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Achaemenid architecture (Persian: معماری هخامنشیان) includes all architectural achievements of the Achaemenid Persians manifesting in construction of spectacular cities used for governance and inhabitation (Persepolis, Susa, Ecbatana), temples made for worship and social gatherings (such as Zoroastrian temples), and mausoleums erected in honor of fallen kings (such as the burial tomb of Cyrus the Great).
An actuator is a component of a machine that is responsible for moving and controlling a mechanism or system, for example by opening a valve.
The Aga Khan Award for Architecture (AKAA) is an architectural prize established by Aga Khan IV in 1977.
The AIA Gold Medal is awarded by the American Institute of Architects conferred "by the national AIA Board of Directors in recognition of a significant body of work of lasting influence on the theory and practice of architecture." It is the Institute's highest award.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Egyptian architecture is the architecture of one of the most influential civilizations throughout history, which developed a vast array of diverse structures and great architectural monuments along the Nile, including pyramids and temples.
The architecture of ancient Greece is the architecture produced by the Greek-speaking people (Hellenic people) whose culture flourished on the Greek mainland, the Peloponnese, the Aegean Islands, and in colonies in Anatolia and Italy for a period from about 900 BC until the 1st century AD, with the earliest remaining architectural works dating from around 600 BC.
Ancient Roman architecture adopted the external language of classical Greek architecture for the purposes of the ancient Romans, but differed from Greek buildings, becoming a new architectural style.
Applied science is the application of existing scientific knowledge to practical applications, like technology or inventions.
An arch is a vertical curved structure that spans an elevated space and may or may not support the weight above it, or in case of a horizontal arch like an arch dam, the hydrostatic pressure against it.
An architect is a person who plans, designs, and reviews the construction of buildings.
The Architects Registration Board (ARB) is the statutory body for the registration of architects in the United Kingdom.
Architectural conservation describes the process through which the material, historical, and design integrity of any built heritage are prolonged through carefully planned interventions.
An architectural design competition is a type of competition in which an organization that intends on constructing a new building invites architects to submit design proposals.
Architectural design values make up an important part of what influences architects and designers when they make their design decisions.
An architectural designer is a person that is involved in the design of buildings or urban landscapes.
An architectural drawing or architect's drawing is a technical drawing of a building (or building project) that falls within the definition of architecture.
Architectural engineering, also known as building engineering, is the application of engineering principles and technology to building design and construction.
Architectural glass is glass that is used as a building material.
An architectural style is characterized by the features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable.
The Architectural Technologist, also known as a Building Technologist, provides technical building design services and solutions and is trained in architectural technology, building technical design and construction.
Architectural technology, or building technology, is the application of technology to the design of buildings.
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.
Architecture criticism is the critique of architecture.
Architecture in Omaha, Nebraska represents a range of cultural influences and social changes occurring from the late 19th century to present.
The architecture of Africa, like other aspects of the culture of Africa, is exceptionally diverse.
The Architecture of Albania (— Arkitektura e Shqipërisë) is a reflection of Albania's historical and cultural heritage.
The architecture of Albany, New York, embraces a variety of architectural styles ranging from the early 18th century to the present.
The Architecture of Argentina can be said to start at the beginning of the Spanish colonisation, though it was in the 18th century that the cities of the country reached their splendour.
The architecture of Atlanta is marked by a confluence of classical, modernist, post-modernist, and contemporary architectural styles.
Australian architecture has generally been consistent with architectural trends in the wider Western world, with some special adaptations to compensate for distinctive Australian climatic and cultural factors.
Architecture of Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan memarlığı) refers to the architecture development in Azerbaijan.
Architecture of Bangladesh refers to the architectural attributes and styles of Bangladesh.
The architecture of Bermuda has developed over the past four centuries.
The architecture of Bosnia and Herzegovina is largely influenced by four major periods where political and social changes determined the creation of distinct cultural and architectural habits of the region.
The architecture of Brazil is influenced by Europe, especially Portugal.
The Architecture of Buffalo, New York, particularly the buildings constructed between the American Civil War and the Great Depression, is said to have created a new, distinctly American form of architecture and to have influenced design throughout the world.
The architecture of Canada is, with the exception of that of Canadian First Nations, closely linked to the techniques and styles developed in Canada, Europe and the United States.
The Architecture of Cape Verde has different architectural styles in the nation.
The buildings and architecture of Chicago have influenced and reflected the history of American architecture.
Colombia's architectural heritage includes Spanish colonial architecture including Catholic churches.
The architecture of Croatia has roots in a long history: the Croats have inhabited the area for fourteen centuries, but there are important remnants of earlier periods still preserved in the country.
The architecture of Denmark has its origins in the Viking period, richly revealed by archaeological finds.
The architecture of England is the architecture of modern England and in the historic Kingdom of England.
This article covers the architecture of Estonia.
Architecture of Ethiopia varies greatly from region to region.
The architecture of Finland has a history spanning over 800 years, and while up until the modern era the architecture was strongly influenced by currents from Finland's two respective neighbouring ruling nations, Sweden and Russia, from the early 19th century onwards influences came directly from further afield; first when itinerant foreign architects took up positions in the country and then when the Finnish architect profession became established.
The architectural structures of Fredericksburg, Texas are often unique to the Texas Hill Country, and are historical edifices of the German immigrants who settled the area in the 19th Century.
The Architecture of Georgia refers to the styles of architecture found in Georgia.
The architecture of Germany has a long, rich and diverse history.
The architecture of Hong Kong features great emphasis on Contemporary architecture, especially Modernism, Postmodernism, Functionalism, etc.
The architecture of Houston includes a wide variety of award-winning and historic examples located in various areas of the city of Houston, Texas.
The architecture of Iceland draws from Scandinavian influences and, traditionally, was influenced by the lack of native trees on the island.
The architecture of India is rooted in its history, culture and religion.
The architecture of Indonesia reflects the diversity of cultural, historical and geographic influences that have shaped Indonesia as a whole.
The architecture of the Republic of Ireland is one of the most visible features in the Irish countryside – with remains from all eras since the Stone Age abounding.
The architecture of Israel has been influenced by the different styles of architecture brought in by those who have occupied the country over time, sometimes modified to suit the local climate and landscape.
Italy has a very broad and diverse architectural style, which cannot be simply classified by period or region, due to Italy's division into several city-states until 1861.
The architecture of Jacksonville is a combination of historic and modern styles reflecting the city's early position as a regional center of business.
The architecture of Kansas City, Missouri and the metro area includes major works by many of the world's most distinguished architects and firms, including McKim, Mead and White; Jarvis Hunt; Wight and Wight; Graham, Anderson, Probst and White; Hoit, Price & Barnes; Frank Lloyd Wright; the Office of Mies van der Rohe; Barry Byrne; Edward Larrabee Barnes; Harry Weese; Skidmore, Owings & Merrill; and others.
Kuwaiti architecture is a style of architecture unique to Kuwait, a country founded in the early 18th century.
Interest in the Architecture of Las Vegas began in the late 1960s, when in 1967 architects Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown travelled to the city accompanied by students in order to study its architecture.
The architecture of Lebanon embodies the historical, cultural and religious influences that have shaped Lebanon's built environment.
The architecture of Luxembourg probably extends back to the Treveri, a Celtic tribe who prospered in the 1st century BC.
The architecture of Madagascar is unique in Africa, bearing strong resemblance to the construction norms and methods of Southern Borneo from which the earliest inhabitants of Madagascar are believed to have immigrated.
The architecture of Mali is unique in Africa and the world.
The architecture of Mesopotamia is ancient architecture of the region of the Tigris–Euphrates river system (also known as Mesopotamia), encompassing several distinct cultures and spanning a period from the 10th millennium BC, when the first permanent structures were built, to the 6th century BC.
The architecture of metropolitan Detroit continues to attract the attention of architects and preservationists alike.
Many of Mexico's older architectural structures, including entire sections of Pre-Hispanic and colonial cities, have been designated World Heritage sites for their historical and artistic significance.
The architecture of Mongolia is largely based on traditional dwellings, such as the yurt (гэр, ger) and the tent.
The architecture of Montenegro is a mixture of many influences, from Roman and Venetian to Ottoman and modern times.
The architecture of Montreal, Quebec, Canada is characterized by the juxtaposition of the old and the new and a wide variety of architectural styles, the legacy of two successive colonizations by the French, the British, and the close presence of modern architecture to the south.
Nepali architecture or Nepalese architecture is a unique strain of art and practicality.It is famous all over the world.
The building form most closely associated with New York City is the skyscraper, which has shifted many commercial and residential districts from low-rise to high-rise.
The architecture of New Zealand is influenced by various cultures but it is predominantly of a European style.
The architecture of Norway has evolved in response to changing economic conditions, technological advances, demographic fluctuations and cultural shifts.
The architecture of Ottawa is most marked by the city's role as the national capital of Canada.
Peruvian architecture is the architecture carried out during any time in what is now Peru, and by Peruvian architects worldwide.
The architecture of Philadelphia is a mix of historic and modern styles that reflect the city's history.
At the beginning of the 19th century, Plymouth's primary industry was agriculture, and many of its residents were the descendants of the Connecticut Yankees who first settled the town.
Portland architecture includes a number of notable buildings, a wide range of styles, and a few notable pioneering architects.
Architecture of Portugal refers to the architecture practiced in the territory of present-day Portugal since before the foundation of the country in the 12th century.
The architecture of Quebec City is characterized by its being one of North America's oldest cities, founded in 1608.
The architecture of Samoa is characterised by openness, with the design mirroring the culture and life of the Samoan people who inhabit the Samoa Islands.
Architecture in the American city of San Antonio, Texas comes from a wide variety of sources, but many of the city's buildings reflect Texas' Spanish and Mexican roots; with some influence from French builders, among others.
The architecture of San Francisco is not so much known for defining a particular architectural style, rather, with its interesting and challenging variations in geography and topology and tumultuous history, San Francisco is known worldwide for its particularly eclectic mix of Victorian and modern architecture.
The architecture of Scotland includes all human building within the modern borders of Scotland, from the Neolithic era to the present day.
The architecture of Seattle, largest city of the US Pacific Northwest, includes aspects that predate the mid-nineteenth century arrival of the area's first settlers of European ancestry, and has reflected and influenced numerous architectural styles over time.
The architecture of Serbia (or Serbian architecture) has a long, rich and diverse history.
The architecture of Singapore displays a range of influences and styles from different places and periods.
South Korean Architecture refers to any architectures in South Korea which includes architectures from Neolithic–7th century (B.C.E.), three-kingdoms of Korea, Goryeo, Joseon, Japanese occupation, Korean War, and modern architectures.
The architecture of Sri Lanka displays a rich variety of architectural forms and styles.
The architecture of St.
This article covers the architecture of Sweden from a historical perspective.
The Architecture of Switzerland was influenced by its location astride major trade routes, along with diverse architectural traditions of the four national languages.
The architecture of Taiwan can be traced back to stilt housing of the aborigines in prehistoric times; to the building of fortresses and churches in the north and south used to colonize and convert the inhabitants during the Dutch and Spanish period; the Tungning period when Taiwan was a base of anti-Qing sentiment and Minnan-style architecture was introduced; in Qing dynasty period, a mix of Chinese and Western architecture appeared and artillery battery flourished during Qing's Self-Strengthening Movement; During the Japanese rule of Taiwan, the Minnan, Japanese and Western culture were main influencers in architectural designs and saw the introduction and use of reinforced concrete.
The architecture of Thailand is a major part of the country's cultural legacy and reflects both the challenges of living in Thailand's sometimes extreme climate as well as, historically, the importance of architecture to the Thai people's sense of community and religious beliefs.
Dutch architecture has played an important role in the international discourse on architecture in three eras.
The architecture of the Philippines (Filipino: Arkitekturang Pilipino, Spanish: Arquitectura Filipina) is a reflection of the country's historical and cultural heritage.
Architecture of the Republic of Macedonia refers to architecture ever practised on the territory of present-day Republic of Macedonia.
The architecture of the United Kingdom, or British architecture, consists of an eclectic combination of architectural styles, ranging from those that predate the creation of the United Kingdom, such as Roman, to 21st century contemporary.
The architecture of the United States demonstrates a broad variety of architectural styles and built forms over the country's history of over four centuries of independence and former Spanish and British rule.
The architecture of Toronto is an eclectic combination of architectural styles, ranging from 19th century Georgian architecture, to 21st century postmodern architecture and beyond.
Architecture of Turkey or Turkish Architecture in the Republican Period refers to the architecture practised in the territory of present-day Turkey since the foundation of the republic in 1923.
The Architecture of Uzbekistan is considered as the symbol of the nations' history.
The architecture of Vancouver and the Metro Vancouver area holds a combination of modern architectural styles, ranging from the 20th century Edwardian style, to the 21st century modernist style and beyond.
Architecture of Wales is an overview of architecture in Wales from the Medieval period to the present day, excluding castles and fortifications, ecclesiastical architecture and industrial architecture.
Architecture parlante (“speaking architecture”) is architecture that explains its own function or identity.
Armenian architecture comprises architectural works with an aesthetic or historical connection to the Armenian people.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
The Bachelor of Architecture (B.Arch.) is a bachelor's degree designed to satisfy the academic requirement of practicing architecture.
The modern Bahraini art movement emerged in the 1950s, with the establishment of an Arts and Literature club in 1952.
Baroque architecture is the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late 16th-century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church.
A beam is a structural element that primarily resists loads applied laterally to the beam's axis.
In applied mechanics, bending (also known as flexure) characterizes the behavior of a slender structural element subjected to an external load applied perpendicularly to a longitudinal axis of the element.
A blueprint is a reproduction of a technical drawing, an architectural plan, or an engineering design, using a contact print process on light-sensitive sheets.
An architectural brief is a statement of a client's requirements, which form the basis for appointing an architect.
Brutalist architecture flourished from 1951 to 1975, having descended from the modernist architectural movement of the early 20th century.
Buddhist religious architecture developed in the Indian subcontinent.
A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory.
A building code (also building control or building regulations) is a set of rules that specify the standards for constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding structures.
A building control body is an organisation authorised to control building work that is subject to the Building Regulations in England and Wales (similar systems are provided in Northern Ireland, and in Scotland where the term 'building standards' is used).
Building design refers to the broadly based architectural, engineering and technical applications to the design of buildings.
Building Design, or BD, is a weekly architectural magazine and digital title in the United Kingdom.
A building envelope is the physical separator between the conditioned and unconditioned environment of a building including the resistance to air, water, heat, light, and noiseSyed, Asif.
A building inspection is an inspection performed by a building inspector, a person who is employed by either a city, township or county and is usually certified in one or more disciplines qualifying them to make professional judgment about whether a building meets building code requirements.
Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes.
Building services engineering is a professional engineering discipline that strives to achieve a safe and comfortable indoor environment whilst minimizing the environmental impact of a building.
The buildings and architecture of Allentown reflect the city's history and settlement from the 18th century through the present.
The buildings and architecture of New Orleans are reflective of its history and multicultural heritage, from Creole cottages to historic mansions on St. Charles Avenue, from the balconies of the French Quarter to an Egyptian Revival U.S. Customs building and a rare example of a Moorish revival church.
A buttress is an architectural structure built against or projecting from a wall which serves to support or reinforce the wall.
Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire, also known as the Later Roman or Eastern Roman Empire.
A cantilever is a rigid structural element, such as a beam or a plate, anchored at one end to a (usually vertical) support from which it protrudes; this connection could also be perpendicular to a flat, vertical surface such as a wall.
The Carbuncle Cup is an architecture prize, given annually by the magazine Building Design to "the ugliest building in the United Kingdom completed in the last 12 months".
A Chartered Building Surveyor is a type of Chartered Surveyor involved in all aspects of property and construction, from supervising large mixed-use developments to planning domestic extensions.
Chinese architecture is a style of architecture that has taken shape in East Asia over many centuries.
Christopher Wolfgang Alexander (born 4 October 1936 in Vienna, Austria) is a widely influential architect and design theorist, and currently emeritus professor at the University of California, Berkeley.
Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works such as roads, bridges, canals, dams, airports, sewerage systems, pipelines, and railways.
Classical architecture usually denotes architecture which is more or less consciously derived from the principles of Greek and Roman architecture of classical antiquity, or sometimes even more specifically, from the works of Vitruvius.
The Clerk of Works (or Clerk of the Works), often abbreviated CoW, is employed by an architect or a client on a construction site.
A column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below.
Compression members are structural elements that are pushed together or carry a load, more technically they are subjected only to axial compressive forces.
Computer-aided architectural design (CAAD) software programs are the repository of accurate and comprehensive records of buildings and are used by architects and architectural companies.
Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure.
Construction law is a branch of law that deals with matters relating to building construction, engineering and related fields.
Coptic architecture is the architecture of the Copts, who form the majority of Christians in Egypt.
Cost accounting is the process of recording, classifying, analyzing, summarizing, and allocating costs associated with a process, and then developing various courses of action to control the costs.
A cost overrun, also known as a cost increase, underrated or budget overrun, involves unexpected costs incurred in excess of budgeted amounts due to an underestimation of the actual cost during budgeting.
Belgian culture involves both the aspects shared by all Belgians regardless of the language they speak and the differences between the main cultural communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish and the French-speakers Walloons.
A number of ancient civilizations, including the Thracians, Ancient Greeks, Romans, Ostrogoths, Slavs, Varangians and probably Bulgars, have left their mark on the culture, history and heritage of Bulgaria.
The culture of Gibraltar reflects Gibraltarians' diverse origins.
The culture of Haiti is an eclectic mix of African and European elements due to the French colonization of Saint Domingue and its large and diverse enslaved African population, as is evidenced in the Haitian language, music, and religion.
The culture of Lithuania combines an indigenous heritage, represented by the unique Lithuanian language, with Nordic cultural aspects and Christian traditions resulting from historical ties with Poland.
The culture of Los Angeles is rich with arts and ethnically diverse.
The culture of Malaysia draws on the varied cultures of the different people of Malaysia.
The contemporary culture of North Korea is based on traditional Korean culture, but developed since the establishment of the Democratic People's Republic in 1948.
Among the modes of expression of the culture of Slovenia, a nation state in Central Europe, are music and dance, literature, visual arts, film and theatre.
The culture of South Africa is known for its ethnic and cultural diversity.
This article is about the culture of the Czech Republic.
The culture of the Falkland Islands is essentially analogous to that of British culture.
The culture of Yemen has an ancient history, influenced by Islam.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Deconstruction is a critique of the relationship between text and meaning originated by the philosopher Jacques Derrida.
Deconstructivism is a movement of postmodern architecture which appeared in the 1980s, which gives the impression of the fragmentation of the constructed building.
An academic discipline or academic field is a branch of knowledge.
The Doctor of Architecture (D Arch) degree program is accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB).
Interior view upward to the Byzantine domes and semi-domes of Hagia Sophia. See Commons file for annotations. A dome (from Latin: domus) is an architectural element that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere.
The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.
A door is a moving mechanism used to block off and allow access to, an entrance to or within an enclosed space, such as a building, room or vehicle.
A drafter, draughtsman (British English) or draftsman, drafting technician (American English and Canadian English) is a person who makes detailed technical drawings or plans for machinery, buildings, electronics, infrastructure, sections, etc.
Dravidian architecture is an architectural idiom in Hindu temple architecture that emerged in the southern part of the Indian subcontinent or South India, reaching its final form by the sixteenth century.
Dzong architecture is a distinctive type of fortress architecture found mainly in Bhutan and the former Tibet.
The European Union Prize for Contemporary Architecture - Mies van der Rohe Award is a Prize given biennially by the European Union and the Fundació Mies van der Rohe, Barcelona, 'to acknowledge and reward quality architectural production in Europe'.
A facade (also façade) is generally one exterior side of a building, usually, but not always, the front.
In European academic traditions, fine art is art developed primarily for aesthetics or beauty, distinguishing it from applied art, which also has to serve some practical function, such as pottery or most metalwork.
Form follows function is a principle associated with 20th-century modernist architecture and industrial design which says that the shape of a building or object should primarily relate to its intended function or purpose.
A foundation (or, more commonly, base) is the element of an architectural structure which connects it to the ground, and transfers loads from the structure to the ground.
French architecture ranks high among France's many accomplishments.
A garden designer is someone who designs the plan and features of gardens, either as an amateur or professional.
This page is a glossary of architecture.
Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.
Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic or neo-Gothic) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England.
The Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Khufu or the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza pyramid complex bordering what is now El Giza, Egypt.
The Great Sphinx of Giza (translit,, The Terrifying One; literally: Father of Dread), commonly referred to as the Sphinx of Giza or just the Sphinx, is a limestone statue of a reclining sphinx, a mythical creature with the body of a lion and the head of a human.
Guadalajara is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Jalisco, and the seat of the municipality of Guadalajara.
Havana (Spanish: La Habana) is the capital city, largest city, province, major port, and leading commercial center of Cuba.
The history of architecture traces the changes in architecture through various traditions, regions, overarching stylistic trends, and dates.
Hoysala architecture is the building style developed under the rule of the Hoysala Empire between the 11th and 14th centuries, in the region known today as Karnataka, a state of India.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Incan architecture is the most significant pre-Columbian architecture in South America.
Interior design is the art and science of enhancing the interior of a building to achieve a healthier and more aesthetically pleasing environment for the people using the space.
An intern architect or architectural intern is a person who is working professionally in the field of architecture in preparation for registration or licensure as an architect.
The International Style is the name of a major architectural style that developed in the 1920s and 1930s and strongly related to Modernism and Modern architecture.
The International Union of Architects (French: Union internationale des Architectes, UIA) is the only international non-governmental organization that represents the world's architects, now estimated to number some 3.2 million in all.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iranian architecture or Persian architecture (Persian:مهرازى ایرانی) is the architecture of Iran and parts of the rest of West Asia, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the early history of Islam to the present day.
has traditionally been typified by wooden structures, elevated slightly off the ground, with tiled or thatched roofs.
Jay Arthur Pritzker (August 26, 1922 – January 23, 1999) was an American entrepreneur, conglomerate organizer, and member of the Pritzker family.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.
In Khmer architecture (ស្ថាបត្យកម្មខ្មែរ), the period of Angkor is the period in the history of the Khmer Empire from approximately the later half of the 8th century AD to the first half of the 15th century CE.
Korean architecture refers to the built environment of Korea from c. 30,000 BC to the present.
A landscape architect is a person who is educated in the field of landscape architecture.
Charles-Édouard Jeanneret (6 October 1887 – 27 August 1965), known as Le Corbusier, was a Swiss-French architect, designer, painter, urban planner, writer, and one of the pioneers of what is now called modern architecture.
A lintel or lintol is a structural horizontal block that spans the space or opening between two vertical supports.
The following is a list of notable architects well-known individuals with a large body of published work or notable structures, which point to an article in the English Wikipedia.
This is a list of architectural historians.
The following is a list of architectural firms.
This is a list of architecture prizes.
This is a list of building materials.
A list of structural structure types and forms of architecture.
This is a list of buildings and nonbuilding structures.
This is a list of (semi)-permanent, mobile and misc.
This is a list of Puerto Rican architects.
A load-bearing wall or bearing wall is a wall that is an active structural element of a building, that is, it bears the weight of the elements above said wall, resting upon it by conducting its weight to a foundation structure.
Louis Henry Sullivan (September 3, 1856 – April 14, 1924) was an American architect, and has been called the "father of skyscrapers" and "father of modernism".
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies; March 27, 1886 – August 17, 1969) was a German-American architect.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
The Master of Architecture (M.Arch.) is a professional degree in architecture, qualifying the graduate to move through the various stages of professional accreditation (internship, exams) that result in receiving a license.
Materiality in architecture is the concept of, or applied use of, various materials or substances in the medium of building.
Mathematics and architecture are related, since, as with other arts, architects use mathematics for several reasons.
A unique and intricate style, the tradition of Maya architecture spans several thousands of years.
Medieval architecture is architecture common in the Middle Ages.
Melanesia is a subregion of Oceania extending from New Guinea island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean to the Arafura Sea, and eastward to Fiji.
Mesoamerican architecture is the set of architectural traditions produced by pre-Columbian cultures and civilizations of Mesoamerica, traditions which are best known in the form of public, ceremonial and urban monumental buildings and structures.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Miami Modernist architecture, or MiMo, is a regional style of architecture that developed in South Florida during the post-war period.
Micronesia ((); from μικρός mikrós "small" and νῆσος nêsos "island") is a subregion of Oceania, composed of thousands of small islands in the western Pacific Ocean.
Modern architecture or modernist architecture is a term applied to a group of styles of architecture which emerged in the first half of the 20th century and became dominant after World War II.
Moldova (or sometimes), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south (by way of the disputed territory of Transnistria).
Moroccan style is a new trend in decoration which takes its roots from Moorish architecture and Moroccan architecture, it has been made popular by the vogue of Riads renovation in Marrakech.
The National Council of Architectural Registration Boards (NCARB) is a nonprofit corporation comprising the legally constituted architectural registration boards of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands as its members.
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.
Neolithic architecture refers to structures encompassing housing and shelter from approximately 10,000 to 2,000 BC, the Neolithic period.
New Classical architecture is a contemporary movement in architecture that continues the practice of classical and traditional architecture.
Newa architecture is an indigenous style of architecture used by the Newari people in the Kathmandu valley in Nepal.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
In architecture and decorative art, ornament is a decoration used to embellish parts of a building or object.
Ottoman architecture is the architecture of the Ottoman Empire which emerged in Bursa and Edirne in 14th and 15th centuries.
An outline, also called a hierarchical outline, is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships and is a type of tree structure.
Pakistani architecture refers to the various structures built during different time periods in what is now Pakistan.
Panama City (Ciudad de Panamá) is the capital and largest city of Panama.
A pattern language is a method of describing good design practices or patterns of useful organization within a field of expertise.
A pier, in architecture, is an upright support for a structure or superstructure such as an arch or bridge.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Polynesia (from πολύς polys "many" and νῆσος nēsos "island") is a subregion of Oceania, made up of more than 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean.
Postmodern architecture is a style or movement which emerged in the 1960s as a reaction against the austerity, formality, and lack of variety of modern architecture, particularly in the international style advocated by Le Corbusier and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe.
The Pritzker Architecture Prize is awarded annually "to honor a living architect or architects whose built work demonstrates a combination of those qualities of talent, vision and commitment, which has produced consistent and significant contributions to humanity and the built environment through the art of architecture." Founded in 1979 by Jay A. Pritzker and his wife Cindy, the award is funded by the Pritzker family and sponsored by the Hyatt Foundation.
Professional requirements for architects vary from place to place, but usually consist of three elements: a university degree or advanced education, a period of internship or training in an office, and examination for registration with a jurisdiction.
A project architect (PA) is the individual who is responsible for overseeing the architectural aspects of the development of the design, production of the construction documents ("plans") and specifications.
Project management is the practice of initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing the work of a team to achieve specific goals and meet specific success criteria at the specified time.
Proportion is a central principle of architectural theory and an important connection between mathematics and art.
A quantity surveyor (QS) is a construction industry professional with expert knowledge on construction costs and contracts.
Renaissance architecture is the European architecture of the period between the early 14th and early 17th centuries in different regions, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture.
Renaissance Revival (sometimes referred to as "Neo-Renaissance") is a broad designation that covers many 19th century architectural revival styles which were neither Grecian (see Greek Revival) nor Gothic (see Gothic Revival) but which instead drew inspiration from a wide range of classicizing Italian modes.
Responsive architecture is an evolving field of architectural practice and research.
Robert Charles Venturi Jr. (born June 25, 1925) is an American architect, founding principal of the firm Venturi, Scott Brown and Associates, and one of the major architectural figures in the twentieth century.
Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.
Romanian architecture is diverse, including medieval architecture, modern era architecture, interwar architecture, communist architecture, and contemporary 21st century architecture.
The Royal Gold Medal for architecture is awarded annually by the Royal Institute of British Architects on behalf of the British monarch, in recognition of an individual's or group's substantial contribution to international architecture.
The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) is a professional body for architects primarily in the United Kingdom, but also internationally, founded for the advancement of architecture under its charter granted in 1837 and Supplemental Charter granted in 1971.
Russian architecture follows a tradition whose roots were in war Kievan Rus'.
Sacred architecture (also known as religious architecture) is a religious architectural practice concerned with the design and construction of places of worship or sacred or intentional space, such as churches, mosques, stupas, synagogues, and temples.
Saint Barthélemy, officially the Territorial collectivity of Saint-Barthélemy (Collectivité territoriale de Saint-Barthélemy), called Ouanalao by the indigenous people, is an overseas collectivity of France in the West Indies.
Sasanian architecture refers to the Persian architectural style that reached a peak in its development during the Sasanian era.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor.
In the construction industry, site managers, often referred to as construction managers, site agents or building managers, are responsible for the day-to-day on site running of a construction project.
Somali architecture is the engineering and designing of multiple different construction types such as stone cities, castles, citadels, fortresses, mosques, temples, aqueducts, lighthouses, towers and tombs during the ancient, medieval and early modern periods in Somalia and other regions inhabited by Somalis, as well as the fusion of Somalo-Islamic architecture with Western designs in contemporary times.
The term space syntax encompasses a set of theories and techniques for the analysis of spatial configurations.
Span is the distance between two intermediate supports for a structure, e.g. a beam or a bridge.
Spanish architecture refers to architecture carried out in any area in what is now Spain, and by Spanish architects worldwide.
Many national governments and states have a public official titled the state architect or government architect.
Structural engineering is that part of civil engineering in which structural engineers are educated to create the 'bones and muscles' that create the form and shape of man made structures.
Sustainable architecture is architecture that seeks to minimize the negative environmental impact of buildings by efficiency and moderation in the use of materials, energy, and development space and the ecosystem at large.
Sustainable design (also called environmentally sustainable design, environmentally conscious design, etc.) is the philosophy of designing physical objects, the built environment, and services to comply with the principles of social, economic, and ecological sustainability.
The arts refers to the theory and physical expression of creativity found in human societies and cultures.
In trigonometry and geometry, triangulation is the process of determining the location of a point by forming triangles to it from known points.
In engineering, a truss is a structure that "consists of two-force members only, where the members are organized so that the assemblage as a whole behaves as a single object".
Ukrainian architecture has initial roots in the Eastern Slavic state of Kievan Rus'.
Urban design is the process of designing and shaping the physical features of cities, towns and villages.
Urban planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and design of land use in an urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks.
Vault (French voûte, from Italian volta) is an architectural term for an arched form used to provide a space with a ceiling or roof.
Vernacular architecture is an architectural style that is designed based on local needs, availability of construction materials and reflecting local traditions.
Victorian architecture is a series of architectural revival styles in the mid-to-late 19th century.
Vietnamese art is visual art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in Vietnam or by Vietnamese artists.
Vijayanagara architecture (ವಿಜಯನಗರ ವಾಸ್ತುಶಿಲ್ಪ) of 1336–1565CE was a notable building idiom that developed during the rule of the imperial Hindu Vijayanagar Empire.
Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (c. 80–70 BC – after c. 15 BC), commonly known as Vitruvius, was a Roman author, architect, civil engineer and military engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled De architectura.
Vocational education is education that prepares people to work in various jobs, such as a trade, a craft, or as a technician.
A wall is a structure that defines an area, carries a load, or provides shelter or security.
Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (18 May 1883 – 5 July 1969) was a German architect and founder of the Bauhaus School, who, along with Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright, is widely regarded as one of the pioneering masters of modernist architecture.
A window is an opening in a wall, door, roof or vehicle that allows the passage of light, sound, and air.
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