213 relations: Agriculture in Estonia, Ants Laaneots, Architecture of Estonia, Australia Group, Baltic Assembly, Baltic Germans, Baltic Sea, Baltic states, Bank for International Settlements, Bank of Estonia, Capital city, Capital punishment in Estonia, Catholic Church in Estonia, Central Intelligence Agency, Cinema of Estonia, Climate of Estonia, Coat of arms of Estonia, Commander-in-chief, Constitution of Estonia, Council of Europe, Council of the Baltic Sea States, Counties of Estonia, Country code top-level domain, Crime in Estonia, Culture of Estonia, Currency, Demographics of Estonia, Eastern Europe, Eastern European Summer Time, Eastern European Time, Eastern Hemisphere, Economy of Estonia, Education in Estonia, Elections in Estonia, Energy in Estonia, Estonia, Estonia at the Olympics, Estonian, Estonian Air Force, Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church, Estonian cuisine, Estonian Defence Forces, Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church, Estonian Land Forces, Estonian language, Estonian literature, Estonian Navy, Estonian Orthodox Church of Moscow Patriarchate, Estonian Special Operations Force, Estonian Swedes, ..., Estonians, Etymology, Eurasia, Euro, Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, Europe, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, European Investment Bank, European Union, Exonym and endonym, Extreme points of Estonia, Fauna of Estonia, Finland, Finnic peoples, Finnish language, Finno-Ugric languages, Flag of Estonia, Food and Agriculture Organization, Football in Estonia, Foreign relations of Estonia, Freedom of religion by country, Geography of Estonia, Government, Government of Estonia, Gulf of Finland, Head of government, Head of state, Healthcare in Estonia, Hinduism in Estonia, History of Estonia, History of the Jews in Estonia, Human rights in Estonia, Hungarian language, Index of Estonia-related articles, Inter-Parliamentary Union, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Criminal Court, International Development Association, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, International Finance Corporation, International Hydrographic Organization, International Labour Organization, International Maritime Organization, International Monetary Fund, International Olympic Committee, International Organization for Migration, International Organization for Standardization, International rankings of Estonia, International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, International Telecommunication Union, International Trade Union Confederation, Internet, Internet in Estonia, Interpol, Islam in Estonia, ISO 3166-1, ISO 3166-2, ISO 3166-2:EE, ISO 4217, Lake Peipus, Languages of Estonia, Latvia, Law of Estonia, LGBT rights in Estonia, Lieutenant general, List of airports in Estonia, List of birds of Estonia, List of cities and towns in Estonia, List of companies of Estonia, List of countries and dependencies and their capitals in native languages, List of countries and dependencies by population, List of countries by GDP (nominal), List of diplomatic missions in Estonia, List of diplomatic missions of Estonia, List of international rankings, List of islands of Estonia, List of lakes of Estonia, List of mammals of Estonia, List of museums in Estonia, List of political parties in Estonia, List of protected areas of Estonia, List of rivers of Estonia, Media of Estonia, Member state of the European Union, Member states of NATO, Military history of Estonia, Military ranks of Estonia, Ministry of Defence (Estonia), Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm, Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, Municipalities of Estonia, Music of Estonia, Nation state, National symbols of Estonia, NATO, Nordic Investment Bank, Northern Europe, Northern Hemisphere, Nuclear Suppliers Group, OECD, Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Organization of American States, Outline (list), Outline of Estonia, Outline of Europe, Outline of geography, Parliamentary system, Permanent Court of Arbitration, Police and Border Guard Board, Politics of Estonia, President of Estonia, Prime Minister of Estonia, Prostitution in Estonia, Protected areas of Estonia, Public holidays in Estonia, Rail transport in Estonia, Religion in Estonia, Representative democracy, Republic, Riigikogu, Russia, Russians in Estonia, Schengen Agreement, Sovereign state, Sport in Estonia, Supreme Court of Estonia, Suur Munamägi, Sweden, Taavi Rõivas, Tallinn, Tallinn Stock Exchange, Taxation in Estonia, Telecommunications in Estonia, Television in Estonia, Temperate climate, The World Factbook, Theatre of Estonia, Time zone, Timeline of Estonian history, Toomas Hendrik Ilves, Transport in Estonia, UNESCO, United Nations, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, United Nations Institute for Training and Research, United Nations Truce Supervision Organization, United States, Universal Postal Union, UTC+02:00, UTC+03:00, Western European Union, World Customs Organization, World Federation of Trade Unions, World Health Organization, World Intellectual Property Organization, World Meteorological Organization, World Trade Organization, World Veterans Federation, .ee. 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Like the rest of the economy, agriculture in Estonia has been in great flux since the degeneration of the collective and state farm systems.
Ants Laaneots (born 16 January 1948) is an Estonian politician and former military officer.
This article covers the architecture of Estonia.
The Australia Group is a multilateral export control regime (MECR) and an informal group of countries (now joined by the European Commission) established in 1985 (after the use of chemical weapons by Iraq in 1984) to help member countries to identify those exports which need to be controlled so as not to contribute to the spread of chemical and biological weapons.
The Baltic Assembly (BA) is a regional organisation that promotes intergovernmental cooperation between Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
The Baltic Germans (Deutsch-Balten or Deutschbalten, later Baltendeutsche) are ethnic German inhabitants of the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, in what today are Estonia and Latvia.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) is an international financial institution owned by central banks which "fosters international monetary and financial cooperation and serves as a bank for central banks".
The Bank of Estonia (Eesti Pank) is the central bank of Estonia as well as a member of the Eurosystem organisation of euro area central banks.
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
In Estonia the last execution took place on 11 September 1991 when Rein Oruste was shot with a bullet to the back of the head for the crime of murder.
The Catholic Church in Estonia is the national branch of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Cinema in Estonia is the film industry of the Republic of Estonia.
Estonia lies in the northern part of the temperate climate zone and in the transition zone between maritime and continental climate.
The current coat of arms of Estonia is a golden shield which includes a picture of three blue lions with red tongues in the middle, with golden oak branches placed on both sides of the shield.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
The Constitution of Estonia is the fundamental law of the Republic of Estonia and establishes the state order as that of a democratic republic where the supreme power is vested in its citizens.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
The Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS) is a regional intergovernmental organisation working on three priority areas: Regional Identity, Safe & Secure Region and Sustainable & Prosperous Region.
Counties (maakond, plural maakonnad) are the first-level administrative subdivisions of Estonia.
A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is an Internet top-level domain generally used or reserved for a country, sovereign state, or dependent territory identified with a country code.
Crime in Estonia is combated by the Estonian police and other agencies.
The culture of Estonia combines an indigenous heritage, represented by the country's Finnic national language Estonian, with Nordic cultural aspects.
A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.
The demographics of Estonia in the twenty-first century result from historical trends over more than a thousand years, as with most European countries, but have been disproportionately influenced by events in the last half of the twentieth century.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+02:00 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
The Eastern Hemisphere is a geographical term for the half of Earth which is east of the prime meridian (which crosses Greenwich, London, UK) and west of the antimeridian (which crosses the Pacific Ocean and relatively little land from pole to pole).
Estonian economy is an advanced economy and a member of the European Union and of the eurozone.
The history of formal education in Estonia dates back to the 13–14th centuries when the first monastic and cathedral schools were founded.
Estonia elects a legislature on the national level.
Energy in Estonia describes energy and electricity production, consumption and import in Estonia.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
After declaring independence from Russia in 1918, Estonia first competed as a nation at the 1920 Summer Olympics, although the National Olympic Committee was established in 1923.
Estonian may refer to.
The Estonian Air Force (Eesti Õhuvägi) is the aviation branch of the Estonian Defence Forces.
The Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church (Eesti Apostlik-Õigeusu Kirik) is an autonomous Orthodox church whose primate is confirmed by the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople.
Traditional Estonian cuisine has substantially been based on meat and potatoes, and on fish in coastal and lakeside areas, but now bears influence from many other cuisines, including a variety of international foods and dishes, with a number of contributions from the traditions of nearby countries.
The Estonian Defence Forces (Eesti Kaitsevägi) is the name of the unified armed forces of the Republic of Estonia.
The Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church (Estonian: Eesti Evangeelne Luterlik Kirik, abbreviated EELK) is a Lutheran church in Estonia.
The Estonian Land Forces (Maavägi), unofficially referred to as the Estonian Army, is the name of the unified ground forces among the Estonian Defence Forces where it has an offensive military formation role.
Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.
Estonian literature (eesti kirjandus) is literature written in the Estonian language (c. 1,100,000 speakers) The domination of Estonia after the Northern Crusades, from the 13th century to 1918 by Germany, Sweden, and Russia resulted in few early written literary works in the Estonian language.
The Estonian Navy (Eesti Merevägi), is the name of the unified naval forces among the Estonia Defence Forces.
The Estonian Orthodox Church of Moscow Patriarchate (Moskva Patriarhaadi Eesti Õigeusu Kirik) is a semi-autonomous Church in the canonical jurisdiction of the Patriarchate of Moscow whose primate is appointed by the Holy Synod of the latter.
The Estonian Special Operations Force (Erioperatsioonide väejuhatus) is the command charged with overseeing the special operations units of the Estonian Defence Forces.
The Estonian Swedes, Estonia-Swedes, or Coastal Swedes (estlandssvenskar, "Estonia Swedes", colloquially aibofolke, "Island People", rannarootslased, i.e. "Coastal Swedes" or eestirootslased) are a Swedish-speaking minority traditionally residing in the coastal areas and islands of what is now western and northern Estonia.
Estonians (eestlased) are a Finnic ethnic group native to Estonia who speak the Estonian language.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
The Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC), a post-Cold War NATO institution, is a multilateral forum created to improve relations between NATO and non-NATO countries in Europe and those parts of Asia on the European periphery.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) is an international financial institution founded in 1991.
The European Investment Bank (EIB) is the European Union's nonprofit long-term lending institution established in 1958 under the Treaty of Rome.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
This is a list of the extreme points of Estonia: the points that are farther north, south, east or west than any other location.
Estonia is a small, heavily forested country situated on the Baltic Sea.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
The Finnic peoples or Baltic Finns consist of the peoples inhabiting the region around the Baltic Sea in Northeastern Europe who speak Finnic languages, including the Finns proper, Estonians (including Võros and Setos), Karelians (including Ludes and Olonets), Veps, Izhorians, Votes, and Livonians as well as their descendants worldwide.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
Finno-Ugric, Finno-Ugrian or Fenno-Ugric is a traditional grouping of all languages in the Uralic language family except the Samoyedic languages.
The national flag of Estonia (Eesti lipp) is a tricolour featuring three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
Football in Estonia is governed by the Estonian Football Association (Eesti Jalgpalli Liit).
The Republic of Estonia gained its independence from the Russian Empire on 24 February 1918 and established diplomatic relations with many countries via membership of the League of Nations.
The status of religious freedom around the world varies from country to country.
Between 57.3 and 59.5 latitude and 21.5 and 28.1 longitude, Estonia lies on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea on the level northwestern part of the rising East European Platform.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
The Government of the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Vabariigi Valitsus) is the cabinet of Estonia.
The Gulf of Finland (Suomenlahti; Soome laht; p; Finska viken) is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Healthcare in Estonia is supervised by the Ministry of Social Affairs and funded by general taxation through the National Health Service.
From the religious movements of Eastern origin that reached Estonia, beginning from the end of the 1980s, first and foremost were the ones inspired by Hinduism and Buddhism.
The history of Estonia forms a part of the history of Europe.
The history of the Jews in Estonia starts with individual reports of Jews in what is now Estonia from as early as the 14th century.
Human rights in Estonia are acknowledged as generally respected by the government, while there are concerns in some areas, such as detention conditions, police use of force, and child abuse.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
This page list topics related to Estonia.
The Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU; Union Interparlementaire) is a global inter-parliamentary institution established in 1889 by Frédéric Passy (France) and William Randal Cremer (United Kingdom).
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) is an international financial institution that offers loans to middle-income developing countries.
The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO Organisation de l'aviation civile internationale, OACI), is a specialized agency of the United Nations.
The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands.
The International Development Association (IDA) is an international financial institution which offers concessional loans and grants to the world's poorest developing countries.
The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies is a worldwide humanitarian aid organization that reaches 160 million people each year through its 190-member National Societies.
The International Finance Corporation (IFC) is an international financial institution that offers investment, advisory, and asset-management services to encourage private-sector development in developing countries.
The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is the inter-governmental organisation representing hydrography.
The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour problems, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all.
The International Maritime Organization (IMO), known as the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) until 1982, is a specialised agency of the United Nations responsible for regulating shipping.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Olympic Committee (IOC; French: Comité International Olympique, CIO) is a Swiss private non-governmental organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, which is the authority responsible for the modern Olympic Games.
The International Organization for Migration (IOM) is an intergovernmental organization that provides services and advice concerning migration to governments and migrants, including internally displaced persons, refugees, and migrant workers.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
These are the international rankings of Estonia.
The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 17 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering.
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; Union Internationale des Télécommunications (UIT)), originally the International Telegraph Union (Union Télégraphique Internationale), is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies.
The International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC; Confédération syndicale internationale (CSI); Internationaler Gewerkschaftsbund (IGB); Confederación Sindical Internacional (CSI)) is the world's largest trade union federation.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
The Internet in Estonia has one of the highest penetration rates in the world.
The International Criminal Police Organization (Organisation internationale de police criminelle; ICPO-INTERPOL), more commonly known as Interpol, is an international organization that facilitates international police cooperation.
Estonia has one of the smallest Muslim communities in Europe.
ISO 3166-1 is part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and defines codes for the names of countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest.
ISO 3166-2 is part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and defines codes for identifying the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1.
ISO 3166-2:EE is the entry for Estonia in ISO 3166-2, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which defines codes for the names of the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1.
ISO 4217 is a standard first published by International Organization for Standardization in 1978, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables.
Lake Peipus (Peipsi-Pihkva järv; Псковско-Чудское озеро (Pskovsko-Chudskoe ozero), Peipussee), the largest transboundary lake in Europe, lies on the border between Estonia and Russia.
The official language of Estonia is Estonian, a Uralic language which is related to Finnish.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
According to the Constitution of Estonia (Põhiseadus), the supreme power of the state is vested in the people.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people in Estonia face legal challenges not experienced by non-LGBT residents.
Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries.
This is a list of airports and airfields in Estonia.
This is a list of the bird species recorded in Estonia.
The following is a list of cities and towns in Estonia.
Estonia is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
The following chart lists countries and dependencies along with their capital cities, in English as well as any additional official language(s).
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.
This page lists diplomatic missions resident in Estonia.
This is a list of diplomatic missions of Estonia.
This is a list of international rankings.
This is an incomplete list of islands of Estonia.
This is a list of lakes in Estonia.
This is a list of Estonian mammals.
This is a list of museums in Estonia.
This article lists political parties in Estonia.
Protected areas in Estonia are national parks, nature reserves and landscape protection areas (nature parks).
Rivers of Estonia are short and mostly have small discharge.
Since 1991 Estonia has changed from being a former Soviet republic to a member of the European Union and the European Monetary Union, making a rapid transformation in several fields, including the media, which is a vibrant and competitive sector.
The European Union (EU) consists of 28 member states.
NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization) is an international alliance that consists of 29 member states from North America and Europe.
Two years after the end of the Estonian War of Independence (1918-1920), the Estonian Army consisted of 3 field divisions and a number of small independent battalions and companies (1922).
Present Estonian system of rank insignia is a direct descendant of various systems used in the past in the Estonian Defence Forces.
The Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariigi Kaitseministeerium) and its head, the Minister of Defence, are responsible for organizing national defence.The mission of the Ministry of Defence is to deter attacks against Estonia and ensure that the country is capable of defending itself against external threats.
"Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm" ("My Fatherland, My Happiness and Joy") is the national anthem of Estonia; it was adopted as the national anthem ((riigi)hümn) in 1920.
The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) is an international financial institution which offers political risk insurance and credit enhancement guarantees.
A municipality (omavalitsus, plural omavalitsused) is the smallest administrative subdivision of Estonia.
The history of music in Estonia dates back as far as the 12th century.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
The national symbols of Estonia are flags, coat of arms, icons or cultural expressions that are emblematic, representative or otherwise characteristic of Estonia or Estonian culture.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
The Nordic Investment Bank (NIB) is an international financial institution founded in the mid-1970s by the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden.
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is north of the Equator.
The Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) is a multilateral export control regime and a group of nuclear supplier countries that seek to prevent nuclear proliferation by controlling the export of materials, equipment and technology that can be used to manufacture nuclear weapons.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) is an intergovernmental organisation and the implementing body for the Chemical Weapons Convention, which entered into force on 29 April 1997.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.
The Organization of American States (Organización de los Estados Americanos, Organização dos Estados Americanos, Organisation des États américains), or the OAS or OEA, is a continental organization that was founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states.
An outline, also called a hierarchical outline, is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships and is a type of tree structure.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Estonia: Estonia – state of 1.29 million people in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Europe.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to geography: Geography – study of earth and its people.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) is an intergovernmental organization located at The Hague in the Netherlands.
The Police and Border Guard Board (Politsei- ja Piirivalveamet) is a unified governmental agency within the Estonian Ministry of Interior and is responsible for law enforcement and homeland security in the Republic of Estonia.
Politics in Estonia takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Estonia is the head of government, and of a multi-party system.
The President of the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariigi President) is the head of state of the Republic of Estonia.
The Prime Minister of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariigi peaminister, literally translated as Head Minister of Estonia) is the head of government of the Republic of Estonia.
Prostitution in Estonia is legal in itself, but organized prostitution is illegal.
Protected areas of Estonia are regulated by the Nature Conservation Act, which was passed by the Estonian parliament on April 21, 2004 and entered into force May 10, 2004.
All official holidays in Estonia are established by acts of Parliament.
The rail transport system in Estonia consists of about of railway lines, of which are currently in public use.
Estonia, which historically was a Lutheran Protestant nation, is today one of the "least religious" countries in the world in terms of declared attitudes, with only 14% of the population declaring religion to be an important part of their daily life.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
The Riigikogu (from riigi-, of the state, and kogu, assembly) is the unicameral parliament of Estonia.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The population of Russians in Estonia is estimated at 320,000, most of whom live in the urban areas of Harju and Ida-Viru counties.
The Schengen Agreement is a treaty which led to the creation of Europe's Schengen Area, in which internal border checks have largely been abolished.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
Sport plays an important role in Estonian culture.
The Supreme Court of Estonia (Riigikohus) is the court of last resort in Estonia.
Suur Munamägi (in translation "Big Egg Mountain") is the highest peak in Estonia (and the Baltic states), reaching above sea level.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Taavi Rõivas (born 26 September 1979) is an Estonian politician, former leader of the Reform Party and former Prime Minister of Estonia.
Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.
The Nasdaq Tallinn Stock Exchange is a stock exchange operating in Tallinn, Estonia.
Taxation in Estonia consists of state and local taxes.
The National Telecommunications act in the second period of Estonian independence granted a monopoly on international and local fixed line telephony to Estonian Telecom (Eesti Telecom).
Television in Estonia was introduced in 1955, following the Soviet government's decision to establish a television station in 1953.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
Theatre of Estonia dates to 1784 when August von Kotzebue founded an amateur theatre company in Tallinn.
A time zone is a region of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes.
This is a timeline of Estonian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Estonia and its predecessor states.
Toomas Hendrik Ilves (born 26 December 1953) is an Estonian politician who served as the fourth President of Estonia from 2006 until 2016.
Transport in Estonia relies mainly on road and rail networks.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) was established in 1964 as a permanent intergovernmental body.
UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations programme with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.
The United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) is a dedicated training arm of the United Nations system.
The United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) is an organization founded on 29 May 1948 UN Security Council Resolution 73 for peacekeeping in the Middle East.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The Universal Postal Union (UPU, Union postale universelle), established by the Treaty of Bern of 1874, is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that coordinates postal policies among member nations, in addition to the worldwide postal system.
UTC+02:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +02.
UTC+03:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +03.
The Western European Union (WEU) was the international organisation and military alliance that succeeded the Western Union (WU) after the 1954 amendment of the 1948 Treaty of Brussels.
The World Customs Organization (WCO) is an intergovernmental organization headquartered in Brussels, Belgium.
The World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU) was established in 1945 to replace the International Federation of Trade Unions.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is one of the 15 specialized agencies of the United Nations (UN).
The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 191 Member States and Territories.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
The World Veterans Federation (WVF) is the world's largest international veteran organisation.
.ee is the internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) of Estonia, operated by the Estonian Internet Foundation.