255 relations: Adaptation, Adaptive radiation, Adenine, Adenoviridae, Alfred Sturtevant, Allele, Amino acid, Antibody, Apoptosis, Archaeogenetics, Archaeogenetics of the Near East, Autosome, Bacteria, Bacterial artificial chromosome, Barbara McClintock, Base pair, Behavioural genetics, Biodiversity, Biogeography, Birth defect, Breed registry, Cancer, Candidate gene, Carcinoma, CDNA library, Cell (biology), Cell nucleus, Centimorgan, Centromere, Charles Darwin, Chromosomal translocation, Chromosome, Cladistics, Classical genetics, Cloning, Co-operation (evolution), Coevolution, Colin Munro MacLeod, Common descent, Conservation genetics, Conserved sequence, Contig, Convergent evolution, Craniosynostosis, Cystic fibrosis, Cytosine, Deletion (genetics), Developmental biology, Diabetes mellitus, Divergent evolution, ..., DNA, DNA replication, DNA sequencing, Dominance (genetics), Ecological genetics, Edward Tatum, Electrophoresis, Enzyme, Epigenetics, Eric Lander, Erwin Chargaff, Evidence of common descent, Evolution, Evolutionary anthropology, Evolutionary biology, Evolutionary developmental biology, Evolutionary history of life, Evolutionary ideas of the Renaissance and Enlightenment, Evolutionary taxonomy, Exon, Experiments on Plant Hybridization, Extended evolutionary synthesis, Extinction, Extinction event, Fibroblast, Fluorescence in situ hybridization, Francis Collins, Francis Crick, Frederick Griffith, Frederick Sanger, Gene, Gene duplication, Gene expression, Gene flow, Gene mapping, Gene pool, Gene therapy, Genetic carrier, Genetic code, Genetic counseling, Genetic diversity, Genetic drift, Genetic engineering, Genetic epidemiology, Genetic linkage, Genetic marker, Genetic screen, Genetic testing, Genetic variation, Genetically modified crops, Genetically modified food, Genetically modified organism, Genetics, Genome, Genomics, Genotype, George Beadle, Germline, Gregor Mendel, Guanine, Haploinsufficiency, Hematopoietic stem cell, Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, Heredity, Heritability of IQ, History of evolutionary thought, History of genetic engineering, History of genetics, History of molecular evolution, History of paleontology, History of plant systematics, HIV, HIV/AIDS, Holoprosencephaly, Homologous recombination, Horizontal gene transfer, Hugo de Vries, Human artificial chromosome, Human evolution, Human evolutionary genetics, Human genetics, Human Genome Project, Human mitochondrial genetics, Hybrid (biology), Hybridization probe, Immunotherapy, In situ hybridization, Insertion (genetics), Intellectual property, Introduction to evolution, Introduction to genetics, Intron, James Watson, Jean Brachet, Kary Mullis, Karyotype, Knockout, Lap-Chee Tsui, Leukemia, Library (biology), List of genetic disorders, List of genetics research organizations, Locus (genetics), Lymphocyte, Medical genetics, Melanoma, MEN1, Mendelian inheritance, Messenger RNA, Metagenics, Metaphase, Microarray, Microbial genetics, Microsatellite, Mitochondrial DNA, Model organism, Molecular evolution, Molecular genetics, Molecule, Monosomy, Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Mutation, Natural selection, Neanderthal genome project, Non-coding DNA, Nonsense mutation, Norman Borlaug, Northern blot, Nucleic acid double helix, Nucleic acid sequence, Nucleobase, Nucleotide, Oligonucleotide, On the Origin of Species, Oncogene, Oncovirus, Organism, Oswald Avery, Outline (list), Outline of biochemistry, Outline of biotechnology, P53, Parallel evolution, Particulate inheritance, Patent, Peptide, Phenotype, Phylogenetic tree, Plant genetics, Ploidy, Point mutation, Polydactyly, Polymerase chain reaction, Polymorphism (biology), Population genetics, Primary immunodeficiency, Primer (molecular biology), Promoter (genetics), Pronucleus, Protease, Protein, Pseudogene, Psychiatric genetics, Quantitative genetics, Recombinant DNA, Repressor, Restriction enzyme, Restriction fragment length polymorphism, Retrovirus, Ribosome, Risk management, RNA, Ronald Fisher, Science, Sense (molecular biology), Sequence-tagged site, Sex chromosome, Sex linkage, Shotgun sequencing, Single-nucleotide polymorphism, Somatic cell, Southern blot, Speciation, Statistical genetics, Suicide gene, Syndrome, Taxonomy (biology), Technology transfer, The eclipse of Darwinism, Thomas Hunt Morgan, Thymine, Timeline of paleontology, Timeline of the evolutionary history of life, Transgene, Transitional fossil, Transmutation of species, Trisomy, Tumor suppressor, Uracil, Vector (molecular biology), Walter Fiers, Western blot, William Bateson, Yeast artificial chromosome, Zygosity. Expand index (205 more) » « Shrink index
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
In evolutionary biology, adaptive radiation is a process in which organisms diversify rapidly from an ancestral species into a multitude of new forms, particularly when a change in the environment makes new resources available, creates new challenges, or opens new environmental niches.
Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).
Adenoviruses (members of the family Adenoviridae) are medium-sized (90–100 nm), nonenveloped (without an outer lipid bilayer) viruses with an icosahedral nucleocapsid containing a double stranded DNA genome.
Alfred Henry Sturtevant (November 21, 1891 – April 5, 1970) was an American geneticist.
An allele is a variant form of a given gene.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Archaeogenetics is the study of ancient DNA using various molecular genetic methods and DNA resources.
The archaeogenetics of the Near East is the study of the genetics of past human populations (archaeogenetics) in the Ancient Near East using DNA from ancient remains.
An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (a sex chromosome).
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is a DNA construct, based on a functional fertility plasmid (or F-plasmid), used for transforming and cloning in bacteria, usually E. coli.
Barbara McClintock (June 16, 1902 – September 2, 1992) was an American scientist and cytogeneticist who was awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
Behavioural genetics also referred to as behaviour genetics, is a field of scientific research that uses genetic methods to investigate the nature and origins of individual differences in behaviour.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time.
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
A breed registry, also known as a herdbook, studbook or register, in animal husbandry and the hobby of animal fancy, is an official list of animals within a specific breed whose parents are known.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
The candidate gene approach to conducting genetic association studies focuses on associations between genetic variation within pre-specified genes of interest and phenotypes or disease states.
Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops from epithelial cells.
A cDNA library is a combination of cloned cDNA (complementary DNA) fragments inserted into a collection of host cells, which together constitute some portion of the transcriptome of the organism and are stored as a "library".
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
In genetics, a centimorgan (abbreviated cM) or map unit (m.u.) is a unit for measuring genetic linkage.
The centromere is the specialized DNA sequence of a chromosome that links a pair of sister chromatids (a dyad).
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
In genetics, a chromosome translocation is a chromosome abnormality caused by rearrangement of parts between nonhomologous chromosomes.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Cladistics (from Greek κλάδος, cládos, i.e., "branch") is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on the most recent common ancestor.
Classical genetics is the branch of genetics based solely on visible results of reproductive acts.
Cloning is the process of producing genetically identical individuals of an organism either naturally or artificially.
In evolution, co-operation is the process where groups of organisms work or act together for common or mutual benefits.
In biology, coevolution occurs when two or more species reciprocally affect each other's evolution.
Colin Munro MacLeod (January 28, 1909 – February 11, 1972) was a Canadian-American geneticist.
Common descent describes how, in evolutionary biology, a group of organisms share a most recent common ancestor.
Conservation genetics is an interdisciplinary subfield of Population Genetics that aims to understand the dynamics of genes in populations principally to avoid extinction.
In evolutionary biology, conserved sequences are similar or identical sequences in nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) or proteins across species (orthologous sequences) or within a genome (paralogous sequences).
A contig (from contiguous) is a set of overlapping DNA segments that together represent a consensus region of DNA.
Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.
Craniosynostosis (from cranio, cranium; + syn, together; + ostosis relating to bone) is a condition in which one or more of the fibrous sutures in an infant (very young) skull prematurely fuses by turning into bone (ossification), thereby changing the growth pattern of the skull.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that affects mostly the lungs, but also the pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestine.
Cytosine (C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
In genetics, a deletion (also called gene deletion, deficiency, or deletion mutation) (sign: Δ) is a mutation (a genetic aberration) in which a part of a chromosome or a sequence of DNA is lost during DNA replication.
Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Divergent evolution is the accumulation of differences between groups, leading to the formation of new species.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.
Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus.
Ecological genetics is the study of genetics in natural populations.
Edward Lawrie Tatum (December 14, 1909 – November 5, 1975) was an American geneticist.
Electrophoresis (from the Greek "Ηλεκτροφόρηση" meaning "to bear electrons") is the motion of dispersed particles relative to a fluid under the influence of a spatially uniform electric field.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence.
Eric Steven Lander (born February 3, 1957), a mathematician and geneticist, is a Professor of Biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), former member of the Whitehead Institute, and founding director of the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard.
Erwin Chargaff (11 August 1905 – 20 June 2002) was an Austro-Hungarian biochemist who immigrated to the United States during the Nazi era and was a professor of biochemistry at Columbia University medical school.
Evidence of common descent of living organisms has been discovered by scientists researching in a variety of disciplines over many decades, demonstrating that all life on Earth comes from a single ancestor.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Evolutionary anthropology is the interdisciplinary study of the evolution of human physiology and human behaviour and the relation between hominids and non-hominid primates.
Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.
Evolutionary developmental biology (informally, evo-devo) is a field of biological research that compares the developmental processes of different organisms to infer the ancestral relationships between them and how developmental processes evolved.
The evolutionary history of life on Earth traces the processes by which both living organisms and fossil organisms evolved since life emerged on the planet, until the present.
Evolutionary ideas during the periods of the Renaissance and the Enlightenment developed over a time when natural history became more sophisticated during the 17th and 18th centuries, and as the scientific revolution and the rise of mechanical philosophy encouraged viewing the natural world as a machine with workings capable of analysis.
Evolutionary taxonomy, evolutionary systematics or Darwinian classification is a branch of biological classification that seeks to classify organisms using a combination of phylogenetic relationship (shared descent), progenitor-descendant relationship (serial descent), and degree of evolutionary change.
An exon is any part of a gene that will encode a part of the final mature RNA produced by that gene after introns have been removed by RNA splicing.
"Experiments on Plant Hybridization" (German: Versuche über Pflanzen-Hybriden) is a seminal paper written in 1865 and published in 1866 by Gregor Mendel, an Augustinian friar considered to be the founder of modern genetics.
The extended evolutionary synthesis consists of a set of theoretical concepts more comprehensive than the earlier modern synthesis of evolutionary biology that took place between 1918 and 1942.
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
An extinction event (also known as a mass extinction or biotic crisis) is a widespread and rapid decrease in the biodiversity on Earth.
A fibroblast is a type of biological cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, the structural framework (stroma) for animal tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing.
Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is a molecular cytogenetic technique that uses fluorescent probes that bind to only those parts of the chromosome with a high degree of sequence complementarity.
Francis Sellers Collins (born April 14, 1950) is an American physician-geneticist who discovered the genes associated with a number of diseases and led the Human Genome Project.
Francis Harry Compton Crick (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was a British molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist, most noted for being a co-discoverer of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953 with James Watson, work which was based partly on fundamental studies done by Rosalind Franklin, Raymond Gosling and Maurice Wilkins.
Frederick Griffith was a British bacteriologist whose focus was the epidemiology and pathology of bacterial pneumonia.
Frederick Sanger (13 August 1918 – 19 November 2013) was a British biochemist who twice won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, one of only two people to have done so in the same category (the other is John Bardeen in physics), the fourth person overall with two Nobel Prizes, and the third person overall with two Nobel Prizes in the sciences.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Gene duplication (or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification) is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is generated during molecular evolution.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
In population genetics, gene flow (also known as gene migration or allele flow) is the transfer of genetic variation from one population to another.
Gene mapping describes the methods used to identify the locus of a gene and the distances between genes.
The gene pool is the set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species.
In the medicine field, gene therapy (also called human gene transfer) is the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid into a patient's cells as a drug to treat disease.
A hereditary carrier (or just carrier), is a person or other organism that has inherited a recessive allele for a genetic trait or mutation but usually does not display that trait or show symptoms of the disease.
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.
Genetic counseling is the process by which the patients or relatives at risk of an inherited disorder (or may be carrying a child at risk) are advised of the consequences and nature of the disorder, the probability of developing or transmitting it, and the options open to them in management and family planning.
Genetic diversity is the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species.
Genetic drift (also known as allelic drift or the Sewall Wright effect) is the change in the frequency of an existing gene variant (allele) in a population due to random sampling of organisms.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.
Genetic epidemiology is the study of the role of genetic factors in determining health and disease in families and in populations, and the interplay of such genetic factors with environmental factors.
Genetic linkage is the tendency of DNA sequences that are close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction.
A genetic marker is a gene or DNA sequence with a known location on a chromosome that can be used to identify individuals or species.
A genetic screen or mutagenesis screen is an experimental technique used to identify and select for individuals who possess a phenotype of interest in a mutagenized population.
Genetic testing, also known as DNA testing, allows the determination of bloodlines and the genetic diagnosis of vulnerabilities to inherited diseases.
Genetic variation means that biological systems – individuals and populations – are different over space.
Genetically modified crops (GMCs, GM crops, or biotech crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering methods.
Genetically modified foods or GM foods, also known as genetically engineered foods, bioengineered foods, genetically modified organisms, or GMOs, are foods produced from organisms that have had changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering.
A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism).
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes.
The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines one of its characteristics (phenotype).
George Wells Beadle (October 22, 1903 – June 9, 1989) was an American scientist in the field of genetics, and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Nobel laureate who with Edward Tatum discovered the role of genes in regulating biochemical events within cells in 1958.
In biology and genetics, the germline in a multicellular organism is the population of its bodily cells that are so differentiated or segregated that in the usual processes of reproduction they may pass on their genetic material to the progeny.
Gregor Johann Mendel (Řehoř Jan Mendel; 20 July 1822 – 6 January 1884) was a scientist, Augustinian friar and abbot of St. Thomas' Abbey in Brno, Margraviate of Moravia.
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
Haploinsufficiency is a mechanism of action to explain a phenotype when a diploid organism has lost one copy of a gene and is left with a single functional copy of that gene.
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the stem cells that give rise to other blood cells.
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, usually derived from bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood.
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.
Research on heritability of IQ implies, from the similarity of IQ in closely related persons, the proportion of variance of IQ among individuals in a study population that is associated with genetic variation within that population.
Evolutionary thought, the conception that species change over time, has roots in antiquity – in the ideas of the ancient Greeks, Romans, and Chinese as well as in medieval Islamic science.
Genetic modification caused by human activity has been occurring since around 12,000 BC, when humans first began to domesticate organisms.
The history of genetics dates from the classical era with contributions by Hippocrates, Aristotle and Epicurus.
The history of molecular evolution starts in the early 20th century with "comparative biochemistry", but the field of molecular evolution came into its own in the 1960s and 1970s, following the rise of molecular biology.
The history of paleontology traces the history of the effort to understand the history of life on Earth by studying the fossil record left behind by living organisms.
The history of plant systematics—the biological classification of plants—stretches from the work of ancient Greek to modern evolutionary biologists.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a cephalic disorder in which the prosencephalon (the forebrain of the embryo) fails to develop into two hemispheres.
Homologous recombination is a type of genetic recombination in which nucleotide sequences are exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA.
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.
Hugo Marie de Vries ForMemRS (16 February 1848 – 21 May 1935) was a Dutch botanist and one of the first geneticists.
A human artificial chromosome (HAC) is a microchromosome that can act as a new chromosome in a population of human cells.
Human evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans, beginning with the evolutionary history of primates – in particular genus Homo – and leading to the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of the hominid family, the great apes.
Human evolutionary genetics studies how one human genome differs from another human genome, the evolutionary past that gave rise to it, and its current effects.
Human genetics is the study of inheritance as it occurs in human beings.
The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the sequence of nucleotide base pairs that make up human DNA, and of identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and a functional standpoint.
Human mitochondrial genetics is the study of the genetics of human mitochondrial DNA (the DNA contained in human mitochondria).
In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.
In molecular biology, a hybridization probe is a fragment of DNA or RNA of variable length (usually 100–1000 bases long) which can be radioactively labeled.
Immunotherapy is the "treatment of disease by inducing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response".
In situ hybridization (ISH) is a type of hybridization that uses a labeled complementary DNA, RNA or modified nucleic acids strand (i.e., probe) to localize a specific DNA or RNA sequence in a portion or section of tissue (in situ), or, if the tissue is small enough (e.g., plant seeds, Drosophila embryos), in the entire tissue (whole mount ISH), in cells, and in circulating tumor cells (CTCs).
In genetics, an insertion (also called an insertion mutation) is the addition of one or more nucleotide base pairs into a DNA sequence.
Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect, and primarily encompasses copyrights, patents, and trademarks.
Evolution is the process of change in all forms of life over generations, and evolutionary biology is the study of how evolution occurs.
Genetics is the study of heredity and variations.
An intron is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing during maturation of the final RNA product.
James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, geneticist and zoologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA in 1953 with Francis Crick and Rosalind Franklin.
Prof Jean Louis Auguste Brachet (19 March 1909 – 10 August 1988) was a Belgian biochemist who made a key contribution in understanding the role of RNA.
Kary Banks Mullis (born December 28, 1944) is a Nobel Prize-winning American biochemist.
A karyotype is the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.
A knockout (abbreviated to KO or K.O.) is a fight-ending, winning criterion in several full-contact combat sports, such as boxing, kickboxing, muay thai, mixed martial arts, karate, some forms of taekwondo, and other sports involving striking, as well as fighting-based video games.
Professor Lap-Chee Tsui, GBM, OC, O.Ont, JP (born 21 December 1950) is a Chinese-born Canadian geneticist and served as the 14th Vice-Chancellor and President of the University of Hong Kong.
Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.
In molecular biology, a library is a collection of DNA fragments that is stored and propagated in a population of micro-organisms through the process of molecular cloning.
The following is a list of genetic disorders and if known, type of mutation and the chromosome involved.
This is a list of organizations involved in genetics research.
A locus (plural loci) in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker).
A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.
Medical genetics is the branch of medicine that involves the diagnosis and management of hereditary disorders.
Melanoma, also known as malignant melanoma, is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes.
Menin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MEN1 gene.
Mendelian inheritance is a type of biological inheritance that follows the laws originally proposed by Gregor Mendel in 1865 and 1866 and re-discovered in 1900.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.
The word metagenics uses the prefix meta and the suffix gen.
Metaphase (from the Greek μετά, "adjacent" and φάσις, "stage") is a stage of mitosis in the eukaryotic cell cycle in which chromosomes are at their second-most condensed and coiled stage (they are at their most condensed in anaphase).
A microarray is a multiplex lab-on-a-chip.
Microbial genetics is a subject area within microbiology and genetic engineering.
A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 1–6 or more base pairs) are repeated, typically 5–50 times.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
Molecular evolution is the process of change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations.
Molecular genetics is the field of biology that studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level and thus employs methods of both molecular biology and genetics.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Monosomy is a form of aneuploidy with the presence of only one chromosome from a pair.
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1 syndrome) or Wermer's syndrome is part of a group of disorders, the multiple endocrine neoplasias, that affect the endocrine system through development of neoplastic lesions in pituitary, parathyroid gland and pancreas.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
The Neanderthal genome project is an effort of a group of scientists to sequence the Neanderthal genome, founded in July 2006.
In genomics and related disciplines, noncoding DNA sequences are components of an organism's DNA that do not encode protein sequences.
In genetics, a point-nonsense mutation is a point mutation in a sequence of DNA that results in a premature stop codon, or a point-nonsense codon in the transcribed mRNA, and in a truncated, incomplete, and usually nonfunctional protein product.
Norman Ernest Borlaug (March 25, 1914September 12, 2009) was an American agronomist and humanitarian who led initiatives worldwide that contributed to the extensive increases in agricultural production termed the Green Revolution.
The northern blot, or RNA blot,Gilbert, S. F. (2000) Developmental Biology, 6th Ed.
In molecular biology, the term double helix refers to the structure formed by double-stranded molecules of nucleic acids such as DNA.
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.
Nucleobases, also known as nitrogenous bases or often simply bases, are nitrogen-containing biological compounds that form nucleosides, which in turn are components of nucleotides, with all of these monomers constituting the basic building blocks of nucleic acids.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
Oligonucleotides are short DNA or RNA molecules, oligomers, that have a wide range of applications in genetic testing, research, and forensics.
On the Origin of Species (or more completely, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life),The book's full original title was On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.
An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer.
An oncovirus is a virus that can cause cancer.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Oswald Theodore Avery Jr. (October 21, 1877 – February 20, 1955) was a Canadian-American physician and medical researcher.
An outline, also called a hierarchical outline, is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships and is a type of tree structure.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to biochemistry: Biochemistry – study of chemical processes in living organisms, including living matter.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to biotechnology: Biotechnology – field of applied biology that involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine and other fields requiring bioproducts.
Tumor protein p53, also known as p53, cellular tumor antigen p53 (UniProt name), phosphoprotein p53, tumor suppressor p53, antigen NY-CO-13, or transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53), is any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms, such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice).
Parallel evolution is the development of a similar trait in related, but distinct, species descending from the same ancestor, but from different clades.
Particulate inheritance is a pattern of inheritance discovered by Mendelian genetics theorists, such as William Bateson, Ronald Fisher or Gregor Mendel himself, showing that phenotypic traits can be passed from generation to generation through "discrete particles" known as genes, which can keep their ability to be expressed while not always appearing in a descending generation.
A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.
Plant genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity specifically in Plants.
Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.
A point mutation is a genetic mutation where a single nucleotide base is changed, inserted or deleted from a sequence of DNA or RNA.
Polydactyly or polydactylism, also known as hyperdactyly, is a congenital physical anomaly in humans and animals resulting in supernumerary fingers and/or toes.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
Polymorphism in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.
Population genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with genetic differences within and between populations, and is a part of evolutionary biology.
Primary immunodeficiencies are disorders in which part of the body's immune system is missing or does not function normally.
A primer is a short strand of RNA or DNA (generally about 18-22 bases) that serves as a starting point for DNA synthesis.
In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.
A pronucleus (plural: pronuclei) is the nucleus of a sperm or an egg cell during the process of fertilization, after the sperm enters the ovum, but before the genetic material of the sperm and egg fuse.
A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that performs proteolysis: protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Pseudogenes are segments of DNA that are related to real genes.
Psychiatric genetics is a subfield of behavioral neurogenetics and behavioral genetics which studies the role of genetics in the developement of mental disorders (such as alcoholism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism).
Quantitative genetics is a branch of population genetics that deals with phenotypes that vary continuously (in characters such as height or mass)—as opposed to discretely identifiable phenotypes and gene-products (such as eye-colour, or the presence of a particular biochemical).
Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome.
In molecular genetics, a repressor is a DNA- or RNA-binding protein that inhibits the expression of one or more genes by binding to the operator or associated silencers.
A restriction enzyme or restriction endonuclease is an enzyme that cleaves DNA into fragments at or near specific recognition sites within the molecule known as restriction sites.
In molecular biology, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) is a technique that exploits variations in homologous DNA sequences.
A retrovirus is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus with a DNA intermediate and, as an obligate parasite, targets a host cell.
The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).
Risk management is the identification, evaluation, and prioritization of risks (defined in ISO 31000 as the effect of uncertainty on objectives) followed by coordinator and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability or impact of unfortunate events or to maximize the realization of opportunities.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher (17 February 1890 – 29 July 1962), who published as R. A. Fisher, was a British statistician and geneticist.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
In molecular biology and genetics, the sense of nucleic acid molecules (often DNA or RNA) is the nature of their roles and their complementary molecules' nucleic acid units' roles in specifying amino acids.
A sequence-tagged site (or STS) is a short (200 to 500 base pair) DNA sequence that has a single occurrence in the genome and whose location and base sequence are known.
An allosome (also referred to as a sex chromosome, heterotypical chromosome, heterochromosome, or idiochromosome) is a chromosome that differs from an ordinary autosome in form, size, and behavior.
Sex linkage is the phenotypic expression of an allele related to the allosome (sex chromosome) of the individual.
In genetics, shotgun sequencing is a method used for sequencing long DNA strands.
A single-nucleotide polymorphism, often abbreviated to SNP (plural), is a variation in a single nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome, where each variation is present to some appreciable degree within a population (e.g. > 1%).
A somatic cell (from the Greek σῶμα sôma, meaning "body") or vegetal cell is any biological cell forming the body of an organism; that is, in a multicellular organism, any cell other than a gamete, germ cell, gametocyte or undifferentiated stem cell.
A Southern blot is a method used in molecular biology for detection of a specific DNA sequence in DNA samples.
Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species.
Statistical genetics is a scientific field concerned with the development of statistical methods for drawing inferences from genetic data.
A suicide gene, in genetics, will cause a cell to kill itself through apoptosis.
A syndrome is a set of medical signs and symptoms that are correlated with each other and, often, with a particular disease or disorder.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
Technology transfer, also called transfer of technology (TOT), is the process of transferring (disseminating) technology from the places and ingroups of its origination to wider distribution among more people and places.
Julian Huxley used the phrase “the eclipse of Darwinism” to describe the state of affairs prior to what he called the modern synthesis, when evolution was widely accepted in scientific circles but relatively few biologists believed that natural selection was its primary mechanism.
Thomas Hunt Morgan (September 25, 1866 – December 4, 1945) was an American evolutionary biologist, geneticist, embryologist, and science author who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1933 for discoveries elucidating the role that the chromosome plays in heredity.
---> Thymine (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.
Timeline of paleontology.
This timeline of the evolutionary history of life represents the current scientific theory outlining the major events during the development of life on planet Earth.
A transgene is a gene or genetic material that has been transferred naturally, or by any of a number of genetic engineering techniques from one organism to another.
A transitional fossil is any fossilized remains of a life form that exhibits traits common to both an ancestral group and its derived descendant group.
Transmutation of species and transformism are 19th-century evolutionary ideas for the altering of one species into another that preceded Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection.
A trisomy is a type of polysomy in which there are three instances of a particular chromosome, instead of the normal two.
A tumor suppressor gene, or antioncogene, is a gene that protects a cell from one step on the path to cancer.
Uracil (U) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).
In molecular cloning, a vector is a DNA molecule used as a vehicle to artificially carry foreign genetic material into another cell, where it can be replicated and/or expressed (e.g.- plasmid, cosmid, Lambda phages).
Walter Fiers (born 1931 in Ypres, West Flanders) is a Belgian molecular biologist.
The western blot (sometimes called the protein immunoblot) is a widely used analytical technique used in molecular biology, immunogenetics and other molecular biology disciplines to detect specific proteins in a sample of tissue homogenate or extract.
William Bateson (8 August 1861 – 8 February 1926) was an English biologist who was the first person to use the term genetics to describe the study of heredity, and the chief populariser of the ideas of Gregor Mendel following their rediscovery in 1900 by Hugo de Vries and Carl Correns.
Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) are genetically engineered chromosomes derived from the DNA of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is then ligated into a bacterial plasmid.
Zygosity is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism.