293 relations: Aachen, Aachen Cathedral, Abbot, Adalbert Atto of Canossa, Adalbert of Italy, Adalbert of Magdeburg, Adaldag, Adelaide of Italy, Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Annales iuvavenses, Anointing of the sick, Apulia, Archbishop of Cologne, Archbishopric of Magdeburg, Arnstadt, Arnulf, Duke of Bavaria, Artald of Reims, Augsburg, Austrian Mint, Æthelstan, Battle of Andernach, Battle of Lechfeld (955), Battle on the Raxa, Berengar I of Italy, Berengar II of Italy, Bernard I, Duke of Saxony, Bertha of Swabia, Berthold, Duke of Bavaria, Boleslaus I, Duke of Bohemia, Born in the purple, Brandenburg, Brenner Pass, Bruno the Great, Burchard II, Duke of Swabia, Burchard III, Duke of Swabia, Byzantine Empire, Calabria, Camerino, Carolingian dynasty, Carolingian Empire, Catholic Church, Central Europe, Chair of Saint Peter, Chamberlain (office), Chancery (medieval office), Chaplain, Charlemagne, Charles the Fat, Christendom, Chur, ..., Client state, Commendation ceremony, Conrad I of 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Aachen or Bad Aachen, French and traditional English: Aix-la-Chapelle, is a spa and border city.
Aachen Cathedral (German: Aachener Dom), traditionally called in English the Cathedral of Aix-la-Chapelle, is a Roman Catholic church in Aachen, western Germany, and the see of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Aachen.
Abbot, meaning father, is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various traditions, including Christianity.
Adalbert Atto (or Adalberto Azzo) (died 13 February 988) was the first Count of Canossa and founder of that noble house which eventually was to play a determinant role in the political settling of Italy and the Investiture Controversy in the eleventh and twelfth centuries.
Adalbert (Latin Adalbertus; born 932×936, died 971×975) was the King of Italy from 950 until 961, ruling jointly with his father, Berengar II.
Adalbert of Magdeburg, sometimes incorrectly shortened to "Albert" (c. 910 - 20 June 981), and known as the Apostle of the Slavs, was the first Archbishop of Magdeburg (from 968) and a successful missionary to the Polabian Slavs to the east of what is contemporarily Germany.
Adaldag (c. 900 – 28 April 988; also Adelgis, Adelger, and Adalgag) was the seventh archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen, from 937 until his death.
Adelaide of Italy (93116 December 999 AD) (Adelheid von Burgund; Adelaide di Borgogna), also called Adelaide of Burgundy, was a Holy Roman Empress by marriage to Holy Roman Emperor Otto the GreatCampbell, Thomas.
Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (Universal German Biography) is one of the most important and most comprehensive biographical reference works in the German language.
The Annales iuvavenses or Annals of Salzburg were a series of annals written in the 9th and 10th centuries at Salzburg (the former Roman Iuvavum) in the East Frankish stem duchy of Bavaria.
Anointing of the sick, known also by other names, is a form of religious anointing or "unction" (an older term with the same meaning) for the benefit of a sick person.
Apulia (Puglia; Pùglia; Pulia; translit) is a region of Italy in Southern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, and the Strait of Òtranto and Gulf of Taranto to the south.
The Archbishop of Cologne is an archbishop representing the Archdiocese of Cologne of the Catholic Church in western North Rhine-Westphalia and northern Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany and was ex officio one of the electors of the Holy Roman Empire, the Elector of Cologne, from 1356 to 1801.
The Archbishopric of Magdeburg was a Roman Catholic archdiocese (969–1552) and Prince-Archbishopric (1180–1680) of the Holy Roman Empire centered on the city of Magdeburg on the Elbe River.
Arnstadt is a town in Ilm-Kreis, Thuringia, Germany, on the river Gera about 20 kilometres south of Erfurt, the capital of Thuringia.
Arnulf (birth unknown; died 14 July 937), also known as the Bad (der Schlimme) or the Evil (der Böse), a member of the Luitpolding dynasty, held the title of a Duke of Bavaria from about 907 until his death in 937.
Artald of Reims (died October 1, 961) was twice Archbishop of Reims.
Augsburg (Augschburg) is a city in Swabia, Bavaria, Germany.
The Austrian Mint (Münze Österreich) is located in Vienna and is responsible for minting Austrian coins.
Æthelstan or Athelstan (Old English: Æþelstan, or Æðelstān, meaning "noble stone"; 89427 October 939) was King of the Anglo-Saxons from 924 to 927 and King of the English from 927 to 939.
The Battle of Andernach, between the followers and the opponents of King Otto I of Germany, took place at 2 October 939 in Andernach on the Rhine river and ended with a decisive defeat of the rebels and the death of their leaders.
The Battle of Lechfeld (10 August 955) was a decisive victory for Otto I the Great, King of East Francia, over the Hungarian harka Bulcsú and the chieftains Lél (Lehel) and Súr.
The Battle on the Raxa river (Schlacht an der Raxa) was fought on 16 October 955 over control of the Billung march (in present-day Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, northeast Germany) between the forces of Otto I of Germany allied with the Rani tribe on one side, and the Obotrite federation under Nako and his brother Stoigniew (Stoinef, Stoinneg, Stoinegin, Ztoignav) with their allied and tributary Slav neighbours on the other.
Berengar I (Berengarius, Perngarius; Berengario; 845 – 7 April 924) was the King of Italy from 887, and Holy Roman Emperor after 915, until his death.
Berengar II (c. 9004 August 966) was the King of Italy from 950 until his deposition in 961.
Bernard I (c. 950 – 9 February 1011) was the Duke of Saxony between 973 and 1011, the second of the Billung dynasty, a son of Duke Herman and Oda.
Bertha of Swabia (Berthe de Souabe; Berta von Schwaben; AD – after January 2, 966), a member of the Alemannic Hunfriding dynasty, was Queen consort of Upper Burgundy from 922 until 937 and Queen consort of Italy from 922 until 926, by her marriage with King Rudolph II.
Berthold (c. 900 – 23 November 947), of the Luitpolding dynasty, was the younger son of Margrave Luitpold of Bavaria and Cunigunda, sister of Duke Erchanger of Swabia.
Boleslaus I the Cruel, also called Boleslav I (Boleslav I. Ukrutný) (– 15 July, 967 or 972), a member of the Přemyslid dynasty, was ruler (kníže, "duke" or "prince") of the Duchy of Bohemia from 935 to his death.
Traditionally, born in the purple was a category of members of royal families born during the reign of their parent.
Brandenburg (Brannenborg, Lower Sorbian: Bramborska, Braniborsko) is one of the sixteen federated states of Germany.
Brenner Pass (Brennerpass; Passo del Brennero) is a mountain pass through the Alps which forms the border between Italy and Austria.
Bruno the Great or Bruno I, (May 925 – 11 October 965) was Archbishop of Cologne,Religious Drama and Ecclesiastical Reform in the Tenth Century, James H. Forse, Early Theatre, Vol.
Burchard II (883/88429 April 926) was the Hunfriding Duke of Swabia (from 917) and Count of Raetia.
Burchard III (c. 91512 November 973), a member of the Hunfriding dynasty, was the count of Thurgau and Zürichgau, perhaps of Rhaetia, and then Duke of Swabia from 954 to his death.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Calabria (Calàbbria in Calabrian; Calavría in Calabrian Greek; Καλαβρία in Greek; Kalavrì in Arbëresh/Albanian), known in antiquity as Bruttium, is a region in Southern Italy.
Camerino is a town in the province of Macerata, Marche, central-eastern Italy.
The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.
The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
The Chair of Saint Peter (Cathedra Petri), also known as the Throne of Saint Peter, is a relic conserved in St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City, the sovereign enclave of the Pope inside Rome, Italy.
A chamberlain (Medieval Latin: cambellanus or cambrerius, with charge of treasury camerarius) is a senior royal official in charge of managing a royal household.
Chancery is a general term for a medieval writing office, responsible for the production of official documents.
A chaplain is a cleric (such as a minister, priest, pastor, rabbi, or imam), or a lay representative of a religious tradition, attached to a secular institution such as a hospital, prison, military unit, school, business, police department, fire department, university, or private chapel.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Charles III (13 June 839 – 13 January 888), also known as Charles the Fat, was the Carolingian Emperor from 881 to 888.
Christendom has several meanings.
Chur or Coire (or; Cuira or; Coira; Coire)Others: CVRIA, CVRIA RHAETORVM and CVRIA RAETORVM is the capital and largest town of the Swiss canton of Grisons and lies in the Grisonian Rhine Valley, where the Rhine turns towards the north, in the northern part of the canton.
A client state is a state that is economically, politically, or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state in international affairs.
A commendation ceremony (commendatio) is a formal ceremony that evolved during the Early Medieval period to create a bond between a lord and his fighting man, called his vassal.
Conrad I, called the Peaceful (Conrad le Pacifique; – 19 October 993), a member of the Elder House of Welf, was King of Burgundy (Kingdom of Arles) from 937 until his death.
Conrad I (c. 881 – December 23, 918), called the Younger, was the king of East Francia from 911 to 918.
Conrad (– 10 August 955), called the Red (Konrad der Rote), was Duke of Lorraine from 944 until 953.
The Conradines or Conradiner were a dynasty of Franconian counts and dukes in the 8th to 11th Century, named after Duke Conrad the Elder and his son King Conrad I of Germany.
Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos or Porphyrogenitus ("the Purple-born", that is, born in the purple marble slab-paneled imperial bed chambers; translit; 17–18 May 905 – 9 November 959) was the fourth Emperor of the Macedonian dynasty of the Byzantine Empire, reigning from 913 to 959.
Count (Male) or Countess (Female) is a title in European countries for a noble of varying status, but historically deemed to convey an approximate rank intermediate between the highest and lowest titles of nobility.
Count of Paris was a title for the local magnate of the district around Paris in Carolingian times.
Count palatine is a high noble title, used to render several comital (of or relating to a count or earl) styles, in some cases also shortened to Palatine, which can have other meanings as well.
A cup-bearer was an officer of high rank in royal courts whose duty it was to serve the drinks at the royal table.
Dietrich (Theoderich, Theodoric) of Haldensleben (died 25 August 985) was a Saxon count in the Schwabengau, later also in the Nordthüringgau and the Derlingau, who was the first Margrave of the Northern March from 965 until the Great Slav Rising of 983.
Dietrich, also known as Dietrich of Ringelheim, was a Saxon count of the Middle Ages.
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".
A diploma is a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution, such as college or university, that testifies that the recipient has successfully completed a particular course of study.
The Diploma Ottonianum (also called the Pactum Ottonianum, Privilegium Ottonianum or simply Ottonianum) was an agreement between Pope John XII and Otto I, King of Germany and Italy.
The divine right of kings, divine right, or God's mandate is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy.
The Donation of Pepin in 756 provided a legal basis for the erection of the Papal States, which extended the temporal rule of the Popes beyond the duchy of Rome.
The Duchy of Alsace (Ducatus Alsacensi, Ducatum Elisatium) was a large political subdivision of the Frankish Empire during the last century and a half of Merovingian rule.
The Duchy of Bavaria (German: Herzogtum Bayern) was, from the sixth through the eighth century, a frontier region in the southeastern part of the Merovingian kingdom.
The Duchy of Benevento (after 774, Principality of Benevento) was the southernmost Lombard duchy in the Italian peninsula, centered on Benevento, a city in Southern Italy.
The Duchy of Bohemia, also referred to as the Czech Duchy, (České knížectví) was a monarchy and a principality in Central Europe during the Early and High Middle Ages.
The Duchy of Franconia (Herzogtum Franken) was one of the five stem duchies of East Francia and the medieval Kingdom of Germany emerging in the early 10th century.
The Duchy of Friuli was a Lombard duchy in present-day Friuli, the first to be established after the conquest of the Italian peninsula in 568.
The Duchy of Lorraine (Lorraine; Lothringen), originally Upper Lorraine, was a duchy now included in the larger present-day region of Lorraine in northeastern France.
The Duchy of Saxony (Hartogdom Sassen, Herzogtum Sachsen) was originally the area settled by the Saxons in the late Early Middle Ages, when they were subdued by Charlemagne during the Saxon Wars from 772 and incorporated into the Carolingian Empire (Francia) by 804.
The Duchy of Spoleto (Italian: Ducato di Spoleto, Latin: Dŭcā́tus Spōlḗtĭī) was a Lombard territory founded about 570 in central Italy by the Lombard dux Faroald.
The Duchy of Swabia (German: Herzogtum Schwaben) was one of the five stem duchies of the medieval German kingdom.
The Dukes of Swabia were the rulers of the Duchy of Swabia during the Middle Ages.
Edith of England, also spelt Eadgyth or Ædgyth (Ēadgȳð, Edgitha; 910 – 26 January 946), a member of the House of Wessex, was German queen from 936 until her death, by her marriage with King Otto I.
East Francia (Latin: Francia orientalis) or the Kingdom of the East Franks (regnum Francorum orientalium) was a precursor of the Holy Roman Empire.
Eberhard III (c. 885 – 2 October 939), a member of the Conradine dynasty, was Duke of Franconia, succeeding his elder brother, King Conrad I, in December 918.
Eberhard was the eldest son and successor of the Luitpolding duke Arnulf of Bavaria (907–937).
Edward the Elder (c. 874 – 17 July 924) was King of the Anglo-Saxons from 899 until his death.
The Elbe (Elbe; Low German: Elv) is one of the major rivers of Central Europe.
The Elector of Mainz was one of the seven Prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire.
Enger is a town in the Herford district, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
The Eresburg is the largest, well-known (Old) Saxon refuge castle (Volksburg) and was located in the area of the present German village of Obermarsberg in the borough of Marsberg in the county of Hochsauerlandkreis.
Erfurt is the capital and largest city in the state of Thuringia, central Germany.
The Evangeliary or Book of the Gospels is a liturgical book containing only those portions of the four gospels which are read during Mass or in other public offices of the Church.
The Exarchate of Ravenna or of Italy (Esarcato d'Italia) was a lordship of the Byzantine Empire in Italy, from 584 to 751, when the last exarch was put to death by the Lombards.
A fief (feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty.
Frederick (died October 954) was the Archbishop of Mainz from 937, following the late Hildebert, until his death.
Fritzlar is a small German town (pop. 15,000) in the Schwalm-Eder district in northern Hesse, north of Frankfurt, with a storied history.
Fulda Abbey, or the Princely Abbey of Fulda, or the Imperial Abbey of Fulda (German: Fürstabtei Fulda, Hochstift Fulda, Kloster Fulda) was a Benedictine abbey as well as an ecclesiastical principality centered on Fulda, in the present-day German state of Hesse.
Gandersheim Abbey (Stift Gandersheim) is a former house of secular canonesses (Frauenstift) in the present town of Bad Gandersheim in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Georg Heinrich Pertz Georg Heinrich Pertz (28 March 17957 October 1876) was a German historian.
Gerberga of Saxony (also Gerberga of France) (c. 913 – 5 May 968/9 or 984?) was Regent of France during the minority of her son in 954–959.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Gero I (c. 900 – 20 May 965), called the Great (Latin magnus),Thompson, 486.
Gero (c. 900 – 29 June 976) was Archbishop of Cologne from 969 until his death.
The Gero Codex or Gero-Codex is an Ottonian illuminated manuscript probably produced at Lorsch Abbey in Germany between 950 and 970.
Gilbert (or Giselbert) (c. 890 – 2 October 939) was son of Reginar, Duke of Lorraine, and possibly through his paternal grandmother was great-grandson of the Holy Roman Emperor Lothair I. He was duke of Lotharingia (or Lorraine) until 939.
Gunther (Günther) (died 13 July 982) was the Margrave of Merseburg from 965 until his death, upon which the march of Merseburg was united to that of Meissen.
Hatheburg (also Hatheburch) (* 876 in Merseburg; † on 21st June after 909) was the first wife of Henry the Fowler, later king of East Francia (Germany).
Hedwige of Saxony (also Hedwig, Hadwig von Sachsen; – after 958), a member of the Ottonian dynasty, was Duchess consort of the Franks by her marriage to the Robertian duke Hugh the Great.
An heir apparent is a person who is first in a line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person.
Henry I (died 3 July 964) was the Archbishop of Trier from 956 until his death.
Henry I (919/921 – 1 November 955), a member of the German royal Ottonian dynasty, was Duke of Bavaria from 948 until his death.
Henry II (951 – 28 August 995), called the Wrangler or the Quarrelsome (Heinrich der Zänker), a member of the German royal Ottonian dynasty, was Duke of Bavaria from 955 to 976 and again from 985 to 995, as well as Duke of Carinthia from 989 to 995.
Henry II (Heinrich II; Enrico II) (6 May 973 – 13 July 1024), also known as Saint Henry, Obl. S. B., was Holy Roman Emperor ("Romanorum Imperator") from 1014 until his death in 1024 and the last member of the Ottonian dynasty of Emperors as he had no children.
Henry the Fowler (Heinrich der Finkler or Heinrich der Vogler; Henricus Auceps) (876 – 2 July 936) was the duke of Saxony from 912 and the elected king of East Francia (Germany) from 919 until his death in 936.
Henry (died 28 August 886) was the leading military commander of the last years of the Carolingian Empire.
Herford Abbey (Frauenstift Herford) was the oldest women's religious house in the Duchy of Saxony.
Herman I (died 10 December 949) was the first Conradine Duke of Swabia (from 926), the son of Gebhard, Duke of Lorraine, and a cousin of King Conrad I of Germany.
Hermann Billung (900 or 912 – 27 March 973) was the Margrave of the Billung March from 936 until his death.
The Hevelli or Hevellians, also known as Stodorans (sometimes Havolane; Heveller or Stodoranen; Hawelanie or Stodoranie; Havolané or Stodorané) were a tribe of the Polabian Slavs, who settled around the middle Havel river in the present-day Havelland region of Brandenburg in eastern Germany from the 8th century onwards.
Hildesheim (Eastphalian: Hilmessen) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany with 103,804 inhabitants.
Anglo-Saxon England was early medieval England, existing from the 5th to the 11th century from the end of Roman Britain until the Norman conquest in 1066.
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Hugh of Arles (or Hugh of Provence) was King of Italy from 924 until his death in 947.
Hugh of Vermandois (920 – 962) was the Archbishop of Reims from 925 to 931, when he was removed from office by the actions of Hugh the Great and others, his father Herbert II, Count of Vermandois who had been the power behind his episcopate was driven out of Reims and the bishopric was then assumed by Artoldus.
Hugh the Great (– 16 June 956) was the Duke of the Franks and Count of Paris.
The Hungarian invasions of Europe (kalandozások, Ungarneinfälle) took place in the ninth and tenth centuries, the period of transition in the history of Europe between the Early and High Middle Ages, when the territory of the former Carolingian Empire was threatened by invasion from multiple hostile forces, the Magyars (Hungarians) from the east, the Viking expansion from the north and the Arabs from the south.
Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.
Illertissen is a town in the district of Neu-Ulm in Bavaria.
An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented with such decoration as initials, borders (marginalia) and miniature illustrations.
The Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire (Reichskrone) was the hoop crown (Bügelkrone) of the Holy Roman Emperor from the 11th century to the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806.
The Imperial Diet (Dieta Imperii/Comitium Imperiale; Reichstag) was the deliberative body of the Holy Roman Empire.
Ingelheim am Rhein is a town in the Mainz-Bingen district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany on the Rhine’s west bank.
The Iron Crown of Lombardy (Corona Ferrea; Corona Ferrea Langobardiae) is both a reliquary and one of the oldest royal insignias of Christendom.
John I Tzimiskes (Iōánnēs I Tzimiskēs; c. 925 – 10 January 976) was the senior Byzantine Emperor from 11 December 969 to 10 January 976.
Judith (925 – 29 June after 985), a member of the Luitpolding dynasty, was Duchess consort of Bavaria from 947 to 955, by her marriage with Duke Henry I. After her husband's death, she acted as regent of Bavaria during the minority of her son Henry the Wrangler.
The term Kaiserpfalz ("imperial palace") or Königspfalz ("royal palace", from Middle High German phalze to Old High German phalanza from Middle Latin palatia to Latin palatium "palace") refers to a number of castles and palaces across the Holy Roman Empire that served as temporary, secondary seats of power for the Holy Roman Emperor in the Early and High Middle Ages.
Kerkrade (Kerkrade dialect: Kirchroa) is a town and a municipality in the southeast of Limburg, the southernmost province of the Netherlands.
King of Italy (Latin: Rex Italiae; Italian: Re d'Italia) was the title given to the ruler of the Kingdom of Italy after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
The Kingdom of Arles (also Kingdom of Arelat or Second Kingdom of Burgundy) was a Frankish dominion established from lands of the early medieval Kingdom of the Burgundians in 933 by the merger of the kingdoms of Upper and Lower Burgundy under King Rudolf II.
The Kingdom of Germany or German Kingdom (Regnum Teutonicum, "Teutonic Kingdom"; Deutsches Reich) developed out of the eastern half of the former Carolingian Empire.
The Kingdom of Italy (Latin: Regnum Italiae or Regnum Italicum, Italian: Regno d'Italia) was one of the constituent kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire, along with the kingdoms of Germany, Bohemia, and Burgundy.
Lake Garda (Lago di Garda or Lago Benàco, Benacus; Lach de Garda; Łago de Garda) is the largest lake in Italy.
Langenzenn is a town in the district of Fürth, in Bavaria, Germany.
Laon is the capital city of the Aisne department in Hauts-de-France, northern France.
The Lech (Licca) is a river in Austria and Germany.
Liège (Lidje; Luik,; Lüttich) is a major Walloon city and municipality and the capital of the Belgian province of Liège. The city is situated in the valley of the Meuse, in the east of Belgium, not far from borders with the Netherlands (Maastricht is about to the north) and with Germany (Aachen is about north-east). At Liège, the Meuse meets the River Ourthe. The city is part of the sillon industriel, the former industrial backbone of Wallonia. It still is the principal economic and cultural centre of the region. The Liège municipality (i.e. the city proper) includes the former communes of Angleur, Bressoux, Chênée, Glain, Grivegnée, Jupille-sur-Meuse, Rocourt, and Wandre. In November 2012, Liège had 198,280 inhabitants. The metropolitan area, including the outer commuter zone, covers an area of 1,879 km2 (725 sq mi) and had a total population of 749,110 on 1 January 2008. Population of all municipalities in Belgium on 1 January 2008. Retrieved on 2008-10-19. Definitions of metropolitan areas in Belgium. The metropolitan area of Liège is divided into three levels. First, the central agglomeration (agglomeratie) with 480,513 inhabitants (2008-01-01). Adding the closest surroundings (banlieue) gives a total of 641,591. And, including the outer commuter zone (forensenwoonzone) the population is 810,983. Retrieved on 2008-10-19. This includes a total of 52 municipalities, among others, Herstal and Seraing. Liège ranks as the third most populous urban area in Belgium, after Brussels and Antwerp, and the fourth municipality after Antwerp, Ghent and Charleroi.
The Limes Saxoniae (Latin for "Limit of Saxony"), also known as the Limes Saxonicus or Sachsenwall ("Saxon Dyke"), was an unfortified limes or border between the Saxons and the Slavic Obotrites, established about 810 in present-day Schleswig-Holstein.
This list records the bishops of the Roman Catholic diocese of Bremen (Bistum Bremen), supposedly a suffragan of the Archbishopric of Cologne, then of the bishops of Bremen, who were in personal union archbishops of Hamburg (simply titled Archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen), later simply titled archbishops of Bremen, since 1180 simultaneously officiating as rulers of princely rank (prince-archbishop) in the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen (Erzstift Bremen; est. 1180 and secularised in 1648), a state of imperial immediacy within the Holy Roman Empire.
This is a list of the Dukes and Princes of Benevento.
The Franks were originally led by dukes (military leaders) and reguli (petty kings).
The monarchs of the Kingdom of France and its predecessors (and successor monarchies) ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of the Franks in 486 until the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870, with several interruptions.
This is a list of monarchs who ruled over the German territories of central Europe from the division of the Frankish Empire in 843 (by which a separate Eastern Frankish Kingdom was created), until the collapse of the German Empire in 1918.
This is a list of princess-abbesses of Quedlinburg Abbey.
The following is a list of rulers during the history of Bavaria.
The rulers of Lorraine have held different posts under different governments over different regions.
The land of Provence has a history quite separate from that of any of the larger nations of Europe.
This article lists dukes, electors, and kings ruling over different territories named Saxony from the beginning of the Saxon Duchy in the 9th century to the end of the Saxon Kingdom in 1918.
Liudolf (– 11/12 March 866) was a Carolingian office bearer and count in the Duchy of Saxony from about 844.
Liudolf (– 6 September 957), a member of the Ottonian dynasty, was Duke of Swabia from 950 until 954.
Liutgarde of Saxony (931 – 18 November 953), a member of the Ottonian dynasty, was Duchess consort of Lorraine from 947 until her death by her marriage with Duke Conrad the Red.
The Lombards or Longobards (Langobardi, Longobardi, Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.
Lombardy (Lombardia; Lumbardia, pronounced: (Western Lombard), (Eastern Lombard)) is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of.
Lothair II (926/8 – 22 November 950), often Lothair of Arles, was the King of Italy from 948 to his death.
Lothair (Lothaire; Lothārius; 941 – 2 March 986), sometimes called Lothair III or Lothair IV, was the Carolingian king of West Francia from 10 September 954 until his death in 986.
Lotharingia (Latin: Lotharii regnum) was a medieval successor kingdom of the Carolingian Empire, comprising the present-day Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany), Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany), Saarland (Germany), and Lorraine (France).
Louis IV (September 920 / September 921 – 10 September 954), called d'Outremer or Transmarinus (both meaning "from overseas"), reigned as king of West Francia from 936 to 954.
Lower Burgundy was a historical kingdom in what is now southeastern France, so-called because it was lower down the Rhone Valley than Upper Burgundy.
The Lutici (known by various spelling variants) were a federation of West Slavic Polabian tribes, who between the 10th and 12th centuries lived in what is now northeastern Germany.
The Macedonian dynasty ruled the Byzantine Empire from 867 to 1056, following the Amorian dynasty.
Magdeburg (Low Saxon: Meideborg) is the capital city and the second largest city of the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
Magdeburg Cathedral (Magdeburger Dom), officially called the Cathedral of Saints Catherine and Maurice (Dom zu Magdeburg St.), is a Protestant cathedral in Germany and the oldest Gothic cathedral in the country.
Satellite view of Mainz (south of the Rhine) and Wiesbaden Mainz (Mogontiacum, Mayence) is the capital and largest city of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany.
The Marca Geronis (march of Gero) was a vast super-march in the middle of the tenth century.
A march or mark was, in broad terms, a medieval European term for any kind of borderland, as opposed to a notional "heartland".
The March of Carinthia was a frontier district (march) of the Carolingian Empire created in 889.
The March of Ivrea was a large frontier county in the northwest of the medieval Italian kingdom from the late 9th to the early 11th century.
The March of Merseburg (Mark Merseburg) was a short-lived march of the Holy Roman Empire.
The March of Verona and Aquileia was a vast march (frontier district) of the Holy Roman Empire in northeastern Italy during the Middle Ages, centered on the cities of Verona and Aquileia.
The March of Zeitz (Mark Zeitz) was a march of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Margravate of Meissen (Markgrafschaft Meißen) was a medieval principality in the area of the modern German state of Saxony.
Margrave was originally the medieval title for the military commander assigned to maintain the defense of one of the border provinces of the Holy Roman Empire or of a kingdom.
The Marriage Charter of Empress Theophanu (State Archives of Wolfenbüttel, 6 Urk 11) is the dower document for the Byzantine princess Theophanu.
Marshal is a term used in several official titles in various branches of society.
Saint Matilda (– 14 March 968) was Duchess of Saxony from 912 and German queen (Queen of the Franks) from 919 by her marriage with Henry the Fowler, the first king of the Ottonian dynasty.
Matilda (December 955 – 999), also known as Mathilda and Mathilde, was the first Princess-Abbess of Quedlinburg.
Under the Merovingian dynasty, the mayor of the palace (maior palatii) or majordomo (maior domus) was the manager of the household of the Frankish king.
Mecklenburg (locally, Low German: Mękel(n)borg) is a historical region in northern Germany comprising the western and larger part of the federal-state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
Memleben is a village and part of the Kaiserpfalz municipality of the Burgenlandkreis district, in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
Merseburg is a town in the south of the German state of Saxony-Anhalt on the river Saale, approx.
Middle Francia (Francia media) was a short-lived Frankish kingdom which was created in 843 by the Treaty of Verdun after an intermittent civil war between the grandsons of Charlemagne resulted in division of the united empire.
Mieszko I (– 25 May 992) was the ruler of the Polans from about 960 until his death.
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits).
The Monumenta Germaniae Historica (frequently abbreviated MGH in bibliographies and lists of sources) is a comprehensive series of carefully edited and published primary sources, both chronicle and archival, for the study of German history (broadly conceived) from the end of the Roman Empire to 1500.
Nako, Nakon, Nakko, or Nacco (flourished 954 – ca. 966) was an Obotrite leader who, along with his brother Stoigniew, led the forces of a Slavic confederacy in a revolt against the Germans, especially Herman Billung, Duke of Saxony.
Nikephoros II Phokas (Latinized: Nicephorus II Phocas; Νικηφόρος Β΄ Φωκᾶς, Nikēphóros II Phōkãs; c. 912 – 11 December 969) was Byzantine Emperor from 963 to 969.
Norman Frank Cantor (November 19, 1929 – September 18, 2004) was a Canadian-American historian who specialized in the medieval period.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
The Northern March or North March (Nordmark) was created out of the division of the vast Marca Geronis in 965.
Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is a city on the river Pegnitz and on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about north of Munich.
Oberto I Obizzo (also Otbert) (died 15 October 975) was an Italian count palatine and margrave and the oldest known member of the Obertenghi family.
The Obotrites (Obotriti) or Obodrites (Obodrzyce meaning: at the waters), also spelled Abodrites (Abodriten), were a confederation of medieval West Slavic tribes within the territory of modern Mecklenburg and Holstein in northern Germany (see Polabian Slavs).
Odo (or Hodo) I (also Huodo or Huoto) (c. 930 – 13 March 993) was margrave in the Saxon Eastern March of the Holy Roman Empire from 965 until his death.
Otto (– 30 November 912), called the Illustrious (Otto der Erlauchte) by later authors, a member of the Ottonian dynasty, was Duke of Saxony from 880 to his death.
Otto II (955 – December 7, 983), called the Red (Rufus), was Holy Roman Emperor from 973 until his death in 983.
Otto III (June/July 980 – 23 January 1002) was Holy Roman Emperor from 996 until his early death in 1002.
The Ottonian dynasty (Ottonen) was a Saxon dynasty of German monarchs (919–1024), named after three of its kings and Holy Roman Emperors named Otto, especially its first Emperor Otto I. It is also known as the Saxon dynasty after the family's origin in the German stem duchy of Saxony.
The Ottonian Renaissance was a limited "renaissance" of Byzantine and Late Antique art in Central and Southern Europe that accompanied the reigns of the first three Holy Roman Emperors of the Ottonian (or Saxon) dynasty: Otto I (936–973), Otto II (973–983), and Otto III (983–1002), and which in large part depended upon their patronage.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
Palm Sunday is a Christian moveable feast that falls on the Sunday before Easter.
Pandulf I Ironhead (died March 981) was the Prince of Benevento and Capua from 943 (or 944) until his death.
The Papal States, officially the State of the Church (Stato della Chiesa,; Status Ecclesiasticus; also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870.
Pavia (Lombard: Pavia; Ticinum; Medieval Latin: Papia) is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy, northern Italy, south of Milan on the lower Ticino river near its confluence with the Po.
The Peene is a river in Germany.
Penance is repentance of sins as well as an alternate name for the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox sacrament of Reconciliation or Confession.
Pepin the Short (Pippin der Kurze, Pépin le Bref, c. 714 – 24 September 768) was the King of the Franks from 751 until his death.
The Po (Padus and Eridanus; Po; ancient Ligurian: Bodincus or Bodencus; Πάδος, Ἠριδανός) is a river that flows eastward across northern Italy.
Polabian Slavs (Połobske Słowjany, Słowianie połabscy, Polabští Slované) is a collective term applied to a number of Lechitic (West Slavic) tribes who lived along the Elbe river in what is today Eastern Germany.
Pope Benedict V (Benedictus V; died 4 July 965) was Pope from 22 May to 23 June 964, in opposition to Pope Leo VIII.
Pope John XII (Ioannes XII; c. 930/93714 May 964) was head of the Catholic Church from 16 December 955 to his death in 964.
Pope John XIII (Ioannes XIII; d. 6 September 972) was Pope from 1 October 965 to his death in 972.
Pope Leo VIII (died 1 March 965) was Pope from 23 June 964 to his death in 965; before that, he was an antipope from 963 to 964, in opposition to Pope John XII and Pope Benedict V. An appointee of the Holy Roman Emperor, Otto I, his pontificate occurred during the period known as the Saeculum obscurum.
Pope Stephen II (Stephanus II (or III); 714-26 April 757 a Roman aristocrat was Pope from 26 March 752 to his death in 757. He succeeded Pope Zachary following the death of Pope-elect Stephen (sometimes called Stephen II). Stephen II marks the historical delineation between the Byzantine Papacy and the Frankish Papacy. The safety of Rome was facing invasion by the Kingdom of the Lombards. Pope Stephen II traveled all the way to Paris to seek assistance against the Lombard threat from Pepin the Short. Pepin had been anointed a first time in 751 in Soissons by Boniface, archbishop of Mainz, but named his price. With the Frankish nobles agreeing to campaign in Lombardy, the Pope consecrated Pepin a second time in a lavish ceremony at the Basilica of St Denis in 754, bestowing upon him the additional title of Patricius Romanorum (Latin for "Patrician of the Romans") in the first recorded crowning of a civil ruler by a Pope. Pepin defeated the Lombards – taking control of northern Italy – and made a gift (called the Donation of Pepin) of the properties formerly constituting the Exarchate of Ravenna to the pope, eventually leading to the establishment of the Papal States.
The phrase "power behind the throne" refers to a person or group that informally exercises the real power of a high-ranking office, such as a head of state.
Primas Germaniae is a historical title of honor for the most important Roman Catholic bishop (Primate) in the German lands.
Primus inter pares (Πρῶτος μεταξὺ ἴσων) is a Latin phrase meaning first among equals.
The Principality of Capua (Principatus Capuae or Capue, Principato di Capua) was a Lombard state centred on Capua in Southern Italy, usually de facto independent, but under the varying suzerainty of Western and Eastern Roman Empires.
The Principality of HungaryS.
The Lombard Principality of Salerno was a South Italian state, formed in 851 out of the Principality of Benevento after a decade-long civil war.
Provence (Provençal: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône River to the west to the Italian border to the east, and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south.
Quedlinburg is a town situated just north of the Harz mountains, in the district of Harz in the west of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
Quedlinburg Abbey (Stift Quedlinburg or Reichsstift Quedlinburg) was a house of secular canonesses (Frauenstift) in Quedlinburg in what is now Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
A queen dowager, dowager queen or queen mother (compare: princess dowager, dowager princess or princess mother) is a title or status generally held by the widow of a king.
Questia is an online commercial digital library of books and articles that has an academic orientation, with a particular emphasis on books and journal articles in the humanities and social sciences.
Ravenna (also locally; Ravèna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy.
Regensburg (Castra-Regina;; Řezno; Ratisbonne; older English: Ratisbon; Bavarian: Rengschburg or Rengschburch) is a city in south-east Germany, at the confluence of the Danube, Naab and Regen rivers.
A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.
Reichenau Island is an island in Lake Constance in southern Germany.
Reims (also spelled Rheims), a city in the Grand Est region of France, lies east-northeast of Paris.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
Rogation days are days of prayer and fasting in Western Christianity.
The Archdiocese of Milan (Arcidiocesi di Milano; Archidioecesis Mediolanensis) is a metropolitan see of the Catholic Church in Italy which covers the areas of Milan, Monza, Lecco and Varese.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Reims (Archidioecesis Remensis; French: Archidiocèse de Reims) is an archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France.
The Catholic Diocese of Como (Dioecesis Comensis) in northern Italy, has existed since the fourth century.
The Diocese of Novara (Dioecesis Novariensis) is a Roman Catholic diocese in the Piedmont region of northwest Italy.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Rudolph II (c. 880 – 11 July 937), a member of the Elder House of Welf, was King of Burgundy from 912 until his death.
The Saale, also known as the Saxon Saale (Sächsische Saale) and Thuringian Saale (Thüringische Saale), is a river in Germany and a left-bank tributary of the Elbe.
Saalfeld (Saalfeld/Saale) is a town in Germany, capital of the Saalfeld-Rudolstadt district of Thuringia.
Saint Maurice (also Moritz, Morris, or Mauritius) was the leader of the legendary Roman Theban Legion in the 3rd century, and one of the favorite and most widely venerated saints of that group.
The Salian dynasty (Salier; also known as the Frankish dynasty after the family's origin and position as dukes of Franconia) was a dynasty in the High Middle Ages.
The Salian Franks, also called the Salians (Latin: Salii; Greek: Σάλιοι Salioi), were a northwestern subgroup of the earliest Franks who first appear in the historical records in the third century.
San Leo (San Lé) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Rimini in the Italian region Emilia-Romagna, located about southeast of Bologna and about southwest of Rimini.
The Saxon Eastern March (Sächsische Ostmark) was a march of the Holy Roman Empire from the 10th until the 12th century.
Scriptorium, literally "a place for writing", is commonly used to refer to a room in medieval European monasteries devoted to the writing, copying and illuminating of manuscripts by monastic scribes.
A seneschal was a senior court appointment within a royal, ducal, or noble household during the Middle Ages and early Modern period, historically a steward or majordomo of a medieval great house, such as a royal household.
Siegfried (died 3 December 937) was the Count and Margrave of Merseburg from an unknown date before 934 until his death.
Signum manus (sometimes also known as Chrismon) refers to the medieval practice, current from the Merovingian period until the 14th century in the Frankish Empire and its successors, of signing a document or charter with a special type of monogram or royal cypher.
A steward is an official who is appointed by the legal ruling monarch to represent them in a country, and may have a mandate to govern it in their name; in the latter case, synonymous with the position of regent, vicegerent, viceroy (for Romance languages), governor, or deputy (the Roman rector, praefectus or vicarius).
Stoigniew (died October 16, 955) was an Obotrite leader, reigning in the middle of the tenth century.
Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.
Suzerainty (and) is a back-formation from the late 18th-century word suzerain, meaning upper-sovereign, derived from the French sus (meaning above) + -erain (from souverain, meaning sovereign).
A synod is a council of a church, usually convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application.
Thankmar (or Tammo) (c. 908 – 28 July 938) was the eldest (and only) son of Henry I of Germany by his first wife, Hatheburg of Merseburg (or Liutgard).
The Deeds of the Saxons, or Three Books of Annals (Res gestae saxonicae sive annalium libri tres) is a three-volume chronicle of 10th century Germany written by Widukind of Corvey.
Theophanu (Θεοφανώ, Theophano; Theophanu, Theofana; 955June 15, 990 AD), also spelled Theophania, Theophana or Theophano, was an Empress consort of the Holy Roman Empire by marriage to Holy Roman Emperor Otto II, and regent of the Holy Roman Empire during the minority of her son from 983 until her death in 990.
Thietmar (also Dietmar or Dithmar; 25 July 975 – 1 December 1018), Prince-Bishop of Merseburg from 1009 until his death, was an important chronicler recording the reigns of German kings and Holy Roman Emperors of the Ottonian (Saxon) dynasty.
The Free State of Thuringia (Freistaat Thüringen) is a federal state in central Germany.
A tithe (from Old English: teogoþa "tenth") is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a contribution to a religious organization or compulsory tax to government.
The Treaty of Verdun, signed in August 843, was the first of the treaties that divided the Carolingian Empire into three kingdoms among the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious, who was the son of Charlemagne.
Trento (anglicized as Trent; local dialects: Trènt; Trient) is a city on the Adige River in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol in Italy.
Trial in absentia is a criminal proceeding in a court of law in which the person who is subject to it is not physically present at those proceedings.
Saint Ulrich of Augsburg (893 – 4 July 973), sometimes spelled Uodalric or Odalrici, was Bishop of Augsburg in Germany.
The Philipps University of Marburg (Philipps-Universität Marburg) was founded in 1527 by Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse, which makes it one of Germany's oldest universities and the oldest Protestant university in the world.
The Kingdom of Upper Burgundy was a Frankish dominion established in 888 by the Welf king Rudolph I of Burgundy on the territory of former Middle Francia.
A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.
Verdun (official name before 1970 Verdun-sur-Meuse) is a small city in the Meuse department in Grand Est in northeastern France.
A viceroy is a regal official who runs a country, colony, city, province, or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory.
The Wagri, Wagiri, or Wagrians were a tribe of Polabian Slavs inhabiting Wagria, or eastern Holstein in northern Germany, from the ninth to twelfth centuries.
Wallhausen is a municipality in the Mansfeld-Südharz district of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
(Saint) Wenceslaus I (Václav; c. 907 – September 28, 935), Wenceslas I or Václav the Good was the duke (kníže) of Bohemia from 921 until his assassination in 935.
Wends (Winedas, Old Norse: Vindr, Wenden, Winden, vendere, vender, Wendowie) is a historical name for Slavs living near Germanic settlement areas.
In medieval historiography, West Francia (Latin: Francia occidentalis) or the Kingdom of the West Franks (regnum Francorum occidentalium) was the western part of Charlemagne's Empire, inhabited and ruled by the Germanic Franks that forms the earliest stage of the Kingdom of France, lasting from about 840 until 987.
The West Slavic languages are a subdivision of the Slavic language group.
The West Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the West Slavic languages.
Westphalia (Westfalen) is a region in northwestern Germany and one of the three historic parts of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia.
Wichmann I the Elder (also spelled Wigmann or Wichman) (died 23 April 944) was a member of the Saxon House of Billung.
Wichmann II the Younger (also spelled Wigmann or Wichman) (about 930 - 22 September 967) was a member of the Saxon House of Billung.
Widukind of Corvey (c. 925after 973) was a medieval Saxon chronicler.
Wigger I (died 981) was the father of a line of counts ruling from his new castle of Bilstein, west of Albungen (today part of Eschwege) to the Werra.
Willebadessen is a town in Höxter district and Detmold region in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
William (929 – 2 March 968) was Archbishop of Mainz from 17 December 954 until his death.
Worms is a city in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, situated on the Upper Rhine about south-southwest of Frankfurt-am-Main.
Emperor Otto I, Holy Roman emperor Otto I, Oddo I, Otho I of Saxony, Otho I, Holy Roman Emperor, Otto I, Otto I (HRR), Otto I (Holy Roman Empire), Otto I The Great, Otto I of Germany, Otto I the Great, Otto I, King of the East Franks, Otto I, the Great, Otto II, Duke of Saxony, Otto The Great, Otto the Great, Ottone I, Ottonian system.