519 relations: Abiogenesis, Acarology, Acclimatization, Actin, Action potential, Active transport, Adaptation, Adaptive radiation, Adenosine triphosphate, Affinity chromatography, Allele, Allele frequency, Allopatric speciation, Alternation of generations, Amino acid, Anaphase, Anatomy, Angiogenesis, Animal, Annelid, Antheridium, Antibiotic, Antibody, Apoptosis, Arabidopsis thaliana, Arachnology, Archaea, Archegonium, Artery, Arthropod, Arthropodology, Asexual reproduction, Astrobiology, Autecology, Autotroph, Axon, Bacteriology, Baculum, Barbiturate, Batrachology, Behavior, Behavioral neuroscience, Bibliography of biology, Biochemistry, Biodiversity, Biogeography, Bioinformatics, Biological anthropology, Biological dispersal, Biological engineering, ..., Biological membrane, Biological organisation, Biology, Biome, Biomechanics, Biomolecular structure, Biomolecule, Biophysics, Biotechnology, Blastula, Blood cell, Blood test, Bone, Botany, Bottlenose dolphin, Bulbus glandis, Caenorhabditis elegans, Canine penis, Canine reproduction, Capillary, Carbohydrate, Carbon cycle, Carcinogenesis, Carcinology, Cardiovascular disease, Carotenoid, Carrying capacity, Cartilage, Casparian strip, Catastrophism, Cell (biology), Cell biology, Cell culture, Cell membrane, Cell nucleus, Cell surface receptor, Cell wall, Cellular differentiation, Cellular respiration, Cellulose, Centromere, Cephalopod, Cetology, Chitin, Chlorophyll, Chloroplast, Chloroplast membrane, Chromatin, Chromosomal crossover, Chromosome, Chronobiology, Cilium, Ciona intestinalis, Circadian rhythm, Circulatory system, Citric acid cycle, Cladistics, Classical genetics, Cloning, Cognition, Cognitive biology, Coleopterology, Collagen, Colony (biology), Commensalism, Community (ecology), Comparative anatomy, Complementation (genetics), Computational biology, Continental drift, Convergent evolution, Cooperativity, Cork cambium, Cotyledon, Cryobiology, CT scan, Cytokinesis, Cytoplasm, Cytoskeleton, Decomposition, Dendrite, Developmental biology, Diabetes mellitus, Diffusion, Dihybrid cross, Directional selection, DNA, DNA microarray, DNA paternity testing, DNA profiling, DNA replication, DNA virus, Dominance (genetics), Drosophila melanogaster, Earliest known life forms, Ecological niche, Ecosystem, Ectotherm, Edge effects, Egg, Egg cell, Electron microscope, Electrophoresis, Electrophysiology, Embryo, Embryology, Endemism, Endocrine system, Endomembrane system, Endoplasmic reticulum, Endosymbiont, Enhancer (genetics), Entomology, Enzyme, Epidemiology, Epistasis, Equine anatomy, Escherichia coli, Ethology, Eukaryote, Evolution, Evolutionary biology, Evolutionary developmental biology, Excretion, Extinction, Extinction event, Fat, Fermentation, Fetus, Flagellum, Flower, Food web, Fossil, Gamete, Gametophyte, Gastrointestinal tract, Gastrulation, Gel electrophoresis, Gene, Gene expression, Gene knockout, Genetic code, Genetic drift, Genetic linkage, Genetic recombination, Genetic screen, Genetics, Genomic imprinting, Genomics, Genotype, Genotype–phenotype distinction, Geologic time scale, Gerontology, Glossary of invasion biology terms, Glycogen, Glycolysis, Golgi apparatus, Gondwana, Growth curve (biology), Habitat, Hardy–Weinberg principle, Hearing, Heart, Helminthology, Heredity, Herpetology, Heterochromatin, Heterotroph, Hibernation, Histone, History of anatomy, History of biochemistry, History of biotechnology, History of ecology, History of evolutionary thought, History of genetics, History of medicine, History of model organisms, History of molecular biology, History of molecular evolution, History of plant systematics, Homeobox, Homeostasis, Homology (biology), Hormone, Host (biology), Human digestive system, Human reproductive system, Hybrid (biology), Ichthyology, Immune system, Inbreeding, Interphase, Invasive species, Ion channel, Jellyfish, Joint, Keystone species, Kidney, Lamarckism, Lambda phage, Lancelet, Leaf, Lepidopterology, Light-dependent reactions, Light-independent reactions, Limbic system, Lipid, List of authors of names published under the ICZN, List of biochemists, List of biologists, List of ecologists, List of neuroscientists, List of omics topics in biology, List of physiologists, Liver, Locus (genetics), Lung, Lymph node, Lymphatic system, Lysosome, Macroevolution, Macromolecule, Magnetic resonance imaging, Malacology, Mammalian reproduction, Mammalogy, Marine biology, Marsupial, Mass spectrometry, Maternal effect, Mathematical and theoretical biology, Mating, Medication, Meiosis, Melanin, Membrane transport protein, Memory, Mendelian inheritance, Meristem, Metabolism, Metaphase, Microbiological culture, Microbiology, Microevolution, Microsatellite, Microscope, Miller–Urey experiment, Mimicry, Mitochondrion, Mitosis, Model organism, Modern synthesis (20th century), Molecular biology, Molecular clock, Molecular genetics, Mollusca, Morphogenesis, Morphology (biology), Mosaic (genetics), Mouse, Muscle, Mutation, Mutationism, Mutualism (biology), Mycology, Myosin, Myriapodology, Myrmecology, Native state, Natural history, Natural science, Natural selection, Nematology, Nerve, Nervous system, Neuron, Neuroscience, Neurotransmitter, Neutral theory of molecular evolution, Nitrogen cycle, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Nuclear envelope, Nucleolus, Nucleoplasm, Nucleosome, Olfaction, Oncology, Operon, Organ (anatomy), Organelle, Organism, Ornithology, Orthogenesis, Osmosis, Outline (list), Outline of biochemistry, Outline of botany, Outline of cell biology, Outline of ecology, Outline of engineering, Outline of evolution, Outline of genetics, Outline of life forms, Outline of social science, Outline of technology, Outline of zoology, Ovary, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Pangaea, Parasitism, Parasitology, Penetrance, Penile spines, Penis, Peroxisome, Petroleum, Phagocytosis, Phenotype, Phenotypic trait, Phloem, Phospholipid, Photobiology, Photosynthesis, Phycology, Phylogenetic tree, Physiology, Pigment, Placenta, Plankton, Plant, Plant physiology, Plant stem, Plasmid, Plastid, Plate tectonics, Ploidy, Point mutation, Pollination, Polymerase chain reaction, Polymorphism (biology), Polyploid, Polysaccharide, Population biology, Population ecology, Population genetics, Predation, Primary nutritional groups, Primatology, Primer (molecular biology), Primer walking, Prion, Programmed cell death, Prokaryote, Promoter (genetics), Prophase, Proprioception, Protein, Protein biosynthesis, Protein folding, Protein structure, Protein tag, Proteolysis, Proteomics, Protist, Pseudopodia, Psychology, Punnett square, Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, Radiobiology, Receptor (biochemistry), Reflex, Reproductive system, Respiration (physiology), Restriction enzyme, Restriction fragment length polymorphism, Retrovirus, Ribosome, RNA, RNA interference, RNA virus, Robert Hooke, Root, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saprotrophic nutrition, Scanning electron microscope, Seed, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Senescence, Sequencing, Sexual reproduction, Sexual selection, Shoot, Shotgun sequencing, Signal transduction, Site-directed mutagenesis, Skeleton, Skin, Sociobiology, Speciation, Species, Spermatid, Spindle apparatus, Sponge, Sporangium, Spore, Sporophyte, Spotted hyena, Starch, Stem cell, Stomach, Structural biology, Structuralism, Sugar, Symbiosis, Synapomorphy and apomorphy, Synapse, Synthetic biology, Systematics, Systems biology, T cell, Taphonomy, Taxis, Taxon, Taxonomy (biology), Telomere, Telophase, Tendon, Testicle, Teuthology, The eclipse of Darwinism, Thermocline, Tissue (biology), Tonicity, Transcription (biology), Transcription factor, Transformation (genetics), Translation (biology), Transmission electron microscopy, Transpiration, Transposable element, Trophic level, Tropism, Turgor pressure, Vaccine, Vacuole, Vascular cambium, Vascular tissue, Vein, Vertebrate, Vesicle (biology and chemistry), Vestibular system, Virology, Visual perception, Vitalism, Vitamin, Warm-blooded, Water cycle, Wax, White blood cell, X-ray crystallography, Xanthophyll, Xenopus, Xylem, Zebrafish, Zoology, Zygosity, Zygote. Expand index (469 more) » « Shrink index
Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life,Compare: Also occasionally called biopoiesis.
Acarology (from Greek /,, a type of mite; and, -logia) is the study of mites and ticks, the animals in the order Acarina.
Acclimatization or acclimatisation (also called acclimation or acclimatation) is the process in which an individual organism adjusts to a change in its environment (such as a change in altitude, temperature, humidity, photoperiod, or pH), allowing it to maintain performance across a range of environmental conditions.
Actin is a family of globular multi-functional proteins that form microfilaments.
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
Active transport is the movement of molecules across a membrane from a region of their lower concentration to a region of their higher concentration—in the direction against the concentration gradient.
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
In evolutionary biology, adaptive radiation is a process in which organisms diversify rapidly from an ancestral species into a multitude of new forms, particularly when a change in the environment makes new resources available, creates new challenges, or opens new environmental niches.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Affinity chromatography is a method of separating biochemical mixtures based on a highly specific interaction between antigen and antibody, enzyme and substrate, receptor and ligand, or protein and nucleic acid.
An allele is a variant form of a given gene.
Allele frequency, or gene frequency, is the relative frequency of an allele (variant of a gene) at a particular locus in a population, expressed as a fraction or percentage.
Allopatric speciation (from the ancient Greek allos, meaning "other", and patris, meaning "fatherland"), also referred to as geographic speciation, vicariant speciation, or its earlier name, the dumbbell model, is a mode of speciation that occurs when biological populations of the same species become isolated from each other to an extent that prevents or interferes with genetic interchange.
Alternation of generations (also known as metagenesis) is the type of life cycle that occurs in those plants and algae in the Archaeplastida and the Heterokontophyta that have distinct sexual haploid and asexual diploid stages.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Anaphase (from the Greek ἀνά, "up" and φάσις, "stage"), is the stage of mitosis after the metaphase when replicated chromosomes are split and the daughter chromatids are moved to opposite poles of the cell.
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
Angiogenesis is the physiological process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
The annelids (Annelida, from Latin anellus, "little ring"), also known as the ringed worms or segmented worms, are a large phylum, with over 22,000 extant species including ragworms, earthworms, and leeches.
An antheridium is a haploid structure or organ producing and containing male gametes (called antherozoids or sperm).
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Arabidopsis thaliana, the thale cress, mouse-ear cress or arabidopsis, is a small flowering plant native to Eurasia and Africa.
Arachnology is the scientific study of spiders and related animals such as scorpions, pseudoscorpions, and harvestmen, collectively called arachnids.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
An archegonium (pl: archegonia), from the ancient Greek ἀρχή ("beginning") and γόνος ("offspring"), is a multicellular structure or organ of the gametophyte phase of certain plants, producing and containing the ovum or female gamete.
An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).
An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.
Arthropodology (from Greek ἄρθρον - arthron, "joint", and πούς, gen.: ποδός - pous, podos, "foot", which together mean "jointed feet") is a biological discipline concerned with the study of arthropods, a phylum of animals that include the insects, arachnids, crustaceans and others that are characterized by the possession of jointed limbs.
Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.
Astrobiology is a branch of biology concerned with the origins, early evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe.
Autecology is an approach in ecology that seeks to explain the distribution and abundance of species by studying interactions of individual organisms with their environments.
An autotroph ("self-feeding", from the Greek autos "self" and trophe "nourishing") or producer, is an organism that produces complex organic compounds (such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) from simple substances present in its surroundings, generally using energy from light (photosynthesis) or inorganic chemical reactions (chemosynthesis).
An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.
Bacteriology is the branch and specialty of biology that studies the morphology, ecology, genetics and biochemistry of bacteria as well as many other aspects related to them.
The baculum (also penis bone, penile bone, or os penis, or os priapi) is a bone found in the penis of many placental mammals.
A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.
Batrachology is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of amphibians including frogs and toads, salamanders, newts, and caecilians.
Behavior (American English) or behaviour (Commonwealth English) is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment.
Behavioral neuroscience, also known as biological psychology, biopsychology, or psychobiology, Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary is the application of the principles of biology to the study of physiological, genetic, and developmental mechanisms of behavior in humans and other animals.
This bibliography of biology is a list of notable works, organized by subdiscipline, on the subject of biology.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time.
Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data.
Biological anthropology, also known as physical anthropology, is a scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their related non-human primates and their extinct hominin ancestors.
Biological dispersal refers to both the movement of individuals (animals, plants, fungi, bacteria, etc.) from their birth site to their breeding site ('natal dispersal'), as well as the movement from one breeding site to another ('breeding dispersal').
Biological engineering or bio-engineering is the application of principles of biology and the tools of engineering to create usable, tangible, economically viable products.
A biological membrane or biomembrane is an enclosing or separating membrane that acts as a selectively permeable barrier within living things.
Biological organization is the hierarchy of complex biological structures and systems that define life using a reductionistic approach.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in.
Biomechanics is the study of the structure and function of the mechanical aspects of biological systems, at any level from whole organisms to organs, cells and cell organelles, using the methods of mechanics.
Biomolecular structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a molecule of protein, DNA, or RNA, and that is important to its function.
A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecules and ions that are present in organisms, essential to some typically biological process such as cell division, morphogenesis, or development.
Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies the approaches and methods of physics to study biological systems.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
The blastula (from Greek βλαστός (blastos), meaning "sprout") is a hollow sphere of cells, referred to as blastomeres, surrounding an inner fluid-filled cavity called the blastocoele formed during an early stage of embryonic development in animals.
A blood cell, also called a haematopoietic cell, hemocyte, or hematocyte, is a cell produced through hematopoiesis and found mainly in the blood.
A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.
Bottlenose dolphins, the genus Tursiops, are the most common members of the family Delphinidae, the family of oceanic dolphin.
The bulbus glandis (also called a knot) is an erectile tissue structure on the penis of canid mammals.
Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living (not parasitic), transparent nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, that lives in temperate soil environments.
Male canids have a bulbus glandis at the base of their penises.
Canine reproduction is the process of sexual reproduction in domestic dogs.
A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.
Carcinogenesis, also called oncogenesis or tumorigenesis, is the formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.
Carcinology is a branch of zoology that consists of the study of crustaceans, a group of arthropods that includes lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, barnacles and crabs.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Carotenoids, also called tetraterpenoids, are organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria and fungi.
The carrying capacity of a biological species in an environment is the maximum population size of the species that the environment can sustain indefinitely, given the food, habitat, water, and other necessities available in the environment.
Cartilage is a resilient and smooth elastic tissue, a rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints, and is a structural component of the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes, the intervertebral discs, and many other body components.
In plant anatomy, the Casparian strip is a band of cell wall material deposited in the radial and transverse walls of the endodermis, and is chemically different from the rest of the cell wall - the cell wall being made of lignin and without suberin - whereas the Casparian strip is made of suberin and sometimes lignin.
Catastrophism was the theory that the Earth had largely been shaped by sudden, short-lived, violent events, possibly worldwide in scope.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.
Cell culture is the process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions, generally outside their natural environment.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Cell surface receptors (membrane receptors, transmembrane receptors) are receptors that are embedded in the membranes of cells.
A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane.
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
The centromere is the specialized DNA sequence of a chromosome that links a pair of sister chromatids (a dyad).
A cephalopod is any member of the molluscan class Cephalopoda (Greek plural κεφαλόποδα, kephalópoda; "head-feet") such as a squid, octopus or nautilus.
Cetology (from Greek κῆτος, kētos, "whale"; and -λογία, -logia) or Whalelore is the branch of marine mammal science that studies the approximately eighty species of whales, dolphins, and porpoise in the scientific order Cetacea.
Chitin (C8H13O5N)n, a long-chain polymer of ''N''-acetylglucosamine, is a derivative of glucose.
Chlorophyll (also chlorophyl) is any of several related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants.
Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.
Chloroplasts contain several important membranes, vital for their function.
Chromatin is a complex of macromolecules found in cells, consisting of DNA, protein, and RNA.
Chromosomal crossover (or crossing over) is the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes that results in recombinant chromosomes during sexual reproduction.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Chronobiology is a field of biology that examines periodic (cyclic) phenomena in living organisms and their adaptation to solar- and lunar-related rhythms.
A cilium (the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Ciona intestinalis (sometimes known by the common name of vase tunicate) is an ascidian (sea squirt), a tunicate with very soft tunic.
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Cladistics (from Greek κλάδος, cládos, i.e., "branch") is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on the most recent common ancestor.
Classical genetics is the branch of genetics based solely on visible results of reproductive acts.
Cloning is the process of producing genetically identical individuals of an organism either naturally or artificially.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
Cognitive biology is an emerging science that regards natural cognition as a biological function.
Coleopterology (from Coleoptera and Greek -λογία, -logia) is a branch of entomology, the scientific study of beetles of the order Coleoptera.
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
In biology, a colony is composed of two or more conspecific individuals living in close association with, or connected to, one another.
Commensalism is a long term biological interaction (symbiosis) in which members of one species gain benefits while those of the other species are neither benefited nor harmed.
In ecology, a community is a group or association of populations of two or more different species occupying the same geographical area and in a particular time, also known as a biocoenosis The term community has a variety of uses.
Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of different species.
In genetics, complementation occurs when two strains of an organism with different homozygous recessive mutations that produce the same mutant phenotype (for example, a change in wing structure in flies) produce offspring with the wild-type phenotype when mated or crossed.
Computational biology involves the development and application of data-analytical and theoretical methods, mathematical modeling and computational simulation techniques to the study of biological, behavioral, and social systems.
Continental drift is the movement of the Earth's continents relative to each other, thus appearing to "drift" across the ocean bed.
Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.
Cooperativity is a phenomenon displayed by systems involving identical or near-identical elements, which act dependently of each other, relative to a hypothetical standard non-interacting system in which the individual elements are acting independently.
Cork cambium (pl. cambia or cambiums) is a tissue found in many vascular plants as part of the epidermis.
A cotyledon ("seed leaf" from Latin cotyledon, from Greek: κοτυληδών kotylēdōn, gen.: κοτυληδόνος kotylēdonos, from κοτύλη ''kotýlē'' "cup, bowl") is a significant part of the embryo within the seed of a plant, and is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "The primary leaf in the embryo of the higher plants (Phanerogams); the seed-leaf." Upon germination, the cotyledon may become the embryonic first leaves of a seedling.
Cryobiology is the branch of biology that studies the effects of low temperatures on living things within Earth's cryosphere or in science.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
Cytokinesis is the part of the cell division process during which the cytoplasm of a single eukaryotic cell divides into two daughter cells.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
A cytoskeleton is present in all cells of all domains of life (archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes).
Decomposition is the process by which organic substances are broken down into simpler organic matter.
Dendrites (from Greek δένδρον déndron, "tree"), also dendrons, are branched protoplasmic extensions of a nerve cell that propagate the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project.
Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.
Dihybrid cross is a cross between two different lines/genes that differ in two observed traits.
In population genetics, directional selection is a mode of natural selection in which an extreme phenotype is favored over other phenotypes, causing the allele frequency to shift over time in the direction of that phenotype.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
A DNA microarray (also commonly known as DNA chip or biochip) is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface.
DNA paternity testing is the use of DNA profiling (known as genetic fingerprinting) to determine whether two individuals are biologically parent and child.
DNA profiling (also called DNA fingerprinting, DNA testing, or DNA typing) is the process of determining an individual's DNA characteristics, which are as unique as fingerprints.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
A DNA virus is a virus that has DNA as its genetic material and replicates using a DNA-dependent DNA polymerase.
Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus.
Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae.
The earliest known life forms on Earth are putative fossilized microorganisms found in hydrothermal vent precipitates.
In ecology, a niche (CanE, or) is the fit of a species living under specific environmental conditions.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
An ectotherm (from the Greek ἐκτός (ektós) "outside" and θερμός (thermós) "hot"), is an organism in which internal physiological sources of heat are of relatively small or quite negligible importance in controlling body temperature.
In ecology, edge effects are changes in population or community structures that occur at the boundary of two or more habitats.
An egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal embryo develops until it can survive on its own; at which point the animal hatches.
The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.
Electrophoresis (from the Greek "Ηλεκτροφόρηση" meaning "to bear electrons") is the motion of dispersed particles relative to a fluid under the influence of a spatially uniform electric field.
Electrophysiology (from Greek ἥλεκτρον, ēlektron, "amber"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues.
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.
Embryology (from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
The endomembrane system is composed of the different membranes that are suspended in the cytoplasm within a eukaryotic cell.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
An endosymbiont or endobiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism in a symbiotic relationship with the host body or cell, often but not always to mutual benefit.
In genetics, an enhancer is a short (50–1500 bp) region of DNA that can be bound by proteins (activators) to increase the likelihood that transcription of a particular gene will occur.
Entomology is the scientific study of insects, a branch of zoology.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
Epistasis is the phenomenon where the effect of one gene (locus) is dependent on the presence of one or more 'modifier genes', i.e. the genetic background.
Equine anatomy refers to the gross and microscopic anatomy of horses and other equids, including donkeys, and zebras.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Ethology is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.
Evolutionary developmental biology (informally, evo-devo) is a field of biological research that compares the developmental processes of different organisms to infer the ancestral relationships between them and how developmental processes evolved.
Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
An extinction event (also known as a mass extinction or biotic crisis) is a widespread and rapid decrease in the biodiversity on Earth.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
A flagellum (plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells.
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms).
A food web (or food cycle) is a natural interconnection of food chains and a graphical representation (usually an image) of what-eats-what in an ecological community.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.
A gametophyte is one of the two alternating phases in the life cycle of plants and algae.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Gastrulation is a phase early in the embryonic development of most animals, during which the single-layered blastula is reorganized into a multilayered structure known as the gastrula.
Gel electrophoresis is a method for separation and analysis of macromolecules (DNA, RNA and proteins) and their fragments, based on their size and charge.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
A gene knockout (abbreviation: KO) is a genetic technique in which one of an organism's genes is made inoperative ("knocked out" of the organism).
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.
Genetic drift (also known as allelic drift or the Sewall Wright effect) is the change in the frequency of an existing gene variant (allele) in a population due to random sampling of organisms.
Genetic linkage is the tendency of DNA sequences that are close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction.
Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.
A genetic screen or mutagenesis screen is an experimental technique used to identify and select for individuals who possess a phenotype of interest in a mutagenized population.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon that causes genes to be expressed in a parent-of-origin-specific manner.
Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes.
The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines one of its characteristics (phenotype).
The genotype–phenotype distinction is drawn in genetics.
The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time.
Gerontology is the study of the social, cultural, psychological, cognitive, and biological aspects of ageing.
The need for a clearly defined and consistent invasion biology terminology has been acknowledged by many sources.
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.
Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.
The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.
Gondwana, or Gondwanaland, was a supercontinent that existed from the Neoproterozoic (about 550 million years ago) until the Carboniferous (about 320 million years ago).
A growth curve is an empirical model of the evolution of a quantity over time.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
The Hardy–Weinberg principle, also known as the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, model, theorem, or law, states that allele and genotype frequencies in a population will remain constant from generation to generation in the absence of other evolutionary influences.
Hearing, or auditory perception, is the ability to perceive sounds by detecting vibrations, changes in the pressure of the surrounding medium through time, through an organ such as the ear.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Helminthology is the study of parasitic worms (helminths), while helminthiasis describes the medical condition of being infected with helminths.
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.
Herpetology (from Greek "herpein" meaning "to creep") is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of amphibians (including frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, and caecilians (gymnophiona)) and reptiles (including snakes, lizards, amphisbaenids, turtles, terrapins, tortoises, crocodilians, and the tuataras).
Heterochromatin is a tightly packed form of DNA or condensed DNA, which comes in multiple varieties.
A heterotroph (Ancient Greek ἕτερος héteros.
Hibernation is a state of inactivity and metabolic depression in endotherms.
In biology, histones are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes.
The history of anatomy extends from the earliest examinations of sacrificial victims to the sophisticated analyses of the body performed by modern scientists.
The history of biochemistry can be said to have started with the ancient Greeks who were interested in the composition and processes of life, although biochemistry as a specific scientific discipline has its beginning around the early 19th century.
Biotechnology is the application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of materials by biological agents to provide goods and services.
Ecology is a new science and considered as an important branch of biological science, having only become prominent during the second half of the 20th century.
Evolutionary thought, the conception that species change over time, has roots in antiquity – in the ideas of the ancient Greeks, Romans, and Chinese as well as in medieval Islamic science.
The history of genetics dates from the classical era with contributions by Hippocrates, Aristotle and Epicurus.
The history of medicine shows how societies have changed in their approach to illness and disease from ancient times to the present.
The history of model organisms began with the idea that certain organisms can be studied and used to gain knowledge of other organisms or as a control (ideal) for other organisms of the same species.
The history of molecular biology begins in the 1930s with the convergence of various, previously distinct biological and physical disciplines: biochemistry, genetics, microbiology, virology and physics.
The history of molecular evolution starts in the early 20th century with "comparative biochemistry", but the field of molecular evolution came into its own in the 1960s and 1970s, following the rise of molecular biology.
The history of plant systematics—the biological classification of plants—stretches from the work of ancient Greek to modern evolutionary biologists.
A homeobox is a DNA sequence, around 180 base pairs long, found within genes that are involved in the regulation of patterns of anatomical development (morphogenesis) in animals, fungi and plants.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiont), the guest typically being provided with nourishment and shelter.
The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder).
The human reproductive system usually involves internal fertilization by sexual intercourse.
In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.
Ichthyology (from Greek: ἰχθύς, ikhthys, "fish"; and λόγος, logos, "study"), also known as fish science, is the branch of zoology devoted to the study of fish.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Inbreeding is the production of offspring from the mating or breeding of individuals or organisms that are closely related genetically.
Interphase is the phase of the cell cycle in which a typical cell spends most of its life.
An invasive species is a species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.
Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.
Jellyfish or sea jelly is the informal common name given to the medusa-phase of certain gelatinous members of the subphylum Medusozoa, a major part of the phylum Cnidaria.
A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the connection made between bones in the body which link the skeletal system into a functional whole.
A keystone species is a species that has a disproportionately large effect on its environment relative to its abundance.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Lamarckism (or Lamarckian inheritance) is the hypothesis that an organism can pass on characteristics that it has acquired through use or disuse during its lifetime to its offspring.
Enterobacteria phage λ (lambda phage, coliphage λ) is a bacterial virus, or bacteriophage, that infects the bacterial species Escherichia coli (E. coli).
The lancelets — also known as amphioxi (singular, amphioxus) consist of about 32 species of fish-like marine chordates in the order Amphioxiformes.
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
Lepidopterology (from Ancient Greek λεπίδος (scale) and πτερόν (wing); and -λογία -logia.), is a branch of entomology concerning the scientific study of moths and the three superfamilies of butterflies.
In photosynthesis, the light-dependent reactions take place on the thylakoid membranes.
The light-independent reactions, or dark reactions, of photosynthesis are chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose.
The limbic system is a set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus, immediately beneath the cerebrum.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
This is a list of authors of names published under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.
Articles about notable biochemists include: Note that the definition of biochemist is fairly loose here, and noted chemical biologists, biophysicists and others are included.
This is a list of notable biologists with a biography in Wikipedia.
This is a list of ecologists who have pages on Wikipedia, in alphabetical order by surname.
Many famous neuroscientists are from the 20th and 21st century, as neuroscience is a fairly new science.
Inspired by the terms genome and genomics, other words to describe complete biological datasets, mostly sets of biomolecules originating from one organism, have been coined with the suffix -ome and -omics.
This is a list of physiologists who have Wikipedia articles, in alphabetical order by surname.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
A locus (plural loci) in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker).
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.
The lymphatic system is part of the vascular system and an important part of the immune system, comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin, lympha meaning "water") directionally towards the heart.
A lysosome is a membrane-bound organelle found in nearly all animal cells.
Macroevolution is evolution on a scale at or above the level of species, in contrast with microevolution, which refers to smaller evolutionary changes of allele frequencies within a species or population.
A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Malacology is the branch of invertebrate zoology that deals with the study of the Mollusca (mollusks or molluscs), the second-largest phylum of animals in terms of described species after the arthropods.
Most mammals are viviparous, giving birth to live young.
In zoology, mammalogy is the study of mammals – a class of vertebrates with characteristics such as homeothermic metabolism, fur, four-chambered hearts, and complex nervous systems.
Marine biology is the scientific study of marine life, organisms in the sea.
Marsupials are any members of the mammalian infraclass Marsupialia.
Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.
A maternal effect is a situation where the phenotype of an organism is determined not only by the environment it experiences and its genotype, but also by the environment and genotype of its mother.
Mathematical and theoretical biology is a branch of biology which employs theoretical analysis, mathematical models and abstractions of the living organisms to investigate the principles that govern the structure, development and behavior of the systems, as opposed to experimental biology which deals with the conduction of experiments to prove and validate the scientific theories.
In biology, mating (or mateing in British English) is the pairing of either opposite-sex or hermaphroditic organisms, usually for the purposes of sexual reproduction.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.
Melanin (from μέλας melas, "black, dark") is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms.
A membrane transport protein (or simply transporter) is a membrane protein involved in the movement of ions, small molecules, or macromolecules, such as another protein, across a biological membrane.
Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
Mendelian inheritance is a type of biological inheritance that follows the laws originally proposed by Gregor Mendel in 1865 and 1866 and re-discovered in 1900.
A meristem is the tissue in most plants containing undifferentiated cells (meristematic cells), found in zones of the plant where growth can take place.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Metaphase (from the Greek μετά, "adjacent" and φάσις, "stage") is a stage of mitosis in the eukaryotic cell cycle in which chromosomes are at their second-most condensed and coiled stage (they are at their most condensed in anaphase).
A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture medium under controlled laboratory conditions.
Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).
Microevolution is the change in allele frequencies that occurs over time within a population.
A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 1–6 or more base pairs) are repeated, typically 5–50 times.
A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.
The Miller–Urey experiment (or Miller experiment) was a chemical experiment that simulated the conditions thought at the time to be present on the early Earth, and tested the chemical origin of life under those conditions.
In evolutionary biology, mimicry is a similarity of one organism, usually an animal, to another that has evolved because the resemblance is selectively favoured by the behaviour of a shared signal receiver that can respond to both.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
The modern synthesis was the early 20th-century synthesis reconciling Charles Darwin's theory of evolution and Gregor Mendel's ideas on heredity in a joint mathematical framework.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
The molecular clock is a technique that uses the mutation rate of biomolecules to deduce the time in prehistory when two or more life forms diverged.
Molecular genetics is the field of biology that studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level and thus employs methods of both molecular biology and genetics.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
Morphogenesis (from the Greek morphê shape and genesis creation, literally, "beginning of the shape") is the biological process that causes an organism to develop its shape.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
In genetics, a mosaic, or mosaicism, involves the presence of two or more populations of cells with different genotypes in one individual, who has developed from a single fertilized egg.
A mouse (Mus), plural mice, is a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high breeding rate.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Mutationism is one of several alternatives to evolution by natural selection that have existed both before and after the publication of Charles Darwin's 1859 book, On the Origin of Species.
Mutualism or interspecific cooperation is the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits from the activity of the other.
Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi, including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and their use to humans as a source for tinder, medicine, food, and entheogens, as well as their dangers, such as toxicity or infection.
Myosins are a superfamily of motor proteins best known for their roles in muscle contraction and in a wide range of other motility processes in eukaryotes.
Myriapodology is the scientific study of myriapods which includes centipedes and millipedes.
Myrmecology (from Greek: μύρμηξ, myrmex, "ant" and λόγος, logos, "study") is a branch of entomology focusing on the scientific study of ants.
In biochemistry, the native state of a protein or nucleic acid is its properly folded and/or assembled form, which is operative and functional.
Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals, fungi and plants in their environment; leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Nematology is the scientific discipline concerned with the study of nematodes, or roundworms.
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
The neutral theory of molecular evolution holds that at the molecular level most evolutionary changes and most of the variation within and between species is not caused by natural selection but by genetic drift of mutant alleles that are neutral.
The nitrogen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which nitrogen is converted into multiple chemical forms as it circulates among the atmosphere, terrestrial, and marine ecosystems.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
The nuclear envelope, also known as the nuclear membrane, is made up of two lipid bilayer membranes which surrounds the nucleus, and in eukaryotic cells it encases the genetic material.
The nucleolus (plural nucleoli) is the largest structure in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells.
Similar to the cytoplasm of a cell, the nucleus contains nucleoplasm, karyoplasm, or nucleus sap.
A nucleosome is a basic unit of DNA packaging in eukaryotes, consisting of a segment of DNA wound in sequence around eight histone protein cores.
Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.
Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.
In genetics, an operon is a functioning unit of DNA containing a cluster of genes under the control of a single promoter.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Ornithology is a branch of zoology that concerns the study of birds.
Orthogenesis, also known as orthogenetic evolution, progressive evolution, evolutionary progress, or progressionism, is the biological hypothesis that organisms have an innate tendency to evolve in a definite direction towards some goal (teleology) due to some internal mechanism or "driving force".
Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a selectively permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.
An outline, also called a hierarchical outline, is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships and is a type of tree structure.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to biochemistry: Biochemistry – study of chemical processes in living organisms, including living matter.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to botany: Botany – biological discipline which involves the study of plants.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to cell biology: Cell biology – A branch of biology that includes study of cells regarding their physiological properties, structure, and function; the organelles they contain; interactions with their environment; and their life cycle, division, and death.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to ecology: Ecology – scientific study of the distribution and abundance of living organisms and how the distribution and abundance are affected by interactions between the organisms and their environment.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to engineering: Engineering is the discipline and profession that applies scientific theories, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to design, create, and analyze technological solutions cognizant of safety, human factors, physical laws, regulations, practicality, and cost.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to evolution: Evolution – change in heritable traits of biological organisms over generations due to natural selection, mutation, gene flow, and genetic drift.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to genetics: Genetics – science of genes, heredity, and variation in living organisms.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to life forms: Life form (also, lifeform) – entity that is living, such as plants (flora) and animals (fauna).
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to social science: Social science – branch of science concerned with society and human behaviors.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to technology: Technology – collection of tools, including machinery, modifications, arrangements and procedures used by humans.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to zoology: Zoology – study of animals.
The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.
Paleobiology (UK & Canadian English: palaeobiology) is a growing and comparatively new discipline which combines the methods and findings of the natural science biology with the methods and findings of the earth science paleontology.
Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).
Pangaea or Pangea was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
Parasitology is the study of parasites, their hosts, and the relationship between them.
Penetrance in genetics is the proportion of individuals carrying a particular variant (or allele) of a gene (the genotype) that also express an associated trait (the phenotype).
Many mammalian species have developed keratinized penile spines along the glans and/or shaft, which may be involved in sexual selection.
A penis (plural penises or penes) is the primary sexual organ that male animals use to inseminate sexually receptive mates (usually females and hermaphrodites) during copulation.
A peroxisome is a type of organelle known as a microbody, found in virtually all eukaryotic cells.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
In cell biology, phagocytosis is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome.
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
A phenotypic trait, or simply trait, is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism; it may be either inherited or determined environmentally, but typically occurs as a combination of the two.
In vascular plants, phloem is the living tissue that transports the soluble organic compounds made during photosynthesis and known as photosynthates, in particular the sugar sucrose, to parts of the plant where needed.
Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes.
Photobiology is the scientific study of the interactions of light (technically, non-ionizing radiation) and living organisms.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Phycology (from Greek φῦκος, phykos, "seaweed"; and -λογία, -logia) is the scientific study of algae.
A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.
Plankton (singular plankter) are the diverse collection of organisms that live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Plant physiology is a subdiscipline of botany concerned with the functioning, or physiology, of plants.
A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant, the other being the root.
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.
The plastid (Greek: πλαστός; plastós: formed, molded – plural plastids) is a double-membrane organelle found in the cells of plants, algae, and some other eukaryotic organisms.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.
A point mutation is a genetic mutation where a single nucleotide base is changed, inserted or deleted from a sequence of DNA or RNA.
Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a female part of a plant, enabling later fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by wind.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
Polymorphism in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.
Polyploid cells and organisms are those containing more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes.
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
Population biology is an interdisciplinary field combining the areas of ecology and evolutionary biology.
Population ecology is a sub-field of ecology that deals with the dynamics of species populations and how these populations interact with the environment.
Population genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with genetic differences within and between populations, and is a part of evolutionary biology.
Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).
Primary nutritional groups are groups of organisms, divided in relation to the nutrition mode according to the sources of energy and carbon, needed for living, growth and reproduction.
Primatology is the scientific study of primates.
A primer is a short strand of RNA or DNA (generally about 18-22 bases) that serves as a starting point for DNA synthesis.
Primer walking is a sequencing method of choice for sequencing DNA fragments between 1.3 and 7 kilobases.
Prions are misfolded proteins that are associated with several fatal neurodegenerative diseases in animals and humans.
Programmed cell death (or PCD) is the death of a cell in any form, mediated by an intracellular program.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.
Prophase (from the Greek πρό, "before" and φάσις, "stage") is the first stage of cell division in both mitosis and meiosis.
Proprioception, from Latin proprius, meaning "one's own", "individual", and capio, capere, to take or grasp, is the sense of the relative position of one's own parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protein synthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export.
Protein folding is the physical process by which a protein chain acquires its native 3-dimensional structure, a conformation that is usually biologically functional, in an expeditious and reproducible manner.
Protein structure is the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in an amino acid-chain molecule.
Protein tags are peptide sequences genetically grafted onto a recombinant protein.
Proteolysis is the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or amino acids.
Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteins.
A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.
A pseudopod or pseudopodium (plural: pseudopods or pseudopodia) (from the Greek word ψευδοποδός, ψευδός "false" + ποδός "foot") is a temporary cytoplasm-filled projection of an eukaryotic cell membrane or a unicellular protist.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
The Punnett square is a square diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment.
Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a complex of three enzymes that converts pyruvate into acetyl-CoA by a process called pyruvate decarboxylation.
Radiobiology (also known as radiation biology) is a field of clinical and basic medical sciences that involves the study of the action of ionizing radiation on living things, especially health effects of radiation.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
A reflex, or reflex action, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus.
The reproductive system or genital system is a system of sex organs within an organism which work together for the purpose of sexual reproduction.
In physiology, respiration is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.
A restriction enzyme or restriction endonuclease is an enzyme that cleaves DNA into fragments at or near specific recognition sites within the molecule known as restriction sites.
In molecular biology, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) is a technique that exploits variations in homologous DNA sequences.
A retrovirus is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus with a DNA intermediate and, as an obligate parasite, targets a host cell.
The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
RNA interference (RNAi) is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit gene expression or translation, by neutralizing targeted mRNA molecules.
An RNA virus is a virus that has RNA (ribonucleic acid) as its genetic material.
Robert Hooke FRS (– 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.
In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast.
Saprotrophic nutrition or lysotrophic nutrition is a process of chemoheterotrophic extracellular digestion involved in the processing of decayed (dead or waste) organic matter.
A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope that produces images of a sample by scanning the surface with a focused beam of electrons.
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
Senescence or biological ageing is the gradual deterioration of function characteristic of most complex lifeforms, arguably found in all biological kingdoms, that on the level of the organism increases mortality after maturation.
In genetics and biochemistry, sequencing means to determine the primary structure (sometimes falsely called primary sequence) of an unbranched biopolymer.
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
Sexual selection is a mode of natural selection where members of one biological sex choose mates of the other sex to mate with (intersexual selection), and compete with members of the same sex for access to members of the opposite sex (intrasexual selection).
In botany, shoots consist of stems including their appendages, the leaves and lateral buds, flowering stems and flower buds.
In genetics, shotgun sequencing is a method used for sequencing long DNA strands.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
Site-directed mutagenesis is a molecular biology method that is used to make specific and intentional changes to the DNA sequence of a gene and any gene products.
The skeleton is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
Sociobiology is a field of biology that aims to examine and explain social behavior in terms of evolution.
Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
The spermatid is the haploid male gametid that results from division of secondary spermatocytes.
In cell biology, the spindle apparatus (or mitotic spindle) refers to the cytoskeletal structure of eukaryotic cells that forms during cell division to separate sister chromatids between daughter cells.
Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts.
A sporangium (pl., sporangia) (modern Latin, from Greek σπόρος (sporos) ‘spore’ + αγγείον (angeion) ‘vessel’) is an enclosure in which spores are formed.
In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions.
A sporophyte is the diploid multicellular stage in the life cycle of a plant or alga.
The spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), also known as the laughing hyena, is a species of hyena, currently classed as the sole member of the genus Crocuta, native to Sub-Saharan Africa.
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
Structural biology is a branch of molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics concerned with the molecular structure of biological macromolecules (especially proteins, made up of amino acids, and RNA or DNA, made up of nucleic acids), how they acquire the structures they have, and how alterations in their structures affect their function.
In sociology, anthropology, and linguistics, structuralism is the methodology that implies elements of human culture must be understood by way of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.
In phylogenetics, apomorphy and synapomorphy refer to derived characters of a clade – characters or traits that are derived from ancestral characters over evolutionary history.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
Synthetic biology is an interdisciplinary branch of biology and engineering.
Biological systematics is the study of the diversification of living forms, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time.
Systems biology is the computational and mathematical modeling of complex biological systems.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
Taphonomy is the study of how organisms decay and become fossilized.
A taxis (plural taxes) is the movement of an organism in response to a stimulus such as light or the presence of food.
In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes.
Telophase (from the Greek τέλος (télos), "end" and φάσις (phásis), "stage") is the final stage in both meiosis and mitosis in a eukaryotic cell.
A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension.
The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.
Teuthology (from Greek τεῦθος, "cuttlefish, squid", and -λογία, -logia) is the study of cephalopods.
Julian Huxley used the phrase “the eclipse of Darwinism” to describe the state of affairs prior to what he called the modern synthesis, when evolution was widely accepted in scientific circles but relatively few biologists believed that natural selection was its primary mechanism.
A thermocline (also known as the thermal layer or the metalimnion in lakes) is a thin but distinct layer in a large body of fluid (e.g. water, such as an ocean or lake) or air (such as an atmosphere) in which temperature changes more rapidly with depth than it does in the layers above or below.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Tonicity is a measure of the effective osmotic pressure gradient, as defined by the water potential of two solutions separated by a semipermeable membrane.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
In molecular biology, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake and incorporation of exogenous genetic material from its surroundings through the cell membrane(s).
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, also sometimes conventional transmission electron microscopy or CTEM) is a microscopy technique in which a beam of electrons is transmitted through a specimen to form an image.
Transpiration is the process of water movement through a plant and its evaporation from aerial parts, such as leaves, stems and flowers.
A transposable element (TE or transposon) is a DNA sequence that can change its position within a genome, sometimes creating or reversing mutations and altering the cell's genetic identity and genome size.
The trophic level of an organism is the position it occupies in a food chain.
A tropism (from Greek τρόπος, tropos, "a turning") is a biological phenomenon, indicating growth or turning movement of a biological organism, usually a plant, in response to an environmental stimulus.
Turgor pressure is the force within the cell that pushes the plasma membrane against the cell wall.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
A vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal and bacterial cells.
The vascular cambium is the main growth layer in the stems and roots of many plants, specifically in dicots such as buttercups and oak trees, and gymnosperms such as pine trees.
Vascular tissue is a complex conducting tissue, formed of more than one cell type, found in vascular plants.
Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.
The vestibular system, in most mammals, is the sensory system that provides the leading contribution to the sense of balance and spatial orientation for the purpose of coordinating movement with balance. Together with the cochlea, a part of the auditory system, it constitutes the labyrinth of the inner ear in most mammals.
Virology is the study of viruses – submicroscopic, parasitic particles of genetic material contained in a protein coat – and virus-like agents.
Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.
Vitalism is the belief that "living organisms are fundamentally different from non-living entities because they contain some non-physical element or are governed by different principles than are inanimate things".
A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.
Warm-blooded animal species can maintain a body temperature higher than their environment.
The water cycle, also known as the hydrological cycle or the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth.
Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
Xanthophylls (originally phylloxanthins) are yellow pigments that occur widely in nature and form one of two major divisions of the carotenoid group; the other division is formed by the carotenes.
Xenopus (Gk., ξενος, xenos.
Xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue in vascular plants, phloem being the other.
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a freshwater fish belonging to the minnow family (Cyprinidae) of the order Cypriniformes.
Zoology or animal biology is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems.
Zygosity is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism.
A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke") is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes.
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