75 relations: Adobe Flash, Adverse drug reaction, Amantadine, American Academy of Pediatrics, Amino acid, Anaphylaxis, Antiviral drug, Australian Medicines Handbook, Bacteria, Baloxavir marboxil, Biological half-life, Bleeding, Canine parvovirus, Capsule (pharmacy), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cipla, Cochrane (organisation), Colitis, Community-acquired pneumonia, Competitive inhibition, Crypt (anatomy), Diarrhea, Endonuclease, Epidemic, Epileptic seizure, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Food and Drug Administration, Freedom of information laws by country, Generic drug, George W. Bush, Gilead Sciences, Glycoprotein, Health system, Heart arrhythmia, Hepatitis, Hoffmann-La Roche, Illicium verum, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Infectious Diseases Society of America, Influenza, Influenza A virus, Influenzavirus B, Liver, M2 proton channel, Mental disorder, Meta-analysis, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, Neuraminidase, Neuraminidase inhibitor, Number needed to harm, ..., Nursing home care, Oseltamivir total synthesis, Otitis media, Pandemic, PLOS One, Pneumonia, Polymerase chain reaction, Pregnancy category, Public Health England, Recombinant DNA, Rimantadine, Shikimic acid, Sialic acid, Small intestine, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, Systematic review, The Atlantic, The New England Journal of Medicine, The New York Times, Toxic epidermal necrolysis, Volume of distribution, Vomiting, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, World Health Organization, 2009 flu pandemic. Expand index (25 more) » « Shrink index
Adobe Flash is a deprecated multimedia software platform used for production of animations, rich Internet applications, desktop applications, mobile applications, mobile games and embedded web browser video players.
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Adverse drug reaction
An adverse drug reaction (ADR) is an injury caused by taking a medication.
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Amantadine (trade name Symmetrel, by Endo Pharmaceuticals) is a medication that has U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for use both as an antiviral and an antiparkinsonian medication.
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American Academy of Pediatrics
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is an American professional association of pediatricians, headquartered in Itasca, Illinois.
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Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
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Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death.
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Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections rather than bacterial ones.
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Australian Medicines Handbook
Australian Medicines Handbook (AMH) is a peer-reviewed medicines prescribing guide for Australian health professionals.
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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
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Baloxavir marboxil (trade name Xofluza) is a medication being developed by Shionogi Co., a Japanese pharmaceutical company, for treatment of influenza A and influenza B. The drug was in late-stage trials in Japan and the United States as of early 2018, with collaboration from Roche AG.
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The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.
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Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
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Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV2, colloquially parvo) is a contagious virus mainly affecting dogs, and thought to originate in cats.
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In the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, encapsulation refers to a range of dosage forms—techniques used to enclose medicines—in a relatively stable shell known as a capsule, allowing them to, for example, be taken orally or be used as suppositories.
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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
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Cipla Limited is an Indian multinational pharmaceutical and biotechnology company, headquartered in Mumbai, India.
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Cochrane is a non-profit, non-governmental organization formed to organize medical research findings so as to facilitate evidence-based choices about health interventions faced by health professionals, patients, and policy makers.
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Colitis is an inflammation of the colon.
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Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) refers to pneumonia (any of several lung diseases) contracted by a person with little contact with the healthcare system.
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Competitive inhibition is a form of enzyme inhibition where binding of an inhibitor prevents binding of the target molecule of the enzyme, also known as the substrate.
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Crypts are anatomical structures that are narrow but deep invaginations into a larger structure.
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Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
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Endonucleases are enzymes that cleave the phosphodiester bond within a polynucleotide chain.
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An epidemic (from Greek ἐπί epi "upon or above" and δῆμος demos "people") is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time, usually two weeks or less.
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An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
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European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) is an independent agency of the European Union (EU) whose mission is to strengthen Europe's defences against infectious diseases.
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Food and Drug Administration
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
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Freedom of information laws by country
Freedom of Information laws (FOI laws) allow access by the general public to data held by national governments.
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A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that is equivalent to a brand-name product in dosage, strength, route of administration, quality, performance, and intended use, but does not carry the brand name.
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George W. Bush
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
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Gilead Sciences, Inc., commonly known as Gilead Sciences or Gilead (also styled GILEAD), is an American biopharmaceutical company that researches, develops and commercializes drugs.
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Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.
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A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
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Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
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Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue.
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Illicium verum is a medium-sized evergreen tree native to northeast Vietnam and southwest China.
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Indigenous peoples of the Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
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Infectious Diseases Society of America
The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) is a medical association representing physicians, scientists and other health care professionals who specialize in infectious diseases.
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Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
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Influenza A virus
Influenza A virus causes influenza in birds and some mammals, and is the only species of influenza virus A genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses.
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Influenzavirus B is a genus in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae.
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The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
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M2 proton channel
The Matrix-2 (M2) protein is a proton-selective ion channel protein, integral in the viral envelope of the influenza A virus.
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A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
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A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.
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National Institute for Health and Care Excellence
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health in the United Kingdom, which publishes guidelines in four areas.
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Neuraminidase enzymes are glycoside hydrolase enzymes that cleave the glycosidic linkages of neuraminic acids.
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Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are a class of drugs which block the neuraminidase enzyme.
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Number needed to harm
The number needed to harm (NNH) is an epidemiological measure that indicates how many patients on average need to be exposed to a risk-factor over a specific period to cause harm in an average of one patient who would not otherwise have been harmed.
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Nursing home care
Nursing homes are a type of residential care that provide around-the-clock nursing care for elderly people.
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Oseltamivir total synthesis
Oseltamivir total synthesis concerns the total synthesis of the antiinfluenza drug oseltamivir marketed by Hoffmann-La Roche under the trade name Tamiflu.
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Otitis media is a group of inflammatory diseases of the middle ear.
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A pandemic (from Greek πᾶν pan "all" and δῆμος demos "people") is an epidemic of infectious disease that has spread across a large region; for instance multiple continents, or even worldwide.
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PLOS One (stylized PLOS ONE, and formerly PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.
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Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
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Polymerase chain reaction
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
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The pregnancy category of a medication is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy.
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Public Health England
Public Health England (PHE) is an executive agency of the Department of Health and Social Care in the United Kingdom that began operating on 1 April 2013.
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Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome.
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Rimantadine (INN, sold under the trade name Flumadine) is an orally administered antiviral drug used to treat, and in rare cases prevent, influenzavirus A infection.
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Shikimic acid, more commonly known as its anionic form shikimate, is a cyclohexene, a cyclitol and a cyclohexanecarboxylic acid.
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Sialic acid is a generic term for the N- or O-substituted derivatives of neuraminic acid, a monosaccharide with a nine-carbon backbone.
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The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the end absorption of food takes place.
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Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a type of severe skin reaction.
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Systematic reviews are a type of literature review that uses systematic methods to collect secondary data, critically appraise research studies, and synthesize studies.
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The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.
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The New England Journal of Medicine
The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a weekly medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society.
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The New York Times
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
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Toxic epidermal necrolysis
Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a type of severe skin reaction.
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Volume of distribution
In pharmacology, the volume of distribution (VD, also known as apparent volume of distribution) is the theoretical volume that would be necessary to contain the total amount of an administered drug at the same concentration that it is observed in the blood plasma.
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Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
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WHO Model List of Essential Medicines
The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.
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World Health Organization
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
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2009 flu pandemic
The 2009 flu pandemic or swine flu was an influenza pandemic, and the second of the two pandemics involving H1N1 influenza virus (the first of them being the 1918 flu pandemic), albeit in a new version.
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ATC code J05AH02, ATCvet code QJ05AH02, C16H28N2O4, Oseltamavir, Oseltamivir phosphate, Tamaflu, Tami flu, TamiFlu, Tamiflu, Tamiflu Resistance in 2009 Flu Pandemic, Tamiflu Resistance in the 2009 Flu Pandemic, Tamiflu resistance in the 2009 flu pandemic.