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Other (philosophy)

Index Other (philosophy)

In phenomenology, the terms the Other and the Constitutive Other identify the other human being, in their differences from the Self, as being a cumulative, constituting factor in the self-image of a person; as their acknowledgement of being real; hence, the Other is dissimilar to and the opposite of the Self, of Us, and of the Same. [1]

143 relations: Abjection, Aesthetics, Alan Sheridan, Allophilia, Allosemitism, Alterity, Anthropomorphism, Art, Arthur Rimbaud, Beauty, Becoming (philosophy), Being, Being and Nothingness, Betty Friedan, Body politic, Calvin Thomas (critical theorist), Carole McCann, Cartesian Meditations, Cartography, Cheshire Calhoun, Civilizing mission, Colonialism, Cultural imperialism, Deconstruction, Derek Gregory, Difference (philosophy), Discourse, Disfranchisement, Dominance hierarchy, Dominant ideology, Ecstasy (philosophy), Edmund Husserl, Edward Said, Emmanuel Levinas, Epistemology, Essentialism, Ethics, Ethnocentrism, Existence, Existentialism, Exoticism, Face-to-face (philosophy), Feminist philosophy, Ferdinand de Saussure, Fetishism, Frankfurt School, Friedrich Nietzsche, Gender, Gender identity, Genus, ..., Geopolitics, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Hegemony, Hierarchy, High culture, Historical negationism, Historiography, Human geography, Identity (philosophy), Identity (social science), Individuation, Insanity, Intersubjectivity, Jacques Derrida, Jacques Lacan, Jean-Paul Sartre, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Judith Butler, Julia Kristeva, Knowledge, L'épreuve de l'étranger, Louis Althusser, Luce Irigaray, Male privilege, Markedness, Master–slave dialectic, Meaning (psychology), Metaphor, Metaphysics, Metaphysics of presence, Metonymy, Minority (philosophy), Nation, Nihilism, Noblesse oblige, Occidentalism, Ontology, Orient, Oriental studies, Orientalism, Orientalism (book), Otherness of childhood, Personal identity, Personality, Phenomenology (philosophy), Political philosophy, Postcolonialism, Postmodernism, Power (social and political), Profession, R. D. Laing, Race (human categorization), Rationalization (sociology), Reality, Reconstructivism, Relativism, Religion, Religious text, Representation (arts), Sarojini Sahoo, Scientific racism, Self, Self-awareness, Self-consciousness, Self-image, Sex, Silence, Simone de Beauvoir, Social alienation, Social class, Social constructionism, Social group, Social norm, State (polity), Subaltern (postcolonialism), Subjectivity, Taste (sociology), Terrorism, The Feminine Mystique, The Phenomenology of Spirit, The Real, The saying and the said, The Second Sex, The Symbolic, Totality and Infinity, Tradition, Truth, Unconscious mind, Wallace Fowlie, Walter Kaufmann (philosopher), War on Terror, Western world, Xenocentrism. Expand index (93 more) »

Abjection

The term abjection literally means "the state of being cast off." The term has been explored in post-structuralism as that which inherently disturbs conventional identity and cultural concepts.

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Aesthetics

Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.

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Alan Sheridan

Alan Sheridan (1934 - 2015) was an English author and translator.

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Allophilia

Allophilia is having a positive attitude towards outgroup members.

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Allosemitism

Allosemitism is a neologism used to encompass both philo-Semitic and anti-Semitic attitudes towards Jews as other.

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Alterity

Alterity is a philosophical and anthropological term meaning “otherness", that is, the "other of two" (Latin alter). It is also increasingly being used in media to express something other than “sameness," an imitation compared to the original. Alterity is an encounter with "the other." This “other” is not like any other worldly object or force.

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Anthropomorphism

Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, or intentions to non-human entities.

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Art

Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.

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Arthur Rimbaud

Jean Nicolas Arthur Rimbaud (20 October 1854 – 10 November 1891) was a French poet who is known for his influence on modern literature and arts, which prefigured surrealism.

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Beauty

Beauty is a characteristic of an animal, idea, object, person or place that provides a perceptual experience of pleasure or satisfaction.

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Becoming (philosophy)

In philosophy, the concept of becoming originated in eastern ancient Greece with the philosopher Heraclitus of Ephesus, who in the sixth century BC, said that nothing in this world is constant except change and becoming.

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Being

Being is the general concept encompassing objective and subjective features of reality and existence.

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Being and Nothingness

Being and Nothingness: An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology (L'Être et le néant: Essai d'ontologie phénoménologique), sometimes published with the subtitle A Phenomenological Essay on Ontology, is a 1943 book by the philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre, in which the author asserts the individual's existence as prior to the individual's essence ("existence precedes essence") and seeks to demonstrate that free will exists.

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Betty Friedan

Betty Friedan (February 4, 1921 – February 4, 2006) was an American writer, activist, and feminist.

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Body politic

The body politic is a medieval metaphor that likens a nation to a corporation which had serious historical repercussions throughout recent history and therefore giving the Crown: "As a legal entity today the Crown as executive is regarded as a corporation sole or aggregate", a corporate entity.

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Calvin Thomas (critical theorist)

Calvin Thomas is an American academic who works in the fields of critical theory, modern and postmodern literature and culture.

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Carole McCann

Carole McCann is a professor in Gender and Women's Studies and American Studies at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC).

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Cartesian Meditations

Cartesian Meditations: An Introduction to Phenomenology (Méditations cartésiennes: Introduction à la phénoménologie) is a book by the philosopher Edmund Husserl, based on four lectures he gave at the Sorbonne, in the Amphithéatre Descartes on February 23 and 25, 1929.

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Cartography

Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.

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Cheshire Calhoun

Cheshire Calhoun is Professor of Philosophy at Arizona State University and research professor at the Center for the Philosophy of Freedom at the University of Arizona.

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Civilizing mission

The mission civilisatrice (in English "civilizing mission") was a rationale for intervention or colonization, purporting to contribute to the spread of civilization, and used mostly in relation to the Westernization of indigenous peoples in the 15th - 20 th centuries.

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Colonialism

Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.

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Cultural imperialism

Cultural imperialism comprises the cultural aspects of imperialism.

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Deconstruction

Deconstruction is a critique of the relationship between text and meaning originated by the philosopher Jacques Derrida.

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Derek Gregory

Derek Gregory Ph.D. (Cantab) FBA, FRSC (born 1 March 1951) is a British academic and world-renowned geographer who is currently Peter Wall Distinguished Professor and Professor of Geography at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver.

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Difference (philosophy)

Difference is a key concept of philosophy, denoting the process or set of properties by which one entity is distinguished from another within a relational field or a given conceptual system.

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Discourse

Discourse (from Latin discursus, "running to and from") denotes written and spoken communications.

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Disfranchisement

Disfranchisement (also called disenfranchisement) is the revocation of the right of suffrage (the right to vote) of a person or group of people, or through practices, prevention of a person exercising the right to vote.

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Dominance hierarchy

Dominance hierarchy is a type of social hierarchy that arises when members of a social group interact, often aggressively, to create a ranking system.

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Dominant ideology

In Marxist philosophy, the term dominant ideology denotes the attitudes, beliefs, values, and morals shared by the majority of the people in a given society.

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Ecstasy (philosophy)

Ecstasy (from the Ancient Greek ἔκστασις ekstasis, "to be or stand outside oneself, a removal to elsewhere" from ek- "out," and stasis "a stand, or a standoff of forces") is a term used in Ancient Greek, Christian and Existential philosophy.

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Edmund Husserl

Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (or;; 8 April 1859 – 27 April 1938) was a German philosopher who established the school of phenomenology.

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Edward Said

Edward Wadie Said (إدوارد وديع سعيد,; 1 November 1935 – 25 September 2003) was a professor of literature at Columbia University, a public intellectual, and a founder of the academic field of postcolonial studies.

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Emmanuel Levinas

Emmanuel Levinas (12 January 1906 – 25 December 1995) was a French philosopher of Lithuanian Jewish ancestry who is known for his work related to Jewish philosophy, existentialism, ethics, phenomenology and ontology.

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Epistemology

Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.

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Essentialism

Essentialism is the view that every entity has a set of attributes that are necessary to its identity and function.

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Ethics

Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.

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Ethnocentrism

Ethnocentrism is judging another culture solely by the values and standards of one's own culture.

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Existence

Existence, in its most generic terms, is the ability to, directly or indirectly, interact with reality or, in more specific cases, the universe.

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Existentialism

Existentialism is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed.

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Exoticism

Exoticism (from 'exotic') is a trend in European art and design, influenced by some ethnic groups or civilizations from the late 19th-century.

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Face-to-face (philosophy)

The face-to-face relation (rapport de face à face) is a concept in the French philosopher Emmanuel Lévinas' thought on human sociality.

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Feminist philosophy

Feminist philosophy is an approach to philosophy from a feminist perspective and also the employment of philosophical methods to feminist topics and questions.

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Ferdinand de Saussure

Ferdinand de Saussure (26 November 1857 – 22 February 1913) was a Swiss linguist and semiotician.

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Fetishism

A fetish (derived from the French fétiche; which comes from the Portuguese feitiço; and this in turn from Latin facticius, "artificial" and facere, "to make") is an object believed to have supernatural powers, or in particular, a human-made object that has power over others.

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Frankfurt School

The Frankfurt School (Frankfurter Schule) is a school of social theory and philosophy associated in part with the Institute for Social Research at the Goethe University Frankfurt.

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Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.

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Gender

Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity.

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Gender identity

Gender identity is one's personal experience of one's own gender.

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Genus

A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.

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Geopolitics

Geopolitics (from Greek γῆ gê "earth, land" and πολιτική politikḗ "politics") is the study of the effects of geography (human and physical) on politics and international relations.

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Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.

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Hegemony

Hegemony (or) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.

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Hierarchy

A hierarchy (from the Greek hierarchia, "rule of a high priest", from hierarkhes, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally.

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High culture

High culture encompasses the cultural products of aesthetic value, which a society collectively esteem as exemplary art.

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Historical negationism

Historical negationism or denialism is an illegitimate distortion of the historical record.

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Historiography

Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject.

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Human geography

Human geography is the branch of geography that deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures, economies, and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place.

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Identity (philosophy)

In philosophy, identity, from ("sameness"), is the relation each thing bears only to itself.

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Identity (social science)

In psychology, identity is the qualities, beliefs, personality, looks and/or expressions that make a person (self-identity) or group (particular social category or social group).

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Individuation

The principle of individuation, or principium individuationis, describes the manner in which a thing is identified as distinguished from other things.

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Insanity

Insanity, craziness, or madness is a spectrum of both group and individual behaviors characterized by certain abnormal mental or behavioral patterns.

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Intersubjectivity

Intersubjectivity, in philosophy, psychology, sociology, and anthropology, is the psychological relation between people.

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Jacques Derrida

Jacques Derrida (born Jackie Élie Derrida;. See also. July 15, 1930 – October 9, 2004) was a French Algerian-born philosopher best known for developing a form of semiotic analysis known as deconstruction, which he discussed in numerous texts, and developed in the context of phenomenology.

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Jacques Lacan

Jacques Marie Émile Lacan (13 April 1901 – 9 September 1981) was a French psychoanalyst and psychiatrist who has been called "the most controversial psycho-analyst since Freud".

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Jean-Paul Sartre

Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, and literary critic.

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Johann Gottlieb Fichte

Johann Gottlieb Fichte (May 19, 1762 – January 27, 1814), was a German philosopher who became a founding figure of the philosophical movement known as German idealism, which developed from the theoretical and ethical writings of Immanuel Kant.

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Judith Butler

Judith Butler FBA (born February 24, 1956) is an American philosopher and gender theorist whose work has influenced political philosophy, ethics and the fields of third-wave feminist, queer and literary theory.

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Julia Kristeva

Julia Kristeva (Юлия Кръстева; born 24 June 1941) is a Bulgarian-French philosopher, literary critic, psychoanalyst, feminist, and, most recently, novelist, who has lived in France since the mid-1960s.

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Knowledge

Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.

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L'épreuve de l'étranger

L'épreuve de l'étranger.

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Louis Althusser

Louis Pierre Althusser (16 October 1918 – 22 October 1990) was a French Marxist philosopher.

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Luce Irigaray

Luce Irigaray (born 3 May 1930) is a Belgian-born French feminist, philosopher, linguist, psycholinguist, psychoanalyst and cultural theorist.

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Male privilege

Male privilege is a concept within sociology for examining social, economic, and political advantages or rights that are available to men solely on the basis of their sex.

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Markedness

In linguistics and social sciences, markedness is the state of standing out as unusual or divergent in comparison to a more common or regular form.

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Master–slave dialectic

The master–slave dialectic is the common name for a famous passage of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit, though the original German phrase, Herrschaft und Knechtschaft, is more properly translated as Lordship and Bondage.

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Meaning (psychology)

Meaning is a concept used in psychology as well as in other fields such as philosophy, linguistics, semiotics and sociology.

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Metaphor

A metaphor is a figure of speech that directly refers to one thing by mentioning another for rhetorical effect.

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Metaphysics

Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.

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Metaphysics of presence

The concept of the metaphysics of presence is an important consideration in deconstruction.

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Metonymy

Metonymy is a figure of speech in which a thing or concept is referred to by the name of something closely associated with that thing or concept.

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Minority (philosophy)

Minority, and the related concept of "becoming-minor", is a philosophical concept developed by Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari in their books Kafka: Towards a Minor Literature (1975), A Thousand Plateaus (1980), and elsewhere.

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Nation

A nation is a stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, ethnicity or psychological make-up manifested in a common culture.

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Nihilism

Nihilism is the philosophical viewpoint that suggests the denial or lack of belief towards the reputedly meaningful aspects of life.

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Noblesse oblige

Noblesse oblige is a French expression used in English.

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Occidentalism

Occidentalism refers to and identifies representations of the Western world (the Occident) in two ways: (i) as dehumanizing stereotypes of the Western world, Europe, the Americas, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and Israel, usually from the Muslim world; and (ii) as ideological representations of the West, as applied in Occidentalism: A Theory of Counter-Discourse in Post-Mao China (1995), by Chen Xiaomei; Occidentalism: Images of the West (1995), by James G. Carrier; and Occidentalism: The West in the Eyes of its Enemies (2004), Ian Buruma and Avishai Margalit.

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Ontology

Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.

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Orient

The Orient is the East, traditionally comprising anything that belongs to the Eastern world, in relation to Europe.

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Oriental studies

Oriental studies is the academic field of study that embraces Near Eastern and Far Eastern societies and cultures, languages, peoples, history and archaeology; in recent years the subject has often been turned into the newer terms of Asian studies and Middle Eastern studies.

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Orientalism

Orientalism is a term used by art historians and literary and cultural studies scholars for the imitation or depiction of aspects in Middle Eastern, South Asian, and East Asian cultures (Eastern world).

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Orientalism (book)

Orientalism is a 1978 book by Edward W. Said, in which the author discusses Orientalism, defined as the West's patronizing representations of "The East"—the societies and peoples who inhabit the places of Asia, North Africa, and the Middle East.

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Otherness of childhood

The otherness of childhood is a phrase being used to argue that there are substantial differences between the lived worlds of children and adults.

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Personal identity

In philosophy, the matter of personal identity deals with such questions as, "What makes it true that a person at one time is the same thing as a person at another time?" or "What kinds of things are we persons?" Generally, personal identity is the unique numerical identity of a person in the course of time.

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Personality

Personality is defined as the set of habitual behaviors, cognitions and emotional patterns that evolve from biological and environmental factors.

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Phenomenology (philosophy)

Phenomenology (from Greek phainómenon "that which appears" and lógos "study") is the philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness.

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Political philosophy

Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.

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Postcolonialism

Postcolonialism or postcolonial studies is the academic study of the cultural legacy of colonialism and imperialism, focusing on the human consequences of the control and exploitation of colonised people and their lands.

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Postmodernism

Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late-20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism.

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Power (social and political)

In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.

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Profession

A profession is a vocation founded upon specialized educational training, the purpose of which is to supply disinterested objective counsel and service to others, for a direct and definite compensation, wholly apart from expectation of other business gain.

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R. D. Laing

Ronald David Laing (7 October 1927 – 23 August 1989), usually cited as R. D. Laing, was a Scottish psychiatrist who wrote extensively on mental illnessin particular, the experience of psychosis.

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Race (human categorization)

A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.

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Rationalization (sociology)

In sociology, rationalization or rationalisation refers to the replacement of traditions, values, and emotions as motivators for behavior in society with concepts based on rationality and reason.

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Reality

Reality is all of physical existence, as opposed to that which is merely imaginary.

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Reconstructivism

Reconstructivism is a philosophical theory holding that societies should continually reform themselves in order to establish more perfect governments or social networks.

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Relativism

Relativism is the idea that views are relative to differences in perception and consideration.

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Religion

Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.

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Religious text

Religious texts (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin scriptura, meaning "writing") are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs.

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Representation (arts)

Representation is the use of signs that stand in for and take the place of something else.

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Sarojini Sahoo

Sarojini Sahoo (ସରୋଜିନୀ ସାହୁ) (born 1956) is an Orissa Sahitya Academy Award winner Indian feminist writer, a columnist in The New Indian Express and an associate editor of Chennai-based English magazine Indian AGE. She has been enlisted among 25 Exceptional Women of India by Kindle Magazine of Kolkata.

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Scientific racism

Scientific racism (sometimes referred to as race biology, racial biology, or race realism) is the pseudoscientific belief that empirical evidence exists to support or justify racism (racial discrimination), racial inferiority, or racial superiority.

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Self

The self is an individual person as the object of his or her own reflective consciousness.

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Self-awareness

Self-awareness is the capacity for introspection and the ability to recognize oneself as an individual separate from the environment and other individuals.

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Self-consciousness

Self-consciousness is a heightened sense of self-awareness.

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Self-image

Self-image is the mental picture, generally of a kind that is quite resistant to change, that depicts not only details that are potentially available to objective investigation by others (height, weight, hair color, etc.), but also items that have been learned by that person about themself, either from personal experiences or by internalizing the judgments of others.

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Sex

Organisms of many species are specialized into male and female varieties, each known as a sex. Sexual reproduction involves the combining and mixing of genetic traits: specialized cells known as gametes combine to form offspring that inherit traits from each parent.

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Silence

Silence is the lack of audible sound, or the presence of sounds of very low intensity.

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Simone de Beauvoir

Simone Lucie Ernestine Marie Bertrand de Beauvoir (or;; 9 January 1908 – 14 April 1986) was a French writer, intellectual, existentialist philosopher, political activist, feminist and social theorist.

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Social alienation

Social alienation is "a condition in social relationships reflected by a low degree of integration or common values and a high degree of distance or isolation between individuals, or between an individual and a group of people in a community or work environment".

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Social class

A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.

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Social constructionism

Social constructionism or the social construction of reality (also social concept) is a theory of knowledge in sociology and communication theory that examines the development of jointly constructed understandings of the world that form the basis for shared assumptions about reality.

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Social group

In the social sciences, a social group has been defined as two or more people who interact with one another, share similar characteristics, and collectively have a sense of unity.

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Social norm

From a sociological perspective, social norms are informal understandings that govern the behavior of members of a society.

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State (polity)

A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.

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Subaltern (postcolonialism)

In critical theory and postcolonialism, the term subaltern designates the populations which are socially, politically, and geographically outside of the hegemonic power structure of the colony and of the colonial homeland.

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Subjectivity

Subjectivity is a central philosophical concept, related to consciousness, agency, personhood, reality, and truth, which has been variously defined by sources.

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Taste (sociology)

In sociology, taste is an individual's personal and cultural patterns of choice and preference.

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Terrorism

Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.

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The Feminine Mystique

The Feminine Mystique is a book written by Betty Friedan which is widely credited with sparking the beginning of second-wave feminism in the United States.

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The Phenomenology of Spirit

The Phenomenology of Spirit (Phänomenologie des Geistes) (1807) is Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's most widely discussed philosophical work.

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The Real

In philosophy, the Real is that which is the authentic, unchangeable truth.

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The saying and the said

Emmanuel Levinas, in an attempt to overcome a certain naivety within his exploration of ethics as given in what he describes as the face-to-face encounter, attempts to introduce language into what had only been a "picture" of such an encounter.

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The Second Sex

The Second Sex (Le Deuxième Sexe) is a 1949 book by the French existentialist Simone de Beauvoir, in which the author discusses the treatment of women throughout history.

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The Symbolic

The Symbolic (or Symbolic Order) is a part of the psychoanalytic theory of Jacques Lacan, part of his attempt "to distinguish between those elementary registers whose grounding I later put forward in these terms: the symbolic, the imaginary, and the real — a distinction never previously made in psychoanalysis".

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Totality and Infinity

Totality and Infinity: An Essay on Exteriority (Totalité et Infini: essai sur l'extériorité) is a 1961 work of philosophy by Emmanuel Levinas.

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Tradition

A tradition is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past.

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Truth

Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard.

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Unconscious mind

The unconscious mind (or the unconscious) consists of the processes in the mind which occur automatically and are not available to introspection, and include thought processes, memories, interests, and motivations.

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Wallace Fowlie

Wallace Fowlie (1908–1998) was an American writer and professor of literature.

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Walter Kaufmann (philosopher)

Walter Arnold Kaufmann (July 1, 1921 – September 4, 1980) was a German-American philosopher, translator, and poet.

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War on Terror

The War on Terror, also known as the Global War on Terrorism, is an international military campaign that was launched by the United States government after the September 11 attacks in the United States in 2001.

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Western world

The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.

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Xenocentrism

Xenocentrism is the preference for the products, styles, or ideas of someone else's culture rather than of one's own.

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Redirects here:

Constitutive other, Cultural otherness, Infinite Other, Other‍ (philosophy), The constitutive other, The other.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Other_(philosophy)

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