176 relations: Aeromagnetic survey, Aeronomy, Aftershock, Age of the Earth, Alfvén wave, American Geophysical Union, Apparent polar wander, Archaeomagnetic dating, Atmosphere, Atmospheric electricity, Atmospheric sciences, Biogeophysics, Biology, Blind thrust earthquake, Bouguer anomaly, Canadian Geophysical Union, Chemistry, Chronozone, Climatology, Comparison of free geophysics software, Creep (deformation), Crystal structure, Dawn chorus (electromagnetic), Deformation (mechanics), Discipline (academia), Dynamo theory, Earth, Earth science, Earth's magnetic field, Earthquake, Elasticity (physics), Electrical resistivity tomography, Empirical research, Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society, Environmental magnetism, European Geosciences Union, Exploration geophysics, Figure of the Earth, Foreshock, Fumarole, Geochronology, Geodesy, Geodynamics, Geoid, Geology, Geomagnetic excursion, Geomagnetic jerk, Geomagnetic pole, Geomagnetic reversal, Geomagnetic secular variation, ..., Geophysical fluid dynamics, Geophysical survey, Geophysics, Geopotential, Geoprofessions, Geothermal gradient, Geyser, Glacier, Glaciology, Gravity, Gravity anomaly, Gravity of Earth, Harmonic tremor, Hiss (electromagnetic), History of geomagnetism, History of geophysics, Hot spring, Hydrocarbon, Hydrology, Ice, Induced polarization, Interdisciplinarity, Internal heating, International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, Interplate earthquake, Intraplate earthquake, Ionosphere, Isostasy, Lightning, List of geophysicists, Love wave, Magma, Magnetic anomaly, Magnetic declination, Magnetic dip, Magnetic mineralogy, Magnetic survey (archaeology), Magnetism, Magnetometer, Magnetosphere, Magnetostratigraphy, Magnetotellurics, Mantle convection, Mathematical geophysics, Megathrust earthquake, Melting, Meteorology, Mineral, Mineral physics, Mineralogy, Moon, Natural remanent magnetization, Natural science, Nature, Near-surface geophysics, North Magnetic Pole, Ocean, Oceanography, Optical mineralogy, Ore, Outline (list), Outline of geology, Outline of physical science, Outline of physics, P-wave, Paleomagnetism, Petrophysics, Physical oceanography, Physics, Planet, Plate reconstruction, Plate tectonics, Polar wander, Post-glacial rebound, Radiometric dating, Rayleigh wave, Reflection seismology, Remanence, Remotely triggered earthquakes, Rock magnetism, Royal Astronomical Society, S-wave, Science, Scientific method, Secular variation, Seismic hazard, Seismic refraction, Seismic tomography, Seismic wave, Seismo-electromagnetics, Seismoelectrical method, Seismological Society of America, Seismology, Slow earthquake, Snow, Society of Exploration Geophysicists, Solar wind, South Magnetic Pole, Spectral induced polarisation, Spontaneous potential, Sprite (lightning), Structure of the Earth, Subduction, Submarine earthquake, Supershear earthquake, Surface wave, Tectonophysics, Telluric current, Thermal expansion, Thermoremanent magnetization, Timeline of the development of tectonophysics (before 1954), Transient electromagnetics, True polar wander, Tsunami, Tsunami earthquake, Undulation of the geoid, Van Allen radiation belt, Vine–Matthews–Morley hypothesis, Viscosity, Viscous remanent magnetization, Volcanism, Volcano, Volcanology, Water cycle, Weather, Whistler (radio). Expand index (126 more) » « Shrink index
An aeromagnetic survey is a common type of geophysical survey carried out using a magnetometer aboard or towed behind an aircraft.
Aeronomy is the meteorological science of the upper region of the Earth's or other planetary atmospheres, which relates to the atmospheric motions, its chemical composition and properties, and the reaction to it from the environment from space.
An aftershock is a smaller earthquake that occurs after a previous large earthquake, in the same area of the main shock.
The age of the Earth is 4.54 ± 0.05 billion years This age may represent the age of the Earth’s accretion, of core formation, or of the material from which the Earth formed.
In plasma physics, an Alfvén wave, named after Hannes Alfvén, is a type of magnetohydrodynamic wave in which ions oscillate in response to a restoring force provided by an effective tension on the magnetic field lines.
The American Geophysical Union (AGU) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization of geophysicists, consisting of over 62,000 members from 144 countries.
Apparent polar wander (APW) is the perceived movement of the Earth's paleo-magnetic poles relative to a continent while regarding the continent being studied as fixed in position.
Archaeomagnetic dating is the study and interpretation of the signatures of the Earth's magnetic field at past times recorded in archaeological materials.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
Atmospheric electricity is the study of electrical charges in the Earth's atmosphere (or that of another planet).
Atmospheric science is the study of the Earth's atmosphere, its processes, the effects other systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems.
Biogeophysics is a subdiscipline of geophysics concerned with how plants, microbial activity and other organisms alter geologic materials and affect geophysical signatures.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
A blind thrust earthquake occurs along a thrust fault that does not show signs on the Earth's surface, hence the designation "blind".
In geodesy and geophysics, the Bouguer anomaly (named after Pierre Bouguer) is a gravity anomaly, corrected for the height at which it is measured and the attraction of terrain.
The Canadian Geophysical Union/Union géophysique canadienne (or CGU) began as a society dedicated to the scientific study of the solid earth and has evolved into one that is concerned with all aspects of the physical study of Earth and its space environment, including the Sun and solar system.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
A chronozone or chron is a slice of time that begins at a given identifiable event and ends at another.
Climatology (from Greek κλίμα, klima, "place, zone"; and -λογία, -logia) or climate science is the scientific study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time.
This is a list of free and open-source software for geophysical data processing and interpretation.
In materials science, creep (sometimes called cold flow) is the tendency of a solid material to move slowly or deform permanently under the influence of mechanical stresses.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
The electromagnetic dawn chorus is a phenomenon that occurs most often at or shortly after dawn local time.
Deformation in continuum mechanics is the transformation of a body from a reference configuration to a current configuration.
An academic discipline or academic field is a branch of knowledge.
In physics, the dynamo theory proposes a mechanism by which a celestial body such as Earth or a star generates a magnetic field.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of natural science related to the planet Earth.
Earth's magnetic field, also known as the geomagnetic field, is the magnetic field that extends from the Earth's interior out into space, where it meets the solar wind, a stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun.
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.
In physics, elasticity (from Greek ἐλαστός "ductible") is the ability of a body to resist a distorting influence and to return to its original size and shape when that influence or force is removed.
Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) or electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) is a geophysical technique for imaging sub-surface structures from electrical resistivity measurements made at the surface, or by electrodes in one or more boreholes.
Empirical research is research using empirical evidence.
The Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society (EEGS) is an international, applied scientific organization (not-for-profit corporation) that has 700 members.
Environmental magnetism is the study of magnetism as it relates to the effects of climate, sediment transport, pollution and other environmental influences on magnetic minerals.
The European Geosciences Union (EGU) is a non-profit international union in the fields of Earth, planetary, and space sciences.
Exploration geophysics is an applied branch of geophysics, which uses physical methods, such as seismic, gravitational, magnetic, electrical and electromagnetic at the surface of the Earth to measure the physical properties of the subsurface, along with the anomalies in those properties.
The figure of the Earth is the size and shape of the Earth in geodesy.
A foreshock is an earthquake that occurs before a larger seismic event (the mainshock) and is related to it in both time and space.
A fumarole (or fumerole – the word ultimately comes from the Latin fumus, "smoke") is an opening in a planet's crust, often in areas surrounding volcanoes, which emits steam and gases such as carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen sulfide.
Geochronology is the science of determining the age of rocks, fossils, and sediments using signatures inherent in the rocks themselves.
Geodesy, also known as geodetics, is the earth science of accurately measuring and understanding three of Earth's fundamental properties: its geometric shape, orientation in space, and gravitational field.
Geodynamics is a subfield of geophysics dealing with dynamics of the Earth.
The geoid is the shape that the surface of the oceans would take under the influence of Earth's gravity and rotation alone, in the absence of other influences such as winds and tides.
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
A geomagnetic excursion, like a geomagnetic reversal, is a significant change in the Earth's magnetic field.
In geophysics, a geomagnetic jerk or secular geomagnetic variation impulse is a relatively sudden change in the second derivative of the Earth's magnetic field with respect to time.
The geomagnetic poles are antipodal points where the axis of a best-fitting dipole intersects the Earth's surface.
A geomagnetic reversal is a change in a planet's magnetic field such that the positions of magnetic north and magnetic south are interchanged, while geographic north and geographic south remain the same.
Geomagnetic secular variation refers to changes in the Earth's magnetic field on time scales of about a year or more.
Geophysical fluid dynamics, in its broadest meaning, refers to the fluid dynamics of naturally occurring flows, such as lava flows, oceans, and planetary atmospheres, on Earth and other planets.
Geophysical survey is the systematic collection of geophysical data for spatial studies.
Geophysics is a subject of natural science concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and its surrounding space environment, and the use of quantitative methods for their analysis.
Geopotential is the potential of the Earth's gravity field.
Geoprofessions is a term coined by the Geoprofessional Business Association to connote various technical disciplines that involve engineering, earth and environmental services applied to below-ground (“subsurface”), ground-surface, and ground-surface-connected conditions, structures, or formations.
Geothermal gradient is the rate of increasing temperature with respect to increasing depth in the Earth's interior.
A geyser is a spring characterized by intermittent discharge of water ejected turbulently and accompanied by steam.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
Glaciology (from Latin: glacies, "frost, ice", and Ancient Greek: λόγος, logos, "subject matter"; literally "study of ice") is the scientific study of glaciers, or more generally ice and natural phenomena that involve ice.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
A gravity anomaly is the difference between the observed acceleration of free fall, or gravity, on a planet's surface, and the corresponding value predicted from a model of the planet's gravity field.
The gravity of Earth, which is denoted by, refers to the acceleration that is imparted to objects due to the distribution of mass within Earth.
A harmonic tremor is a sustained release of seismic and infrasonic energy typically associated with the underground movement of magma, the venting of volcanic gases from magma, or both.
Electromagnetic hiss is a naturally occurring Extremely Low Frequency/Very Low Frequency electromagnetic wave (i.e., 300 Hz – 10 kHz) that is generated in the plasma of either the Earth's ionosphere or magnetosphere.
The history of geomagnetism is concerned with the history of the study of Earth's magnetic field.
The historical development of geophysics has been motivated by two factors.
A hot spring is a spring produced by the emergence of geothermally heated groundwater that rises from the Earth's crust.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.
Ice is water frozen into a solid state.
Induced polarization (IP) is a geophysical imaging technique used to identify the electrical chargeability of subsurface materials, such as ore.
Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project).
Internal heat is the heat source from the interior of celestial objects, such as stars, brown dwarfs, planets, moons, dwarf planets, and (in the early history of the Solar System) even asteroids such as Vesta, resulting from contraction caused by gravity (the Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism), nuclear fusion, tidal heating, core solidification (heat of fusion released as molten core material solidifies), and radioactive decay.
The International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG; Union géodésique et géophysique internationale, UGGI) is an international non-governmental organisation dedicated to the scientific study of the Earth and its space environment using geophysical and geodetic techniques.
An interplate earthquake is an earthquake that occurs at the boundary between two tectonic plates.
The term intraplate earthquake refers to a variety of earthquake that occurs within the interior of a tectonic plate; this stands in contrast to an interplate earthquake, which occurs at the boundary of a tectonic plate.
The ionosphere is the ionized part of Earth's upper atmosphere, from about to altitude, a region that includes the thermosphere and parts of the mesosphere and exosphere.
Isostasy (Greek ''ísos'' "equal", ''stásis'' "standstill") is the state of gravitational equilibrium between Earth's crust and mantle such that the crust "floats" at an elevation that depends on its thickness and density.
Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.
This is a list of geophysicists, people who made notable contributions to geophysics, whether or not geophysics was their primary field.
In elastodynamics, Love waves, named after Augustus Edward Hough Love, are horizontally polarized surface waves.
Magma (from Ancient Greek μάγμα (mágma) meaning "thick unguent") is a mixture of molten or semi-molten rock, volatiles and solids that is found beneath the surface of the Earth, and is expected to exist on other terrestrial planets and some natural satellites.
In geophysics, a magnetic anomaly is a local variation in the Earth's magnetic field resulting from variations in the chemistry or magnetism of the rocks.
Magnetic declination or variation is the angle on the horizontal plane between magnetic north (the direction the north end of a compass needle points, corresponding to the direction of the Earth's magnetic field lines) and true north (the direction along a meridian towards the geographic North Pole).
Magnetic dip, dip angle, or magnetic inclination is the angle made with the horizontal by the Earth's magnetic field lines.
Magnetic mineralogy is the study of the magnetic properties of minerals.
Magnetic survey is one of a number of methods used in archaeological geophysics.
Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields.
A magnetometer is an instrument that measures magnetism—either the magnetization of a magnetic material like a ferromagnet, or the direction, strength, or relative change of a magnetic field at a particular location.
A magnetosphere is the region of space surrounding an astronomical object in which charged particles are manipulated or affected by that object's magnetic field.
Magnetostratigraphy is a geophysical correlation technique used to date sedimentary and volcanic sequences.
Magnetotellurics (MT) is an electromagnetic geophysical method for inferring the earth's subsurface electrical conductivity from measurements of natural geomagnetic and geoelectric field variation at the Earth's surface.
Mantle convection is the slow creeping motion of Earth's solid silicate mantle caused by convection currents carrying heat from the interior of the Earth to the surface.
Mathematical geophysics is concerned with developing mathematical methods for use in geophysics.
Megathrust earthquakes occur at subduction zones at destructive convergent plate boundaries, where one tectonic plate is forced underneath another.
Melting, or fusion, is a physical process that results in the phase transition of a substance from a solid to a liquid.
Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Mineral physics is the science of materials that compose the interior of planets, particularly the Earth.
Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
Natural remanent magnetization (NRM) is the permanent magnetism of a rock or sediment.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe.
Near-surface geophysics is the use of geophysical methods to investigate small-scale features in the shallow (tens of meters) subsurface.
The North Magnetic Pole is the wandering point on the surface of Earth's Northern Hemisphere at which the planet's magnetic field points vertically downwards (in other words, if a magnetic compass needle is allowed to rotate about a horizontal axis, it will point straight down).
An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.
Oceanography (compound of the Greek words ὠκεανός meaning "ocean" and γράφω meaning "write"), also known as oceanology, is the study of the physical and biological aspects of the ocean.
Optical mineralogy is the study of minerals and rocks by measuring their optical properties.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
An outline, also called a hierarchical outline, is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships and is a type of tree structure.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to geology: Geology – one of the Earth sciences – is the study of the Earth, with the general exclusion of present-day life, flow within the ocean, and the atmosphere.
Physical science is a branch of natural science that studies non-living systems, in contrast to life science.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to physics: Physics – natural science that involves the study of matterRichard Feynman begins his ''Lectures'' with the atomic hypothesis, as his most compact statement of all scientific knowledge: "If, in some cataclysm, all of scientific knowledge were to be destroyed, and only one sentence passed on to the next generations..., what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is...
A P-wave is one of the two main types of elastic body waves, called seismic waves in seismology.
This term is also sometimes used for natural remanent magnetization. Paleomagnetism (or palaeomagnetism in the United Kingdom) is the study of the record of the Earth's magnetic field in rocks, sediment, or archeological materials.
Petrophysics (from the Greek πέτρα, petra, "rock" and φύσις, physis, "nature") is the study of physical and chemical rock properties and their interactions with fluids.
Physical oceanography is the study of physical conditions and physical processes within the ocean, especially the motions and physical properties of ocean waters.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
Plate reconstruction is the process of reconstructing the positions of tectonic plates relative to each other (relative motion) or to other reference frames, such as the earth's magnetic field or groups of hotspots, in the geological past.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
Polar wander is the motion of a pole in relation to a fixed reference frame.
Post-glacial rebound (also called isostatic rebound or crustal rebound) is the rise of land masses after the lifting of the huge weight of ice sheets during the last glacial period, which had caused isostatic depression.
Radiometric dating or radioactive dating is a technique used to date materials such as rocks or carbon, in which trace radioactive impurities were selectively incorporated when they were formed.
Rayleigh waves are a type of surface acoustic wave that travel along the surface of solids.
Reflection seismology (or seismic reflection) is a method of exploration geophysics that uses the principles of seismology to estimate the properties of the Earth's subsurface from reflected seismic waves.
Remanence or remanent magnetization or residual magnetism is the magnetization left behind in a ferromagnetic material (such as iron) after an external magnetic field is removed.
Remotely triggered earthquakes are a result of the effects of large earthquakes at considerable distance, outside of the immediate aftershock zone.
Rock magnetism is the study of the magnetic properties of rocks, sediments and soils.
The Royal Astronomical Society (RAS) is a learned society that began as the Astronomical Society of London in 1820 to support astronomical research (mainly carried on at the time by 'gentleman astronomers' rather than professionals).
In seismology, S-waves, secondary waves, or shear waves (sometimes called an elastic S-wave) are a type of elastic wave, and are one of the two main types of elastic body waves, so named because they move through the body of an object, unlike surface waves.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
The secular variation of a time series is its long-term non-periodic variation (see Decomposition of time series).
A seismic hazard is the probability that an earthquake will occur in a given geographic area, within a given window of time, and with ground motion intensity exceeding a given threshold.
Seismic refraction is a geophysical principle (see refraction) governed by Snell's Law.
Seismic tomography is a technique for imaging the subsurface of the Earth with seismic waves produced by earthquakes or explosions.
Seismic waves are waves of energy that travel through the Earth's layers, and are a result of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, magma movement, large landslides and large man-made explosions that give out low-frequency acoustic energy.
Seismo-electromagnetics are various electro-magnetic phenomena believed to be generated by tectonic forces acting on the earth's crust, and possibly associated with seismic activity such as earthquakes and volcanoes.
The seismoelectrical method (which is different from the electroseismic physical principle) is based on the generation of electromagnetic fields in soils and rocks by seismic waves.
The Seismological Society of America (SSA) is an international scientific society devoted to the advancement of seismology and the understanding of earthquakes for the benefit of society.
Seismology (from Ancient Greek σεισμός (seismós) meaning "earthquake" and -λογία (-logía) meaning "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies.
A slow earthquake is a discontinuous, earthquake-like event that releases energy over a period of hours to months, rather than the seconds to minutes characteristic of a typical earthquake.
Snow refers to forms of ice crystals that precipitate from the atmosphere (usually from clouds) and undergo changes on the Earth's surface.
The Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) is a learned society dedicated to promoting the science of geophysics and the education of exploration geophysicists.
The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona.
The South Magnetic Pole is the wandering point on the Earth's Southern Hemisphere where the geomagnetic field lines are directed vertically upwards.
Spectral induced polarization (SIP), or complex resistivity (CR) and also complex conductivity (CC), is a geophysical survey technique and an extension of the induced polarization (IP) method, being itself an extension of measuring the Earth's resistance at a single frequency or under direct current (DC) (a technique commonly known by the name resistivity).
Spontaneous potential (SP), also called self potential, is a naturally occurring electric potential difference in the Earth, measured by an electrode relative to a fixed reference electrode.
Sprites are large-scale electrical discharges that occur high above thunderstorm clouds, or cumulonimbus, giving rise to a quite varied range of visual shapes flickering in the night sky.
The interior structure of the Earth is layered in spherical shells: an outer silicate solid crust, a highly viscous asthenosphere and mantle, a liquid outer core that is much less viscous than the mantle, and a solid inner core.
Subduction is a geological process that takes place at convergent boundaries of tectonic plates where one plate moves under another and is forced or sinks due to gravity into the mantle.
A submarine, undersea, or underwater earthquake is an earthquake that occurs underwater at the bottom of a body of water, especially an ocean.
A supershear earthquake is an earthquake in which the propagation of the rupture along the fault surface occurs at speeds in excess of the seismic shear wave (S-wave) velocity.
In physics, a surface wave is a mechanical wave that propagates along the interface between differing media.
Tectonophysics, a branch of geophysics, is the study of the physical processes that underlie tectonic deformation.
A telluric current (from Latin tellūs, "earth"), or Earth current, is an electric current which moves underground or through the sea.
Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature.
When an igneous rock cools, it acquires a thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) from the Earth's field.
The evolution of tectonophysics is closely linked to the history of the continental drift and plate tectonics hypotheses.
Transient electromagnetics, (also time-domain electromagnetics / TDEM), is a geophysical exploration technique in which electric and magnetic fields are induced by transient pulses of electric current and the subsequent decay response measured.
True polar wander is a solid-body rotation of a planet or moon with respect to its spin axis, causing the geographic locations of the north and south poles to change, or "wander".
A tsunami (from 津波, "harbour wave"; English pronunciation) or tidal wave, also known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake.
A tsunami earthquake triggers a tsunami of a magnitude that is very much larger than the magnitude of the earthquake as measured by shorter-period seismic waves.
Undulation of the geoid is the height of the geoid relative to a given ellipsoid of reference.
A Van Allen radiation belt is a zone of energetic charged particles, most of which originate from the solar wind, that are captured by and held around a planet by that planet's magnetic field.
The Vine–Matthews–Morley hypothesis, also known as the Morley–Vine–Matthews hypothesis, was the first key scientific test of the seafloor spreading theory of continental drift and plate tectonics.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
Viscous remanent magnetization (Abbreviated VRM), also known as viscous magnetization, is remanence that is acquired by ferromagnetic materials by sitting in a magnetic field for some time.
Volcanism is the phenomenon of eruption of molten rock (magma) onto the surface of the Earth or a solid-surface planet or moon, where lava, pyroclastics and volcanic gases erupt through a break in the surface called a vent.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
Volcanology (also spelled vulcanology) is the study of volcanoes, lava, magma, and related geological, geophysical and geochemical phenomena.
The water cycle, also known as the hydrological cycle or the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth.
Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degree to which it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy.
A whistler is a very low frequency or VLF electromagnetic (radio) wave generated by lightning.