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Outline of Earth sciences

Index Outline of Earth sciences

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Earth science: Earth science – all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. [1]

135 relations: Anthroposphere, Asthenosphere, Atmosphere, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric chemistry, Atmospheric physics, Atmospheric sciences, Biogeography, Biosphere, Chemical oceanography, Climatology, Crust (geology), Cryosphere, Earth, Earth science, Earth's magnetic field, Economic geology, Ecosphere (planetary), Edaphology, Engineering geology, Environmental chemistry, Environmental geology, Environmental science, Environmental soil science, Exosphere, Gemology, Geochemistry, Geochronology, Geodesy, GeoEye, Geographic information system, Geoinformatics, Geomicrobiology, Geomorphology, Geosphere, Geostatistics, Glaciology, Global Positioning System, Goddard Space Flight Center, Historical geology, History of cartography, History of ecology, History of geodesy, History of geography, History of geology, History of geophysics, History of marine biology, History of mineralogy, History of paleontology, History of soil science, ..., Human geography, Hydrogeology, Hydrology, Hydrosphere, Inner core, Ionosphere, Life, Limnology, List of geoscience organizations, Lithosphere, Magnetosphere, Mantle (geology), Marine geology, Mesopause, Mesosphere, Mesosphere (mantle), Meteorology, Micropaleontology, Mineral physics, Mineralogy, Mining, NASA, NASA Earth Science, Natural environment, Natural science, Noosphere, Oceanography, Oregon State University, Outer core, Outline (list), Outline of applied science, Outline of ecology, Outline of geography, Outline of geology, Outline of geophysics, Outline of natural science, Outline of physical science, Outline of science, Outline of social science, Ozone layer, Palaeogeography, Paleoceanography, Paleoclimatology, Paleontology, Paleoseismology, Paleotempestology, Palynology, Parasitology, Pedology, Pedosphere, Petroleum geology, Petrology, Photogrammetry, Physical geodesy, Physical geography, Physical oceanography, Planet, Planetary boundary layer, Planetary geology, Planetary science, Plate tectonics, Population dynamics, Quaternary geology, Remote sensing, Satellite navigation, Science, SeaWiFS, Sedimentology, Seismology, Soil science, Solid earth, Spatial decision support system, Stratigraphy, Stratopause, Stratosphere, Structural geology, Tectonics, Thermopause, Thermosphere, Toxicology, Tropopause, Troposphere, Turbopause, Universities Space Research Association, Volcanology. Expand index (85 more) »

Anthroposphere

The anthroposphere (sometimes also referred as technosphere) is that part of the environment that is made or modified by humans for use in human activities and human habitats.

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Asthenosphere

The asthenosphere (from Greek ἀσθενής asthenḗs 'weak' + "sphere") is the highly viscous, mechanically weak and ductilely deforming region of the upper mantle of the Earth.

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Atmosphere

An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.

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Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.

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Atmospheric chemistry

Atmospheric chemistry is a branch of atmospheric science in which the chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere and that of other planets is studied.

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Atmospheric physics

Atmospheric physics is the application of physics to the study of the atmosphere.

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Atmospheric sciences

Atmospheric science is the study of the Earth's atmosphere, its processes, the effects other systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems.

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Biogeography

Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time.

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Biosphere

The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.

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Chemical oceanography

Chemical oceanography is the study of ocean chemistry: the behavior of the chemical elements within the Earth's oceans.

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Climatology

Climatology (from Greek κλίμα, klima, "place, zone"; and -λογία, -logia) or climate science is the scientific study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time.

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Crust (geology)

In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.

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Cryosphere

The cryosphere (from the Greek κρύος kryos, "cold", "frost" or "ice" and σφαῖρα sphaira, "globe, ball") is those portions of Earth's surface where water is in solid form, including sea ice, lake ice, river ice, snow cover, glaciers, ice caps, ice sheets, and frozen ground (which includes permafrost).

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Earth

Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Earth science

Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of natural science related to the planet Earth.

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Earth's magnetic field

Earth's magnetic field, also known as the geomagnetic field, is the magnetic field that extends from the Earth's interior out into space, where it meets the solar wind, a stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun.

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Economic geology

Economic geology is concerned with earth materials that can be used for economic and/or industrial purposes.

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Ecosphere (planetary)

An ecosphere is a planetary closed ecological system.

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Edaphology

Edaphology (from Greek ἔδαφος, edaphos, "ground", and -λογία, -logia) is one of two main divisions of soil science, the other being pedology.

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Engineering geology

Engineering geology is the application of the geology to engineering study for the purpose of assuring that the geological factors regarding the location, design, construction, operation and maintenance of engineering works are recognized and accounted for.

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Environmental chemistry

Environmental chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places.

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Environmental geology

Environmental geology, like hydrogeology, is an applied science concerned with the practical application of the principles of geology in the solving of environmental problems.

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Environmental science

Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical, biological and information sciences (including ecology, biology, physics, chemistry, plant science, zoology, mineralogy, oceanology, limnology, soil science, geology and physical geography (geodesy), and atmospheric science) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems.

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Environmental soil science

Environmental soil science is the study of the interaction of humans with the pedosphere as well as critical aspects of the biosphere, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, and the atmosphere.

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Exosphere

The exosphere (ἔξω éxō "outside, external, beyond", σφαῖρα sphaĩra "sphere") is a thin, atmosphere-like volume surrounding a planet or natural satellite where molecules are gravitationally bound to that body, but where the density is too low for them to behave as a gas by colliding with each other.

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Gemology

Gemology or gemmology is the science dealing with natural and artificial gemstone materials.

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Geochemistry

Geochemistry is the science that uses the tools and principles of chemistry to explain the mechanisms behind major geological systems such as the Earth's crust and its oceans.

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Geochronology

Geochronology is the science of determining the age of rocks, fossils, and sediments using signatures inherent in the rocks themselves.

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Geodesy

Geodesy, also known as geodetics, is the earth science of accurately measuring and understanding three of Earth's fundamental properties: its geometric shape, orientation in space, and gravitational field.

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GeoEye

GeoEye Inc. (formerly Orbital Imaging Corporation or ORBIMAGE) was an American commercial satellite imagery company based in Herndon, Virginia.

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Geographic information system

A geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data.

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Geoinformatics

Geoinformatics is the science and the technology which develops and uses information science infrastructure to address the problems of geography, cartography, geosciences and related branches of science and engineering.

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Geomicrobiology

Geomicrobiology is the scientific field at the intersection of geology and microbiology.

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Geomorphology

Geomorphology (from Ancient Greek: γῆ, gê, "earth"; μορφή, morphḗ, "form"; and λόγος, lógos, "study") is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface.

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Geosphere

There are several conflicting definitions for geosphere.

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Geostatistics

Geostatistics is a branch of statistics focusing on spatial or spatiotemporal datasets.

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Glaciology

Glaciology (from Latin: glacies, "frost, ice", and Ancient Greek: λόγος, logos, "subject matter"; literally "study of ice") is the scientific study of glaciers, or more generally ice and natural phenomena that involve ice.

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Global Positioning System

The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.

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Goddard Space Flight Center

The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is a major NASA space research laboratory located approximately northeast of Washington, D.C. in Greenbelt, Maryland, United States.

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Historical geology

Historical geology or paleogeology is a discipline that uses the principles and techniques of geology to reconstruct and understand the geological history of Earth.

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History of cartography

Cartography, or mapmaking, has been an integral part of the human history for thousands of years.

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History of ecology

Ecology is a new science and considered as an important branch of biological science, having only become prominent during the second half of the 20th century.

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History of geodesy

Geodesy (/dʒiːˈɒdɨsi/), also named geodetics, is the scientific discipline that deals with the measurement and representation of the Earth.

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History of geography

The history of geography includes many histories of geography which have differed over time and between different cultural and political groups.

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History of geology

The history of geology is concerned with the development of the natural science of geology.

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History of geophysics

The historical development of geophysics has been motivated by two factors.

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History of marine biology

Marine biology is a hybrid subject that combines aspects of organismal function, ecological interaction and the study of marine biodiversity.

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History of mineralogy

Early writing on mineralogy, especially on gemstones, comes from ancient Babylonia, the ancient Greco-Roman world, ancient and medieval China, and Sanskrit texts from ancient India.

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History of paleontology

The history of paleontology traces the history of the effort to understand the history of life on Earth by studying the fossil record left behind by living organisms.

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History of soil science

The early concepts of soil were based on ideas developed by a German chemist, Justus von Liebig (1803–1873), and modified and refined by agricultural scientists who worked on samples of soil in laboratories, greenhouses, and on small field plots.

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Human geography

Human geography is the branch of geography that deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures, economies, and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place.

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Hydrogeology

Hydrogeology (hydro- meaning water, and -geology meaning the study of the Earth) is the area of geology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earth's crust (commonly in aquifers).

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Hydrology

Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.

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Hydrosphere

The hydrosphere (from Greek ὕδωρ hydōr, "water" and σφαῖρα sphaira, "sphere") is the combined mass of water found on, under, and above the surface of a planet, minor planet or natural satellite.

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Inner core

The Earth's inner core is the Earth's innermost part.

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Ionosphere

The ionosphere is the ionized part of Earth's upper atmosphere, from about to altitude, a region that includes the thermosphere and parts of the mesosphere and exosphere.

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Life

Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.

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Limnology

Limnology (from Greek λίμνη, limne, "lake" and λόγος, logos, "knowledge"), is the study of inland aquatic ecosystems.

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List of geoscience organizations

This is a list of organizations dealing with the various geosciences, including geology, geophysics, hydrology, oceanography, petrophysics, and related fields.

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Lithosphere

A lithosphere (λίθος for "rocky", and σφαίρα for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties.

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Magnetosphere

A magnetosphere is the region of space surrounding an astronomical object in which charged particles are manipulated or affected by that object's magnetic field.

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Mantle (geology)

The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.

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Marine geology

Marine geology or geological oceanography is the study of the history and structure of the ocean floor.

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Mesopause

The mesopause is the temperature minimum at the boundary between the mesosphere and the thermosphere atmospheric regions.

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Mesosphere

The mesosphere (from Greek mesos "middle" and sphaira "sphere") is the layer of the Earth's atmosphere that is directly above the stratosphere and directly below the thermosphere.

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Mesosphere (mantle)

In geology, the mesosphere refers to the part of the Earth's mantle below the lithosphere and the asthenosphere, but above the outer core.

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Meteorology

Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.

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Micropaleontology

Micropaleontology (also sometimes spelled as micropalaeontology) is the branch of palaeontology that studies microfossils, or fossils that require the use of a microscope to see the organism, its morphology and its characteristic details.

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Mineral physics

Mineral physics is the science of materials that compose the interior of planets, particularly the Earth.

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Mineralogy

Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts.

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Mining

Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.

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NASA

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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NASA Earth Science

NASA Earth Science, formerly called the NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE), formerly called Mission To Planet Earth (MTPE), is a NASA research program "to develop a scientific understanding of the Earth system and its response to natural and human-induced changes to enable improved prediction of climate, weather, and natural hazards for present and future generations".

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Natural environment

The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.

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Natural science

Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.

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Noosphere

The noosphere (sometimes noösphere) is the sphere of human thought.

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Oceanography

Oceanography (compound of the Greek words ὠκεανός meaning "ocean" and γράφω meaning "write"), also known as oceanology, is the study of the physical and biological aspects of the ocean.

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Oregon State University

Oregon State University (OSU) is an international, public research university in the northwest United States, located in Corvallis, Oregon.

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Outer core

The outer core of the Earth is a fluid layer about thick and composed of mostly iron and nickel that lies above Earth's solid inner core and below its mantle.

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Outline (list)

An outline, also called a hierarchical outline, is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships and is a type of tree structure.

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Outline of applied science

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to applied science, which is the branch of science that applies existing scientific knowledge to develop more practical applications, including inventions and other technological advancements.

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Outline of ecology

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to ecology: Ecology – scientific study of the distribution and abundance of living organisms and how the distribution and abundance are affected by interactions between the organisms and their environment.

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Outline of geography

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to geography: Geography – study of earth and its people.

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Outline of geology

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to geology: Geology – one of the Earth sciences – is the study of the Earth, with the general exclusion of present-day life, flow within the ocean, and the atmosphere.

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Outline of geophysics

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to geophysics: Geophysics – the physics of the Earth and its environment in space; also the study of the Earth using quantitative physical methods.

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Outline of natural science

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to natural science: Natural science – a major branch of science that tries to explain, and predict, nature's phenomena based on empirical evidence.

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Outline of physical science

Physical science is a branch of natural science that studies non-living systems, in contrast to life science.

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Outline of science

The following outline is provided as a topical overview of science: Science – the systematic effort of acquiring knowledge—through observation and experimentation coupled with logic and reasoning to find out what can be proved or not proved—and the knowledge thus acquired.

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Outline of social science

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to social science: Social science – branch of science concerned with society and human behaviors.

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Ozone layer

The ozone layer or ozone shield is a region of Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation.

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Palaeogeography

Palaeogeography (or paleogeography) is the study of historical geography, generally physical landscapes.

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Paleoceanography

Paleoceanography is the study of the history of the oceans in the geologic past with regard to circulation, chemistry, biology, geology and patterns of sedimentation and biological productivity.

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Paleoclimatology

Paleoclimatology (in British spelling, palaeoclimatology) is the study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth.

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Paleontology

Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).

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Paleoseismology

Paleoseismology looks at geologic sediments and rocks, for signs of ancient earthquakes.

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Paleotempestology

Paleotempestology is the study of past tropical cyclone activity by means of geological proxies as well as historical documentary records.

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Palynology

Palynology is the "study of dust" (from palunō, "strew, sprinkle" and -logy) or "particles that are strewn".

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Parasitology

Parasitology is the study of parasites, their hosts, and the relationship between them.

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Pedology

Pedology (from Greek: πέδον, pedon, "soil"; and λόγος, logos, "study") is the study of soils in their natural environment.

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Pedosphere

The pedosphere (from Greek πέδον pedon "soil" or "earth" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") is the outermost layer of the Earth that is composed of soil and subject to soil formation processes.

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Petroleum geology

Petroleum geology is the study of origin, occurrence, movement, accumulation, and exploration of hydrocarbon fuels.

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Petrology

Petrology (from the Greek πέτρος, pétros, "rock" and λόγος, lógos, "subject matter", see -logy) is the branch of geology that studies rocks and the conditions under which they form.

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Photogrammetry

Photogrammetry is the science of making measurements from photographs, especially for recovering the exact positions of surface points.

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Physical geodesy

Physical geodesy is the study of the physical properties of the gravity field of the Earth, the geopotential, with a view to their application in geodesy.

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Physical geography

Physical geography (also known as geosystems or physiography) is one of the two major sub-fields of geography.

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Physical oceanography

Physical oceanography is the study of physical conditions and physical processes within the ocean, especially the motions and physical properties of ocean waters.

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Planet

A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.

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Planetary boundary layer

In meteorology the planetary boundary layer (PBL), also known as the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), is the lowest part of the atmosphere.

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Planetary geology

Planetary geology, alternatively known as astrogeology or exogeology, is a planetary science discipline concerned with the geology of the celestial bodies such as the planets and their moons, asteroids, comets, and meteorites.

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Planetary science

Planetary science or, more rarely, planetology, is the scientific study of planets (including Earth), moons, and planetary systems (in particular those of the Solar System) and the processes that form them.

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Plate tectonics

Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.

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Population dynamics

Population dynamics is the branch of life sciences that studies the size and age composition of populations as dynamical systems, and the biological and environmental processes driving them (such as birth and death rates, and by immigration and emigration).

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Quaternary geology

Quaternary geology is the branch of geology that study developments from 2.6 million years ago onwards.

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Remote sensing

Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation.

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Satellite navigation

A satellite navigation or satnav system is a system that uses satellites to provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning.

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Science

R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.

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SeaWiFS

SeaWIFS (Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor) was a satellite-borne sensor designed to collect global ocean biological data.

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Sedimentology

Sedimentology encompasses the study of modern sediments such as sand, silt, and clay, and the processes that result in their formation (erosion and weathering), transport, deposition and diagenesis.

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Seismology

Seismology (from Ancient Greek σεισμός (seismós) meaning "earthquake" and -λογία (-logía) meaning "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies.

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Soil science

Soil science is the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the Earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils.

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Solid earth

Solid earth refers to "the earth beneath our feet" or terra firma, the planet's solid surface and its interior.

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Spatial decision support system

A spatial decision support system (SDSS) is an interactive, computer-based system designed to assist in decision making while solving a semi-structured spatial problem.

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Stratigraphy

Stratigraphy is a branch of geology concerned with the study of rock layers (strata) and layering (stratification).

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Stratopause

The stratopause (formerly Mesopeak) is the level of the atmosphere which is the boundary between two layers: the stratosphere and the mesosphere.

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Stratosphere

The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere.

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Structural geology

Structural geology is the study of the three-dimensional distribution of rock units with respect to their deformational histories.

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Tectonics

Tectonics is the process that controls the structure and properties of the Earth's crust and its evolution through time.

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Thermopause

The thermopause is the atmospheric boundary of Earth's energy system, located at the top of the thermosphere.

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Thermosphere

The thermosphere is the layer of the Earth's atmosphere directly above the mesosphere and below the exosphere.

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Toxicology

Toxicology is a discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants.

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Tropopause

The tropopause is the boundary in the Earth's atmosphere between the troposphere and the stratosphere.

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Troposphere

The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere, and is also where nearly all weather conditions take place.

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Turbopause

The turbopause marks the altitude in the Earth's atmosphere below which turbulent mixing dominates.

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Universities Space Research Association

The Universities Space Research Association (USRA) was incorporated on March 12, 1969 in Washington, D.C. as a private, nonprofit corporation under the auspices of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS).

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Volcanology

Volcanology (also spelled vulcanology) is the study of volcanoes, lava, magma, and related geological, geophysical and geochemical phenomena.

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Branches of Earth science, Earth Sciences basic topics, Earth's Spheres, Earth's spheres, List of Earth science topics, List of basic Earth science topics, List of basic earth science topics, List of earth science topics, Outline of Earth science, Outline of earth science, Outline of earth sciences, Topic outline of Earth science, Topical outline of Earth science.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outline_of_Earth_sciences

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