386 relations: Acid rain, Aerial seeding, Afforestation, Agroforestry, Aldo Leopold, Alpine tundra, Analog forestry, Angle gauge, Antiquities Act, Arborist, Asheville, North Carolina, Asian Forest Cooperation Organization, Atmosphere of Earth, Austria-Hungary, Avoided Deforestation Partners, Axe, Banská Štiavnica, Basal area, Baseball bat, Bernhard Fernow, Biltmore Forest School, Biltmore stick, Biodiversity, Biofilter, Biome, Black liquor, Board foot, Bob Marshall (wilderness activist), Bog, Botany, British timber trade, Broadcast seeding, Bucksaw, Cable logging, Calipers, Canadian Forest Service, Cant hook, Carbon dioxide, Carbon sequestration, Carbon sink, Carl A. Schenck, Cellulosic ethanol, Center for International Forestry Research, Chain (unit), Chainsaw, Charcoal, Civil engineer, Cleaning (forestry), Clearcutting, Climate change mitigation, ..., Close to nature forestry, Coalition for Rainforest Nations, Community forestry, Community Forestry International, Computer simulation, Confederation of Forest Industries, Congo Basin Forest Partnership, Conservation biology, Conservation International, Conservation movement, Controlled burn, Coppicing, Cord (unit), Cork (material), Cough medicine, Creosote, Crosscut saw, Cruising rod, Cut-to-length logging, Dashboard, Deforestation, Deforestation by region, Deforestation in Brazil, Dendrochronology, Dendrology, Department of Forest Conservation (Sri Lanka), Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, Desert, Desertification, Deserts and xeric shrublands, Developing country, Diameter at breast height, Diameter tape, Dietrich Brandis, Disinfectant, Donkey puncher, Douglas fir, Drilling fluid, Drum chopper, Drywall, Ecoforestry, Ecological succession, Ecological thinning, Ecological yield, Ecology, Ecophysiology, Ecotourism, Edge effects, Energy crop, Energy forestry, Environmental governance in Brazil, Environmental history, Erosion control, European Arboricultural Council, Even-aged timber management, Feller buncher, Felling, FERN, Fiberboard, Fire lookout, Firewood, First International Forestry Exhibition, Flood control, Food and Agriculture Organization, Forest, Forest dieback, Forest ecology, Forest gardening, Forest inventory, Forest management, Forest pathology, Forest Peoples Programme, Forest product, Forest Products Laboratory, Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Forest Reserve Act of 1891, Forest restoration, Forest Stewardship Council, Forest transition, Forester, Forestry, Forestry Commission, Forestry in Chile, Forestry Information Centre, Forests and Countryside Ordinance, Forests Monitor, Forwarder, Foundation for Environmental Education, Franklin B. Hough, French National School of Forestry, Gasoline, Geographic information system, Georg Ludwig Hartig, Gifford Pinchot, Girard form class, Global Forest Coalition, Global Forest Information Service, Global Positioning System, Growth and yield modelling, Gypsum, Habitat, Habitat destruction, Habitat fragmentation, Hand compass, Handcrew, Hardwood timber production, Harvester (forestry), Haulage, Heinrich Cotta, Heli-logging, Hemispherical photography, High grading, High lead logging, History of the New York State College of Forestry, History of the United States Forest Service, Hull (watercraft), Humboldt University of Berlin, Illegal logging, Inclinometer, Increment borer, India, Indian Forest Act, 1927, Indian Forest Service, Interagency hotshot crew, Interception (water), International Analog Forestry Network, International Association of Students in Agricultural and Related Sciences, International Forestry Students' Association, International Society of Arboriculture, International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1983, International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1994, International Tropical Timber Organization, International Union for Conservation of Nature, International Union of Forest Research Organizations, John Evelyn, Károly Bund, Kenneth Dupee Swan, Korea Forest Service, Land rehabilitation, Landscape, Laurel forest, Laxative, Leaf area index, Liberation cutting, Line plot survey, List of countries by forest area, List of forest research institutes, List of forestry journals, List of forestry ministries, List of forestry technical schools, List of forestry universities and colleges, List of historic schools of forestry, List of life zones by region, List of old-growth forests, List of tree species by shade tolerance, List of trees and shrubs by taxonomic family, List of types of formally designated forests, List of woods, Lists of forests, Living stump, Log boom, Log bucking, Log driving, Log flume, Log scaler, Logging, Lubricant, Lumber, Lumberjack, Mangrove, Mean annual increment, Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub, Methanol fuel, Michigan logging wheels, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (Japan), Multilaminar veneer, Multiple-Use Sustained-Yield Act of 1960, Mycoforestry, National Forestry Commission of Mexico, Natural resource management, Natural rubber, Naval stores industry, New York State College of Forestry at Cornell, New Zealand Forest Service, NICOL Forests UK, Old-growth forest, Optimal rotation age, Organic Act of 1897, Oriented strand board, Outdoor recreation, Outline (list), Outline of ecology, Pacing (surveying), Paper, Paperboard, Parasitism, Park ranger, Pellet fuel, Periodic annual increment, Phytoremediation, Pinophyta, Pinus ponderosa, Plant A Tree Today Foundation, Plantation, Plywood, Polar desert, Pollarding, Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification, Pruning, Pulp (paper), Pulpwood, Quadratic mean diameter, Rainforest Action Network, Rainforest Alliance, Rainforest Foundation Fund, RECOFTC – The Center for People and Forests, Recreation, Reforestation, Relascope, Remote sensing, Resin extraction, Resource Extraction Monitoring, Restoration ecology, Riparian forest, Robert Scott Troup, Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil, Royal Saxon Academy of Forestry, Rubber tapping, Rural sociology, Sakari Pinomäki, Salvage logging, Sanitation harvest, Sawdust, Sawmill, Second-generation biofuels, Secondary forest, Selection cutting, Selective logging in the Amazon rainforest, Shade tolerance, Shelterwood cutting, Shifting cultivation, Short rotation coppice, Short rotation forestry, Shovel logging, Silviculture, Site index, Site tree (forestry), Skid cone, Skidder, Skyline logging, Smokejumper, Soap, Social forestry in India, Soil science, Splash dam, Stand density index, Stand density management diagram, Stand level modelling, State Forestry Corps, Stephen C. Sillett, Steppe, Stere, Stocking (forestry), Structural insulated panel, Stump harvesting, Stumpage, Subarctic, Subtropics, Sustainability, Sustainable forest management, Sustainable Forestry Initiative, Swamp, Sylva, or A Discourse of Forest-Trees and the Propagation of Timber, Syngas, Taiga, Taiga Rescue Network, Tall oil, Tar, Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest, Temperate climate, Temperate coniferous forest, Temperate forest, Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands, Temperate rainforest, The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006, The Wilderness Society (United States), Theodore Salisbury Woolsey Jr., Thinning, Timber rafting, Timber slide, Tire, Transfer Act of 1905, Traverse (surveying), Tree, Tree breeding, Tree farm, Tree planting, Tree taper, Trees 4 Children, Tropenbos International, Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests, Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests, Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands, Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, Tropical rainforest, Tropics, Tundra, Turpentine, Underwater logging, United Nations, United Nations Forum on Forests, United Nations REDD Programme, United States Forest Service, United States National Forest, University of Oxford, Urban forest, Urban forestry, Variable retention, Volume table, Walter Bitterlich, Water purification, Water resources, Watershed management, Wedge prism, Weed control, Wilderness Act, Wilhelm Philipp Daniel Schlich, Wine bottle, Wise use movement, Wood shingle, Wood veneer, Wood-plastic composite, Woodchips, World Forestry Congress, World Rainforest Movement, Yarder. 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Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it has elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH).
Aerial seeding is a technique of sowing seeds by spraying them through aerial mechanical means such as a drone, plane or helicopter.
Afforestation is the establishment of a forest or stand of trees (forestation) in an area where there was no previous tree cover.
Agroforestry is a land use management system in which trees or shrubs are grown around or among crops or pastureland.
Aldo Leopold (January 11, 1887 – April 21, 1948) was an American author, philosopher, scientist, ecologist, forester, conservationist, and environmentalist.
Alpine tundra is a type of natural region or biome that does not contain trees because it is at high altitude.
Analog forestry is an approach to ecosystem restoration that considers the process of forest formation and the functioning of forest services to be critical in establishing a sustainable ecosystem characterised by a high biodiversity to biomass ratio.
An angle gauge is a tool used by foresters to determine which trees to measure when using a variable radius plot design in forest inventory.
The Antiquities Act of 1906,, is an act passed by the United States Congress and signed into law by Theodore Roosevelt on June 8, 1906.
An arborist, tree surgeon, or (less commonly) arboriculturist, is a professional in the practice of arboriculture, which is the cultivation, management, and study of individual trees, shrubs, vines, and other perennial woody plants in dendrology and horticulture.
Asheville is a city and the county seat of Buncombe County, North Carolina, United States.
Asian Forest Cooperation Organization (or AFoCO) is an intergovernmental organization in Asia aiming to strengthen regional forest cooperation by transforming proven technology and policies into concrete actions in the context of sustainable forest management to address the impact of climate change.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
Avoided Deforestation Partners, or AD Partners, is a non-profit organization under the auspices of the Center for International Policy in Washington, D.C. AD Partners is involved in the global effort to solve climate change by working to end deforestation in tropical rainforest countries.
An axe (British English or ax (American English; see spelling differences) is an implement that has been used for millennia to shape, split and cut wood; to harvest timber; as a weapon; and as a ceremonial or heraldic symbol. The axe has many forms and specialised uses but generally consists of an axe head with a handle, or helve. Before the modern axe, the stone-age hand axe was used from 1.5 million years BP without a handle. It was later fastened to a wooden handle. The earliest examples of handled axes have heads of stone with some form of wooden handle attached (hafted) in a method to suit the available materials and use. Axes made of copper, bronze, iron and steel appeared as these technologies developed. Axes are usually composed of a head and a handle. The axe is an example of a simple machine, as it is a type of wedge, or dual inclined plane. This reduces the effort needed by the wood chopper. It splits the wood into two parts by the pressure concentration at the blade. The handle of the axe also acts as a lever allowing the user to increase the force at the cutting edge—not using the full length of the handle is known as choking the axe. For fine chopping using a side axe this sometimes is a positive effect, but for felling with a double bitted axe it reduces efficiency. Generally, cutting axes have a shallow wedge angle, whereas splitting axes have a deeper angle. Most axes are double bevelled, i.e. symmetrical about the axis of the blade, but some specialist broadaxes have a single bevel blade, and usually an offset handle that allows them to be used for finishing work without putting the user's knuckles at risk of injury. Less common today, they were once an integral part of a joiner and carpenter's tool kit, not just a tool for use in forestry. A tool of similar origin is the billhook. However, in France and Holland, the billhook often replaced the axe as a joiner's bench tool. Most modern axes have steel heads and wooden handles, typically hickory in the US and ash in Europe and Asia, although plastic or fibreglass handles are also common. Modern axes are specialised by use, size and form. Hafted axes with short handles designed for use with one hand are often called hand axes but the term hand axe refers to axes without handles as well. Hatchets tend to be small hafted axes often with a hammer on the back side (the poll). As easy-to-make weapons, axes have frequently been used in combat.
Banská Štiavnica (Schemnitz; Selmecbánya (Selmec)) is a town in central Slovakia, in the middle of an immense caldera created by the collapse of an ancient volcano.
Basal area is the area of a given section of land that is occupied by the cross-section of tree trunks and stems at the base.
A baseball bat is a smooth wooden or metal club used in the sport of baseball to hit the ball after it is thrown by the pitcher.
Bernhard Eduard Fernow (January 7, 1851 – February 6, 1923) was the third chief of the USDA's Division of Forestry of the United States from 1886 to 1898, preceding Gifford Pinchot in that position, and laying much of the groundwork for the establishment of the United States Forest Service in 1905.
The Biltmore Forest School was the first school of forestry in North America.
The Biltmore stick is a tool used to measure various tree dimensions, such as diameter at breast height and height.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
Biofiltration is a pollution control technique using a bioreactor containing living material to capture and biologically degrade pollutants.
A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in.
In industrial chemistry, black liquor is the waste product from the kraft process when digesting pulpwood into paper pulp removing lignin, hemicelluloses and other extractives from the wood to free the cellulose fibers.
The board-foot is a unit of measure for the volume of lumber in the United States and Canada.
Robert "Bob" Marshall (January 2, 1901November 11, 1939) was an American forester, writer and wilderness activist who is best remembered as the person who spearheaded the 1935 founding of the Wilderness Society in the United States.
A bog is a wetland that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material—often mosses, and in a majority of cases, sphagnum moss.
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.
The British timber trade was importation of timber from the Baltic, and later North America, by the British.
In agriculture, gardening, and forestry, broadcast seeding is a method of seeding that involves scattering seed, by hand or mechanically, over a relatively large area.
A bucksaw is a hand-powered frame saw similar to bow saw and generally used with a sawbuck to cut logs or firewood to length (bucking).
High Lead logging in Western Oregon Cable logging, also referred to as skyline logging, is a logging method primarily used on the West Coast of North America with yarder, loaders, and grapple yarders, but also in Europe (Austria, Switzerland, Czech Republic, France, Italy).
A caliper (British spelling also calliper, or in plurale tantum sense a pair of calipers) is a device used to measure the distance between two opposite sides of an object.
The Canadian Forest Service (CFS; Service canadien des forêts) is a sector of the Canadian government department of Natural Resources Canada.
A cant hook or cant dog is a traditional logging tool consisting of a wooden lever handle with a movable metal hook called a dog at one end, used for handling and turning logs and cants, especially in sawmills.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon sequestration is the process involved in carbon capture and the long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide or other forms of carbon to mitigate or defer global warming.
A carbon sink is a natural or artificial reservoir that accumulates and stores some carbon-containing chemical compound for an indefinite period.
Carl Alwyn Schenck (March 25, 1868 – May 17, 1955) was a pioneering forestry educator in North America, known for his contributions as the forester for George W. Vanderbilt's Biltmore Estate, and the founder of the Biltmore Forest School, the first practical forestry school in the United States, in 1898, near Brevard, NC.
Cellulosic ethanol is ethanol (ethyl alcohol) produced from cellulose (the stringy fiber of a plant) rather than from the plant's seeds or fruit.
The Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) is a non-profit scientific research organization that conducts research on the use and management of forests with a focus on tropical forests in developing countries.
A chain is a unit of length that measures 66 feet, 22 yards, 100 links,or 4 rods (20.1168 m).
A chainsaw is a portable, mechanical saw which cuts with a set of teeth attached to a rotating chain that runs along a guide bar.
Charcoal is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.
A civil engineer is a person who practices civil engineering – the application of planning, designing, constructing, maintaining, and operating infrastructures while protecting the public and environmental health, as well as improving existing infrastructures that have been neglected.
Cleaning and weeding are two similar terms referring to the practice of selecting particularly desirable trees in a young stand and removing or killing trees that threaten their survival or development.
Clearcutting, clearfelling or clearcut logging is a forestry/logging practice in which most or all trees in an area are uniformly cut down.
Climate change mitigation consists of actions to limit the magnitude or rate of long-term climate change.
Close to nature forestry is a management approach treating forest as an ecological system performing multiple functions.
The Coalition for Rainforest Nations (CfRN) is an intergovernmental organization established by forested tropical counties to collaboratively reconcile forest stewardship with economic development.
Community forestry is an evolving branch of forestry whereby the local community plays a significant role in forest management and land use decision making by themselves in the facilitating support of government as well as change agents.
Community Forestry International, Inc. also known as CFI, is a non-profit organization that helps communities regenerate and preserve forests.
Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system.
The Confederation of Forest Industries, shortened to ConFor, is the trade association for the forestry industry in the United Kingdom.
The Congo Basin Forest Partnership (CBFP) is a non-profit initiative to promote the conservation and responsible management of the Congo Basin's tropical forests.
Conservation biology is the management of nature and of Earth's biodiversity with the aim of protecting species, their habitats, and ecosystems from excessive rates of extinction and the erosion of biotic interactions.
Conservation International (CI) is an American nonprofit environmental organization headquartered in Arlington, Virginia.
The conservation movement, also known as nature conservation, is a political, environmental, and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including animal and plant species as well as their habitat for the future.
A controlled or prescribed burn, also known as hazard reduction burning, backfire, swailing, or a burn-off, is a wildfire set intentionally for purposes of forest management, farming, prairie restoration or greenhouse gas abatement.
Coppicing is a traditional method of woodland management which exploits the capacity of many species of trees to put out new shoots from their stump or roots if cut down.
The cord is a unit of measure of dry volume used to measure firewood and pulpwood in the United States and Canada.
Cork is an impermeable buoyant material, the phellem layer of bark tissue that is harvested for commercial use primarily from Quercus suber (the cork oak), which is endemic to southwest Europe and northwest Africa.
Cough medicines are medications used in those with coughing and related conditions.
Creosote is a category of carbonaceous chemicals formed by the distillation of various tars and pyrolysis of plant-derived material, such as wood or fossil fuel.
A crosscut saw (thwart saw) is any saw designed for cutting wood perpendicular to (across) the wood grain.
A cruising rod is a simple computing device that to quickly estimate the number of pieces of lumber yielded by a given piece of timber.
Cut-to-length logging (CTL) is a mechanized harvesting system in which trees are delimbed and cut to length directly at the stump.
A dashboard (also called dash, instrument panel (IP), or fascia) is a control panel located directly ahead of a vehicle's driver, displaying instrumentation and controls for the vehicle's operation.
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
Rates and causes of deforestation vary from region to region around the world.
Brazil once had the highest deforestation rate in the world and in 2005 still had the largest area of forest removed annually.
Dendrochronology (or tree-ring dating) is the scientific method of dating tree rings (also called growth rings) to the exact year they were formed in order to analyze atmospheric conditions during different periods in history.
Dendrology (δένδρον, dendron, "tree"; and -λογία, -logia, science of or study of) or xylology (ξύλον, ksulon, "wood") is the science and study of wooded plants (trees, shrubs, and lianas), specifically, their taxonomic classifications.
The Department of Forest Conservation (Sinhala: වන සංරක්ෂණ දෙපාර්තමේන්තුව Vana Sanrakshana Departhamenthuwa) is a non-ministerial government department responsible for forestry in Sri Lanka.
The Department of Plant Sciences, at the University of Oxford, England, focusses on research and teaching in plant and fungal biology.
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
Desertification is a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry area of land becomes increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife.
Deserts and xeric shrublands are a biome characterized by receiving only a small amount of moisture, usually defined as less than 250 mm of annual precipitation.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Diameter at breast height, or DBH, is a standard method of expressing the diameter of the trunk or bole of a standing tree.
A diameter tape (D-tape) is a measuring tape used to estimate the diameter of a cylinder object, typically the stem of a tree or pipe.
Sir Dietrich Brandis, KCIE, FRS (31 March 1824 – 28 May 1907, Bonn) was a German-British botanist and forestry academic and administrator, who worked with the British Imperial Forestry Service in colonial India for nearly 30 years.
Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to the surface of non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects.
A donkey puncher is the operator of a small steam donkey, a machine used in logging in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Pseudotsuga menziesii, commonly known as Douglas fir, Douglas-fir and Oregon pine, is an evergreen conifer species native to western North America.
In geotechnical engineering, drilling fluid is used to aid the drilling of boreholes into the earth.
A drum chopper is a piece of farm equipment used for "knocking down brush and trees" and for "chopping up" their remains.
Drywall (also known as plasterboard, wallboard, gypsum panel, sheet rock, or gypsum board) is a panel made of calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum), with or without additives, typically extruded between thick sheets of facer and backer paper, utilized in the construction of interior walls and ceilings.
Ecoforestry has been defined as selection forestry or restoration forestry.
Ecological succession is the process of change in the species structure of an ecological community over time.
Ecological thinning is a silvicultural technique used in forest management that involves cutting trees to improve functions of a forest other than timber production.
Ecological yield is the harvestable population growth of an ecosystem.
Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.
Ecophysiology (from Greek οἶκος, oikos, "house(hold)"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia), environmental physiology or physiological ecology is a biological discipline that studies the adaptation of an organism's physiology to environmental conditions.
Ecotourism is a form of tourism involving visiting fragile, pristine, and relatively undisturbed natural areas, intended as a low-impact and often small scale alternative to standard commercial mass tourism.
In ecology, edge effects are changes in population or community structures that occur at the boundary of two or more habitats.
An energy crop is a plant grown as a low-cost and low-maintenance harvest used to make biofuels, such as bioethanol, or combusted for its energy content to generate electricity or heat.
Energy forestry is a form of forestry in which a fast-growing species of tree or woody shrub is grown specifically to provide biomass or biofuel for heating or power generation.
Environmental governance is a concept in environmental policy that steers markets, technology and society towards achieving the goal of sustainability.
Environmental history is the study of human interaction with the natural world over time, emphasising the active role nature plays in influencing human affairs and vice versa.
Erosion control is the practice of preventing or controlling wind or water erosion in agriculture, land development, coastal areas, river banks and construction.
The European Arboricultural Council (EAC) based in Bad Honnef, Germany is a forum where delegates from a wide range of arboricultural organizations throughout Europe meet.
Even-aged timber management is a group of forest management practices employed to achieve a nearly coeval cohort group of forest trees.
A feller buncher is a type of harvester used in logging.
Felling is the process of downing individual trees,"Feller" def.
Fern (also Stichting Fern) is a Dutch foundation created in 1995.
Fiberboard (American spelling) or fibreboard (Commonwealth spelling) is a type of engineered wood product that is made out of wood fibers.
A fire lookout is a person assigned the duty to look for fire from atop a building known as a fire lookout tower.
Firewood is any wooden material that is gathered and used for fuel.
The First International Forestry Exhibition was a world's fair held in 1884 was the first international gathering focusing on forestry.
Flood control methods are used to reduce or prevent the detrimental effects of flood waters.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
A forest is a large area dominated by trees.
Forest dieback (also "Waldsterben", a German loan word) is a condition in trees or woody plants in which peripheral parts are killed, either by pathogens, parasites or due to conditions like acid rain and drought.
Forest ecology is the scientific study of the interrelated patterns, processes, flora, fauna and ecosystems in forests.
Forest gardening is a low-maintenance sustainable plant-based food production and agroforestry system based on woodland ecosystems, incorporating fruit and nut trees, shrubs, herbs, vines and perennial vegetables which have yields directly useful to humans.
Forest inventory is the systematic collection of data and forest information for assessment or analysis.
Forest management is a branch of forestry concerned with overall administrative, economic, legal, and social aspects, as well as scientific and technical aspects, such as silviculture, protection, and forest regulation.
Forest pathology is the research of both biotic and abiotic maladies affecting the health of a forest ecosystem, primarily fungal pathogens and their insect vectors.
Forest Peoples Programme (FPP) advocates an alternative vision of how forests should be managed and controlled, based on respect for the rights of the peoples who know them best.
A forest product is any material derived from forestry for direct consumption or commercial use, such as lumber, paper, or forage for livestock.
The Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) is the national research laboratory of the United States Forest Service, which is part of USDA.
The Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM; Malay: Institut Penyelidikan Perhutanan Malaysia) is a statutory agency of the Government of Malaysia, under the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment.
The Forest Reserve Act of 1891 is a law that allowed the President of the United States to set aside forest reserves from the land in the public domain.
Forest restoration is defined as “actions to re-instate ecological processes, which accelerate recovery of forest structure, ecological functioning and biodiversity levels towards those typical of climax forest” i.e. the end-stage of natural forest succession.
The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is an international non-profit, multi-stakeholder organization established in 1993 to promote responsible management of the world’s forests.
Forest transition refers to a geographic theory describing a reversal or turnaround in land-use trends for a given territory from a period of net forest area loss (i.e., deforestation) to a period of net forest area gain.
A forester is a person who practices forestry, the science, art, and profession of managing forests.
Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests, woodlands, and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human and environment benefits.
The Forestry Commission is a non-ministerial government department responsible for forestry in England and Scotland (on 1 April 2013 Forestry Commission Wales merged with other agencies to become Natural Resources Wales).
Forestry is one of the main economic sectors of Chile, representing 14% of the value of the country's total exports.
The Forestry Library of the FAO Forestry Department, located at FAO headquarters in Rome and now part of the David Lubin Memorial Library, is a specialized library that holds approximately 6,000 books and over 600 current periodical titles, yearbooks and other serial titles on forestry and related areas.
The Forests and Countryside Ordinance is a Hong Kong ordinance "to consolidate and amend the law relating to forests and plants, and to provide for the protection of the countryside".
Forests Monitor is a non-governmental organization that was established in Cambridge, England, in 1993, to support forest-dependent people and raise public awareness about the negative impact that industrial forest exploitation has on the people that live in these forests and on the ecosystems that support them, including the wide range of plants and animals.
A forwarder is a forestry vehicle that carries big felled logs from the stump to a roadside landing.
The Foundation for Environmental Education (FEE) is a non-governmental, non-profit organisation promoting sustainable development through environmental education.
Franklin B. Hough (July 20, 1822 – June 11, 1885) was a scientist, historian and the first chief of the United States Division of Forestry, the predecessor of the United States Forest Service.
The French National School of Forestry (École nationale des eaux et forêts, or National School of Water Resources and Forestry), established in Nancy, France, in 1824, was the first national training institute for foresters in France, and a premier early school of forestry in Europe and globally.
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
A geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data.
Georg Ludwig Hartig (September 2, 1764 – February 2, 1837) was a German forester.
Gifford Pinchot (August 11, 1865October 4, 1946) was an American forester and politician.
Girard form class is a form quotient calculated as the ratio of diameter inside bark at the top of the first 16 foot log to the diameter outside bark at breast height (DBH).
The Global Forest Coalition (GFC) is a coalition of NGOs and indigenous peoples organizations engaged in the global policy debate related to forests.
The Global Forest Information Service (GFIS) is an initiative of the Collaborative Partnership on Forests (CPF) and is a collaborative effort of 14 major forest-related international organizations, institutions and convention secretariat, aiming to maximize the value of all forest information resources and providers worldwide through the sharing of forest-related information through a single gateway.
The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.
Growth and yield modelling is a branch of financial management.
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
Habitat destruction is the process in which natural habitat is rendered unable to support the species present.
Habitat fragmentation describes the emergence of discontinuities (fragmentation) in an organism's preferred environment (habitat), causing population fragmentation and ecosystem decay.
A hand compass (also hand bearing compass or sighting compass) is a compact magnetic compass capable of one-hand use and fitted with a sighting device to record a precise bearing or azimuth to a given target or to determine a location.
Handcrews are diverse teams of career and temporary wildland firefighters.
Hardwood timber production is the process of managing stands of deciduous trees to maximize woody output.
A harvester is a type of heavy forestry vehicle employed in cut-to-length logging operations for felling, delimbing and bucking trees.
Haulage is the business of transporting goods by road or rail.
Johann Heinrich Cotta, also Heinrich von Cotta, (30 October 1763 – 25 October 1844) was a German silviculturist who was a native of Kleine Zillbach, near Wasungen, Thuringia.
Heli-Logging, or Helicopter Logging, is a method of logging that uses helicopters to remove cut trees from forests by lifting them on cables attached to a helicopter.
Hemispherical photography, also known as fisheye or canopy photography, is a technique to estimate solar radiation and characterize plant canopy geometry using photographs taken looking upward through an extreme wide-angle lens (Rich 1990).
The term high grading in forestry, fishing and mining relates to selectively harvesting goods, to “cut the best and leave the rest”.
High lead logging is a method of cable logging using a spar, yarder and loader.
The New York State College of Forestry, the first professional school of forestry in North America, opened its doors at Cornell University, in Ithaca, New York, in the autumn of 1898.
Starting in 1876, and undergoing a series of name changes, the U.S. Forest Service grew to protect and utilize millions of acres of forest on public land.
The hull is the watertight body of a ship or boat.
The Humboldt University of Berlin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, abbreviated HU Berlin), is a university in the central borough of Mitte in Berlin, Germany.
Illegal logging is the harvest, transportation, purchase or sale of timber in violation of laws.
An inclinometer or clinometer is an instrument used for measuring angles of slope (or tilt), elevation, or depression of an object with respect to gravity.
An increment borer is a specialized tool used to extract a section of wood tissue from a living tree with relatively minor injury to the plant itself.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian Forest Act, 1927 was largely based on previous Indian Forest Acts implemented under the British.
Indian Forest Service (IFS) (भारतीय वन सेवा) is one of the three All India Services of the Government of India.
In the United States, an interagency hotshot crew (IHC), or simply hotshot crew, is an elite team of 20 wildland firefighters, the most highly trained in the country, that are prepared to battle the most serious fires nationwide.
Interception refers to precipitation that does not reach the soil, but is instead intercepted by the leaves, branches of plants and the forest floor.
The International Analog Forestry Network (IAFN) is a non-governmental organization (NGO) that seeks to conserve and restore biodiversity worldwide through the application of analog forestry.
The International Association of students in Agricultural and related Sciences (IAAS) is an international non-profit and non-governmental student society headquartered in Leuven, Belgium.
International Forestry Students’ Association or IFSA is a non-political, not for profit organisation of tertiary-level forestry students around the world.
The International Society of Arboriculture, commonly known as ISA, is an international non-profit organization headquartered in Champaign, Illinois, USA.
The International Tropical Timber Agreement (ITTA, 1983) is an agreement to provide an effective framework for cooperation between tropical timber producers and consumers and to encourage the development of national policies aimed at sustainable utilization and conservation of tropical forests and their genetic resources.
International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1994 (ITTA, 1994 or ITTA2) was drafted to ensure that by the year 2000 exports of tropical timber originated from sustainably managed sources and to establish a fund to assist tropical timber producers in obtaining the resources necessary to reach this objective.
The International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) is an intergovernmental organization that promotes conservation of tropical forest resources and their sustainable management, use and trade.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
The International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) (Union Internationale des Instituts de Recherches Forestières, Internationaler Verband Forstlicher Forschungsanstalten, Unión Internacional de Institutos de Investigación Forestal) is a non-profit, non-governmental international network of forest scientists, headquartered in Austria.
John Evelyn, FRS (31 October 1620 – 27 February 1706) was an English writer, gardener and diarist.
Károly Bund (4 June 1869 – 16 May 1931) was a Hungarian professional forestry engineer and an early environmentalist, serving as executive secretary of Hungary's National Forestry Association (Országos Erdészeti Egyesület), from 1900 until his death.
Kenneth Dupee Swan (1887–1970), more commonly known as K.D. Swan, was an American nature photographer in the early part of the 20th century.
The Korea Forest Service is charged with maintaining South Korea's forest lands.
Land rehabilitation is the process of returning the land in a given area to some degree of its former state, after some process (industry, natural disasters, etc.) has resulted in its damage.
A landscape is the visible features of an area of land, its landforms and how they integrate with natural or man-made features.
Laurel forest, also called laurisilva or laurissilva, is a type of subtropical forest found in areas with high humidity and relatively stable, mild temperatures.
Laxatives, purgatives, or aperients are substances that loosen stools and increase bowel movements.
Leaf area index (LAI) is a dimensionless quantity that characterizes plant canopies.
Liberation cutting has similar goals to cleaning, namely the allocation of resources to the most promising trees available on a site.
Line plot survey is a systematic sampling technique used on land surfaces for laying out sample plots within a rectangular grid to conduct forest inventory or agricultural research.
This article is a list of places by forest area.
This is a list of forest research institutes around the world, by continent and country.
This list includes representative academic, peer-reviewed journals in forestry, forest science and related fields.
A forestry ministry (also called a forestry agency, forestry department, or forest service) is a high, often cabinet-level government ministry charged with forestry.
This is a list of secondary, tertiary and technical schools, and practical training institutes around the world offering one- or two-year forestry technician and related degrees, diplomas or certificates, grouped by continent and country.
This is a list of tertiary educational institutions around the world offering bachelor's, master's or doctoral degrees in forestry or related fields.
This is a list of historic schools of forestry, by founding date.
The climate and ecology of different locations on the globe naturally separate into life zones, depending on elevation, location, and latitude.
This is a list of existing old-growth ("virgin") forests, or remnants of forest, of at least.
A list of tree species, grouped generally by biogeographic realm and specifically by bioregions, and shade tolerance.
The following is a list of widely known trees and shrubs.
This is a list of types of formally designated forests, as used in various places around the world.
This is a list of woods, in particular those most commonly used in the timber and lumber trade.
This article lists lists of forests.
A living stump is created when a live tree is cut, burned, eaten, or infected, causing its cambium to die above the root system.
A log boom is a barrier placed in a river, designed to collect and or contain floating logs timbered from nearby forests sometimes called a fence or bag.
Bucker measuring and swamping or knot bumping Bucker - Making the Cut Bucking is the process of cutting a felled and delimbed tree into logs.
Log driving is a means of moving logs (sawn tree trunks) from a forest to sawmills and pulp mills downstream using the current of a river.
A log flume is a flume specifically constructed to transport lumber and logs down mountainous terrain to a sawmill by using flowing water.
The log scaler is an occupation in the timber industry.
Logging is the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or logs onto trucks or skeleton cars.
A lubricant is a substance, usually organic, introduced to reduce friction between surfaces in mutual contact, which ultimately reduces the heat generated when the surfaces move.
Lumber (American English; used only in North America) or timber (used in the rest of the English speaking world) is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production.
Lumberjacks are North American workers in the logging industry who perform the initial harvesting and transport of trees for ultimate processing into forest products.
A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water.
The mean annual increment (MAI) or mean annual growth refers to the average growth per year a tree or stand of trees has exhibited/experienced to a specified age.
Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub are generally characterized by dry summers and rainy winters, although in some areas rainfall may be uniform.
Methanol is an alternative fuel for internal combustion and other engines, either in combination with gasoline or directly ("neat").
Michigan logging wheels, also known as big wheels, high wheels, logging wheels, logger wheels, lumbering wheels, bummer carts, katydids or nibs, are a type of skidder.
The a cabinet ministry in the government of Japan responsible for oversight of the agriculture, forestry and fishing industries.
Multilaminar wood veneer uses plantation wood to reproduce decorative effects which are typical of quality wood species (often protected and rare).
The Multiple Use - Sustained Yield Act of 1960 (or MUSYA) (Public Law 86-517) is a federal law passed by the United States Congress on June 12, 1960.
Mycoforestry is an ecological forest management system implemented to enhance forest ecosystems and plant communities through the introduction of mycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi.
The National Forestry Commission of Mexico (Comisión Nacional Forestal or CONAFOR) is a government agency tasked with developing, supporting and promoting the conservation and restoration of Mexico's forests, as well participating in the development of plans, programs and policies for sustainable forestry development.
Natural resource management refers to the management of natural resources such as land, water, soil, plants and animals, with a particular focus on how management affects the quality of life for both present and future generations (stewardship).
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.
The naval stores industry collects, processes, and markets forest products refined from the oleoresin of the slash pine and longleaf pine trees (genus Pinus).
The New York State College of Forestry at Cornell was a statutory college established in 1898 at Cornell University to teach scientific forestry.
The New Zealand Forest Service was originally established in 1919 as the State Forest Service.
NICOL Forests UK Limited is a UK-registered company which acts as the UK arm of the Ghana-based National Interest Company Limited (NICOL).
An old-growth forest — also termed primary forest, virgin forest, primeval forest, or late seral forest— is a forest that has attained great age without significant disturbance and thereby exhibits unique ecological features and might be classified as a climax community.
In forestry, the optimal rotation age is the growth period required to derive maximum value from a stand of timber.
The Forest Service Organic Administration Act of 1897 provided the main statutory basis for the management of forest reserves in the United States, hence the commonly used term "Organic Act".
Oriented strand board (OSB), also known as flakeboard, sterling board and aspenite in British English, is a type of engineered wood similar to particle board, formed by adding adhesives and then compressing layers of wood strands (flakes) in specific orientations.
Outdoor recreation or outdoor activity refers to leisure pursuits engaged in the outdoors, often in natural or semi-natural settings out of town.
An outline, also called a hierarchical outline, is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships and is a type of tree structure.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to ecology: Ecology – scientific study of the distribution and abundance of living organisms and how the distribution and abundance are affected by interactions between the organisms and their environment.
Pacing is a reasonably easy and quick method of measuring distance in the field.
Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.
Paperboard is a thick paper-based material.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
A park ranger, park warden, or forest ranger is a person entrusted with protecting and preserving parklands – national, state, provincial, or local parks.
Pellet fuels (or pellets) are biofuels made from compressed organic matter or biomass.
In forestry, periodic annual increment (PAI) is the change in the size of a tree between the beginning and ending of a growth period, divided by the number of years that was designated as the growing period.
Phytoremediation /ˌfaɪtəʊrɪˌmiːdɪˈeɪʃən/ refers to the technologies that use living plants to clean up soil, air, and water contaminated with hazardous contaminants.
The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.
Pinus ponderosa, commonly known as the ponderosa pine, bull pine, blackjack pine, or western yellow-pine, is a very large pine tree species of variable habitat native to the western United States and Canada.
The Plant A Tree Today Foundation (PATT) is a non-governmental environmental organization with primary operations in Thailand and Indonesia.
A plantation is a large-scale farm that specializes in cash crops.
Plywood is a sheet material manufactured from thin layers or "plies" of wood veneer that are glued together with adjacent layers having their wood grain rotated up to 90 degrees to one another.
Polar deserts are the regions of the Earth that fall under an Ice cap climate (EF under the Köppen classification).
Pollarding, a pruning system involving the removal of the upper branches of a tree, promotes a dense head of foliage and branches.
The Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC) is an international, non-profit, non-governmental organization which promotes sustainable forest management through independent third party certification.
Pruning is a horticultural and silvicultural practice involving the selective removal of certain parts of a plant, such as branches, buds, or roots.
Pulp is a lignocellulosic fibrous material prepared by chemically or mechanically separating cellulose fibres from wood, fiber crops, waste paper, or rags.
Pulpwood refers to timber with the principal use of making wood pulp for paper production.
In forestry, quadratic mean diameter or QMD is a measure of central tendency which is considered more appropriate than arithmetic mean for characterizing the group of trees which have been measured.
Rainforest Action Network (RAN) is an environmental organization based in San Francisco, California, United States.
The Rainforest Alliance is a non-governmental organization (NGO) working to conserve biodiversity and ensure sustainable livelihoods by transforming land-use practices, business practices and consumer behavior.
The Rainforest Foundation Fund is a charitable foundation dedicated to the preservation of the rainforest by defending the rights of the indigenous peoples living there.
RECOFTC – The Center for People and Forests is an international not-for-profit organization that focuses on capacity building for community forestry in the Asia Pacific region.
Recreation is an activity of leisure, leisure being discretionary time.
Reforestation is the natural or intentional restocking of existing forests and woodlands (forestation) that have been depleted, usually through deforestation.
The relascope, invented by Walter Bitterlich, is a multi-use instrument for forest inventory.
Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation.
Resin extraction consists of incising the outer layers of a pine tree in order to collect the sap or resin.
Resource Extraction Monitoring (REM) is a non-profit organisation that provides independent monitoring to ensure that laws relating to the extraction of natural resources are enforced.
Restoration ecology is the scientific study supporting the practice of ecological restoration, which is the practice of renewing and restoring degraded, damaged, or destroyed ecosystems and habitats in the environment by active human intervention and action.
A riparian forest or riparian woodland is a forested or wooded area of land adjacent to a body of water such as a river, stream, pond, lake, marshland, estuary, canal, sink or reservoir.
Robert Scott Troup CMG CIE FRS (13 December 1874 – 1 October 1939) was a British forestry expert.
The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) was established in 2004 with the objective of promoting the growth and use of sustainable oil palm products through credible global standards and engagement of stakeholders.
The Royal Saxon Academy of Forestry (German: Königliche-Sächsische Forstakademie) in Tharandt, Saxony, near Dresden, was founded by silviculturalist Heinrich Cotta in 1811.
Rubber tapping is the process by which latex is collected from a rubber tree.
Rural sociology is a field of sociology traditionally associated with the study of social structure and conflict in rural areas although topical areas such as food and agriculture or natural resource access transcend traditional rural spatial boundaries (Sociology Guide 2011).
Sakari Pinomäki (1933–2011) was a Finnish systems engineer and an inventor, who pioneered the mechanized forestry industry.
Salvage logging is the practice of logging trees in forest areas that have been damaged by wildfire, flood, severe wind, disease, insect infestation, or other natural disturbance in order to recover economic value that would otherwise be lost.
In forestry and silviculture, a sanitation harvest or sanitation cutting is a harvest of trees for the purpose of removing insects or diseases from a stand of trees.
Sawdust or wood dust is a by-product or waste product of woodworking operations such as sawing, milling, planing, routing, drilling and sanding.
A sawmill or lumber mill is a facility where logs are cut into lumber.
Second-generation biofuels, also known as advanced biofuels, are fuels that can be manufactured from various types of non-food biomass.
A secondary forest (or second-growth forest) is a forest or woodland area which has re-grown after a timber harvest, until a long enough period has passed so that the effects of the disturbance are no longer evident.
Selection cutting is the silvicultural practice of harvesting trees in a way that moves a forest stand towards an uneven-aged or all-aged condition, or 'structure'.
Selective logging or partial forest removal is the practice of cutting down one or two species of trees while leaving the rest intact.
In ecology, shade tolerance refers to a plant's ability to tolerate low light levels.
Shelterwood cutting refers to the progression of forest cuttings leading to the establishment of a new generation of seedlings of a particular species or group of species without planting.
Shifting cultivation is an agricultural system in which plots of land are cultivated temporarily, then abandoned and allowed to revert to their natural vegetation while the cultivator moves on to another plot.
Short rotation coppice (SRC) is coppice grown as an energy crop.
Short Rotation Forestry (SRF) is grown as an energy crop for use in power stations, alone or in combination with other fuels such as coal.
Shovel logging, sometimes called Hoe Chucking, uses a log loader to swing logs to the forest road.
Silviculture is the practice of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests to meet diverse needs and values.
Site index is a term used in forestry to describe the potential for forest trees to grow at a particular location or "site." Site is defined as “The average age of dominate and/or codominate trees of an even-aged, undisturbed site of intolerant trees at a base age”; furthermore, the word site is used in forestry to refer to a distinct area where trees are found.
Site tree refers to a type of tree used in forestry, which is used to classify the quality of growing conditions trees at a particular forest location.
In forestry, a skid cone is a hollow steel or plastic cone placed over the sawn end of a log.
A skidder is any type of heavy vehicle used in a logging operation for pulling cut trees out of a forest in a process called "skidding", in which the logs are transported from the cutting site to a landing.
Skyline logging (or skyline yarding or Cable Logging) are terms in forestry, in which harvested logs are transported on a suspended steel cable, a cableway or "highline", from various locations where the trees are felled to a central location, typically next to a road for logistical reasons.
A smokejumper is a wildland firefighter who parachutes into a remote area to combat wildfires.
Soap is the term for a salt of a fatty acid or for a variety of cleansing and lubricating products produced from such a substance.
Social forestry means the management and protection of forest and afforestation of barren and deforested lands with the purpose of helping environmental, social and rural development.
Soil science is the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the Earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils.
A splash dam was a temporary wooden dam used to raise the water level in streams to float logs downstream to sawmills.
Stand density index (SDI; also known as Reineke's Stand Density Index after its founder) is a measure of the stocking of a stand of trees based on the number of trees per unit area and diameter at breast height (DBH) of the tree of average basal area, also known as the quadratic mean diameter.
A stand density management diagram is a simple biological model relating forest yield to forest density at any stage of a particular forest stand's development.
Stand level modelling is a type of modelling in the forest sciences in which the main unit is a forested stand.
The State Forestry Corp (Italian: Corpo forestale dello Stato or CFS) was a national police agency in Italy.
Stephen C. Sillett (born March 19, 1968) is an American botanist specializing in old growth forest canopies.
In physical geography, a steppe (p) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.
The stere or stère is a unit of volume in the original metric system equal to one cubic metre.
In forestry, stocking is a quantitative measure of the area occupied by trees, usually measured in terms of well-spaced trees or basal area per hectare, relative to an optimum or desired level of density.
A structural insulated panel, or structural insulating panel, (SIP), is a form of sandwich panel used in the construction industry.
In plantation forests in parts of Europe, the tree stumps left after falling are now sometimes pulled out of the ground to supply wood fuel for biomass power stations.
Stumpage is the price a private firm pays for the right to harvest timber from a given land base.
The subarctic is a region in the Northern Hemisphere immediately south of the true Arctic and covering much of Alaska, Canada, Iceland, the north of Scandinavia, Siberia, and the Shetland Islands.
The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.
Sustainability is the process of change, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations.
Sustainable forest management is the management of forests according to the principles of sustainable development.
The Sustainable Forestry Initiative (SFI) is a North American 'forest certification standard' and program of SFI Inc., a non-profit organization.
A swamp is a wetland that is forested.
Sylva, or A Discourse of Forest-Trees and the Propagation of Timber in His Majesty's Dominions by the English writer John Evelyn was first presented in 1662 as a paper to the Royal Society.
Syngas, or synthesis gas, is a fuel gas mixture consisting primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and very often some carbon dioxide.
Taiga (p; from Turkic), also known as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces and larches.
Taiga Rescue Network (TRN) was an international network of more than 200 non-governmental organizations, indigenous peoples and individuals working to defend the world's boreal forests, also known as Taiga.
Tall oil, also called "liquid rosin" or tallol, is a viscous yellow-black odorous liquid obtained as a by-product of the Kraft process of wood pulp manufacture when pulping mainly coniferous trees.
Tar is a dark brown or black viscous liquid of hydrocarbons and free carbon, obtained from a wide variety of organic materials through destructive distillation.
Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest is a temperate climate terrestrial biome, with broadleaf tree ecoregions, and with conifer and broadleaf tree mixed coniferous forest ecoregions.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
Temperate coniferous forest is a terrestrial biome found in temperate regions of the world with warm summers and cool winters and adequate rainfall to sustain a forest.
Temperate forests correspond to forest concentration formed in the northern and southern hemisphere, or in temperate regions.
Temperate grasslands, savannahs, and shrublands are terrestrial biomes whose predominant vegetation consists of grass and/or shrubs.
Temperate rainforests are coniferous or broadleaf forests that occur in the temperate zone and receive heavy rainfall.
The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006, is a key piece of forest legislation passed in India on 18 December 2006.
The Wilderness Society is an American non-profit land conservation organization that is dedicated to protecting natural areas and federal public lands in the United States.
Theodore Salisbury Woolsey Jr. (October 2, 1879 – July 10, 1933) was a United States Forest Service employee, forestry researcher, professor at Yale University and author of books and articles related to forestry and forest regulation.
Thinning is a term used in agricultural sciences to mean the removal of some plants, or parts of plants, to make room for the growth of others.
Timber rafting is a log transportation method in which logs are tied together into rafts and drifted or pulled across a water body or down a river.
A timber slide is a device for moving timber past rapids and waterfalls.
A tire (American English) or tyre (British English; see spelling differences) is a ring-shaped component that surrounds a wheel's rim to transfer a vehicle's load from the axle through the wheel to the ground and to provide traction on the surface traveled over.
The Transfer Act of 1905 (33 Stat. 628) transferred the forest reserves of the United States from the Department of the Interior, General Land Office to the Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Forestry.
Traverse is a method in the field of surveying to establish control networks.
In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species.
Tree breeding is the application of genetic, reproductive biology and economics principles to the genetic improvement and management of forest trees.
A tree farm is a privately owned forest managed for timber production.
Tree-planting is the process of transplanting tree seedlings, generally for forestry, land reclamation, or landscaping purpose.
Tree taper is the degree to which a tree's stem or bole decreases in diameter as a function of height above ground.
Trees 4 Children is a cooperative charitable effort between the Make A Mark Foundation and the University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, in which forestry principles are utilized to provide an investible model for economic growth through land development.
Tropenbos International (TBI) is a non-governmental organization (NGO) based in the Netherlands.
Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests are a tropical forest biome.
The tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forest biome, also known as tropical dry forest, monsoon forest, vine thicket, vine scrub and dry rainforest is located at tropical and subtropical latitudes.
Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands are terrestrial biomes dominated by grass and/or shrubs located in semi-arid to semi-humid climate regions of subtropical and tropical latitudes.
Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests (TSMF), also known as tropical moist forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome, sometimes referred to as jungle.
Tropical rainforests are rainforests that occur in areas of tropical rainforest climate in which there is no dry season – all months have an average precipitation of at least 60 mm – and may also be referred to as lowland equatorial evergreen rainforest.
The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.
In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.
Chemical structure of pinene, a major component of turpentine Turpentine (also called spirit of turpentine, oil of turpentine, wood turpentine and colloquially turps) is a fluid obtained by the distillation of resin obtained from live trees, mainly pines.
Underwater logging is the process of logging trees from underwater forests.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF) is a high-level intergovernmental policy forum.
The United Nations Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (or UN-REDD Programme) is a collaborative programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), created in 2008 in response to the UNFCCC decisions on the Bali Action Plan and REDD at COP-13.
The United States Forest Service (USFS) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass.
National Forest is a classification of protected and managed federal lands in the United States.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
An urban forest is a forest or a collection of trees that grow within a city, town or a suburb.
Urban forestry is the care and management of single trees and tree populations in urban settings for the purpose of improving the urban environment.
Variable retention is a relatively new silvicultural system that retains forest structural elements for at least one rotation in order to preserve environmental values associated with structurally complex forests.
A Volume table is a chart to aid in the estimation of standing timber volume.
Walter Bitterlich (February 19, 1908 – February 9, 2008) was a world-renowned forest scientist.
Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from water.
Water resources are natural resources of water that are potentially useful.
Watershed management is the study of the relevant characteristics of a watershed aimed at the sustainable distribution of its resources and the process of creating and implementing plans, programs, and projects to sustain and enhance watershed functions that affect the plant, animal, and human communities within the watershed boundary.
The wedge prism is a prism with a shallow angle between its input and output surfaces.
Weed control is the botanical component of pest control, which attempts to stop weeds, especially noxious or injurious weeds, from competing with desired flora and fauna, this includes domesticated plants and livestock, and in natural settings, it includes stopping non local species competing with native, local, species, especially so in reserves and heritage areas.
The Wilderness Act of 1964 was written by Howard Zahniser of The Wilderness Society.
Wilhelm Philipp Daniel Schlich, also Sir William Schlich, KCIE (28 February 1840, Flonheim – 28 September 1925, Oxford) was an eminent German-born forester who worked extensively in India for the British administration.
A wine bottle is a bottle, generally made of glass, that used for holding wine.
The wise use movement in the United States is a loose-knit coalition of groups promoting the expansion of private property rights and reduction of government regulation of publicly held property.
Wood shingles are thin, tapered pieces of wood primarily used to cover roofs and walls of buildings to protect them from the weather.
In woodworking, veneer refers to thin slices of wood, usually thinner than 3 mm (1/8 inch), that typically are glued onto core panels (typically, wood, particle board or medium-density fiberboard) to produce flat panels such as doors, tops and panels for cabinets, parquet floors and parts of furniture.
Wood-plastic composites (WPCs) are composite materials made of wood fiber/wood flour and thermoplastic(s) (includes PE, PP, PVC, PLA etc.). In addition to wood fiber and plastic, WPCs can also contain other ligno-cellulosic and/or inorganic filler materials.
Woodchips are small to medium sized pieces of wood formed by cutting or chipping larger pieces of wood such as trees, branches, logging residues, stumps, roots, and wood waste.
The World Forestry Congress (WFC) is the largest and most significant gathering of the world's forestry sector and it has been held every six years since 1926 under the auspices of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), organized by the government of the host country.
The World Rainforest Movement (WRM) is an international NGO and Indigenous Peoples' Groups network involved in efforts to defend the world's tropical forests against the forces that destroy them.
A yarder is piece of logging equipment which uses a system of cables to pull or fly logs from the stump to the landing.