133 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Abdülaziz, Abdul Hamid II, Abdulmejid I, Abdulmejid II, Abolition of the Ottoman sultanate, Agnatic seniority, Ahmed I, Ahmed II, Ahmed Nihad, Ali Vâsib, Almanach de Gotha, Amuca tribe, Anatolia, Anatolian beyliks, Ömer Abdülmecid Osmanoğlu, Şehzade Bayezid, Şehzade Mehmed Selaheddin, Şehzade Mustafa, Bayezid II, Bayezid Osman, Bey, Bilecik, Caliphate, Constantinople, Daily Sabah, Dündar Ali Osman, Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, Donald Quataert, Eastern Orthodox Church, Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, Edirne, Emir, Ertuğrul Osman, Fall of Constantinople, Favourite, First Constitutional Era, Fratricide, General Assembly of the Ottoman Empire, Gennadius Scholarius, Ghazi (warrior), Government of the Grand National Assembly, Hanafi, Haseki sultan, Hejaz, Janissaries, Kafes, Kayı tribe, Khagan, Khan (title), ..., List of admirals in the Ottoman Empire, List of Kapudan Pashas, List of mothers of the Ottoman sultans, List of Ottoman Grand Viziers, List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire, List of Turkic dynasties and countries, Mahmud II, Malik, Marguerite Irma Fournier, Mehmed Abdulaziz, Mehmed I, Mehmed III, Mehmed IV, Mehmed Orhan, Mehmed the Conqueror, Mehmed V, Mehmed VI, Monarch, Morea, Morganatic marriage, Mujahideen, Murad I, Murad II, Murad III, Murad V, Mustafa I, Mustafa II, Naz Osmanoglu, Oghuz Turks, Order of succession, Orhan, Orhan Murad Osmanoğlu, Osman Fuad, Osman I, Osman II, Osmanoğlu family, Ottoman Caliphate, Ottoman dynasty, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman family tree, Ottoman family tree (simplified), Ottoman Imperial Harem, Ottoman Interregnum, Padishah, Peloponnese, Plovdiv, Primogeniture, Rise of the Ottoman Empire, Rumelia, Sabah (newspaper), Sayyid, Söğüt, Süleyman Çelebi, Second Constitutional Era, Selim I, Selim II, Selim Süleyman Osmanoğlu, Seljuk Empire, Shah, Sharif of Mecca, Silk, Suleiman II, Suleiman the Magnificent, Sultan, Sultan Cem, Sultan of Sultans, Sultanate of Rum, Sultanate of Women, Sunni Islam, Survival of the fittest, The Independent, The New York Times, Timur, Tughra, Turkey, Turkic languages, Turkic peoples, Turkish language, Turkish people, Turkish War of Independence, Valide sultan, Zaman (newspaper), 150 personae non gratae of Turkey. Expand index (83 more) » « Shrink index
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abdülaziz (Ottoman Turkish: عبد العزيز / `Abdü’l-`Azīz, Abdülaziz; 8 February 18304 June 1876) was the 32nd Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and reigned between 25 June 1861 and 30 May 1876.
Abdul Hamid II (عبد الحميد ثانی, `Abdü’l-Ḥamīd-i sânî; İkinci Abdülhamit; 21 September 184210 February 1918) was the 34th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and the last Sultan to exert effective control over the fracturing state.
Abdülmecid I (Ottoman Turkish: عبد المجيد اول ‘Abdü’l-Mecīd-i evvel; 23/25 April 182325 June 1861), also known as Abdulmejid and similar spellings, was the 31st Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and succeeded his father Mahmud II on 2 July 1839.
Abdulmejid II (عبد المجید الثانی, Abd al-Madjeed al-Thâni – Halife İkinci Abdülmecit Efendi, 29 May 1868 – 23 August 1944) was the last Caliph of Islam, nominally the 37th Head of the Ottoman Imperial House from 1922 to 1924.
The abolition of the Ottoman Sultanate by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (GNAT) on 1 November 1922 ended the Ottoman Empire, which had lasted since 1299.
Agnatic seniority is a patrilineal principle of inheritance where the order of succession to the throne prefers the monarch's younger brother over the monarch's own sons.
Ahmed I (احمد اول; I.; 18 April 1590 – 22 November 1617) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1603 until his death in 1617.
Ahmed II (Ottoman Turkish: احمد ثانى Aḥmed-i sānī) (25 February 1643 – 6 February 1695) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1691 to 1695.
Ahmed Nihad (5 July 1883 – 4 June 1954), 38th Head of the Imperial House of Osman from 1944 to 1954, was the 38th and second post-imperial head of the Imperial House of Osman.
Ali Vâsib (13 October 1903 – 9 December 1983) was an Ottoman prince.
The Almanach de Gotha (Gothaischer Hofkalender) was a directory of Europe's royalty and higher nobility, also including the major governmental, military and diplomatic corps, as well as statistical data by country.
The Amuca tribe (in Turkish: Amuca Kabilesi) is one of the nomadic Oghuz Turks tribes, of the Ottoman Empire, which moved from Anatolia to the Balkans.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Anatolian beyliks (Anadolu beylikleri, Ottoman Turkish: Tavâif-i mülûk, Beylik), sometimes known as Turkmen beyliks, were small principalities (or petty kingdoms) in Anatolia governed by Beys, the first of which were founded at the end of the 11th century.
Şehzade Ömer Abdülmecid Osmanoğlu (born 4 June 1941) is the only child of Mahmud Namık, and his wife Şaharazade Hanım.
Şehzade Bayezid (1525 – 25 September 1561) was an Ottoman prince as the son of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent and his legal wife Hürrem Sultan.
Şehzade Mehmed Selaheddin (6 August 1861 – 29 April 1915) was the only son of Sultan Mehmed Murad V, 33rd Sovereign of the House of Osman, and his second wife Reftarıdil Kadın.
Şehzade Mustafa Muhlisi (1515 – 6 October 1553) was the eldest son of the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent and his consort Mahidevran Sultan.
Bayezid II (3 December 1447 – 26 May 1512) (Ottoman Turkish: بايزيد ثانى Bāyezīd-i s̱ānī, Turkish: II. Bayezid or II. Beyazıt) was the eldest son and successor of Mehmed II, ruling as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512.
Bayezid Osman, also known as Osman Bayezid Osmanoğlu with a surname as required by the Republic of Turkey, or known by the Ottoman imperial name as Şehzade (Prince) Bayezid Effendi (بایزید عثمان; 23 June 1924 – 6 January 2017), was the 44th Head of the Imperial House of Osman, which ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1299 to 1922.
“Bey” (بك “Beik”, bej, beg, بيه “Beyeh”, بیگ “Beyg” or بگ “Beg”) is a Turkish title for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders or rulers of various sized areas in the Ottoman Empire.
Bilecik is the provincial capital of Turkey's Bilecik Province.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Daily Sabah (lit. "Daily Morning") is a Turkish pro-government daily published in Turkey.
Dündar Ali Osman (born 30 December 1930), also known as Dündar Ali Osman Osmanoğlu (دوندار علي عثمان), is the 45th Head of the fallen House of Osman, which ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1299 to 1922.
The period of the defeat and end of the Ottoman Empire (1908–1922) began with the Second Constitutional Era with the Young Turk Revolution.
Donald Quataert (September 10, 1941 – February 10, 2011) was a Middle East/Ottoman historian at Binghamton University.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
The Ecumenical Patriarch (Η Αυτού Θειοτάτη Παναγιότης, ο Αρχιεπίσκοπος Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Νέας Ρώμης και Οικουμενικός Πατριάρχης, "His Most Divine All-Holiness the Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome, and Ecumenical Patriarch") is the Archbishop of Constantinople–New Rome and ranks as primus inter pares (first among equals) among the heads of the several autocephalous churches that make up the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Edirne, historically known as Adrianople (Hadrianopolis in Latin or Adrianoupolis in Greek, founded by the Roman emperor Hadrian on the site of a previous Thracian settlement named Uskudama), is a city in the northwestern Turkish province of Edirne in the region of East Thrace, close to Turkey's borders with Greece and Bulgaria.
An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.
Ertuğrul Osman (ارطغرل عثمان), also known as Osman Ertuğrul Osmanoğlu with a surname as required by the Turkish Republic (18 August 1912 – 23 September 2009), was an Imperial Prince (or Şehzade) of the Ottoman Empire and the 43rd Head of the Imperial House of Osman from 1994 until his death.
The Fall of Constantinople (Ἅλωσις τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Halōsis tēs Kōnstantinoupoleōs; İstanbul'un Fethi Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading Ottoman army on 29 May 1453.
A favourite or favorite (American English) was the intimate companion of a ruler or other important person.
The First Constitutional Era (مشروطيت; Birinci Meşrutiyet Devri) of the Ottoman Empire was the period of constitutional monarchy from the promulgation of the Kanûn-ı Esâsî (meaning Basic Law or Fundamental Law in Ottoman Turkish), written by members of the Young Ottomans, on 23 November 1876 until 13 February 1878.
Fratricide (from the Latin words frater "brother" and cida "killer," or cidum "a killing," both from caedere "to kill, to cut down") is the act of killing one's brother.
The General Assembly (Meclis-i Umumî or Genel Parlamento) of the Ottoman Empire was the first attempt at representative democracy at the imperial level in the Ottoman Empire.
Gennadius II (Greek Γεννάδιος Βʹ; lay name Γεώργιος Κουρτέσιος Σχολάριος, Georgios Kourtesios Scholarios; c. 1400 – c. 1473) was a Byzantine philosopher and theologian, and Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople from 1454 to 1464.
Ghazi (غازي) is an Arabic term originally referring to an individual who participates in ghazw (غزو), meaning military expeditions or raiding; after the emergence of Islam, it took on new connotations of religious warfare.
The Government of the Grand National Assembly (Büyük Millet Meclisi Hükûmeti), commonly known as the Ankara Government (Ankara Hükûmeti), was the name given to the provisional and revolutionary Turkish government based in Ankara during the Turkish War of Independence (1919–1923) and during the final years of the Ottoman Empire.
The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).
Haseki Sultan (خاصکى سلطان, Ḫāṣekī Sulṭān) was the imperial title used for the chief consort of an Ottoman Sultan.
The Hejaz (اَلْـحِـجَـاز,, literally "the Barrier"), is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia.
The Janissaries (يڭيچرى, meaning "new soldier") were elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops, bodyguards and the first modern standing army in Europe.
Kafes, literally "the cage", was the part of the Imperial Harem of the Ottoman Palace where possible successors to the throne were kept under a form of house-arrest and constant surveillance by the palace guards.
frame The Kayı tribe or Kai tribe (Kayı boyu) was an Oghuz Turkic people and a sub-branch of the Bozok tribal federation.
Khagan or Qaghan (Old Turkic: kaɣan; хаан, khaan) is a title of imperial rank in the Turkic and Mongolian languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a khaganate (empire).
Khan خان/khan; is a title for a sovereign or a military ruler, used by Mongolians living to the north of China. Khan has equivalent meanings such as "commander", "leader", or "ruler", "king" and "chief". khans exist in South Asia, Middle East, Central Asia, Eastern Europe, East Africa and Turkey. The female alternatives are Khatun and Khanum. These titles or names are sometimes written as Khan/خان in Persian, Han, Kan, Hakan, Hanum, or Hatun (in Turkey) and as "xan", "xanım" (in Azerbaijan), and medieval Turkic tribes.
These Admirals of the Ottoman Empire are senior naval officers (script or reis pasha) of the Ottoman Empire other than the Kapudan Pashas who were the Grand Admirals of the Ottoman fleet.
The Kapudan Pasha (قپودان پاشا, Modern Turkish: Kaptan Paşa), also known in Turkish as Kaptan-ı Derya ("Captain of the Seas"), was the commander-in-chief of the navy of the Ottoman Empire.
This is a list of the biological mothers of Ottoman sultans.
The Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (Vezir-i Azam or Sadr-ı Azam (Sadrazam); Ottoman Turkish: صدر اعظم or وزیر اعظم) was the de facto prime minister of the sultan in the Ottoman Empire, with absolute power of attorney and, in principle, dismissible only by the sultan himself in the classical period, before the Tanzimat reforms, or until the 1908 Revolution.
The sultans of the Ottoman Empire (Osmanlı padişahları), who were all members of the Ottoman dynasty (House of Osman), ruled over the transcontinental empire from its perceived inception in 1299 to its dissolution in 1922.
The following is a list of dynasties, states or empires which are Turkic-speaking, of Turkic origins, or both.
Mahmud II (Ottoman Turkish: محمود ثانى Mahmud-u sānī, محمود عدلى Mahmud-u Âdlî) (İkinci Mahmut) (20 July 1785 – 1 July 1839) was the 30th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death in 1839.
Malik, Melik, Malka, Malek or Melekh (𐤌𐤋𐤊; ملك; מֶלֶךְ) is the Semitic term translating to "king", recorded in East Semitic and later Northwest Semitic (e.g. Aramaic, Canaanite, Hebrew) and Arabic.
Marguerite Irma Fournier was born 1916 in Oxford County, Maine, as the daughter of Gilbert Fournier and Irma L Fournier.
Mehmed Abdulaziz or Abdulaziz Mehmed (26 September 1901 – 19 January 1977) was the 40th head of the Ottoman dynasty from 1973 to 1977.
Mehmed I (1379 – 26 May 1421), also known as Mehmed Çelebi (چلبی محمد, "the noble-born") or Kirişci (from Greek Kyritzes, "lord's son"), was the Ottoman Sultan from 1413 to 1421.
Mehmed III (Meḥmed-i sālis; III.; 26 May 1566–21 December 1603) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1595 until his death in 1603.
Mehmed IV (Ottoman Turkish: محمد رابع Meḥmed-i rābiʿ; Modern Turkish: IV. Mehmet; also known as Avcı Mehmet, Mehmed the Hunter; 2 January 1642 – 6 January 1693) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1648 to 1687.
Mehmed Orhan (Ottoman Turkish محمد اورخان; 11 July 1909 – 12 March 1994) was the 42nd head of the Ottoman dynasty from 1983 to 1994.
Mehmed II (محمد ثانى, Meḥmed-i sānī; Modern II.; 30 March 1432 – 3 May 1481), commonly known as Mehmed the Conqueror (Fatih Sultan Mehmet), was an Ottoman Sultan who ruled first for a short time from August 1444 to September 1446, and later from February 1451 to May 1481.
Mehmed V. Reşâd (Ottoman Turkish: محمد خامس Meḥmed-i ẖâmis, Beşinci Mehmet Reşat or Reşat Mehmet) (2 November 1844 – 3 July 1918) was the 35th and penultimate Ottoman Sultan.
Mehmed VI (محمد السادس Meḥmed-i sâdis, وحيد الدين Vahideddin, Vahideddin or Altıncı Mehmet), who is also known as Şahbaba (meaning "Emperor-father") among his relatives, (14 January 1861 – 16 May 1926) was the 36th and last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1918 to 1922.
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.
The Morea (Μορέας or Μοριάς, Moreja, Morée, Morea, Mora) was the name of the Peloponnese peninsula in southern Greece during the Middle Ages and the early modern period.
Morganatic marriage, sometimes called a left-handed marriage, is a marriage between people of unequal social rank, which in the context of royalty prevents the passage of the husband's titles and privileges to the wife and any children born of the marriage.
Mujahideen (مجاهدين) is the plural form of mujahid (مجاهد), the term for one engaged in Jihad (literally, "holy war").
Murad I (مراد اول; I. (nicknamed Hüdavendigâr, from Persian: خداوندگار, Khodāvandgār, "the devotee of God" – but meaning "sovereign" in this context); 29 June 1326 – 15 June 1389) was the Ottoman Sultan from 1362 to 1389.
Murad II (June 1404 – 3 February 1451) (Ottoman Turkish: مراد ثانى Murād-ı sānī, Turkish:II. Murat) was the Ottoman Sultan from 1421 to 1444 and 1446 to 1451.
Murad III (Ottoman Turkish: مراد ثالث Murād-i sālis, Turkish: III.Murat) (4 July 1546 – 15/16 January 1595) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1574 until his death in 1595.
Murad V (مراد خامس) (21 September 1840 – 29 August 1904) was the 33rd Sultan of the Ottoman Empire who reigned from 30 May to 31 August 1876.
Mustafa I (24 June 1591 – 20 January 1639), called Mustafa the Saint (Veli Mustafa) during his second reign and often called Mustafa the Mad (Deli Mustafa) by modern historians, was the son of Mehmed III and was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1617 to 1618 and from 1622 to 1623.
Mustafa II (Ottoman Turkish: مصطفى ثانى Muṣṭafā-yi sānī) (6 February 1664 – 29/30 December 1703) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1695 to 1703.
Şehzade Nazım Ziyaeddin Nazım Osmanoğlu (born 24 September 1985), known professionally as Naz Osmanoglu, is a British comedian and member of the Imperial House of Osman, former ruling dynasty of the Ottoman Empire.
The Oghuz, Oguz or Ghuzz Turks were a western Turkic people who spoke the Oghuz languages from the Common branch of Turkic language family.
An order of succession is the sequence of those entitled to hold a high office such as head of state or an honour such as a title of nobility in the order in which they stand in line to it when it becomes vacated.
Orhan Gazi (اورخان غازی، اورخان بن عثمان بن ارطغرل; Orhan Gazi) (c. 1281 – March 1362) was the second bey of the nascent Ottoman Sultanate (then known as the Ottoman Beylik or Emirate) from 1323/4 to 1362.
Orhan Murad Osmanoğlu (born 26 December 1972) is the eldest son of Osman Selaheddin Osmanoğlu and his wife Athena Joy Vassib née, Christoforides.
Osman Fuad (Çırağan Palace, Ortaköy, February 24, 1895 – 19 May 1973), was the 39th Head of the Imperial House of Osman from 1954 to 1973.
Osman I or Osman Gazi (translit; Birinci Osman or Osman Gazi; died 1323/4), sometimes transliterated archaically as Othman, was the leader of the Ottoman Turks and the founder of the Ottoman dynasty.
Osman II (عثمان ثانى ‘Osmān-i sānī; 3 November 1604 – 20 May 1622), commonly known in Turkey as Genç Osman ("Osman the Young" in English), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1618 until his death by regicide on 20 May 1622.
The Osmanoğlu family refers to the current members of the historical House of Osman (the Ottoman dynasty), which was the namesake and sole ruling house of the Ottoman Empire from 1299 until the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923.
The Ottoman Caliphate (1517–1924), under the Ottoman dynasty of the Ottoman Empire, was the last Sunni Islamic caliphate of the late medieval and the early modern era.
The Ottoman dynasty (Osmanlı Hanedanı) was made up of the members of the imperial House of Osman (خاندان آل عثمان Ḫānedān-ı Āl-ı ʿOsmān), also known as the Ottomans (Osmanlılar).
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
This is a male family tree for all the Ottoman Sultans and their mothers.
The Imperial Harem (حرم همايون, Harem-i Hümâyûn) of the Ottoman Empire was the Ottoman sultan's harem composed of the wives, servants (both female slaves and eunuchs), female relatives, and the sultan's concubines, occupying a secluded portion of the Ottoman imperial household.
The Ottoman Interregnum, or the Ottoman Civil WarDimitris J. Kastritsis, The Sons of Bayezid: Empire Building and Representation in the Ottoman.
Padishah, sometimes rendered as Padeshah or Padshah (پادشاه, padişah) is a superlative sovereign title of Persian origin, composed of the Persian pād "master" and the widespread shāh "king", which was adopted by several monarchs claiming the highest rank, roughly equivalent to the ancient Persian notion of "The Great" or "Great King", and later adopted by post-Achaemenid and Christian Emperors.
The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Πελοπόννησος, Peloponnisos) is a peninsula and geographic region in southern Greece.
Plovdiv (Пловдив) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria, with a city population of 341,000 and 675,000 in the greater metropolitan area.
Primogeniture is the right, by law or custom, of the paternally acknowledged, firstborn son to inherit his parent's entire or main estate, in preference to daughters, elder illegitimate sons, younger sons and collateral relatives; in some cases the estate may instead be the inheritance of the firstborn child or occasionally the firstborn daughter.
The foundation and rise of the Ottoman Empire is a period of history that started with the emergence of the Ottoman principality in, and ended with the conquest of Constantinople on May 29, 1453.
Rumelia (روم ايلى, Rūm-ėli; Rumeli), also known as Turkey in Europe, was a historical term describing the area in southeastern Europe that was administered by the Ottoman Empire, mainly the Balkan Peninsula.
Sabah is a Turkish daily newspaper, with a circulation of around 330,000 as of 2011.
Sayyid (also spelt Syed, Saiyed,Seyit,Seyd, Said, Sayed, Sayyed, Saiyid, Seyed and Seyyed) (سيد,; meaning "Mister"; plural سادة) is an honorific title denoting people (سيدة for females) accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali (combined Hasnain), sons of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and son-in-law Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib).
Söğüt is a town and district in Bilecik Province, Turkey.
Süleyman Çelebi (1377 – February 17, 1411) was an Ottoman prince (şehzade) and a co-ruler of the empire for several years during the Ottoman Interregnum.
The Second Constitutional Era (ايکنجى مشروطيت دورى; İkinci Meşrûtiyyet Devri) of the Ottoman Empire established shortly after the 1908 Young Turk Revolution which forced Sultan Abdul Hamid II to restore the constitutional monarchy by the revival of the Ottoman Parliament, the General Assembly of the Ottoman Empire and the restoration of the constitution of 1876.
Selim I (Ottoman Turkish: سليم اول, Modern Turkish: Birinci Selim; 1470/1 – September 1520), known as Selim the Grim or Selim the Resolute (Yavuz Sultan Selim), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520.
Selim II (Ottoman Turkish: سليم ثانى Selīm-i sānī, Turkish: II.Selim; 28 May 1524 – 12/15 December 1574), also known as "Selim the Sot (Mest)" or ("Selim the Drunkard") and Sarı Selim ("Selim the Blond"), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1566 until his death in 1574.
Şehzade Selim Süleyman Osmanoğlu (born 15 December 1979) is the youngest son of Şehzade Osman Selaheddin Osmanoğlu and his wife Athena Joy Hanım, née, Christoforides.
The Seljuk Empire (also spelled Seljuq) (آل سلجوق) was a medieval Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qiniq branch of Oghuz Turks.
Shah (Šāh, pronounced, "king") is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran (historically also known as Persia).
The Sharif of Mecca (شريف مكة, Sharīf Makkah) or Hejaz (شريف الحجاز, Sharīf al-Ḥijāz) was the title of the leader of the Sharifate of Mecca, traditional steward of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina and the surrounding Hejaz.
Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles.
Suleiman II (15 April 1642 – 22/23 June 1691) (Ottoman Turkish: سليمان ثانى Süleymān-i sānī) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1687 to 1691.
Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
Sultan Cem or Cem Sultan (December 22, 1459 – February 25, 1495) (جم; Cem Sultan), also referred to as Jem Sultan, or Zizim by the French, was a pretender to the Ottoman throne in the 15th century.
Sultan of Sultans is the literal English translation of the Ottoman Turkish royal title Sulṭānü's-Selāṭīn.
The Sultanate of Rûm (also known as the Rûm sultanate (سلجوقیان روم, Saljuqiyān-e Rum), Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate, Sultanate of Iconium, Anatolian Seljuk State (Anadolu Selçuklu Devleti) or Turkey Seljuk State (Türkiye Selçuklu Devleti)) was a Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim state established in the parts of Anatolia which had been conquered from the Byzantine Empire by the Seljuk Empire, which was established by the Seljuk Turks.
The Sultanate of Women (Kadınlar Saltanatı) was the nearly 130-year period during the 16th and 17th centuries when the women of the Imperial Harem of the Ottoman Empire exerted extraordinary political influence over state matters and over the (male) Ottoman sultan, starting from the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
"Survival of the fittest" is a phrase that originated from Darwinian evolutionary theory as a way of describing the mechanism of natural selection.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.
A tughra (طغرا tuğrâ) is a calligraphic monogram, seal or signature of a sultan that was affixed to all official documents and correspondence.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.
The Turkish War of Independence (Kurtuluş Savaşı "War of Liberation", also known figuratively as İstiklâl Harbi "Independence War" or Millî Mücadele "National Campaign"; 19 May 1919 – 24 July 1923) was fought between the Turkish National Movement and the proxies of the Allies – namely Greece on the Western front, Armenia on the Eastern, France on the Southern and with them, the United Kingdom and Italy in Constantinople (now Istanbul) – after parts of the Ottoman Empire were occupied and partitioned following the Ottomans' defeat in World War I. Few of the occupying British, French, and Italian troops had been deployed or engaged in combat.
Valide sultan (والده سلطان, lit. "mother sultan") was the title held by the "legal mother" of a ruling Sultan of the Ottoman Empire.
Zaman (literally "time" or "era"), sometimes stylized as ZAMAN, was a daily newspaper in Turkey.
The 150 personae non gratae of Turkey (lit) is a list of high-ranking personages of the Ottoman Empire who were exiled from the Republic of Turkey shortly after the end of the Turkish War of Independence in 1923 and the dissolution of the empire.
House of Osman, House of Ottoman, House of osman, Imperial House of Osman, Line of pretenders to the former Ottoman throne, Line of succession to the Ottoman throne, Line of succession to the former Ottoman throne, Osman Turks, Osmanli, Osmanli Dynasty, Osmanlis, Osmanlı, Osmanlı Hanedanı, Osmanlılar, Osmans, Ottoman Dynasty, Ottoman people, Sultans:Imperial Princesses, The Ottoman Turks, The Ottomans, Turks Ottomans.