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Outline of forgery

Index Outline of forgery

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to forgery: Forgery – process of making, adapting, or imitating objects, statistics, or documents with the intent to deceive. [1]

339 relations: A Protocol of 1919, A Racial Program for the Twentieth Century, A. Alisaffi, Acámbaro figures, Adélaïde Concerto, Adémar de Chabannes, Adolf Ludvig Stierneld, Adolfo Kaminsky, Adolph Otto, Alceo Dossena, Alexander Howland Smith, Alfredo Fioravanti, Ali Puli, Alves dos Reis, Amarna Princess, American Numismatic Association, Anatasios Arnaouti, Angelo Panelli, Annio da Viterbo, Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement, Apple Store, Applied DNA Sciences, Archaeological forgery, Archaeoraptor, Art forgery, Arthur J. Williams Jr., Augustan History, Authentics Foundation, AVM Runestone, Émile Schuffenecker, Bat Creek inscription, Béla Székula, Benedict Levita, Beringer's Lying Stones, Bernard von NotHaus, Bernhard Krüger, Bernhardt Assmus, Billy Meier, Black Admiral, Black propaganda, Book of Jasher (Pseudo-Jasher), Book of Veles, Bords de la Seine à Argenteuil, Brandenburg stone, Brígido Lara, Brita Tott, Calaveras Skull, Canuck letter, Cardiff Giant, Casket letters, ..., Catch Me If You Can, Catherine Murphy (counterfeiter), Central Bank Counterfeit Deterrence Group, Charles Bertram, Charles Black (counterfeiter), Charles Dawson, Charles Weisberg, Chiemsee Cauldron, Christine (book), Chronicle of Huru, Cliché forgery, Clifford Irving, Clotilde de Surville, Coin counterfeiting, Constantine Simonides, Council of Europe Convention on the Counterfeiting of Medical Products, Counterfeit, Counterfeit banknote detection pen, Counterfeit Coin Bulletin, Counterfeit consumer goods, Counterfeit medications, Counterfeit money, Counterfeit United States currency, Counterfeit watch, Cragg Vale Coiners, Crystal skull, Cupid (Michelangelo), David Farnsworth, David Popper, David Stein (art forger), Delandre, Denis Vrain-Lucas, Donation of Constantine, Dossiers Secrets d'Henri Lobineau, Drake's Plate of Brass, E. M. Washington, Eadred Reliquary, Edmé Samson, Edmund Bordeaux Szekely, Eduardo de Valfierno, Edward Emery, Elmyr de Hory, Ely Sakhai, Emanuel Ninger, Epistle to the Alexandrians, Epistle to the Laodiceans, Erasmo Oneglia, Eric Hebborn, Etruscan terracotta warriors, EURion constellation, F for Fake, Fake Britain, Fake Indian currency note, Fake memoir, Fake or Fortune?, Fake passport, False document, Flavius Lucius Dexter, Flower portrait, Forgery, Forgery Act 1830, Forgery Act 1837, Forgery Act 1861, Forgery Act 1870, Forgery Act 1913, Forgery and Counterfeiting Act 1981, Forgery as covert operation, Forgery of Foreign Bills Act 1803, Forgery, Abolition of Punishment of Death Act 1832, Fourrée, François Fournier (stamp forger), François Nodot, François-Joseph Fétis, Francesco Maria Pratilli, Frank Abagnale, Franklin Prophecy, Franz Tieze, Frauds, Myths, and Mysteries, Fritz Kreisler, Geert Jan Jansen, Geometric lathe, Georges Fouré, Germania (book), Giovanni Bastianini, Glozel, Gospel of Josephus, Grave Creek Stone, Guy Hain, Habbush letter, Han van Meegeren, Harold Treherne, Henri Casadesus, Henry Fauntleroy, Henry Woodhouse (forger), Historias de la Conquista del Mayab, History of the Captivity in Babylon, Hitler Diaries, Holly Oak gorget, Ica stones, Identity document forgery, Ignazio Lupo, International Federation of Spirits Producers, Iolo Morganwg, Ireland Shakespeare forgeries, Islam Akhun, Isleworth Mona Lisa, Jacques van Meegeren, James Macpherson, James Maybrick, James Ossuary, James Reavis, James Townsend Saward, Japanese Paleolithic hoax, Jean de Sperati, Jean LaBanta, Jean-Pierre Schecroun, Jehoash Inscription, John Drewe, John Duff (counterfeiter), John Myatt, Jordan Lead Codices, Joseph Cosey, Julius Goldner, Kafkania pebble, Karl Sim, Kenneth Fetterman, Kenneth Walton (writer), Kensington Runestone, Killian documents controversy, Kinderhook plates, Konrad Kujau, Lady of Elche, Larmenius Charter, Latter Day Saint movement, Lead Books of Sacromonte, Lenape Stone, Letter of Benan, Letter of Lentulus, Letter to an Anti-Zionist Friend, Liberty dollar (private currency), Lindsay pamphlet scandal, Literary forgery, Lothar Malskat, Louis Colavecchio, Louis-Henri Mercier, Lucian Smeets, Lucio Urtubia, Madame Joseph, Maharaja Nandakumar, Majestic 12, Manuscripts of Dvůr Králové and of Zelená Hora, Mar Saba letter, Marius Casadesus, Mark Hofmann, Mark Landis, Mary Butterworth, Memoirs of Mr. Hempher, The British Spy to the Middle East, Michael John Hamdani, Michael Sabo, Michigan relics, Microprinting, Mike DeBardeleben, Minuscule 2427, Morey letter, Moses Shapira, Musical hoax, Mussolini diaries, Mustafa Letter, My Sister and I (Nietzsche), N. Imperato, Newark Holy Stones, Niger uranium forgeries, Non-governmental organization, Oahspe: A New Bible, Oath of a Freeman, Oded Golan, Old High German lullaby, Operation Bernhard, Optical variable device, Optically variable ink, Ossian, Oswald Schroeder, Our Race Will Rule Undisputed Over The World, Outline (list), Partnair Flight 394, Pedra da Gávea, Persian Princess, Philatelic expertisation, Philatelic fakes and forgeries, Philatelic Foundation, Philip Alston (counterfeiter), Philip Spiro, Phishing, Pierre Grassou, Piligrim, Piltdown Man, Praeneste fibula, Privilegium Maius, Prophecy of the Popes, Przybysław Dyjamentowski, Pseudepigrapha, Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals, Questioned document examination, Rainer Blüm, Raoul de Thuin, Richard Cockle Lucas, Richard Pigott, Risley Park Lanx, Robert Baudin, Robert Spring, Robert Thwaites, Roman Turovsky-Savchuk, Rospigliosi Cup, Roxburghe Ballads, Russian philatelic forgeries, Salamander letter, Salomon Smolianoff, Samuel C. Upham, Sámuel Literáti Nemes, Scott Reuben, Security printing, Security thread, Selling Hitler, Shaun Greenhalgh, Sherborne Bone, Shinichi Fujimura, Shroud of Turin, Sigmund Friedl, Signature forgery, Sinaia lead plates, Sir Edmund Backhouse, 2nd Baronet, Sisson Documents, Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses, Slug (coin), Solid Muldoon, Spanish Forger, Spirit Pond runestones, Stalin's alleged speech of 19 August 1939, Stock Exchange forgery 1872–73, Superdollar, Supplements to the Satyricon, Taggant, Tanaka Memorial, The Aquarian Gospel of Jesus the Christ, The Archko Volume, The Art of the Faker, The Counterfeiters (2007 film), The Description of Britain, The Faun, The Lost Chapter of the Acts of the Apostles, The Memoirs of Naim Bey, The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, The Songs of Bilitis, Theo van Wijngaarden, Thomas Chatterton, Thomas Dangerfield, Thomas Rogers and Anne Rogers, Tiara of Saitaferne, Titulus Crucis, Tom Keating, Tony Tetro, Trevor Ashmore, Turner Collection of Forgeries, U.S. Army Field Manual 30-31B, Unapproved aircraft part, United States Secret Service, Uttering, Verified-Accredited Wholesale Distributors, Vinland map, Vladimir Vavilov (composer), Vortigern and Rowena, Watered stock, Watermark, William Blundell, William Booth (forger), William Chaloner, William Henry Ireland, William J. Toye, William Lauder (forger), William Lynch speech, William Roupell, William Wynne Ryland, Winfried Michel, Yves Chaudron, Zeno map, Zhang Daqian, Zinoviev letter, Zohar, 2012 Pakistan fake medicine crisis. Expand index (289 more) »

A Protocol of 1919

A Protocol of 1919 is a fabricated text appearing in the appendices of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, purportedly found on 9 December 1919 among the documents of a Jewish Red battalion commander killed in the Estonian War of Independence.

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A Racial Program for the Twentieth Century

A Racial Program for the Twentieth Century (occasionally A Radical Program for the Twentieth Century) was a hoax that first gained public notoriety on June 7, 1957, during a debate on the Civil Rights Act of 1957, when Rep.

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A. Alisaffi

A.

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Acámbaro figures

The Acámbaro figures are about 33,000 small ceramic figurines allegedly found by Waldemar Julsrud in July 1944, in the Mexican city of Acámbaro, Guanajuato.

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Adélaïde Concerto

The Adélaïde Concerto is the nickname of a Violin Concerto in D major attributed to Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and given the catalogue number K. Anh.

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Adémar de Chabannes

Adémar de Chabannes (sometimes Adhémar de Chabannes) (c. 9891034) was an eleventh-century French monk, a historian, a musical composer and a successful literary forger.

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Adolf Ludvig Stierneld

Adolf Ludvig Stierneld (September 1, 1755 – July 31, 1835), was a Swedish baron, politician, courtier and collector of historical documents.

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Adolfo Kaminsky

Adolfo Kaminsky (or Adolphe; born 1 October 1925) is a former member of the French Resistance, specializing in the forgery of identity documents.

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Adolph Otto

Adolph Otto was a printer of Gustrow, Mecklenburg-Schwerin who printed the first stamps of Transvaal of 1870.

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Alceo Dossena

Alceo Dossena (1878–1937) was an Italian sculptor.

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Alexander Howland Smith

Alexander Howland Smith, (March 16, 1859-May 3, 1913) also known as the "Antique Smith", was a Scottish (Edinburgh) document forger in the 1880s.

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Alfredo Fioravanti

Alfredo Adolfo Fioravanti (1886–1963) was an Italian sculptor, who was part of the team that forged the Etruscan terracotta warriors in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

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Ali Puli

Ali Puli, also known as Alipili, is the attributed author of a number of 17th-century alchemical and hermetic texts.

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Alves dos Reis

Artur Virgílio Alves Reis (Lisbon, 8 September 1896 – 9 June 1955) was a Portuguese criminal who perpetrated one of the largest frauds in history, against the Bank of Portugal in 1925, often called the Portuguese Bank Note Crisis.

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Amarna Princess

The Amarna Princess, sometimes referred to as the "Bolton Amarna Princess", is a statue forged by British art forger Shaun Greenhalgh and sold by his father to Bolton Museum for £440,000 in 2003.

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American Numismatic Association

The American Numismatic Association (ANA) is a Colorado Springs, Colorado organization founded in 1891 by Dr.

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Anatasios Arnaouti

Anatasios Arnaouti (born 21 July 1967) is a criminal from Manchester, England who led an ambitious forgery operation before being jailed in 2005.

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Angelo Panelli

Angelo Panelli (c. 1887 – c. 1967) was an Italian stamp forger, operating from Sanremo in the 1920s and 1930s.

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Annio da Viterbo

Annius of Viterbo (Joannes Annius Viterb(i)ensis; 13 November 1502) was an Italian Dominican friar, scholar, and historian, born Giovanni Nanni (Nenni) in Viterbo.

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Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement

The Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) is a multinational treaty for the purpose of establishing international standards for intellectual property rights enforcement.

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Apple Store

Apple Store is a chain of retail stores owned and operated by Apple Inc. The stores sell Mac personal computers, iPhone smartphones, iPad tablet computers, iPod portable media players, Apple Watch smartwatches, Apple TV digital media players, software, and select third-party accessories.

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Applied DNA Sciences

Applied DNA Sciences, Inc. (NASDAQ: APDN) is an American high-technology company based in Stony Brook, New York that develops and employs unique technologies for the purpose of preventing counterfeiting.

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Archaeological forgery

Archaeological forgery is the manufacture of supposedly ancient items that are sold to the antiquities market and may even end up in the collections of museums.

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Archaeoraptor

"Archaeoraptor" is the informal generic name for a fossil from China in an article published in ''National Geographic'' magazine in 1999.

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Art forgery

Art forgery is the creating and selling of works of art which are falsely credited to other, usually more famous artists.

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Arthur J. Williams Jr.

Arthur "Artorius" Williams is an American-born counterfeiter and subject of the book The Art of Making Money by Jason Kersten.

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Augustan History

The Augustan History (Latin: Historia Augusta) is a late Roman collection of biographies, written in Latin, of the Roman Emperors, their junior colleagues, designated heirs and usurpers of the period 117 to 284.

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Authentics Foundation

The Authentics Foundation is an international non-governmental organization that raises public awareness of counterfeits.

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AVM Runestone

The AVM Runestone, also known as the Berg-AVM Runestone, is a hoax created in 1985 by students carving runes into a boulder near Kensington, Minnesota, not far from where the Kensington Runestone was found in 1898.

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Émile Schuffenecker

Émile Schuffenecker (8 December 1851 – 31 July 1934) was a French Post-Impressionist artist, painter, art teacher and art collector.

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Bat Creek inscription

The Bat Creek inscription (also called the Bat Creek stone or Bat Creek tablet) is an inscribed stone collected as part of a Native American burial mound excavation in Loudon County, Tennessee, in 1889 by the Smithsonian Bureau of Ethnology's Mound Survey, directed by entomologist Cyrus Thomas.

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Béla Székula

Béla Székula, also Bela Sekula (1881–1966), was a Hungarian philatelist, stamp dealer and forger who lived in Hungary, Switzerland and the USA.

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Benedict Levita

Benedict Levita (of Mainz), or Benedict the Deacon, is the pseudonym attached to a forged collection of capitularies that appeared in the ninth century.

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Beringer's Lying Stones

Beringer's Lying Stones (Lügensteine) are pieces of limestone carved into the shape of various animals, discovered in 1725 by Professor Johann Bartholomeus Adam Beringer, Dean of the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Würzburg.

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Bernard von NotHaus

Bernard von NotHaus is the creator of the Liberty Dollar and co-founder of the Royal Hawaiian Mint Company, in Hawaii, U.S.A. He created the Free Marijuana Church of Honolulu.

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Bernhard Krüger

Bernhard Krüger (26 November 1904 – 3 January 1989) was a member of the NSDAP, SS Major (Sturmbannführer) during World War II, and leader of the Department VI F 4a, part of the SD-foreign branch in the Reich Main Security Office (RSHA).

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Bernhardt Assmus

Dr.

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Billy Meier

Eduard Albert Meier (born February 3, 1937) is a Swiss citizen who is the source of many photographs of alleged unidentified flying objects (UFOs), which he presents in support of his claim that he is in contact with extraterrestrial beings.

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Black Admiral

"Black Admiral" is the colloquial name for a Revolutionary War-era U.S. painting of unknown provenance that appears to depict a black man in U.S. naval uniform.

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Black propaganda

Black propaganda is false information and material that purports to be from a source on one side of a conflict, but is actually from the opposing side.

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Book of Jasher (Pseudo-Jasher)

The Book of Jasher, also called Pseudo-Jasher, is an 18th-century literary forgery by Jacob Ilive.

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Book of Veles

The Book of Veles (also: Veles Book, Vles book, Vlesbook, Isenbeck's Planks, Велесова книга, Велесова књига, Велес книга, Книга Велеса, Дощечки Изенбека, Дощьки Изенбека) is a literary forgery purporting to be a text of ancient Slavic religion and history supposedly written on wooden planks.

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Bords de la Seine à Argenteuil

(Banks of the Seine at Argenteuil) is an oil painting controversially not accepted by leading fine arts experts to be a work by Claude Monet.

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Brandenburg stone

The Brandenburg stone is an inscribed stone slab found in Brandenburg, Kentucky, United States in 1912, on the farm of Craig Crecelius.

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Brígido Lara

Brígido Lara (born ?) is a Mexican artist and ex-forger of pre-Columbian antiques.

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Brita Tott

Brita Olovsdotter Tott (or Thott) (in Swedish) or Birgitte Olufsdatter Thott (in Danish), (fl. 3 March 1498), called the Lady of Hammersta, was a Danish and Swedish noble, landowner, royal county administrator, spy and forger.

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Calaveras Skull

The Calaveras Skull was a human skull found by miners in Calaveras County, California, which was purported to prove that humans, mastodons, and elephants had coexisted in California.

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Canuck letter

The Canuck letter was a forged letter to the editor of the Manchester Union Leader, published February 24, 1972, two weeks before the New Hampshire primary of the 1972 United States presidential election.

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Cardiff Giant

The Cardiff Giant was one of the most famous hoaxes in American history.

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Casket letters

The Casket letters were eight letters and some sonnets said to have been written by Mary, Queen of Scots, to the Earl of Bothwell, between January and April 1567.

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Catch Me If You Can

Catch Me If You Can is a 2002 American biographical crime film directed and produced by Steven Spielberg from a screenplay by Jeff Nathanson.

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Catherine Murphy (counterfeiter)

Catherine Murphy (died 18 March 1789) (also known as Christian Murphy) was an English counterfeiter, the last woman in England to be officially burned at the stake.

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Central Bank Counterfeit Deterrence Group

The mission of the Central Bank Counterfeit Deterrence Group (CBCDG) (originally designated as Special Study Group 2 or SSG-2 of the G10) is to investigate emerging threats to the security of banknotes and to propose solutions for implementation by issuing authorities.

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Charles Bertram

Charles Julius Bertram (1723–1765) was an English expatriate in Denmark who "discovered"—and presumably wrote—The Description of Britain (De Situ Britanniae), an 18th-century literary forgery purporting to be a mediaeval work on history that remained undetected for over a century.

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Charles Black (counterfeiter)

Charles Black (1928-2012) produced counterfeit British and U.S. currency together with traveller's cheques for a number of years before being arrested.

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Charles Dawson

Charles Dawson (11 July 1864 – 10 August 1916) was a British amateur archaeologist, who was initially credited with, and is now blamed for, discoveries that turned out to be imaginative frauds, climaxing with that of the Piltdown Man (Eoanthropus dawsoni), which he presented in 1912.

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Charles Weisberg

"Baron" Charles Weisberg (died 1945) was a US document forger who forged manuscripts, letters and signatures of celebrities and historical figures.

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Chiemsee Cauldron

The Chiemsee Cauldron is a gold cauldron found at the bottom of Lake Chiemsee in Bavaria in 2001.

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Christine (book)

Christine is purportedly a compilation of letters from a "gifted young English girl studying in Germany just before the outbreak of the war" (Charms 188) to her mother in Britain.

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Chronicle of Huru

The Chronicle of Huru (Cronica lui Huru) was a forged narrative, first published in 1856-1857; it claimed to be an official chronicle of the medieval Moldavian court and to shed light on Romanian presence in Moldavia from Roman Dacia and up to the 13th century, thus offering an explanation of problematic issues relating to the origin of the Romanians and Romanian history in the Dark Ages.

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Cliché forgery

A cliché forgery is a type of counterfeit coin (a subtype of fourrée) produced using a genuine coin to impress a design into silver foil.

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Clifford Irving

Clifford Michael Irving (November 5, 1930 – December 19, 2017) was an American novelist and investigative reporter.

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Clotilde de Surville

"Clotilde de Surville" was the supposed author of the Poésies de Clotilde.

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Coin counterfeiting

Coin counterfeiting of valuable antique coins is common; modern high-value coins are also counterfeited and circulated.

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Constantine Simonides

Constantine Simonides (1820–1890), was a palaeographer and dealer of icons, known as a man of extensive learning, with significant knowledge of manuscripts and miraculous calligraphy.

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Council of Europe Convention on the Counterfeiting of Medical Products

The Council of Europe Convention on the counterfeiting of medical products and similar crimes involving threats to public health (or MEDICRIME convention) is a multilateral convention of the Council of Europe aiming at prevention of counterfeiting medical products.

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Counterfeit

The counterfeit means to imitate something.

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Counterfeit banknote detection pen

A counterfeit banknote detection pen is a pen used to apply an iodine-based ink to banknotes in an attempt to determine their authenticity.

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Counterfeit Coin Bulletin

The Counterfeit Coin Bulletin was a publication of the American Numismatic Association, released three times a year to help battle counterfeiting of collector coins.

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Counterfeit consumer goods

Counterfeit consumer goods are goods, often of inferior quality, made or sold under another's brand name without the brand owner’s authorization.

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Counterfeit medications

A counterfeit medication or a counterfeit drug is a medication or pharmaceutical product which is produced and sold with the intent to deceptively represent its origin, authenticity or effectiveness.

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Counterfeit money

Counterfeit money is imitation currency produced without the legal sanction of the state or government.

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Counterfeit United States currency

Counterfeiting of the currency of the United States is widely attempted.

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Counterfeit watch

A counterfeit watch is an illegal copy of an authentic watch.

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Cragg Vale Coiners

The Cragg Vale Coiners (sometimes the Yorkshire Coiners) were a band of counterfeiters in England, based in Cragg Vale, near Hebden Bridge, West Riding of Yorkshire.

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Crystal skull

The crystal skulls are human skull hardstone carvings made of clear or milky white quartz (also called "rock crystal"), claimed to be pre-Columbian Mesoamerican artifacts by their alleged finders; however, these claims have been refuted for all of the specimens made available for scientific studies.

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Cupid (Michelangelo)

The Cupid was a sculpture created by Renaissance artist Michelangelo, which he artificially aged to make it look like an antique on the advice of Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco.

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David Farnsworth

David Farnsworth was a Colonial-era American Loyalist.

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David Popper

David Popper (June 16, 1843 – August 7, 1913) was a Bohemian cellist and composer.

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David Stein (art forger)

David Stein (born Henri Haddad, January 27, 1935, Alexandria, Egypt – October 1999, Bordeaux, France) was an artist who, until 1966, had been frequently sentenced for theft by the French courts before becoming an art forger and art dealer with 15 aliases.

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Delandre

Gaston Aime Camille Fontanille (11 May 1883 - 1923), also known just as Delandre, was a French entrepreneur and conman born in Valence, the son of a Magistrate.

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Denis Vrain-Lucas

Denis Vrain-Lucas (1818–1882) was a French forger who sold counterfeit letters and other documents to French manuscript collectors.

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Donation of Constantine

The Donation of Constantine is a forged Roman imperial decree by which the 4th century emperor Constantine the Great supposedly transferred authority over Rome and the western part of the Roman Empire to the Pope.

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Dossiers Secrets d'Henri Lobineau

The Dossiers Secrets d'Henri Lobineau ("Secret Files of Henri Lobineau"), supposedly compiled by Philippe Toscan du Plantier, is a 27-page document which was deposited in the Bibliothèque nationale de France on 27 April 1967.

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Drake's Plate of Brass

The so-called Drake's Plate of Brass is a forgery that purports to be the brass plaque that Francis Drake posted upon landing in Northern California in 1579.

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E. M. Washington

Earl Marshawn Washington (born 1962) is an American entrepreneur, printmaker, and engraver.

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Eadred Reliquary

The Eadred Reliquary was one of the wide-ranging art forgeries produced by Shaun Greenhalgh and his family, of Bolton, Greater Manchester.

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Edmé Samson

Edmé Samson (b Paris, 1810; d Paris, 1891), founder of the ceramics firm Samson, Edmé et Cie (commonly known as Samson Ceramics), was a famous copyist (and perhaps forger) of porcelain and pottery.

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Edmund Bordeaux Szekely

Edmond Bordeaux Szekely (1905–1979) was a Hungarian philologist/linguist, philosopher, psychologist and natural living experimenter.

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Eduardo de Valfierno

Eduardo de Valfierno (1850–1931), who posed as a marqués (marquis), was an Argentine con man who allegedly masterminded the theft of the Mona Lisa in 1911.

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Edward Emery

Edward Emery (died 1850?) was an English numismatist, responsible for the creation of forged coins.

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Elmyr de Hory

Elmyr de Hory (born Elemér Albert Hoffmann; Budapest, April 14, 1906 – Ibiza, December 11, 1976) was a Hungarian-born painter and art forger, who is said to have sold over a thousand forgeries to reputable art galleries all over the world.

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Ely Sakhai

Ely Sakhai (born 1952) is a United States art dealer and civil engineer who owned Lower Manhattan art galleries The Art Collection and Exclusive Art.

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Emanuel Ninger

Emanuel Ninger (1845 – 1924), known as "Jim the Penman", was a counterfeiter in the late 1880s.

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Epistle to the Alexandrians

Nothing is known for certain of a pseudepigraphical Epistle to the Alexandrians — purportedly by Paul — that is mentioned in the Muratorian fragment, one of the earliest lists of the canonical texts of the New Testament; the anonymous author of the Muratorian canon considered spurious the letters claiming to have Paul as author, and that claim to be written to the Laodiceans and this one to the Alexandrians, which are specifically said to be: "forged in Paul's name to the heresy of Marcion." Theologian Theodor Zahn believed himself to have found a fragment of the Epistle to the Alexandrians in the shape of a lesson – a liturgical Epistle – in the (eighth century) Sacramentary and Lectionary of Bobbio (Paris Bib cat., Lat. 13246).

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Epistle to the Laodiceans

The Epistle to the Laodiceans is a lost letter of Paul the Apostle, the original existence of which is inferred from an instruction to the church in Colossae to send their letter to the church in Laodicea, and likewise obtain a copy of the letter "from Laodicea" (ἐκ Λαοδικείας, ek laodikeas).

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Erasmo Oneglia

Erasmo Oneglia (1853–1934) was an Italian printer, born in Turin, who was also a successful stamp forger in the 1890s and early 1900s.

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Eric Hebborn

Eric Hebborn (20 March 1934 – 11 January 1996) was an English painter and art forger and later an author.

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Etruscan terracotta warriors

The Etruscan terracotta warriors are three statues that resemble the work of the ancient Etruscans, but are in fact art forgeries.

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EURion constellation

The EURion constellation (also known as Omron rings or doughnuts) is a pattern of symbols incorporated into a number of banknote designs worldwide since about 1996.

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F for Fake

F for Fake (Vérités et mensonges, "Truths and lies") is a 1975 docudrama film co-written, directed by, and starring Orson Welles who worked on the film alongside François Reichenbach, Oja Kodar, and Gary Graver.

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Fake Britain

Fake Britain is a British consumer rights programme, presented by Dominic Littlewood between 2010 and 2012 and from 2017, and by Matt Allwright from 2013 to 2016.

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Fake Indian currency note

Fake Indian Currency Note (FICN) is a term used by officials and media to refer to counterfeit currency notes circulated in the Indian economy.

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Fake memoir

Fake memoirs form a category of literary forgery in which a wholly or partially fabricated autobiography, memoir or journal of an individual is presented as fact.

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Fake or Fortune?

Fake or Fortune? is a BBC One television series which examines the provenance and attribution of notable artworks.

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Fake passport

A fake passport is a counterfeit of a passport (or other travel document) issued by a nation or authorised agency.

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False document

A false document is often promoted in conjunction with a criminal enterprise, such as fraud or a confidence game.

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Flavius Lucius Dexter

Flavius Lucius Dexter was a figure of the late fourth century, reported as a historian, and a friend of St Jerome.

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Flower portrait

The Flower portrait is the name of one of the painted portraits of William Shakespeare.

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Forgery

Forgery is the process of making, adapting, or imitating objects, statistics, or documents with the intent to deceive for the sake of altering the public perception, or to earn profit by selling the forged item.

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Forgery Act 1830

The Forgery Act 1830 (11 Geo 4 & 1 Will 4 c 66) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Forgery Act 1837

The Forgery Act 1837 (7 Will 4 & 1 Vict c 84) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Forgery Act 1861

The Forgery Act 1861 (24 & 25 Vict c 98) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (as it then was).

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Forgery Act 1870

The Forgery Act 1870 (33 & 34 Vict c 58) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Forgery Act 1913

The Forgery Act 1913 (3 & 4 Geo 5 c 27) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Forgery and Counterfeiting Act 1981

The Forgery and Counterfeiting Act 1981 (c 45) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which makes it illegal to make fake versions of many things, including legal documents, contracts, audio and visual recordings, and money of the United Kingdom and certain protected coins.

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Forgery as covert operation

Forgery is used by some governments and non-state actors as a tool of covert operation, disinformation and black propaganda.

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Forgery of Foreign Bills Act 1803

The Forgery of Foreign Bills Act 1803 (43 Geo 3 c 139) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Forgery, Abolition of Punishment of Death Act 1832

The Forgery, Abolition of Punishment of Death Act 1832 (2&3 Will.4 c. 123) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

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Fourrée

A fourrée is a coin, most often a counterfeit, that is made from a base metal core that has been plated with a precious metal to look like its solid metal counterpart.

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François Fournier (stamp forger)

François Fournier (24 April 1846 – 12 July 1917) Tyler, Varro E. Philatelic Forgers: Their Lives and Works. London: Robson Lowe Ltd., 1976, pp.

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François Nodot

François Nodot (c. 1650-1710) was a mercenary soldier and author of works in Latin and French.

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François-Joseph Fétis

François-Joseph Fétis (25 March 1784 – 26 March 1871) was a Belgian musicologist, composer, teacher, and one of the most influential music critics of the 19th century.

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Francesco Maria Pratilli

Francesco Maria Pratilli (1689–1763) was an Italian priest, scholar, antiquarian, whose name is known, from the 19th century, for being involved in a vast series of skilled forgeries.

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Frank Abagnale

Frank William Abagnale Jr. (born April 27, 1948) is an American security consultant known for his history as a former confidance man, check forger, and impostor between the ages of 15 and 21 years old.

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Franklin Prophecy

"The Franklin Prophecy", sometimes called "The Franklin Forgery", is an antisemitic speech falsely attributed to Benjamin Franklin, warning of the supposed dangers of admitting Jews to the nascent United States.

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Franz Tieze

Franz Tieze (1842–1932) was a late 19th-century Dublin-based forger.

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Frauds, Myths, and Mysteries

Frauds, Myths, and Mysteries: Science and Pseudoscience in Archaeology (1990) is a book by Kenneth L. Feder on the topic of pseudoarcheology.

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Fritz Kreisler

Friedrich "Fritz" Kreisler (February2, 1875January29, 1962) was an Austrian-born violinist and composer.

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Geert Jan Jansen

Geert Jan Jansen (born 1943) is a Dutch painter and art forger, who was arrested in 1994.

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Geometric lathe

A geometric lathe was used for making ornamental patterns on the plates used in printing bank notes and postage stamps.

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Georges Fouré

Georges Fouré (1848 in Paris-1902) was a 19th-century French-German philatelist and stamp forger.

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Germania (book)

The Germania, written by the Roman historian Publius Cornelius Tacitus around 98 and originally entitled On the Origin and Situation of the Germans (De Origine et situ Germanorum), was a historical and ethnographic work on the Germanic tribes outside the Roman Empire.

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Giovanni Bastianini

Giovanni Bastianini (17 September 1830 – 29 June 1868) was an Italian sculptor who began his career as a stonecutter in the quarries at Fiesole, and was sent by Francesco Inghirami to study in Florence, first with Pio Fedi and then with Girolamo Torrini, with whom he collaborated on a statue of Donatello for the portico of the Uffizi.

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Glozel

Glozel is a hamlet in central France, part of the commune of Ferrières-sur-Sichon, Le Mayet-de-Montagne, Allier, some 17 km from Vichy.

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Gospel of Josephus

The Gospel of Josephus was a modern pseudepigraph created by Luigi Moccia to raise publicity for a novel Moccia had written.

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Grave Creek Stone

The Grave Creek Stone is a small sandstone disk inscribed on one side with some twenty-five characters, purportedly discovered in 1838 at Grave Creek Mound in Moundsville, West Virginia.

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Guy Hain

Guy Hain is a French art forger who produced number of fake bronze sculptures.

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Habbush letter

The Habbush letter, or Habbush memo, is a handwritten message dated July 1, 2001, which appears to show a link between al-Qaeda and Iraq's government.

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Han van Meegeren

Henricus Antonius "Han" van Meegeren (10 October 1889 – 30 December 1947) was a Dutch painter and portraitist and is considered to be one of the most ingenious art forgers of the 20th century.

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Harold Treherne

Harold Treherne (c. 1884 – after 1908) of Brighton, England, was a stamp forger notable for his forgeries of the stamps of India and Australia who was known as The Brighton forger and his works as Brighton forgeries.

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Henri Casadesus

Henri-Gustave Casadesus (30 September 1879, Paris – 31 May 1947, Paris) was a violist, viola d'amore player, and music publisher.

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Henry Fauntleroy

Henry Fauntleroy (12 October 1784 – 30 November 1824) was an English banker and forger.

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Henry Woodhouse (forger)

Henry Woodhouse (1884–1970) was an Italian-born US aviation writer, magazine publisher, investor, and collector.

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Historias de la Conquista del Mayab

Historias de la Conquista del Mayab ("Histories of the Conquest of the Mayab") is a Mexican manuscript ostensibly written in 1725 by an otherwise unknown friar, Joseph de San Buena Ventura, who compiled it from various older sources.

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History of the Captivity in Babylon

The History of the Captivity in Babylon is a pseudepigraphical text of the Old Testament that supposedly provides omitted details concerning the prophet Jeremiah.

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Hitler Diaries

The Hitler Diaries (Hitler-Tagebücher) were a series of sixty volumes of journals purportedly written by Adolf Hitler, but forged by Konrad Kujau between 1981 and 1983.

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Holly Oak gorget

The Holly Oak Gorget or Holly Oak Pendant is an artifact made from a section of shell that is engraved with the image of an extinct woolly mammoth reportedly found in Holly Oak, Delaware and initially identified as an example of Paleoindian art.

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Ica stones

The Ica stones are a collection of andesite stones found in Ica Province, Peru that bear a variety of diagrams.

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Identity document forgery

Identity document forgery is the process by which identity documents issued by governing bodies are copied and/or modified by persons not authorized to create such documents or engage in such modifications, for the purpose of deceiving those who would view the documents about the identity or status of the bearer.

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Ignazio Lupo

Ignazio Lupo (March 19, 1877 – January 13, 1947), also known as Ignazio Saietta and Lupo the Wolf, was a Sicilian-American Black Hand leader in New York City during the early 1900s.

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International Federation of Spirits Producers

The International Federation of Spirits Producers is the trade association for the worldwide spirits industry's protection against counterfeit produce.

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Iolo Morganwg

Edward Williams, better known by his bardic name Iolo Morganwg (10 March 1747 – 18 December 1826), was an influential Welsh antiquarian, poet, collector, and literary forger.

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Ireland Shakespeare forgeries

The Ireland Shakespeare forgeries were a cause célèbre in 1790s London, when author and engraver Samuel Ireland announced the discovery of a treasure-trove of Shakespearean manuscripts by his son William Henry Ireland.

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Islam Akhun

Islam Akhun was an Uyghur con-man from Khotan who forged numerous manuscripts and printed documents and sold them as ancient Silk Road manuscripts.

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Isleworth Mona Lisa

The Isleworth Mona Lisa is an oil-on-canvas painting of the same subject as Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa.

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Jacques van Meegeren

Jacques Henri Emil van Meegeren (26 August 1912 – 26 October 1977) was a Dutch illustrator and painter.

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James Macpherson

James Macpherson (Gaelic: Seumas MacMhuirich or Seumas Mac a' Phearsain; 27 October 1736 – 17 February 1796) was a Scottish writer, poet, literary collector and politician, known as the "translator" of the Ossian cycle of epic poems.

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James Maybrick

James Maybrick (24 October 1838 – 11 May 1889) was a Liverpool cotton merchant.

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James Ossuary

The James Ossuary is a 1st-century limestone box that was used for containing the bones of the dead.

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James Reavis

James Addison Reavis (May 10, 1843 – November 27, 1914), later using the name James Addison Peralta-Reavis, the so-called Baron of Arizona, was an American forger and fraudster.

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James Townsend Saward

James Townsend Saward (born 1799) was a Victorian English barrister and forger also known by the nickname of Jim the Penman.

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Japanese Paleolithic hoax

The consisted of a number of lower and middle paleolithic finds in Japan discovered by amateur archaeologist Shinichi Fujimura, which were later all discovered to have been faked.

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Jean de Sperati

Giovanni (Jean) de Sperati (14 October 1884 – 28 April 1957) was an Italian stamp forger.

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Jean LaBanta

Jean LaBanta (born c. 1879) was an American criminal, forger and train robber.

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Jean-Pierre Schecroun

Jean-Pierre Schecroun was a French painter and art forger who made forgeries of work of modern masters, including Picasso.

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Jehoash Inscription

The Jehoash Inscription is the name of a controversial artifact rumored to have surfaced in a construction site or Muslim cemetery near the Temple Mount of Jerusalem.

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John Drewe

John Drewe (born 1948) is a British purveyor of art forgeries who commissioned artist John Myatt to paint them.

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John Duff (counterfeiter)

John Duff, born John McElduff, or John Michael McElduff, because early court records referred to him as John Michael Duff (September 1759 or August 1760 – June 4, 1799 or 1805), was a counterfeiter, criminal gang leader, horse thief, cattle thief, hog thief, salt maker, longhunter, scout, and soldier who assisted in George Rogers Clark's campaign to capture the Illinois country for the American rebel side during the Revolutionary War.

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John Myatt

John Myatt, (born 1945), is a British artist and was convicted of Art forgery who, with John Drewe, perpetrated what has been described as "the biggest art fraud of the 20th century".

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Jordan Lead Codices

The Jordan Lead Codices, (or the Jordanian Codices), are a collection of codices allegedly found in a cave in Jordan and first publicized in March 2011.

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Joseph Cosey

Joseph Cosey (February 18, 1887 – 1950) is the favorite alias of notorious forger Martin Coneely.

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Julius Goldner

Julius Goldner (c. 1841/42 - 14 January 1898)"Notes and News" by C.J. Phillips in Stanley Gibbons Monthly Journal, 31 January 1898, pp.

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Kafkania pebble

The Kafkania pebble is a small rounded river pebble about long, with Linear B symbols and a double axe symbol inscribed on it.

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Karl Sim

Karl Feoder Sim, also known as CF Goldie (Born 6 December 1923, Mangaweka – Died 21 October 2013, North Shore Hospital) was a New Zealand art forger.

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Kenneth Fetterman

Kenneth Fetterman is a famous art scam artist who occasionally partnered with Kenneth Walton to sell very expensive counterfeit art on rigged auctions on eBay.

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Kenneth Walton (writer)

Kenneth Andrew Walton (born November 23, 1967) is an American software developer and author of the memoir Fake: Forgery, Lies, & eBay, which details his time spent selling forged art on the online auction site eBay.

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Kensington Runestone

The Kensington Runestone is a slab of greywacke covered in runes on its face and side.

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Killian documents controversy

The Killian documents controversy (also referred to as Memogate or Rathergate) involved six purported documents critical of U.S. President George W. Bush's service in the Texas Air National Guard in 1972–73.

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Kinderhook plates

The Kinderhook plates were a set of six small, bell-shaped pieces of brass with strange engravings which were claimed to have been discovered in 1843 in an Indian mound near Kinderhook, Illinois.

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Konrad Kujau

Konrad Paul Kujau (27 June 1938 – 12 September 2000) was a German illustrator and forger.

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Lady of Elche

The Lady of Elche or Lady of Elx is a limestone bust that was discovered in 1897 at L'Alcúdia, an archaeological site on a private estate two kilometers south of Elche, Spain.

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Larmenius Charter

The Larmenius Charter or Carta Transmissionis ("Charter of Transmission") is a Latin manuscript purportedly created by Johannes Marcus Larmenius (Fr.: Jean-Marc Larmenius) in February 1324, detailing the transfer of leadership of the Knights Templar to Larmenius after the death of Jacques de Molay.

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Latter Day Saint movement

The Latter Day Saint movement (also called the LDS movement, LDS restorationist movement, or Smith–Rigdon movement) is the collection of independent church groups that trace their origins to a Christian primitivist movement founded by Joseph Smith in the late 1820s.

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Lead Books of Sacromonte

The Lead Books of Sacromonte (Los Libros Plúmbeos del Sacromonte) are a series of texts inscribed on circular lead leaves, now considered to be 16th century forgeries.

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Lenape Stone

The Lenape Stone is a piece of slate found in Bucks County, Pennsylvania in 1872, which appears to depict Native Americans hunting a woolly mammoth.

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Letter of Benan

The Letter of Benan was a literary forgery issued by Ernst Edler von der Planitz in 1910, allegedly a translation from a fifth-century Coptic papyrus containing a translation of an original composed in Greek in 83 CE.

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Letter of Lentulus

The Letter of Lentulus is an epistle supposedly written by Publius Lentulus to the Roman Senate, giving a physical and personal description of Jesus.

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Letter to an Anti-Zionist Friend

"Letter to an Anti-Zionist Friend" is an open letter falsely attributed to Martin Luther King Jr. that expressed support for Zionism and declared that "anti-Zionist is inherently anti-Semitic, and ever will be so."The original text of the document is available on a number of different websites; see and for examples.

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Liberty dollar (private currency)

The Liberty Dollar (ALD) was a private currency produced in the United States.

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Lindsay pamphlet scandal

The Lindsay pamphlet scandal was an Australian electoral scandal in which Liberal Party volunteers distributed fake election pamphlets, claiming to be from an Islamic organisation that was later found not to exist, that claimed the Labor Party candidate would support clemency for convicted terrorists and the construction of a mosque in the local area.

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Literary forgery

Literary forgery (also known as literary mystification, literary fraud or literary hoax) is writing, such as a manuscript or a literary work, which is either deliberately misattributed to a historical or invented author, or is a purported memoir or other presumably nonfictional writing deceptively presented as true when, in fact, it presents untrue or imaginary information.

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Lothar Malskat

Lothar Malskat (May 3, 1913 – February 10, 1988) was a German painter and art restorer who repainted medieval frescoes of the Marienkirche in Lübeck.

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Louis Colavecchio

Louis B. Colavecchio (born January 1, 1942) was an American casino counterfeiter known as "The Coin".

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Louis-Henri Mercier

Louis-Henri Mercier, whose real name was Henri Goegg, was a stamp forger operating from Geneva, Switzerland, whose business formed the foundation for the much more successful forger François Fournier.

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Lucian Smeets

Dr.

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Lucio Urtubia

Lucio Urtubia Jiménez (born 1931 in Cascante, Navarre) is a Spanish anarchist famous for his practice of expropriative anarchism.

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Madame Joseph

Madame Joseph (c.1900 – after late 1940s)"Madame Joseph - The Origin?" by Brian Cartwright in The London Philatelist, No.1344, Vol.116, April 2007, pp.102-104.

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Maharaja Nandakumar

M Nandakumar, also called Nuncomar (1705? - died 5 August 1775), was a collector of taxes, more so a diwan for various areas in what is now West Bengal.

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Majestic 12

In UFO conspiracy theories, Majestic 12 (or MJ-12) is the code name of an alleged secret committee of scientists, military leaders, and government officials, formed in 1947 by an executive order by U.S. President Harry S. Truman to facilitate recovery and investigation of alien spacecraft.

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Manuscripts of Dvůr Králové and of Zelená Hora

The Dvůr Králové and Zelená Hora manuscripts (Czech: Rukopis královédvorský, RK and Rukopis zelenohorský, RZ), also called the Queen's Court manuscript and Green mountain manuscript, are two purported medieval manuscripts of poetry in Old Czech which turned out to be literary hoaxes.

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Mar Saba letter

The Mar Saba letter is a Greek document which scholar Morton Smith reported in 1973 that he had discovered in the library of the Mar Saba monastery in 1958.

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Marius Casadesus

Marius Casadesus (October 24, 1892 – October 13, 1981) was a French violinist and composer.

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Mark Hofmann

Mark William Hofmann (born December 7, 1954) is an American counterfeiter, forger and convicted murderer.

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Mark Landis

Mark Augustus Landis (born 1955) is an American painter who lives in Laurel, Mississippi.

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Mary Butterworth

Mary Peck Butterworth (July 27, 1686 – February 7, 1775) was a counterfeiter in colonial America.

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Memoirs of Mr. Hempher, The British Spy to the Middle East

Memoirs of Mr.

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Michael John Hamdani

A Pakistani Canadian document-forger and immigrant-smuggler, Michael John Hamdani (also Amarjit Singh Sangha, Azam Shah, Ranjit Singh, Ahmad Malik) rose to notoriety after he entered a plea bargain with authorities, and triggered a manhunt for five fictitious Middle Eastern terrorists he invented.

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Michael Sabo

Michael Sabo (born 1945) is an American consultant and speaker on identity theft and fraud in the business and personal sectors.

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Michigan relics

The Michigan Relics (also known as the Scotford Frauds or Soper Frauds) are a series of apparently ancient artifacts that were "discovered" during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century.

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Microprinting

Microprinting is the production of recognizable patterns or characters in a printed medium at a scale that requires magnification to read with the naked eye.

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Mike DeBardeleben

James Mitchell "Mike" DeBardeleben (March 20, 1940 – January 26, 2011) was an American convicted kidnapper, rapist, counterfeiter, and suspected serial killer who became known as the "mall passer" due to his practice of passing counterfeit bills in shopping malls bordering interstate highways across the US.

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Minuscule 2427

Codex 2427 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), formerly known as Archaic Mark, is a miniature manuscript of the Gospel of Mark written in minuscule Greek.

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Morey letter

The Morey letter was a letter that appeared during the 1880 United States presidential election.

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Moses Shapira

Moses Wilhelm Shapira (מוזס וילהלם שפירא; 1830 – March 9, 1884) was a Jerusalem antiquities dealer and purveyor of allegedly forged Biblical artifacts.

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Musical hoax

A musical hoax (also musical forgery and musical mystification) is a piece of music composed by an individual or group who intentionally misattribute it to someone else.

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Mussolini diaries

The Mussolini diaries are several forged diaries of Italy's former fascist leader Benito Mussolini.

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Mustafa Letter

The Mustafa-letter (Mustafa-brevet) was a controversial letter which the chairman of the Progress Party, Carl I. Hagen, used in the electoral campaign for the 1987 local elections.

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My Sister and I (Nietzsche)

My Sister and I is an apocryphal work attributed to German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche.

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N. Imperato

Nino Imperato (born c. 1890s), normally known just as N. Imperato, was a stamp forger based in Genoa, Italy in the early 1920s.

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Newark Holy Stones

The Newark Holy Stones refer to a set of artifacts allegedly discovered by David Wyrick in 1860 within a cluster of ancient Indian burial mounds near Newark, Ohio.

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Niger uranium forgeries

The Niger uranium forgeries were forged documents initially released by SISMI (Italian military intelligence), which seem to depict an attempt made by Saddam Hussein in Iraq to purchase yellowcake uranium powder from Niger during the Iraq disarmament crisis.

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Non-governmental organization

Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.

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Oahspe: A New Bible

Oahspe: A New Bible is a book published in 1882, purporting to contain "new revelations" from "...the Embassadors of the angel hosts of heaven prepared and revealed unto man in the name of Jehovih..." It was produced by an American dentist, John Ballou Newbrough (1828–1891), who reported it to have been written by automatic writing, making it one of a number of 19th-century spiritualist works attributed to that practice.

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Oath of a Freeman

The “Oath of a Freeman” was a loyalty pledge required of all new members of the Massachusetts Bay Company in the 1630s.

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Oded Golan

Oded Golan (עודד גולן) (born 1951 in Tel Aviv) is an Israeli engineer, entrepreneur, and antiquities collector.

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Old High German lullaby

The discovery of an Old High German lullaby (Althochdeutsches Schlummerlied) was announced in 1859 by Georg Zappert (1806—1859) of Vienna, a private scholar and collector of medieval literature.

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Operation Bernhard

Operation Bernhard was an exercise by Nazi Germany to forge British bank notes.

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Optical variable device

An optical variable device or optically variable device (OVD) is an iridescent image that exhibits various optical effects such as movement or color changes.

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Optically variable ink

Optically variable ink (OVI) is an anti-counterfeiting measure used on many major modern banknotes, as well as on other official documents (professional licenses, for example).

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Ossian

Ossian (Irish Gaelic/Scottish Gaelic: Oisean) is the narrator and purported author of a cycle of epic poems published by the Scottish poet James Macpherson from 1760.

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Oswald Schroeder

Oswald Schroeder (died c. 1920) was a partner in the German printers Schroeder & Naumann of Leipzig, who in the 1870s and 1880s produced forgeries of classic stamps so good that they found their way into the best collections of the day and in some cases formed the reference from which other forgers worked.

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Our Race Will Rule Undisputed Over The World

Our Race Will Rule Undisputed Over The World is a fabricated speech often cited in antisemitic propaganda, supposedly given by a Rabbi Emanuel Rabinovich.

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Outline (list)

An outline, also called a hierarchical outline, is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships and is a type of tree structure.

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Partnair Flight 394

Partnair Flight 394 was a chartered flight which crashed on 8 September 1989 off the coast of Denmark 18 km north of Hirtshals.

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Pedra da Gávea

Pedra da Gávea is a monolithic mountain in Tijuca Forest, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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Persian Princess

The Persian Princess or Persian Mummy is a mummy of an alleged Persian princess that surfaced in Pakistani Baluchistan in October 2000.

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Philatelic expertisation

Philatelic expertisation is the process whereby an authority is asked to give an opinion whether a philatelic item is genuine and whether it has been repaired or altered in any way.

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Philatelic fakes and forgeries

In general, philatelic fakes and forgeries refers to labels that look like postage stamps but are not.

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Philatelic Foundation

The Philatelic Foundation is a philatelic organization granted a charter in 1945 by the University of the State of New York as a Nonprofit Educational Institution.

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Philip Alston (counterfeiter)

Philip Alston (Feb. 18, 1740 or 1741 – after 1799) was an 18th-century counterfeiter, both before and after the American Revolution, in Virginia and the Carolinas before the war, and later, in Kentucky and Illinois afterwards.

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Philip Spiro

Philip Spiro was the head of the German printing firm of Spiro Brothers of Hamburg who from 1864 to about 1880 produced around 500 different lithographed reproductions of postage stamps.

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Phishing

Phishing is the fraudulent attempt to obtain sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details (and money), often for malicious reasons, by disguising as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication.

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Pierre Grassou

Pierre Grassou is an 1839 short story by French author Honoré de Balzac (1799-1850) and included in the Scènes de la vie privee section of his novel sequence La Comédie humaine.

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Piligrim

Piligrim (Pilgrim of Passau, Pilegrinus, Peregrinus) (date of birth unknown; died 20 May 991) was Bishop of Passau.

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Piltdown Man

The Piltdown Man was a paleoanthropological hoax in which bone fragments were presented as the fossilised remains of a previously unknown early human.

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Praeneste fibula

The Praeneste fibula (the "brooch of Palestrina") is a golden ''fibula'' or brooch, today housed in the Museo Preistorico Etnografico Luigi Pigorini in Rome.

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Privilegium Maius

The Privilegium maius (Großer Freiheitsbrief, "greater privilege") was a medieval document forged in 1358 or 1359 at the behest of Duke Rudolf IV of Austria (1358–65) of the House of Habsburg.

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Prophecy of the Popes

The Prophecy of the Popes (Prophetia Sancti Malachiae Archiepiscopi, de Summis Pontificibus) is a series of 112 short, cryptic phrases in Latin which purport to predict the Roman Catholic popes (along with a few antipopes), beginning with Pope Celestine II.

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Przybysław Dyjamentowski

Przybysław Dyjamentowski (1694–1774) was a notable Polish documents forger and writer.

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Pseudepigrapha

Pseudepigrapha (also anglicized as "pseudepigraph" or "pseudepigraphs") are falsely-attributed works, texts whose claimed author is not the true author, or a work whose real author attributed it to a figure of the past.

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Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals

The Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals (or False Decretals) are a set of extensive, influential medieval forgeries written by a scholar (or group of scholars) known as Pseudo-Isidore.

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Questioned document examination

In forensic science, questioned document examination (QDE) is the examination of documents potentially disputed in a court of law.

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Rainer Blüm

Rainer Blüm is a German citizen from Bensheim who has pleaded guilty to producing and selling forged philatelic material, including cancellations and expertizing certifications.

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Raoul de Thuin

Raoul Charles de Thuin (1890–1975)Tyler, Varro E. Philatelic Forgers: Their Lives and Works. London: Robson Lowe Ltd., 1976, p.49.

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Richard Cockle Lucas

Richard Cockle Lucas (24 October 1800 – 18 May 1883) was an English sculptor and photographer.

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Richard Pigott

Richard Pigott (1835—1 March 1889) was an Irish journalist, best known for selling the Pigott forgeries.

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Risley Park Lanx

The Risley Park Lanx is a large Roman silver dish (or lanx) that was discovered in 1729 in Risley Park, Derbyshire.

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Robert Baudin

Robert Baudin (1918–1983) was a counterfeiter, conman and aerial photographer.

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Robert Spring

Robert Spring (1813–1876) was an English-born forger who forged letters from luminaries like George Washington, Benjamin Franklin and Horatio Nelson.

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Robert Thwaites

Robert Thwaites is a former graphic designer from the United Kingdom who gave up work due to failing eyesight in the late nineties.

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Roman Turovsky-Savchuk

Roman Turovsky-Savchuk (Ukrainian: Роман Туровський-Савчук) is an American artist-painter, photographer and videoinstallation artist, as well as a lutenist-composer,http://www.concertzender.nl/kairos-een-meditatie-op-hedendaagse-muziek-5/.

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Rospigliosi Cup

The Rospigliosi Cup, (so called from the noble Rospigliosi family) sometimes referred to as the Cellini Cup, is a decorative ornament in gold and enamel, previously attributed to Benvenuto Cellini (1500–1571), but now known to be an art forgery, of nineteenth-century manufacture.

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Roxburghe Ballads

In 1847 John Payne Collier (1789–1883) printed "A Book of Roxburghe Ballads".

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Russian philatelic forgeries

Russian stamps have been extensively forged.

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Salamander letter

The salamander letter is a document about the history of the Latter-day Saint movement that was created by the forger Mark Hofmann in the early 1980s.

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Salomon Smolianoff

Salomon Smolianoff (March 1899 – 1976) was a Jewish counterfeiter and Holocaust survivor involved in Operation Bernhard.

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Samuel C. Upham

Samuel Curtis Upham (February 2, 1819 – June 29, 1885) was an American journalist, lyricist, merchant, bookkeeper, clerk, navy officer, prospector, and counterfeiter, during the later part of the 19th century, sometimes, known as "Honest Sam Upham".

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Sámuel Literáti Nemes

Sámuel Literáti Nemes (1796–1842), Transylvanian-Hungarian antiquarian, co-founder of the National Széchényi Library in Budapest, infamous for many forgeries which even deceived some of the most renowned Hungarian scholars of the time.

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Scott Reuben

Scott S. Reuben (born 1958) is an American anesthesiologist who was Professor of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine at Tufts University in Boston, Massachusetts and chief of acute pain at Baystate Medical Center in Springfield, Massachusetts from February 1991 until 2009 when he was sentenced to prison for healthcare fraud.

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Security printing

Security printing is the field of the printing industry that deals with the printing of items such as banknotes, cheques, passports, tamper-evident labels, security tapes, product authentication, stock certificates, postage stamps and identity cards.

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Security thread

A security thread is a security feature of many banknotes to protect against counterfeiting, consisting of a thin ribbon that is threaded through the note's paper.

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Selling Hitler

Selling Hitler is a 1991 ITV television drama-documentary mini-series about the Hitler Diaries hoax and was based on Robert Harris's 1986 book Selling Hitler: The Story of the Hitler Diaries.

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Shaun Greenhalgh

Shaun Greenhalgh (born 1960) was a British art forger.

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Sherborne Bone

The Sherborne bone is a bone, a fragment of animal rib, with a horse's head engraved on it, once dated to the Palaeolithic period, but now generally viewed as a forgery as radiocarbon dating revealed it to be only about 700 years old.

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Shinichi Fujimura

is a Japanese archaeologist who claimed he had found a large number of stone artifacts dating back to the Lower Paleolithic and Middle Paleolithic periods.

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Shroud of Turin

The Shroud of Turin or Turin Shroud (Sindone di Torino, Sacra Sindone or Santa Sindone) is a length of linen cloth bearing the negative image of a man who is alleged to be Jesus of Nazareth.

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Sigmund Friedl

Sigmund Friedl (1851, Lipník nad Bečvou, Moravia – 1914, Vienna) was one of the most famous Austrian philatelists.

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Signature forgery

Signature forgery refers to the act of falsely replicating the signature of another person.

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Sinaia lead plates

The Sinaia lead plates are a set of lead plates written in an unknown language or constructed language.

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Sir Edmund Backhouse, 2nd Baronet

Sir Edmund Trelawny Backhouse, 2nd Baronet (20 October 1873 – 8 January 1944) was a British oriental scholar, Sinologist, and linguist whose books exerted a powerful influence on the Western view of the last decades of the Qing Dynasty (1644–1912).

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Sisson Documents

The Sisson Documents are a set of 68 Russian-language documents obtained in 1918 by Edgar Sisson, the Petrograd representative of the US Committee on Public Information.

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Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses

The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses is an 18th- or 19th-century magical text allegedly written by Moses, and passed down as hidden (or lost) books of the Christian Old Testament.

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Slug (coin)

A slug is a counterfeit coin that is used to make illegal purchases from a coin-operated device, such as a vending machine, payphone, parking meter, transit farebox, copy machine, coin laundry, gaming machine, or arcade game.

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Solid Muldoon

The Solid Muldoon was a supposedly prehistoric "petrified human body" unearthed in 1877, at a spot now known as Muldoon Hill, near Beulah, Colorado.

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Spanish Forger

The Spanish Forger (Le Faussaire espagnol) is the name given to an unidentified individual who, in the late 19th to early 20th century, created a large number of forgeries of medieval miniatures.

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Spirit Pond runestones

The Spirit Pond runestones are three stones with allegedly runic inscriptions, found at Spirit Pond in Phippsburg, Maine in 1971 by a Walter J. Elliott, Jr., a carpenter born in Bath, Maine.

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Stalin's alleged speech of 19 August 1939

This article covers a speech allegedly given by Joseph Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union, on 19 August 1939 to members of the Politburo, wherein he supposedly described the strategy of the Soviet Union on the eve of World War II.

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Stock Exchange forgery 1872–73

The Stock Exchange forgery was a fraud perpetrated at the London Stock Exchange during the years 1872 to 1873.

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Superdollar

A superdollar (also known as a superbill or supernote) is a very high quality counterfeit United States one hundred-dollar bill, alleged by the U.S. Government to have been made by unknown organizations or governments.

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Supplements to the Satyricon

Petronius's Satyricon, the only extant realistic classical Latin novel (probably written c. AD 60), survives in a very fragmentary form.

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Taggant

A taggant can mean a radio frequency microchip used in automated identification and data capture (see RFID).

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Tanaka Memorial

The is an alleged Japanese strategic planning document from 1927 in which Prime Minister Baron Tanaka Giichi laid out for Emperor Hirohito a strategy to take over the world.

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The Aquarian Gospel of Jesus the Christ

The Aquarian Gospel of Jesus the Christ (full title: The Aquarian Gospel of Jesus the Christ: The Philosophic and Practical Basis of the Religion of the Aquarian Age of the World and of the Church Universal) is a book by Levi H. Dowling, first published on 1 December 1908.

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The Archko Volume

The Archko Volume or Archko Library is a 19th-century volume containing what purports to be a series of reports from Jewish and pagan sources contemporary with Jesus that relate to the biblical texts describing his life.

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The Art of the Faker

The Art of the Faker is an influential 1959 book on art forgery by Frank Arnau.

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The Counterfeiters (2007 film)

The Counterfeiters (Die Fälscher) is a 2007 Austrian-German drama film written and directed by Stefan Ruzowitzky.

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The Description of Britain

The Description of Britain, also known by its Latin name De Situ Britanniae ("On the Situation of Britain"), was a literary forgery perpetrated by Charles Bertram on the historians of England.

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The Faun

The Faun is a sculpture by British forger Shaun Greenhalgh.

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The Lost Chapter of the Acts of the Apostles

The Lost Chapter of the Acts of the Apostles, also known as the Sonnini Manuscript, is a short text purporting to be the translation of a manuscript containing the 29th chapter of the Acts of the Apostles, detailing Paul the Apostle's journey to Britain, where he preached to a tribe of Israelites on Ludgate Hill, the site of St Paul's Cathedral.

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The Memoirs of Naim Bey

The Memoirs of Naim Bey: Turkish Official Documents Relating to the Deportation and the Massacres of Armenians, also known as the "Talat Pasha telegrams", is a book written by historian and journalist Aram Andonian in 1919.

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The Protocols of the Elders of Zion

The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (Протоколы сионских мудрецов) or The Protocols of the Meetings of the Learned Elders of Zion is an antisemitic fabricated text purporting to describe a Jewish plan for global domination.

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The Songs of Bilitis

The Songs of Bilitis (Les Chansons de Bilitis) is a collection of erotic, essentially lesbian, poetry by Pierre Louÿs published in Paris in 1894 (see 1894 in poetry).

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Theo van Wijngaarden

Theo van Wijngaarden (27 February 1874, Rotterdam – 4 November 1952, Voorburg) was a Dutch art forger.

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Thomas Chatterton

Thomas Chatterton (20 November 1752 – 24 August 1770) was an English poet whose precocious talents ended in suicide at age 17.

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Thomas Dangerfield

Thomas Dangerfield (ca. 1650 – 22 June 1685) was an English conspirator, who became one of the principal informers in the Popish Plot.

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Thomas Rogers and Anne Rogers

Thomas Rogers and Anne Rogers were English counterfeiters convicted on 15 October 1690, for "Clipping 40 pieces of Silver" (in other words, clipping the edges off silver coins).

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Tiara of Saitaferne

The Tiara of Saitaferne (also Saitaphernes or Saitapharnes) is a tiara in gold sheet, acquired by the Louvre Museum in 1896, afterwards shown to be a fake.

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Titulus Crucis

Titulus Crucis (Latin for "Title of the Cross") is a piece of wood claimed in to be a relic of the True Cross, kept in the church of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme in Rome.

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Tom Keating

Thomas Patrick Keating (1 March 1917 – 12 February 1984) was an English art restorer and famous art forger who claimed to have faked more than 2,000 paintings by over 100 different artists.

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Tony Tetro

Anthony Gene Tetro (born 1950), known as Tony Tetro, is an art forger known for his perfectionism in copies of artwork produced in the 1970s and 1980s.

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Trevor Ashmore

Trevor Ashmore is a coin counterfeiter infamous for producing modern copies of ancient English coins in the 1960s.

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Turner Collection of Forgeries

The Turner Collection of Forgeries is a collection of forgeries of postage stamps of the world to about 1900 that forms part of the British Library Philatelic Collections.

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U.S. Army Field Manual 30-31B

U.S. Army Field Manual 30-31B is an alleged classified appendix to a U.S. Army Field Manual that describes top secret counter insurgency tactics.

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Unapproved aircraft part

Unapproved aircraft parts are aircraft parts not approved by civil aviation authorities for installation on type certified aircraft.

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United States Secret Service

The United States Secret Service (also USSS or Secret Service) is a federal law enforcement agency under the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, charged with conducting criminal investigations and protecting the nation's leaders.

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Uttering

Uttering is a crime involving a person with the intent to defraud that knowingly sells, publishes or passes a forged or counterfeited document.

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Verified-Accredited Wholesale Distributors

The Verified-Accredited Wholesale Distributors (VAWD) program was established in 2004 to help protect the public from the threat of counterfeit drugs.

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Vinland map

The Vinland map is claimed to be a 15th-century mappa mundi with unique information about Norse exploration of North America.

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Vladimir Vavilov (composer)

Vladimir Fyodorovich Vavilov (Влади́мир Фёдорович Вави́лов; 5 May 1925 – 11 March 1973) was a Russian guitarist, lutenist and composer.

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Vortigern and Rowena

Vortigern and Rowena, or Vortigern, an Historical Play is a play that was touted as a newly discovered work by William Shakespeare when it first appeared in 1796.

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Watered stock

Watered stock is an asset with an artificially-inflated value.

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Watermark

A watermark is an identifying image or pattern in paper that appears as various shades of lightness/darkness when viewed by transmitted light (or when viewed by reflected light, atop a dark background), caused by thickness or density variations in the paper.

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William Blundell

William Blundell (born 1947) is an Australian painter and art copyist.

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William Booth (forger)

William Booth (died 12 August 1812) was an English farmer and forger.

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William Chaloner

William Chaloner (1650 – 22 March 1699) was a serial counterfeit coiner and confidence trickster, who was imprisoned in Newgate Prison several times and eventually proven guilty of high treason by Sir Isaac Newton, Master of the Royal Mint.

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William Henry Ireland

William Henry Ireland (1775–1835) was an English forger of would-be Shakespearean documents and plays.

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William J. Toye

William James Toye (born August 15, 1931) is an art forger in Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

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William Lauder (forger)

William Lauder (–1771) was a Scottish literary forger, the second son of Dr William Lauder (1652–1724), one of the original 21 Fellows of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, by his spouse Catherine Brown (died 1698).

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William Lynch speech

The William Lynch speech is an address purportedly delivered by a certain William Lynch (or Willie Lynch) to an audience on the bank of the James River in Virginia in 1712 regarding control of slaves within the colony.

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William Roupell

William Roupell (7 April 1831 – 25 March 1909) was Liberal Party Member of Parliament of the United Kingdom for Lambeth from 1857 until his resignation on 4 February 1862.

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William Wynne Ryland

William Wynne Ryland (1732 or July 1738 – 29 August 1783) was an English engraver, who pioneered stipple engraving and was executed for forgery.

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Winfried Michel

Winfried Michel (born 1948 in Fulda) is a German recorder player, composer, and editor of music.

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Yves Chaudron

Yves Chaudron was a supposed French master art forger who is alleged to have copied images of Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa as part of Eduardo de Valfierno's famous 1911 Mona Lisa painting theft.

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Zeno map

The Zeno map is a map of the North Atlantic first published in 1558 in Venice by Nicolo Zeno, a descendant of Nicolo Zeno, of the Zeno brothers.

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Zhang Daqian

Zhang Daqian or Chang Dai-chien (10 May 1899 – 2 April 1983) was one of the best-known and most prodigious Chinese artists of the twentieth century.

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Zinoviev letter

The "Zinoviev letter" was a fraudulent document published by the British Daily Mail newspaper four days before the general election in 1924.

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Zohar

The Zohar (זֹהַר, lit. "Splendor" or "Radiance") is the foundational work in the literature of Jewish mystical thought known as Kabbalah.

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2012 Pakistan fake medicine crisis

During late January 2012, a fake medicine crisis at the Punjab Institute of Cardiology (PIC) hospital in the Lahore region of Punjab, Pakistan, claimed the lives of over 100 heart patients.

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Redirects here:

List of anti counterfeiting agencies and organizations, List of anti-counterfeiting agencies and organizations.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outline_of_forgery

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