78 relations: Abjad, Abstraction, Alphabet, American and British English spelling differences, Arabic alphabet, Bosnian language, Capitalization, Caron, Convention (norm), Croatian language, Cursive, Czech language, Defective script, Diacritic, Dialect, Digraph (orthography), Emic and etic, Emphasis (typography), English orthography, Finnish language, French language, Grapheme, Graphology, Greek language, Hangul, Hebrew alphabet, Hiragana, Historical kana orthography, Hyphen, Japanese language, Kanji, Katakana, Keyboard layout, Language, Lateral masking, Latin, Latin alphabet, Leet, Linguistic prescription, Linguistics, List of language disorders, List of language regulators, Logogram, Morpheme, Morphophonology, Natural language, Old English, Orthographic depth, Orthographic projection, Palaeography, ..., Penmanship, Phoneme, Phonemic orthography, Phonetic transcription, Punctuation, Rendaku, Romanization, Romanization of Japanese, Runes, Russian language, Serbian language, Sound change, Spanish language, Spelling, Standard language, Standardization, Stress (linguistics), Style guide, Syllabary, Syllable, Thorn (letter), Typography, W, Wiki, William A. Smalley, Word, Writing, Writing system. Expand index (28 more) » « Shrink index
An abjad (pronounced or) is a type of writing system where each symbol or glyph stands for a consonant, leaving the reader to supply the appropriate vowel.
Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concepts are derived from the usage and classification of specific examples, literal ("real" or "concrete") signifiers, first principles, or other methods.
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
Many of the differences between American and British English date back to a time when spelling standards had not yet developed.
The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.
The Bosnian language (bosanski / босански) is the standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian mainly used by Bosniaks.
Capitalisation, or capitalization,see spelling differences is writing a word with its first letter as a capital letter (upper-case letter) and the remaining letters in lower case in writing systems with a case distinction.
A caron, háček or haček (or; plural háčeks or háčky) also known as a hachek, wedge, check, inverted circumflex, inverted hat, is a diacritic (ˇ) commonly placed over certain letters in the orthography of some Baltic, Slavic, Finnic, Samic, Berber, and other languages to indicate a change in the related letter's pronunciation (c > č; >). The use of the haček differs according to the orthographic rules of a language.
A convention is a set of agreed, stipulated, or generally accepted standards, norms, social norms, or criteria, often taking the form of a custom.
Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.
Cursive (also known as script or longhand, among other names) is any style of penmanship in which some characters are written joined together in a flowing manner, generally for the purpose of making writing faster.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
A defective script is a writing system that does not represent all the phonemic distinctions of a language.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
In anthropology, folkloristics, and the social and behavioral sciences, emic and etic refer to two kinds of field research done and viewpoints obtained: emic, from within the social group (from the perspective of the subject) and etic, from outside (from the perspective of the observer).
In typography, emphasis is the strengthening of words in a text with a font in a different style from the rest of the text, to highlight them.
English orthography is the system of writing conventions used to represent spoken English in written form that allows readers to connect spelling to sound to meaning.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
In linguistics, a grapheme is the smallest unit of a writing system of any given language.
Graphology (or graphoanalysis, but not graphanalysis) is the analysis of the physical characteristics and patterns of handwriting claiming to be able to identify the writer, indicating psychological state at the time of writing, or evaluating personality characteristics.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul (from Korean hangeul 한글), has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by Sejong the Great.
The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language, also adapted as an alphabet script in the writing of other Jewish languages, most notably in Yiddish (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-German), Djudío (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-Spanish), and Judeo-Arabic.
is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system, along with katakana, kanji, and in some cases rōmaji (Latin script).
The, or, refers to the in general use until orthographic reforms after World War II; the current orthography was adopted by Cabinet order in 1946.
The hyphen (‐) is a punctuation mark used to join words and to separate syllables of a single word.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Kanji (漢字) are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system.
is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system along with hiragana, kanji, and in some cases the Latin script (known as rōmaji).
A keyboard layout is any specific mechanical, visual, or functional arrangement of the keys, legends, or key-meaning associations (respectively) of a computer, typewriter, or other typographic keyboard.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Lateral masking is a problem for the human visual perception of identical or similar entities in close proximity.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Leet (or "1337"), also known as eleet or leetspeak, is a system of modified spellings and verbiage used primarily on the Internet for many phonetic languages.
Linguistic prescription, or prescriptive grammar, is the attempt to lay down rules defining correct use of language.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
This is a list of bodies that regulate standard languages, often called language academies.
In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase.
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
Morphophonology (also morphophonemics or morphonology) is the branch of linguistics that studies the interaction between morphological and phonological or phonetic processes.
In neuropsychology, linguistics, and the philosophy of language, a natural language or ordinary language is any language that has evolved naturally in humans through use and repetition without conscious planning or premeditation.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
In linguistics, the orthographic depth of an alphabetic orthography indicates the degree to which a written language deviates from simple one-to-one letter–phoneme correspondence.
Orthographic projection (sometimes orthogonal projection), is a means of representing three-dimensional objects in two dimensions.
Palaeography (UK) or paleography (US; ultimately from παλαιός, palaiós, "old", and γράφειν, graphein, "to write") is the study of ancient and historical handwriting (that is to say, of the forms and processes of writing, not the textual content of documents).
Penmanship is the technique of writing with the hand using a writing instrument.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
In linguistics, a phonemic orthography is an orthography (system for writing a language) in which the graphemes (written symbols) correspond to the phonemes (significant spoken sounds) of the language.
Phonetic transcription (also known as phonetic script or phonetic notation) is the visual representation of speech sounds (or phones).
Punctuation (formerly sometimes called pointing) is the use of spacing, conventional signs, and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and correct reading of handwritten and printed text, whether read silently or aloud.
is a phenomenon in Japanese morphophonology that governs the voicing of the initial consonant of the non-initial portion of a compound or prefixed word.
Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so.
The romanization of Japanese is the use of Latin script to write the Japanese language.
Runes are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.
Sound change includes any processes of language change that affect pronunciation (phonetic change) or sound system structures (phonological change).
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Spelling is the combination of alphabetic letters to form a written word.
A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.
Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standards based on the consensus of different parties that include firms, users, interest groups, standards organizations and governments Standardization can help to maximize compatibility, interoperability, safety, repeatability, or quality.
In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.
A style guide (or manual of style) is a set of standards for the writing and design of documents, either for general use or for a specific publication, organization, or field.
A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent the syllables or (more frequently) moras which make up words.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
Thorn or þorn (Þ, þ) is a letter in the Old English, Gothic, Old Norse and modern Icelandic alphabets, as well as some dialects of Middle English.
Typography is the art and technique of arranging type to make written language legible, readable, and appealing when displayed.
W (named double-u,Pronounced plural double-ues) is the 23rd letter of the modern English and ISO basic Latin alphabets.
A wiki is a website on which users collaboratively modify content and structure directly from the web browser.
William Allen Smalley (April 4, 1923December 16, 1997) was an American linguist.
In linguistics, a word is the smallest element that can be uttered in isolation with objective or practical meaning.
Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion with signs and symbols.
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.