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Orthogonal group

Index Orthogonal group

In mathematics, the orthogonal group in dimension, denoted, is the group of distance-preserving transformations of a Euclidean space of dimension that preserve a fixed point, where the group operation is given by composing transformations. [1]

178 relations: Absolute value, Academic Press, Algebraic group, Algebraic topology, Algebraic variety, American Mathematical Society, Angle, Bivector, Blade (geometry), Bott periodicity theorem, Brane, Cartan subalgebra, Cartan–Dieudonné theorem, Center (group theory), Characteristic (algebra), Characteristic subgroup, Charts on SO(3), Circle, Circle group, Clifford algebra, Clutching construction, Cofibration, Commutator, Commutator subgroup, Compact space, Complete intersection, Complex number, Conformal map, Congruence (geometry), Connected space, Coordinate rotations and reflections, Countable set, Covering group, Covering space, Coxeter group, Curl (mathematics), Cyclic group, Definite quadratic form, Determinant, Dihedral group, Dimension, Dimension (vector space), Direct limit, Direct product of groups, Discrete space, Discriminant, Division algebra, Dot product, Elementary abelian group, Euclidean group, ..., Euclidean space, Euler's rotation theorem, Exact sequence, Fiber bundle, Field (mathematics), Field with one element, Finite field, Free abelian group, Function composition, Fundamental group, Galois cohomology, General linear group, Generalized permutation matrix, Graduate Studies in Mathematics, Group (mathematics), Group action, Homogeneous space, Homothetic transformation, Homotopy group, Homotopy groups of spheres, Householder transformation, Identity component, Identity matrix, Improper rotation, Indefinite orthogonal group, Inner product space, Integer, Integer matrix, Invertible matrix, Irreducible component, Isometry, K-frame, Kaluza–Klein theory, Kernel (linear algebra), Lagrangian Grassmannian, Length function, Lie algebra, Lie group, Limit point, Linear form, Linear map, List of finite simple groups, List of finite spherical symmetry groups, List of simple Lie groups, Longest element of a Coxeter group, Mathematics, Matrix multiplication, Maximal torus, Multiplicative group, Multiplicative inverse, N-connected space, N-sphere, Nondegenerate form, Normal subgroup, Octonion, Ordered field, Orientation (geometry), Orientation (vector space), Orthogonal complement, Orthogonal group, Orthogonal matrix, Orthonormal basis, P-group, Perfect field, Permutation matrix, Pin group, Plane of rotation, Point group, Point groups in three dimensions, Point groups in two dimensions, Point reflection, Polyhedral group, Polytope, Principal homogeneous space, Projective line, Projective orthogonal group, Quadratic form, Quaternion, Quotient group, Real form (Lie theory), Real line, Real number, Real projective line, Real projective space, Regular polytope, Riemann sphere, Rotation, Rotation (mathematics), Rotation group SO(3), Rotational symmetry, Rotations in 4-dimensional Euclidean space, Semidirect product, Semisimple Lie algebra, Similarity (geometry), Simply connected space, Singular point of an algebraic variety, Skew-symmetric matrix, Snake lemma, SO(8), Special unitary group, Sphere, Spin group, Spin representation, Springer Science+Business Media, Square (algebra), Stiefel manifold, String group, Subgroup, Symmetric bilinear form, Symmetric group, Symmetric matrix, Symmetric space, Symmetry group, Symplectic geometry, Symplectic group, Tautological bundle, Topological quantum field theory, Topological space, Transpose, Unit vector, Unitary group, Up to, Vector space, Weyl group, Witt's theorem, Zero object (algebra), 2, 3-sphere. Expand index (128 more) »

Absolute value

In mathematics, the absolute value or modulus of a real number is the non-negative value of without regard to its sign.

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Academic Press

Academic Press is an academic book publisher.

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Algebraic group

In algebraic geometry, an algebraic group (or group variety) is a group that is an algebraic variety, such that the multiplication and inversion operations are given by regular maps on the variety.

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Algebraic topology

Algebraic topology is a branch of mathematics that uses tools from abstract algebra to study topological spaces.

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Algebraic variety

Algebraic varieties are the central objects of study in algebraic geometry.

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American Mathematical Society

The American Mathematical Society (AMS) is an association of professional mathematicians dedicated to the interests of mathematical research and scholarship, and serves the national and international community through its publications, meetings, advocacy and other programs.

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Angle

In plane geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two rays, called the sides of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle.

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Bivector

In mathematics, a bivector or 2-vector is a quantity in exterior algebra or geometric algebra that extends the idea of scalars and vectors.

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Blade (geometry)

In the study of geometric algebras, a blade is a generalization of the concept of scalars and vectors to include simple bivectors, trivectors, etc.

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Bott periodicity theorem

In mathematics, the Bott periodicity theorem describes a periodicity in the homotopy groups of classical groups, discovered by, which proved to be of foundational significance for much further research, in particular in K-theory of stable complex vector bundles, as well as the stable homotopy groups of spheres.

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Brane

In string theory and related theories such as supergravity theories, a brane is a physical object that generalizes the notion of a point particle to higher dimensions.

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Cartan subalgebra

In mathematics, a Cartan subalgebra, often abbreviated as CSA, is a nilpotent subalgebra \mathfrak of a Lie algebra \mathfrak that is self-normalising (if \in \mathfrak for all X \in \mathfrak, then Y \in \mathfrak).

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Cartan–Dieudonné theorem

In mathematics, the Cartan–Dieudonné theorem, named after Élie Cartan and Jean Dieudonné, establishes that every orthogonal transformation in an n-dimensional symmetric bilinear space can be described as the composition of at most n reflections.

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Center (group theory)

In abstract algebra, the center of a group,, is the set of elements that commute with every element of.

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Characteristic (algebra)

In mathematics, the characteristic of a ring R, often denoted char(R), is defined to be the smallest number of times one must use the ring's multiplicative identity (1) in a sum to get the additive identity (0) if the sum does indeed eventually attain 0.

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Characteristic subgroup

In mathematics, particularly in the area of abstract algebra known as group theory, a characteristic subgroup is a subgroup that is mapped to itself by every automorphism of the parent group.

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Charts on SO(3)

In mathematics, the special orthogonal group in three dimensions, otherwise known as the rotation group SO(3), is a naturally occurring example of a manifold.

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Circle

A circle is a simple closed shape.

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Circle group

In mathematics, the circle group, denoted by T, is the multiplicative group of all complex numbers with absolute value 1, that is, the unit circle in the complex plane or simply the unit complex numbers The circle group forms a subgroup of C×, the multiplicative group of all nonzero complex numbers.

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Clifford algebra

In mathematics, a Clifford algebra is an algebra generated by a vector space with a quadratic form, and is a unital associative algebra.

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Clutching construction

In topology, a branch of mathematics, the clutching construction is a way of constructing fiber bundles, particularly vector bundles on spheres.

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Cofibration

In mathematics, in particular homotopy theory, a continuous mapping where A and X are topological spaces, is a cofibration if it satisfies the homotopy extension property with respect to all spaces Y. This definition is dual to that of a fibration, which is required to satisfy the homotopy lifting property with respect to all spaces.

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Commutator

In mathematics, the commutator gives an indication of the extent to which a certain binary operation fails to be commutative.

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Commutator subgroup

In mathematics, more specifically in abstract algebra, the commutator subgroup or derived subgroup of a group is the subgroup generated by all the commutators of the group.

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Compact space

In mathematics, and more specifically in general topology, compactness is a property that generalizes the notion of a subset of Euclidean space being closed (that is, containing all its limit points) and bounded (that is, having all its points lie within some fixed distance of each other).

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Complete intersection

In mathematics, an algebraic variety V in projective space is a complete intersection if the ideal of V is generated by exactly codim V elements.

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Complex number

A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form, where and are real numbers, and is a solution of the equation.

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Conformal map

In mathematics, a conformal map is a function that preserves angles locally.

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Congruence (geometry)

In geometry, two figures or objects are congruent if they have the same shape and size, or if one has the same shape and size as the mirror image of the other.

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Connected space

In topology and related branches of mathematics, a connected space is a topological space that cannot be represented as the union of two or more disjoint nonempty open subsets.

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Coordinate rotations and reflections

In geometry, two-dimensional coordinate rotations and reflections are two kinds of Euclidean plane isometries which are related to one another.

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Countable set

In mathematics, a countable set is a set with the same cardinality (number of elements) as some subset of the set of natural numbers.

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Covering group

In mathematics, a covering group of a topological group H is a covering space G of H such that G is a topological group and the covering map p: G → H is a continuous group homomorphism.

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Covering space

In mathematics, more specifically algebraic topology, a covering map (also covering projection) is a continuous function p from a topological space, C, to a topological space, X, such that each point in X has an open neighbourhood evenly covered by p (as shown in the image); the precise definition is given below.

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Coxeter group

In mathematics, a Coxeter group, named after H. S. M. Coxeter, is an abstract group that admits a formal description in terms of reflections (or kaleidoscopic mirrors).

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Curl (mathematics)

In vector calculus, the curl is a vector operator that describes the infinitesimal rotation of a vector field in three-dimensional Euclidean space.

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Cyclic group

In algebra, a cyclic group or monogenous group is a group that is generated by a single element.

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Definite quadratic form

In mathematics, a definite quadratic form is a quadratic form over some real vector space that has the same sign (always positive or always negative) for every nonzero vector of.

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Determinant

In linear algebra, the determinant is a value that can be computed from the elements of a square matrix.

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Dihedral group

In mathematics, a dihedral group is the group of symmetries of a regular polygon, which includes rotations and reflections.

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Dimension

In physics and mathematics, the dimension of a mathematical space (or object) is informally defined as the minimum number of coordinates needed to specify any point within it.

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Dimension (vector space)

In mathematics, the dimension of a vector space V is the cardinality (i.e. the number of vectors) of a basis of V over its base field.

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Direct limit

In mathematics, a direct limit is a way to construct a (typically large) object from many (typically smaller) objects that are put together in a specific way.

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Direct product of groups

In group theory, the direct product is an operation that takes two groups and and constructs a new group, usually denoted.

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Discrete space

In topology, a discrete space is a particularly simple example of a topological space or similar structure, one in which the points form a discontinuous sequence, meaning they are isolated from each other in a certain sense.

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Discriminant

In algebra, the discriminant of a polynomial is a polynomial function of its coefficients, which allows deducing some properties of the roots without computing them.

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Division algebra

In the field of mathematics called abstract algebra, a division algebra is, roughly speaking, an algebra over a field in which division, except by zero, is always possible.

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Dot product

In mathematics, the dot product or scalar productThe term scalar product is often also used more generally to mean a symmetric bilinear form, for example for a pseudo-Euclidean space.

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Elementary abelian group

In group theory, an elementary abelian group (or elementary abelian p-group) is an abelian group in which every nontrivial element has order p. The number p must be prime, and the elementary abelian groups are a particular kind of ''p''-group.

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Euclidean group

In mathematics, the Euclidean group E(n), also known as ISO(n) or similar, is the symmetry group of n-dimensional Euclidean space.

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Euclidean space

In geometry, Euclidean space encompasses the two-dimensional Euclidean plane, the three-dimensional space of Euclidean geometry, and certain other spaces.

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Euler's rotation theorem

In geometry, Euler's rotation theorem states that, in three-dimensional space, any displacement of a rigid body such that a point on the rigid body remains fixed, is equivalent to a single rotation about some axis that runs through the fixed point.

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Exact sequence

An exact sequence is a concept in mathematics, especially in group theory, ring and module theory, homological algebra, as well as in differential geometry.

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Fiber bundle

In mathematics, and particularly topology, a fiber bundle (or, in British English, fibre bundle) is a space that is locally a product space, but globally may have a different topological structure.

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Field (mathematics)

In mathematics, a field is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined, and behave as when they are applied to rational and real numbers.

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Field with one element

In mathematics, the field with one element is a suggestive name for an object that should behave similarly to a finite field with a single element, if such a field could exist.

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Finite field

In mathematics, a finite field or Galois field (so-named in honor of Évariste Galois) is a field that contains a finite number of elements.

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Free abelian group

In abstract algebra, a free abelian group or free Z-module is an abelian group with a basis.

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Function composition

In mathematics, function composition is the pointwise application of one function to the result of another to produce a third function.

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Fundamental group

In the mathematical field of algebraic topology, the fundamental group is a mathematical group associated to any given pointed topological space that provides a way to determine when two paths, starting and ending at a fixed base point, can be continuously deformed into each other.

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Galois cohomology

In mathematics, Galois cohomology is the study of the group cohomology of Galois modules, that is, the application of homological algebra to modules for Galois groups.

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General linear group

In mathematics, the general linear group of degree n is the set of invertible matrices, together with the operation of ordinary matrix multiplication.

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Generalized permutation matrix

In mathematics, a generalized permutation matrix (or monomial matrix) is a matrix with the same nonzero pattern as a permutation matrix, i.e. there is exactly one nonzero entry in each row and each column.

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Graduate Studies in Mathematics

Graduate Studies in Mathematics (GSM) is a series of graduate-level textbooks in mathematics published by the American Mathematical Society (AMS).

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Group (mathematics)

In mathematics, a group is an algebraic structure consisting of a set of elements equipped with an operation that combines any two elements to form a third element and that satisfies four conditions called the group axioms, namely closure, associativity, identity and invertibility.

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Group action

In mathematics, an action of a group is a formal way of interpreting the manner in which the elements of the group correspond to transformations of some space in a way that preserves the structure of that space.

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Homogeneous space

In mathematics, particularly in the theories of Lie groups, algebraic groups and topological groups, a homogeneous space for a group G is a non-empty manifold or topological space X on which G acts transitively.

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Homothetic transformation

In mathematics, a homothety (or homothecy, or homogeneous dilation) is a transformation of an affine space determined by a point S called its center and a nonzero number λ called its ratio, which sends in other words it fixes S, and sends any M to another point N such that the segment SN is on the same line as SM, but scaled by a factor λ. In Euclidean geometry homotheties are the similarities that fix a point and either preserve (if) or reverse (if) the direction of all vectors.

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Homotopy group

In mathematics, homotopy groups are used in algebraic topology to classify topological spaces.

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Homotopy groups of spheres

In the mathematical field of algebraic topology, the homotopy groups of spheres describe how spheres of various dimensions can wrap around each other.

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Householder transformation

In linear algebra, a Householder transformation (also known as a Householder reflection or elementary reflector) is a linear transformation that describes a reflection about a plane or hyperplane containing the origin.

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Identity component

In mathematics, the identity component of a topological group G is the connected component G0 of G that contains the identity element of the group.

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Identity matrix

In linear algebra, the identity matrix, or sometimes ambiguously called a unit matrix, of size n is the n × n square matrix with ones on the main diagonal and zeros elsewhere.

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Improper rotation

In geometry, an improper rotation,.

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Indefinite orthogonal group

In mathematics, the indefinite orthogonal group, is the Lie group of all linear transformations of an n-dimensional real vector space that leave invariant a nondegenerate, symmetric bilinear form of signature, where.

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Inner product space

In linear algebra, an inner product space is a vector space with an additional structure called an inner product.

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Integer

An integer (from the Latin ''integer'' meaning "whole")Integer 's first literal meaning in Latin is "untouched", from in ("not") plus tangere ("to touch").

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Integer matrix

In mathematics, an integer matrix is a matrix whose entries are all integers.

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Invertible matrix

In linear algebra, an n-by-n square matrix A is called invertible (also nonsingular or nondegenerate) if there exists an n-by-n square matrix B such that where In denotes the n-by-n identity matrix and the multiplication used is ordinary matrix multiplication.

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Irreducible component

In mathematics, and specifically in algebraic geometry, the concept of irreducible component is used to make formal the idea that a set such as defined by the equation is the union of the two lines and Thus an algebraic set is irreducible if it is not the union of two proper algebraic subsets.

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Isometry

In mathematics, an isometry (or congruence, or congruent transformation) is a distance-preserving transformation between metric spaces, usually assumed to be bijective.

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K-frame

In linear algebra, a branch of mathematics, a k-frame is an ordered set of k linearly independent vectors in a space; thus k ≤ n, where n is the dimension of the vector space, and if k.

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Kaluza–Klein theory

In physics, Kaluza–Klein theory (KK theory) is a classical unified field theory of gravitation and electromagnetism built around the idea of a fifth dimension beyond the usual four of space and time and considered an important precursor to string theory.

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Kernel (linear algebra)

In mathematics, and more specifically in linear algebra and functional analysis, the kernel (also known as null space or nullspace) of a linear map between two vector spaces V and W, is the set of all elements v of V for which, where 0 denotes the zero vector in W. That is, in set-builder notation,.

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Lagrangian Grassmannian

In mathematics, the Lagrangian Grassmannian is the smooth manifold of Lagrangian subspaces of a real symplectic vector space V. Its dimension is n(n+1)/2 (where the dimension of V is 2n).

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Length function

In the mathematical field of geometric group theory, a length function is a function that assigns a number to each element of a group.

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Lie algebra

In mathematics, a Lie algebra (pronounced "Lee") is a vector space \mathfrak g together with a non-associative, alternating bilinear map \mathfrak g \times \mathfrak g \rightarrow \mathfrak g; (x, y) \mapsto, called the Lie bracket, satisfying the Jacobi identity.

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Lie group

In mathematics, a Lie group (pronounced "Lee") is a group that is also a differentiable manifold, with the property that the group operations are compatible with the smooth structure.

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Limit point

In mathematics, a limit point (or cluster point or accumulation point) of a set S in a topological space X is a point x that can be "approximated" by points of S in the sense that every neighbourhood of x with respect to the topology on X also contains a point of S other than x itself.

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Linear form

In linear algebra, a linear functional or linear form (also called a one-form or covector) is a linear map from a vector space to its field of scalars.

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Linear map

In mathematics, a linear map (also called a linear mapping, linear transformation or, in some contexts, linear function) is a mapping between two modules (including vector spaces) that preserves (in the sense defined below) the operations of addition and scalar multiplication.

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List of finite simple groups

In mathematics, the classification of finite simple groups states that every finite simple group is cyclic, or alternating, or in one of 16 families of groups of Lie type, or one of 26 sporadic groups.

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List of finite spherical symmetry groups

Finite spherical symmetry groups are also called point groups in three dimensions.

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List of simple Lie groups

In mathematics, the simple Lie groups were first classified by Wilhelm Killing and later perfected by Élie Cartan.

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Longest element of a Coxeter group

In mathematics, the longest element of a Coxeter group is the unique element of maximal length in a finite Coxeter group with respect to the chosen generating set consisting of simple reflections.

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Mathematics

Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

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Matrix multiplication

In mathematics, matrix multiplication or matrix product is a binary operation that produces a matrix from two matrices with entries in a field, or, more generally, in a ring or even a semiring.

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Maximal torus

In the mathematical theory of compact Lie groups a special role is played by torus subgroups, in particular by the maximal torus subgroups.

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Multiplicative group

In mathematics and group theory, the term multiplicative group refers to one of the following concepts.

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Multiplicative inverse

In mathematics, a multiplicative inverse or reciprocal for a number x, denoted by 1/x or x−1, is a number which when multiplied by x yields the multiplicative identity, 1.

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N-connected space

In the mathematical branch of algebraic topology, specifically homotopy theory, n-connectedness (sometimes, n-simple connectedness) generalizes the concepts of path-connectedness and simple connectedness.

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N-sphere

In mathematics, the n-sphere is the generalization of the ordinary sphere to spaces of arbitrary dimension.

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Nondegenerate form

In linear algebra, a nondegenerate form or nonsingular form is a bilinear form that is not degenerate, meaning that v \mapsto (x \mapsto f(x,v)) is an isomorphism, or equivalently in finite dimensions, if and only if.

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Normal subgroup

In abstract algebra, a normal subgroup is a subgroup which is invariant under conjugation by members of the group of which it is a part.

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Octonion

In mathematics, the octonions are a normed division algebra over the real numbers, usually represented by the capital letter O, using boldface O or blackboard bold \mathbb O. There are three lower-dimensional normed division algebras over the reals: the real numbers R themselves, the complex numbers C, and the quaternions H. The octonions have eight dimensions; twice the number of dimensions of the quaternions, of which they are an extension.

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Ordered field

In mathematics, an ordered field is a field together with a total ordering of its elements that is compatible with the field operations.

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Orientation (geometry)

In geometry the orientation, angular position, or attitude of an object such as a line, plane or rigid body is part of the description of how it is placed in the space it occupies.

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Orientation (vector space)

In mathematics, orientation is a geometric notion that in two dimensions allows one to say when a cycle goes around clockwise or counterclockwise, and in three dimensions when a figure is left-handed or right-handed.

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Orthogonal complement

In the mathematical fields of linear algebra and functional analysis, the orthogonal complement of a subspace W of a vector space V equipped with a bilinear form B is the set W⊥ of all vectors in V that are orthogonal to every vector in W. Informally, it is called the perp, short for perpendicular complement.

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Orthogonal group

In mathematics, the orthogonal group in dimension, denoted, is the group of distance-preserving transformations of a Euclidean space of dimension that preserve a fixed point, where the group operation is given by composing transformations.

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Orthogonal matrix

In linear algebra, an orthogonal matrix is a square matrix whose columns and rows are orthogonal unit vectors (i.e., orthonormal vectors), i.e. where I is the identity matrix.

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Orthonormal basis

In mathematics, particularly linear algebra, an orthonormal basis for an inner product space V with finite dimension is a basis for V whose vectors are orthonormal, that is, they are all unit vectors and orthogonal to each other.

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P-group

In mathematical group theory, given a prime number p, a p-group is a group in which each element has a power of p as its order.

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Perfect field

In algebra, a field k is said to be perfect if any one of the following equivalent conditions holds.

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Permutation matrix

\pi.

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Pin group

In mathematics, the pin group is a certain subgroup of the Clifford algebra associated to a quadratic space.

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Plane of rotation

In geometry, a plane of rotation is an abstract object used to describe or visualize rotations in space.

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Point group

In geometry, a point group is a group of geometric symmetries (isometries) that keep at least one point fixed.

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Point groups in three dimensions

In geometry, a point group in three dimensions is an isometry group in three dimensions that leaves the origin fixed, or correspondingly, an isometry group of a sphere.

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Point groups in two dimensions

In geometry, a two-dimensional point group or rosette group is a group of geometric symmetries (isometries) that keep at least one point fixed in a plane.

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Point reflection

In geometry, a point reflection or inversion in a point (or inversion through a point, or central inversion) is a type of isometry of Euclidean space.

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Polyhedral group

In geometry, the polyhedral group is any of the symmetry groups of the Platonic solids.

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Polytope

In elementary geometry, a polytope is a geometric object with "flat" sides.

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Principal homogeneous space

In mathematics, a principal homogeneous space, or torsor, for a group G is a homogeneous space X for G in which the stabilizer subgroup of every point is trivial.

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Projective line

In mathematics, a projective line is, roughly speaking, the extension of a usual line by a point called a point at infinity.

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Projective orthogonal group

In projective geometry and linear algebra, the projective orthogonal group PO is the induced action of the orthogonal group of a quadratic space V.

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Quadratic form

In mathematics, a quadratic form is a homogeneous polynomial of degree two in a number of variables.

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Quaternion

In mathematics, the quaternions are a number system that extends the complex numbers.

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Quotient group

A quotient group or factor group is a mathematical group obtained by aggregating similar elements of a larger group using an equivalence relation that preserves the group structure.

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Real form (Lie theory)

In mathematics, the notion of a real form relates objects defined over the field of real and complex numbers.

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Real line

In mathematics, the real line, or real number line is the line whose points are the real numbers.

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Real number

In mathematics, a real number is a value of a continuous quantity that can represent a distance along a line.

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Real projective line

In geometry, a real projective line is an extension of the usual concept of line that has been historically introduced to solve a problem set by visual perspective: two parallel lines do not intersect but seem to intersect "at infinity".

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Real projective space

In mathematics, real projective space, or RPn or \mathbb_n(\mathbb), is the topological space of lines passing through the origin 0 in Rn+1.

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Regular polytope

In mathematics, a regular polytope is a polytope whose symmetry group acts transitively on its flags, thus giving it the highest degree of symmetry.

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Riemann sphere

In mathematics, the Riemann sphere, named after Bernhard Riemann, is a model of the extended complex plane, the complex plane plus a point at infinity.

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Rotation

A rotation is a circular movement of an object around a center (or point) of rotation.

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Rotation (mathematics)

Rotation in mathematics is a concept originating in geometry.

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Rotation group SO(3)

In mechanics and geometry, the 3D rotation group, often denoted SO(3), is the group of all rotations about the origin of three-dimensional Euclidean space R3 under the operation of composition.

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Rotational symmetry

Rotational symmetry, also known as radial symmetry in biology, is the property a shape has when it looks the same after some rotation by a partial turn.

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Rotations in 4-dimensional Euclidean space

In mathematics, the group of rotations about a fixed point in four-dimensional Euclidean space is denoted SO(4).

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Semidirect product

In mathematics, specifically in group theory, the concept of a semidirect product is a generalization of a direct product.

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Semisimple Lie algebra

In mathematics, a Lie algebra is semisimple if it is a direct sum of simple Lie algebras, i.e., non-abelian Lie algebras \mathfrak g whose only ideals are and \mathfrak g itself.

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Similarity (geometry)

Two geometrical objects are called similar if they both have the same shape, or one has the same shape as the mirror image of the other.

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Simply connected space

In topology, a topological space is called simply connected (or 1-connected, or 1-simply connected) if it is path-connected and every path between two points can be continuously transformed (intuitively for embedded spaces, staying within the space) into any other such path while preserving the two endpoints in question.

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Singular point of an algebraic variety

In the mathematical field of algebraic geometry, a singular point of an algebraic variety V is a point P that is 'special' (so, singular), in the geometric sense that at this point the tangent space at the variety may not be regularly defined.

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Skew-symmetric matrix

In mathematics, particularly in linear algebra, a skew-symmetric (or antisymmetric or antimetric) matrix is a square matrix whose transpose equals its negative; that is, it satisfies the condition In terms of the entries of the matrix, if aij denotes the entry in the and; i.e.,, then the skew-symmetric condition is For example, the following matrix is skew-symmetric: 0 & 2 & -1 \\ -2 & 0 & -4 \\ 1 & 4 & 0\end.

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Snake lemma

The snake lemma is a tool used in mathematics, particularly homological algebra, to construct long exact sequences.

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SO(8)

In mathematics, SO(8) is the special orthogonal group acting on eight-dimensional Euclidean space.

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Special unitary group

In mathematics, the special unitary group of degree, denoted, is the Lie group of unitary matrices with determinant 1.

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Sphere

A sphere (from Greek σφαῖρα — sphaira, "globe, ball") is a perfectly round geometrical object in three-dimensional space that is the surface of a completely round ball (viz., analogous to the circular objects in two dimensions, where a "circle" circumscribes its "disk").

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Spin group

In mathematics the spin group Spin(n) is the double cover of the special orthogonal group, such that there exists a short exact sequence of Lie groups (with) As a Lie group, Spin(n) therefore shares its dimension,, and its Lie algebra with the special orthogonal group.

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Spin representation

In mathematics, the spin representations are particular projective representations of the orthogonal or special orthogonal groups in arbitrary dimension and signature (i.e., including indefinite orthogonal groups).

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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Square (algebra)

In mathematics, a square is the result of multiplying a number by itself.

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Stiefel manifold

In mathematics, the Stiefel manifold Vk(Rn) is the set of all orthonormal ''k''-frames in Rn.

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String group

In topology, a branch of mathematics, a string group is an infinite-dimensional group String(n) introduced by as a 3-connected cover of a spin group.

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Subgroup

In group theory, a branch of mathematics, given a group G under a binary operation ∗, a subset H of G is called a subgroup of G if H also forms a group under the operation ∗.

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Symmetric bilinear form

A symmetric bilinear form on a vector space is a bilinear map from two copies of the vector space to the field of scalars such that the order of the two vectors does not affect the value of the map.

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Symmetric group

In abstract algebra, the symmetric group defined over any set is the group whose elements are all the bijections from the set to itself, and whose group operation is the composition of functions.

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Symmetric matrix

In linear algebra, a symmetric matrix is a square matrix that is equal to its transpose.

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Symmetric space

In differential geometry, representation theory and harmonic analysis, a symmetric space is a pseudo-Riemannian manifold whose group of symmetries contains an inversion symmetry about every point.

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Symmetry group

In group theory, the symmetry group of an object (image, signal, etc.) is the group of all transformations under which the object is invariant with composition as the group operation.

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Symplectic geometry

Symplectic geometry is a branch of differential geometry and differential topology that studies symplectic manifolds; that is, differentiable manifolds equipped with a closed, nondegenerate 2-form.

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Symplectic group

In mathematics, the name symplectic group can refer to two different, but closely related, collections of mathematical groups, denoted and, the latter is called the compact symplectic group.

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Tautological bundle

In mathematics, the tautological bundle is a vector bundle occurring over a Grassmannian in a natural tautological way: the fiber of the bundle over a vector space V (a point in the Grassmannian) is V itself.

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Topological quantum field theory

A topological quantum field theory (or topological field theory or TQFT) is a quantum field theory which computes topological invariants.

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Topological space

In topology and related branches of mathematics, a topological space may be defined as a set of points, along with a set of neighbourhoods for each point, satisfying a set of axioms relating points and neighbourhoods.

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Transpose

In linear algebra, the transpose of a matrix is an operator which flips a matrix over its diagonal, that is it switches the row and column indices of the matrix by producing another matrix denoted as AT (also written A′, Atr, tA or At).

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Unit vector

In mathematics, a unit vector in a normed vector space is a vector (often a spatial vector) of length 1.

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Unitary group

In mathematics, the unitary group of degree n, denoted U(n), is the group of unitary matrices, with the group operation of matrix multiplication.

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Up to

In mathematics, the phrase up to appears in discussions about the elements of a set (say S), and the conditions under which subsets of those elements may be considered equivalent.

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Vector space

A vector space (also called a linear space) is a collection of objects called vectors, which may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers, called scalars.

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Weyl group

In mathematics, in particular the theory of Lie algebras, the Weyl group of a root system Φ is a subgroup of the isometry group of the root system.

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Witt's theorem

In mathematics, Witt's theorem, named after Ernst Witt, is a basic result in the algebraic theory of quadratic forms: any isometry between two subspaces of a nonsingular quadratic space over a field k may be extended to an isometry of the whole space.

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Zero object (algebra)

In algebra, the zero object of a given algebraic structure is, in the sense explained below, the simplest object of such structure.

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2

2 (two) is a number, numeral, and glyph.

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3-sphere

In mathematics, a 3-sphere, or glome, is a higher-dimensional analogue of a sphere.

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Complex orthogonal group, Dickson map, General orthogonal group, Invariant theory of the orthogonal group, O(2), O(3), Orthogonal Lie algebra, Orthogonal groups, Rotation Group, Rotation group, SO(32), SO(N), SO(n), So(n), Special orthogonal Lie algebra, Special orthogonal group, Spinor norm.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orthogonal_group

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