that reaches out to non-Orthodox Jews to encourage belief in God and living according to Orthodox Jewish law.

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Orthodox Union

The Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America (UOJCA), more popularly known as the Orthodox Union (OU), is one of the oldest Orthodox Jewish organizations in the United States.

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Park Heights, Baltimore

Park Heights is an area of Baltimore City, Maryland, that lies approximately 10 miles northwest of downtown Baltimore and within two miles of the Baltimore County line.

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Passaic, New Jersey

Passaic is a city in Passaic County, New Jersey, United States.

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Passover or Pesach (from Hebrew Pesah, Pesakh) is a major, biblically derived Jewish holiday.

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Personal god

A personal god is a deity who can be related to as a person instead of as an impersonal force, such as the Absolute, "the All", or the "Ground of Being".

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Pikesville, Maryland

Pikesville is a census-designated place (CDP) in Baltimore County, Maryland, United States.

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Pirkei Avot

Pirkei Avot (פרקי אבות) (also spelled as Pirkei Avoth or Pirkei Avos or Pirke Aboth), which translates to English as Chapters of the Fathers, is a compilation of the ethical teachings and maxims passed down to the Rabbis, beginning with Moses and onwards.

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Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Posek (פוסק, pl. Poskim) is the term in Jewish law for "decisor"—a legal scholar who decides the Halakha in cases of law where previous authorities are inconclusive or in those situations where no halakhic precedent exists.

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Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.

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Rabbi Akiva

Akiba ben Yosef (עקיבא בן יוסף, c. 50–135 CE) also known as Rabbi Akiva, was a tanna of the latter part of the first century and the beginning of the second century (the third tannaitic generation).

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Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary

Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary, founded in 1896, is the rabbinical seminary of Yeshiva University.

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Rabbinic Judaism

Rabbinic Judaism or Rabbinism (יהדות רבנית Yahadut Rabanit) has been the mainstream form of Judaism since the 6th century CE, after the codification of the Babylonian Talmud.

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Rabbinic literature

Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history.

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Rabbinical Council of America

The Rabbinical Council of America (RCA) is one of the world's largest organizations of Orthodox rabbis; it is affiliated with The Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America, more commonly known as the Orthodox Union (OU).

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Ramapo, New York

Ramapo is a town in Rockland County, New York, United States.

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Rebbe (רבי: or Oxford Dictionary of English, Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary) is a Yiddish word derived from the Hebrew word rabbi, which means 'master', 'teacher', or 'mentor'.

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Reform Judaism

Reform Judaism (also known as Liberal Judaism or Progressive Judaism) is a major Jewish denomination that emphasizes the evolving nature of the faith, the superiority of its ethical aspects to the ceremonial ones, and a belief in a continuous revelation not centered on the theophany at Mount Sinai.

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Religious Zionism

Religious Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת דָּתִית, translit. Tziyonut Datit, or Dati Leumi "National Religious", or Kippah seruga, literally, "knitted skullcap") is an ideology that combines Zionism and Orthodox Judaism.

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Republican Party (United States)

The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.

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Responsa (Latin: plural of responsum, "answers") comprise a body of written decisions and rulings given by legal scholars in response to questions addressed to them.

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Resurrection of the dead

Resurrection of the dead, or resurrection from the dead (Koine: ἀνάστασις νεκρῶν, anastasis nekron; literally: "standing up again of the dead"; is a term frequently used in the New Testament and in the writings and doctrine and theology in other religions to describe an event by which a person, or people are resurrected (brought back to life). In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, the three common usages for this term pertain to (1) the Christ, rising from the dead; (2) the rising from the dead of all men, at the end of this present age and (3) the resurrection of certain ones in history, who were restored to life. Predominantly in Christian eschatology, the term is used to support the belief that the dead will be brought back to life in connection with end times. Various other forms of this concept can also be found in other eschatologies, namely: Islamic, Jewish and Zoroastrian eschatology. In some Neopagan views, this refers to reincarnation between the three realms: Life, Death, and the Realm of the Divine; e.g.: Christopaganism. See Christianity and Neopaganism.

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In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.

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Right-wing politics

Right-wing politics hold that certain social orders and hierarchies are inevitable, natural, normal or desirable, typically supporting this position on the basis of natural law, economics or tradition.

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Rockland County, New York

Rockland County is the southernmost county on the west side of the Hudson River in the U.S. state of New York, part of the New York–Newark–Jersey City, NY–NJ–PA Metropolitan Statistical Area.

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Rohr Jewish Learning Institute

The Rohr Jewish Learning Institute (JLI) is a provider of adult Jewish courses on Jewish history, law, ethics, philosophy and rabbinical literature worldwide.

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Romaniote Jews

The Romaniote Jews or Romaniots (Ῥωμανιῶτες, Rhōmaniṓtes; רומניוטים, Romanyotim) are an ethnic Jewish community with distinctive cultural features who have lived in the Eastern Mediterranean for more than 2,000 years and are the oldest Jewish community in the Levant.

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Saadia Gaon

Rabbi Sa'adiah ben Yosef Gaon (سعيد بن يوسف الفيومي / Saʻīd bin Yūsuf al-Fayyūmi, Sa'id ibn Yusuf al-Dilasi, Saadia ben Yosef aluf, Sa'id ben Yusuf ra's al-Kull; רבי סעדיה בן יוסף אלפיומי גאון' or in short:; alternative English Names: Rabeinu Sa'adiah Gaon ("our Rabbi Saadia Gaon"), RaSaG, Saadia b. Joseph, Saadia ben Joseph or Saadia ben Joseph of Faym or Saadia ben Joseph Al-Fayyumi; 882/892 – 942) was a prominent rabbi, Jewish philosopher, and exegete of the Geonic period who was active in the Abbasid Caliphate.

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Samson Raphael Hirsch

Samson Raphael Hirsch (June 20, 1808 – December 31, 1888) was a German Orthodox rabbi best known as the intellectual founder of the Torah im Derech Eretz school of contemporary Orthodox Judaism.

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Satmar (Hasidic dynasty)

Satmar (סאטמאר or) is a Hasidic group originating from the city of Szatmárnémeti, Hungary (now Satu Mare, Romania), where it was founded in 1905 by Rabbi Joel Teitelbaum.

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Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).

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Secularization (or secularisation) is the transformation of a society from close identification and affiliation with religious values and institutions toward nonreligious values and secular institutions.

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Sephardi Jews

Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also Ye'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division.

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Sephardic law and customs

Sephardic law and customs means the practice of Judaism as observed by the Sephardi and Mizrahi Jews, so far as it is peculiar to themselves and not shared with other Jewish groups such as the Ashkenazim.

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Shabbat (שַׁבָּת, "rest" or "cessation") or Shabbos (Ashkenazi Hebrew and שבת), or the Sabbath is Judaism's day of rest and seventh day of the week, on which religious Jews, Samaritans and certain Christians (such as Seventh-day Adventists, the 7th Day movement and Seventh Day Baptists) remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, and look forward to a future Messianic Age.

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Shaliach (Chabad)

A shaliach (שליח, pl., shlichim/shluchim) is a member of the Chabad Hasidic movement who is sent out to promulgate Judaism and Hasidism in locations around the world.

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Shammai (50 BCE – 30 CE, שמאי) was a Jewish scholar of the 1st century, and an important figure in Judaism's core work of rabbinic literature, the Mishnah.

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Shas (ש״ס, an acronym for Shomrei Sfarad, lit., "(Religious) Guardians of the Sephardim") is an ultra-Orthodox religious political party in Israel.

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She'ol (Hebrew ʃeʾôl), in the Hebrew Bible, is a place of darkness to which all the dead go, both the righteous and the unrighteous, regardless of the moral choices made in life, a place of stillness and darkness cut off from life and from God.

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The Shidduch (שִׁדּוּךְ, pl. shidduchim, Aramaic שידוכין) is a system of matchmaking in which Jewish singles are introduced to one another in Orthodox Jewish communities for the purpose of marriage.

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Shlomo Aviner

Rabbi Shlomo Chaim Hacohen Aviner (in, born 1943/5703 as Claude Langenauer) is an Israeli Orthodox rabbi, born in France.

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Shneur Zalman of Liadi

Shneur Zalman of Liady (שניאור זלמן מליאדי, September 4, 1745 – December 15, 1812 O.S. / 18 Elul 5505 – 24 Tevet 5573), was an Orthodox rabbi and the founder and first Rebbe of Chabad, a branch of Hasidic Judaism, then based in Liadi in the Russian Empire.

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Shulchan Aruch

The Shulchan Aruch (שֻׁלְחָן עָרוּך, literally: "Set Table"), sometimes dubbed in English as the Code of Jewish Law, is the most widely consulted of the various legal codes in Judaism.

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Shulchan Aruch HaRav

The Shulchan Aruch HaRav (Hebrew שולחן ערוך הרב: "Code of Jewish Law by the Rabbi"; also Shulkhan Arukh HaRav) is especially a record of prevailing halakha by Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi (1745 – 1812), known during his lifetime as HaRav (Hebrew for "The Rabbi") and as the first Rebbe (Yiddish for "rabbi") of Chabad.

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Snood (headgear)

A snood is historically a type of female headgear designed to hold the hair in a cloth or yarn bag.

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Social norm

From a sociological perspective, social norms are informal understandings that govern the behavior of members of a society.

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Spanish and Portuguese Jews

Spanish and Portuguese Jews, also called Western Sephardim, are a distinctive sub-group of Iberian Jews who are largely descended from Jews who lived as New Christians in the Iberian Peninsula during the immediate generations following the forced expulsion of unconverted Jews from Spain in 1492 and from Portugal in 1497.

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SUNY Press

The State University of New York Press (or SUNY Press), is a university press and a Center for Scholarly Communication.

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The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.

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Tamar Ross

Tamar Ross is a professor of Jewish Philosophy at Bar-Ilan University and considered one of the world's greatest experts on religious feminist philosophy.

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The Tanya is an early work of Hasidic philosophy, by Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi, the founder of Chabad Hasidism, first published in 1797.

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Teaneck, New Jersey

Teaneck is a township in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States, and a suburb in the New York metropolitan area.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.

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Three Oaths

The Three Oaths is the popular name for a Midrash found in the Talmud,Babylonian Talmud, Ketubot 111a which relates that God adjured three oaths upon the world.

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Tikkun olam

Tikkun olam (תיקון עולם (literally, "repair of the world", alternatively, "construction for eternity") is a concept in Judaism, interpreted in Orthodox Judaism as the prospect of overcoming all forms of idolatry, and by other Jewish denominations as an aspiration to behave and act constructively and beneficially. Documented use of the term dates back to the Mishnaic period. Since medieval times, kabbalistic literature has broadened use of the term. In the modern era, among the post Haskalah Ashkenazi movements, tikkun olam is the idea that Jews bear responsibility not only for their own moral, spiritual, and material welfare, but also for the welfare of society at large. To the ears of contemporary pluralistic Rabbis, the term connotes "the establishment of Godly qualities throughout the world".

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Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.

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Torah im Derech Eretz

Torah im Derech Eretz (תורה עם דרך ארץ – Torah with "the way of the land"Rabbi Y. Goldson, Aish HaTorah) is a philosophy of Orthodox Judaism articulated by Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch (1808–88), which formalizes a relationship between traditionally observant Judaism and the modern world.

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Torah Judaism

Torah Judaism is an English term used by Orthodox Jewish groups to describe their Judaism as being based on an adherence to the laws of the Torah's mitzvot, as expounded in Orthodox Halakha.

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Torah Umadda

Torah Umadda (תּוֹרָה וּמַדָּע, "Torah and secular knowledge") is a philosophy of Orthodox Judaism concerning the relationship between the secular world and Judaism, and in particular between secular knowledge and Jewish religious knowledge.

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Total fertility rate

The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.

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Tzohar (organization)

Tzohar is an Israeli organization of over 800 religious Zionist Orthodox rabbis.

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Union of Orthodox Rabbis

The Union of Orthodox Rabbis of the United States and Canada (UOR), often called by its Hebrew name, Agudath Harabonim or Agudas Harrabonim ("union of rabbis"), was established in 1901 in the United States and is among the oldest organizations of Orthodox rabbis which could be described as having a Haredi worldview.

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Upsherin, Opsherin or Upsherinish (Yiddish: אפשערן, lit. "shear off", Judaeo-Arabic: חלאקה, ḥalāqah) is a haircutting ceremony observed by a wide cross-section of Jews and is particularly popular in Haredi Jewish communities.

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Western Europe

Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.

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Williamsburg, Brooklyn

Williamsburg is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, bordering Greenpoint to the north; Bedford–Stuyvesant to the south; Bushwick, East Williamsburg, and Ridgewood, Queens to the east; and Fort Greene and the East River to the west.

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World Agudath Israel

World Agudath Israel (אגודת ישראל), usually known as the Aguda, was established in the early twentieth century as the political arm of Ashkenazi Torah Judaism.

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World view

A world view or worldview is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the whole of the individual's or society's knowledge and point of view.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Yaakov Chaim Sofer

Yaakov Chaim Sofer (1870–1939) (Hebrew: יעקב חיים סופר) was a Sephardi rabbi, Kabbalist, Talmudist and posek.

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Yalkut Yosef

Yalkut Yosef (ילקוט יוסף, "Collation of Yosef") is an authoritative, contemporary work of Halakha, providing a detailed explanation of the Shulchan Aruch as based on the halachic rulings of the former Rishon LeTzion Rav Ovadia Yosef.

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Yemenite Jews

Yemenite Jews or Yemeni Jews or Teimanim (from Yehudey Teman; اليهود اليمنيون) are those Jews who live, or once lived, in Yemen.

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Yeshayahu Leibowitz

Yeshayahu Leibowitz (ישעיהו ליבוביץ; 29 January 1903 – 18 August 1994) was an Israeli Orthodox Jewish public intellectual, professor of biochemistry, organic chemistry, and neurophysiology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and a polymath known for his outspoken opinions on Judaism, ethics, religion, and politics.

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Yeshiva (ישיבה, lit. "sitting"; pl., yeshivot or yeshivos) is a Jewish institution that focuses on the study of traditional religious texts, primarily the Talmud and the Torah.

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Yeshiva University

Yeshiva University is a private, non-profit research university located in New York City, United States, with four campuses in New York City.

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Yeshivat Chovevei Torah

Yeshivat Chovevei Torah Rabbinical School (YCT) is a Modern Orthodox yeshiva, founded in 1999 by Rabbi Avi Weiss.

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Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.

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Yitzhak HaLevi Herzog

Yitzhak HaLevi Herzog (יצחק אייזיק הלוי הרצוג; 3 December 1888 – 25 July 1959), also known as Isaac Herzog or Hertzog, was the first Chief Rabbi of Ireland, his term lasting from 1921 to 1936.

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Yosef Hayyim

Yosef Hayim (1 September 1835 – 30 August 1909) (Iraqi Hebrew: Yoseph Ḥayyim; Hebrew: יוסף חיים מבגדאד) was a leading Baghdadi hakham (Sephardi rabbi), authority on halakha (Jewish law), and Master Kabbalist.

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Zalman Shazar

Zalman Shazar (זלמן שז"ר; November 24, 1889 – October 5, 1974) was an Israeli politician, author and poet.

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Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת Tsiyyonut after Zion) is the national movement of the Jewish people that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (roughly corresponding to Canaan, the Holy Land, or the region of Palestine).

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orthodox_Judaism

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