135 relations: Anthroposphere, Asthenosphere, Atmosphere, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric chemistry, Atmospheric physics, Atmospheric sciences, Biogeography, Biosphere, Chemical oceanography, Climatology, Crust (geology), Cryosphere, Earth, Earth science, Earth's magnetic field, Economic geology, Ecosphere (planetary), Edaphology, Engineering geology, Environmental chemistry, Environmental geology, Environmental science, Environmental soil science, Exosphere, Gemology, Geochemistry, Geochronology, Geodesy, GeoEye, Geographic information system, Geoinformatics, Geomicrobiology, Geomorphology, Geosphere, Geostatistics, Glaciology, Global Positioning System, Goddard Space Flight Center, Historical geology, History of cartography, History of ecology, History of geodesy, History of geography, History of geology, History of geophysics, History of marine biology, History of mineralogy, History of paleontology, History of soil science, ..., Human geography, Hydrogeology, Hydrology, Hydrosphere, Inner core, Ionosphere, Life, Limnology, List of geoscience organizations, Lithosphere, Magnetosphere, Mantle (geology), Marine geology, Mesopause, Mesosphere, Mesosphere (mantle), Meteorology, Micropaleontology, Mineral physics, Mineralogy, Mining, NASA, NASA Earth Science, Natural environment, Natural science, Noosphere, Oceanography, Oregon State University, Outer core, Outline (list), Outline of applied science, Outline of ecology, Outline of geography, Outline of geology, Outline of geophysics, Outline of natural science, Outline of physical science, Outline of science, Outline of social science, Ozone layer, Palaeogeography, Paleoceanography, Paleoclimatology, Paleontology, Paleoseismology, Paleotempestology, Palynology, Parasitology, Pedology, Pedosphere, Petroleum geology, Petrology, Photogrammetry, Physical geodesy, Physical geography, Physical oceanography, Planet, Planetary boundary layer, Planetary geology, Planetary science, Plate tectonics, Population dynamics, Quaternary geology, Remote sensing, Satellite navigation, Science, SeaWiFS, Sedimentology, Seismology, Soil science, Solid earth, Spatial decision support system, Stratigraphy, Stratopause, Stratosphere, Structural geology, Tectonics, Thermopause, Thermosphere, Toxicology, Tropopause, Troposphere, Turbopause, Universities Space Research Association, Volcanology. Expand index (85 more) » « Shrink index
The anthroposphere (sometimes also referred as technosphere) is that part of the environment that is made or modified by humans for use in human activities and human habitats.
The asthenosphere (from Greek ἀσθενής asthenḗs 'weak' + "sphere") is the highly viscous, mechanically weak and ductilely deforming region of the upper mantle of the Earth.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Atmospheric chemistry is a branch of atmospheric science in which the chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere and that of other planets is studied.
Atmospheric physics is the application of physics to the study of the atmosphere.
Atmospheric science is the study of the Earth's atmosphere, its processes, the effects other systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems.
Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time.
The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.
Chemical oceanography is the study of ocean chemistry: the behavior of the chemical elements within the Earth's oceans.
Climatology (from Greek κλίμα, klima, "place, zone"; and -λογία, -logia) or climate science is the scientific study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
The cryosphere (from the Greek κρύος kryos, "cold", "frost" or "ice" and σφαῖρα sphaira, "globe, ball") is those portions of Earth's surface where water is in solid form, including sea ice, lake ice, river ice, snow cover, glaciers, ice caps, ice sheets, and frozen ground (which includes permafrost).
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of natural science related to the planet Earth.
Earth's magnetic field, also known as the geomagnetic field, is the magnetic field that extends from the Earth's interior out into space, where it meets the solar wind, a stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun.
Economic geology is concerned with earth materials that can be used for economic and/or industrial purposes.
An ecosphere is a planetary closed ecological system.
Edaphology (from Greek ἔδαφος, edaphos, "ground", and -λογία, -logia) is one of two main divisions of soil science, the other being pedology.
Engineering geology is the application of the geology to engineering study for the purpose of assuring that the geological factors regarding the location, design, construction, operation and maintenance of engineering works are recognized and accounted for.
Environmental chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places.
Environmental geology, like hydrogeology, is an applied science concerned with the practical application of the principles of geology in the solving of environmental problems.
Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical, biological and information sciences (including ecology, biology, physics, chemistry, plant science, zoology, mineralogy, oceanology, limnology, soil science, geology and physical geography (geodesy), and atmospheric science) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems.
Environmental soil science is the study of the interaction of humans with the pedosphere as well as critical aspects of the biosphere, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, and the atmosphere.
The exosphere (ἔξω éxō "outside, external, beyond", σφαῖρα sphaĩra "sphere") is a thin, atmosphere-like volume surrounding a planet or natural satellite where molecules are gravitationally bound to that body, but where the density is too low for them to behave as a gas by colliding with each other.
Gemology or gemmology is the science dealing with natural and artificial gemstone materials.
Geochemistry is the science that uses the tools and principles of chemistry to explain the mechanisms behind major geological systems such as the Earth's crust and its oceans.
Geochronology is the science of determining the age of rocks, fossils, and sediments using signatures inherent in the rocks themselves.
Geodesy, also known as geodetics, is the earth science of accurately measuring and understanding three of Earth's fundamental properties: its geometric shape, orientation in space, and gravitational field.
GeoEye Inc. (formerly Orbital Imaging Corporation or ORBIMAGE) was an American commercial satellite imagery company based in Herndon, Virginia.
A geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data.
Geoinformatics is the science and the technology which develops and uses information science infrastructure to address the problems of geography, cartography, geosciences and related branches of science and engineering.
Geomicrobiology is the scientific field at the intersection of geology and microbiology.
Geomorphology (from Ancient Greek: γῆ, gê, "earth"; μορφή, morphḗ, "form"; and λόγος, lógos, "study") is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface.
There are several conflicting definitions for geosphere.
Geostatistics is a branch of statistics focusing on spatial or spatiotemporal datasets.
Glaciology (from Latin: glacies, "frost, ice", and Ancient Greek: λόγος, logos, "subject matter"; literally "study of ice") is the scientific study of glaciers, or more generally ice and natural phenomena that involve ice.
The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.
The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is a major NASA space research laboratory located approximately northeast of Washington, D.C. in Greenbelt, Maryland, United States.
Historical geology or paleogeology is a discipline that uses the principles and techniques of geology to reconstruct and understand the geological history of Earth.
Cartography, or mapmaking, has been an integral part of the human history for thousands of years.
Ecology is a new science and considered as an important branch of biological science, having only become prominent during the second half of the 20th century.
Geodesy (/dʒiːˈɒdɨsi/), also named geodetics, is the scientific discipline that deals with the measurement and representation of the Earth.
The history of geography includes many histories of geography which have differed over time and between different cultural and political groups.
The history of geology is concerned with the development of the natural science of geology.
The historical development of geophysics has been motivated by two factors.
Marine biology is a hybrid subject that combines aspects of organismal function, ecological interaction and the study of marine biodiversity.
Early writing on mineralogy, especially on gemstones, comes from ancient Babylonia, the ancient Greco-Roman world, ancient and medieval China, and Sanskrit texts from ancient India.
The history of paleontology traces the history of the effort to understand the history of life on Earth by studying the fossil record left behind by living organisms.
The early concepts of soil were based on ideas developed by a German chemist, Justus von Liebig (1803–1873), and modified and refined by agricultural scientists who worked on samples of soil in laboratories, greenhouses, and on small field plots.
Human geography is the branch of geography that deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures, economies, and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place.
Hydrogeology (hydro- meaning water, and -geology meaning the study of the Earth) is the area of geology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earth's crust (commonly in aquifers).
Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.
The hydrosphere (from Greek ὕδωρ hydōr, "water" and σφαῖρα sphaira, "sphere") is the combined mass of water found on, under, and above the surface of a planet, minor planet or natural satellite.
The Earth's inner core is the Earth's innermost part.
The ionosphere is the ionized part of Earth's upper atmosphere, from about to altitude, a region that includes the thermosphere and parts of the mesosphere and exosphere.
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
Limnology (from Greek λίμνη, limne, "lake" and λόγος, logos, "knowledge"), is the study of inland aquatic ecosystems.
This is a list of organizations dealing with the various geosciences, including geology, geophysics, hydrology, oceanography, petrophysics, and related fields.
A lithosphere (λίθος for "rocky", and σφαίρα for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties.
A magnetosphere is the region of space surrounding an astronomical object in which charged particles are manipulated or affected by that object's magnetic field.
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.
Marine geology or geological oceanography is the study of the history and structure of the ocean floor.
The mesopause is the temperature minimum at the boundary between the mesosphere and the thermosphere atmospheric regions.
The mesosphere (from Greek mesos "middle" and sphaira "sphere") is the layer of the Earth's atmosphere that is directly above the stratosphere and directly below the thermosphere.
In geology, the mesosphere refers to the part of the Earth's mantle below the lithosphere and the asthenosphere, but above the outer core.
Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.
Micropaleontology (also sometimes spelled as micropalaeontology) is the branch of palaeontology that studies microfossils, or fossils that require the use of a microscope to see the organism, its morphology and its characteristic details.
Mineral physics is the science of materials that compose the interior of planets, particularly the Earth.
Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
NASA Earth Science, formerly called the NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE), formerly called Mission To Planet Earth (MTPE), is a NASA research program "to develop a scientific understanding of the Earth system and its response to natural and human-induced changes to enable improved prediction of climate, weather, and natural hazards for present and future generations".
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
The noosphere (sometimes noösphere) is the sphere of human thought.
Oceanography (compound of the Greek words ὠκεανός meaning "ocean" and γράφω meaning "write"), also known as oceanology, is the study of the physical and biological aspects of the ocean.
Oregon State University (OSU) is an international, public research university in the northwest United States, located in Corvallis, Oregon.
The outer core of the Earth is a fluid layer about thick and composed of mostly iron and nickel that lies above Earth's solid inner core and below its mantle.
An outline, also called a hierarchical outline, is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships and is a type of tree structure.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to applied science, which is the branch of science that applies existing scientific knowledge to develop more practical applications, including inventions and other technological advancements.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to ecology: Ecology – scientific study of the distribution and abundance of living organisms and how the distribution and abundance are affected by interactions between the organisms and their environment.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to geography: Geography – study of earth and its people.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to geology: Geology – one of the Earth sciences – is the study of the Earth, with the general exclusion of present-day life, flow within the ocean, and the atmosphere.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to geophysics: Geophysics – the physics of the Earth and its environment in space; also the study of the Earth using quantitative physical methods.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to natural science: Natural science – a major branch of science that tries to explain, and predict, nature's phenomena based on empirical evidence.
Physical science is a branch of natural science that studies non-living systems, in contrast to life science.
The following outline is provided as a topical overview of science: Science – the systematic effort of acquiring knowledge—through observation and experimentation coupled with logic and reasoning to find out what can be proved or not proved—and the knowledge thus acquired.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to social science: Social science – branch of science concerned with society and human behaviors.
The ozone layer or ozone shield is a region of Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation.
Palaeogeography (or paleogeography) is the study of historical geography, generally physical landscapes.
Paleoceanography is the study of the history of the oceans in the geologic past with regard to circulation, chemistry, biology, geology and patterns of sedimentation and biological productivity.
Paleoclimatology (in British spelling, palaeoclimatology) is the study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth.
Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).
Paleoseismology looks at geologic sediments and rocks, for signs of ancient earthquakes.
Paleotempestology is the study of past tropical cyclone activity by means of geological proxies as well as historical documentary records.
Palynology is the "study of dust" (from palunō, "strew, sprinkle" and -logy) or "particles that are strewn".
Parasitology is the study of parasites, their hosts, and the relationship between them.
Pedology (from Greek: πέδον, pedon, "soil"; and λόγος, logos, "study") is the study of soils in their natural environment.
The pedosphere (from Greek πέδον pedon "soil" or "earth" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") is the outermost layer of the Earth that is composed of soil and subject to soil formation processes.
Petroleum geology is the study of origin, occurrence, movement, accumulation, and exploration of hydrocarbon fuels.
Petrology (from the Greek πέτρος, pétros, "rock" and λόγος, lógos, "subject matter", see -logy) is the branch of geology that studies rocks and the conditions under which they form.
Photogrammetry is the science of making measurements from photographs, especially for recovering the exact positions of surface points.
Physical geodesy is the study of the physical properties of the gravity field of the Earth, the geopotential, with a view to their application in geodesy.
Physical geography (also known as geosystems or physiography) is one of the two major sub-fields of geography.
Physical oceanography is the study of physical conditions and physical processes within the ocean, especially the motions and physical properties of ocean waters.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
In meteorology the planetary boundary layer (PBL), also known as the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), is the lowest part of the atmosphere.
Planetary geology, alternatively known as astrogeology or exogeology, is a planetary science discipline concerned with the geology of the celestial bodies such as the planets and their moons, asteroids, comets, and meteorites.
Planetary science or, more rarely, planetology, is the scientific study of planets (including Earth), moons, and planetary systems (in particular those of the Solar System) and the processes that form them.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
Population dynamics is the branch of life sciences that studies the size and age composition of populations as dynamical systems, and the biological and environmental processes driving them (such as birth and death rates, and by immigration and emigration).
Quaternary geology is the branch of geology that study developments from 2.6 million years ago onwards.
Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation.
A satellite navigation or satnav system is a system that uses satellites to provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
SeaWIFS (Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor) was a satellite-borne sensor designed to collect global ocean biological data.
Sedimentology encompasses the study of modern sediments such as sand, silt, and clay, and the processes that result in their formation (erosion and weathering), transport, deposition and diagenesis.
Seismology (from Ancient Greek σεισμός (seismós) meaning "earthquake" and -λογία (-logía) meaning "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies.
Soil science is the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the Earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils.
Solid earth refers to "the earth beneath our feet" or terra firma, the planet's solid surface and its interior.
A spatial decision support system (SDSS) is an interactive, computer-based system designed to assist in decision making while solving a semi-structured spatial problem.
Stratigraphy is a branch of geology concerned with the study of rock layers (strata) and layering (stratification).
The stratopause (formerly Mesopeak) is the level of the atmosphere which is the boundary between two layers: the stratosphere and the mesosphere.
The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere.
Structural geology is the study of the three-dimensional distribution of rock units with respect to their deformational histories.
Tectonics is the process that controls the structure and properties of the Earth's crust and its evolution through time.
The thermopause is the atmospheric boundary of Earth's energy system, located at the top of the thermosphere.
The thermosphere is the layer of the Earth's atmosphere directly above the mesosphere and below the exosphere.
Toxicology is a discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants.
The tropopause is the boundary in the Earth's atmosphere between the troposphere and the stratosphere.
The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere, and is also where nearly all weather conditions take place.
The turbopause marks the altitude in the Earth's atmosphere below which turbulent mixing dominates.
The Universities Space Research Association (USRA) was incorporated on March 12, 1969 in Washington, D.C. as a private, nonprofit corporation under the auspices of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS).
Volcanology (also spelled vulcanology) is the study of volcanoes, lava, magma, and related geological, geophysical and geochemical phenomena.
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