308 relations: Age of Discovery, Age of Enlightenment, Agriculture, Alexis de Tocqueville, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Ancient history, Ancient Rome, Annals, Appian, Archaeological site, Archaeology, Archaic humans, Archontology, Arnold J. Toynbee, Art history, Artifact (archaeology), Atomic Age, Auxiliary sciences of history, Axial Age, Babylonia, Bead, Bedding, Behavioral modernity, Big History, Bone tool, Bow and arrow, Branches of science, Bronze Age, Burial, Business history, Canoe, Cassius Dio, Century, Chalcolithic, Chalcolithic Europe, Chinese era name, Chronicle, Chronology, Chronology of the universe, Classical antiquity, Classics, Cliometrics, Codicology, Contemporary history, Control of fire by early humans, Cooking, Corded Ware culture, Counterfactual history, CRC Press, ..., Cultural history, Cultural identity, Dark Ages (historiography), Design classic, Diplomatic history, Diplomatics, Discipline (academia), Domestication, Early human expansions out of Africa, Early Middle Ages, Early modern period, Econometrics, Economic history, Edward Gibbon, Environmental history, Epigraphy, Era, Evolutionary origin of religions, Formation and evolution of the Solar System, Francis Parkman, Future, Future history, Futures studies, Genealogy, Geologic time scale, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Heraldry, Herodotus, High Middle Ages, Historian, Historical Jesus, Historical region, Historical revisionism, Historical thinking, Historicity of the Bible, Historiography, Historiography of science, History, History by period, History of agricultural science, History of agriculture, History of anthropology, History of archaeology, History of architecture, History of art, History of artificial intelligence, History of astronomy, History of aviation, History of Ayyavazhi, History of banking, History of biology, History of biotechnology, History of Buddhism, History of calculus, History of cartography, History of chemical engineering, History of chemistry, History of chess, History of China, History of Christianity, History of clothing and textiles, History of communication, History of computer science, History of creationism, History of criminal justice, History of dance, History of Earth, History of ecology, History of economic thought, History of education, History of electrical engineering, History of electromagnetic theory, History of engineering, History of film, History of games, History of geography, History of geology, History of Hinduism, History of ideas, History of India, History of Islam, History of linguistics, History of literature, History of logic, History of marketing, History of materials science, History of mathematics, History of measurement, History of medicine, History of money, History of music, History of painting, History of photography, History of physics, History of poetry, History of political science, History of programming languages, History of Protestantism, History of pseudoscience, History of psychology, History of religion, History of science, History of science and technology, History of science in classical antiquity, History of science in early cultures, History of science in the Renaissance, History of scientific method, History of sociology, History of software engineering, History of sport, History of Taoism, History of technology, History of the ancient Levant, History of the Catholic Church, History of the Puritans, History of the social sciences, History of the world, History of theatre, History of transport, History of Wicca, History painting, Homo, Humanities, Index of history articles, Industrial Revolution, Information Age, Intellectual history, Internet History Sourcebooks Project, Iron Age, J. B. Bury, Japanese era name, Jean Froissart, Jewish history, Korean era name, Landscape history, Late Middle Ages, Law, Legal history, Linear Pottery culture, List of historians, List of historical classifications, List of Neolithic cultures of China, List of time periods, List of timelines, Lists of battles, Livy, Lower Paleolithic, Management, Marxist historiography, Mehrgarh, Mesoamerica, Mesoamerican chronology, Mesolithic, Metallurgy in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, Microlith, Middle Ages, Middle Paleolithic, Military history, Modern history, Mythology, Narrative, Natural science, Naval history, Neanderthal, Neolithic, Neolithic Europe, News, Nomadic pastoralism, Numismatics, Onomastics, Oral history, Origin of the domestic dog, Outline (list), Outline of archaeology, Outline of classical studies, Outline of the Middle Ages, Outline of the Renaissance, Outline of war, Palaeography, Paleo-Indians, Paleolithic, Past, Periodization, Phaleristics, Philately, Philology, Philosophy, Philosophy of history, Pigment, Political history, Post-classical history, Pre-Columbian era, Prehistory, Present, Prosopography, Proto-city, Pseudohistory, Psychohistory, Public history, Radiocarbon dating, Recent African origin of modern humans, Recorded history, Renaissance, Samuel Eliot Morison, Scientific Revolution, Sculpture, Shelter (building), Sigillography, Social change, Social history, Social science, Sociology of the history of science, South Asian Stone Age, Space Age, Spear, Spear-thrower, Statistics, Stone Age, Stone tool, Table of years in archaeology, Tell Halaf, Thomas Babington Macaulay, Time, Time discipline, Timeline of architecture, Timeline of astronomy, Timeline of atomic and subatomic physics, Timeline of Buddhism, Timeline of Christianity, Timeline of electromagnetism and classical optics, Timeline of geology, Timeline of historic inventions, Timeline of historical geopolitical changes, Timeline of Islamic history, Timeline of mathematics, Timeline of meteorology, Timeline of philosophers, Timeline of programming languages, Timeline of psychology, Timeline of religion, Timeline of sociology, Timelines of world history, Toponymy, Ubaid period, Universal history, Upper Paleolithic, Urban history, Uruk period, Vietnamese era name, Viking Age, Vinča culture, Voltaire, Western philosophy, Will Durant, Women's history, World history, Yamna culture, 17th-century philosophy. 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The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Alexis Charles Henri Clérel, Viscount de Tocqueville (29 July 180516 April 1859) was a French diplomat, political scientist and historian.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Annals (annāles, from annus, "year") are a concise historical record in which events are arranged chronologically, year by year, although the term is also used loosely for any historical record.
Appian of Alexandria (Ἀππιανὸς Ἀλεξανδρεύς Appianòs Alexandreús; Appianus Alexandrinus) was a Greek historian with Roman citizenship who flourished during the reigns of Emperors of Rome Trajan, Hadrian, and Antoninus Pius.
An archaeological site is a place (or group of physical sites) in which evidence of past activity is preserved (either prehistoric or historic or contemporary), and which has been, or may be, investigated using the discipline of archaeology and represents a part of the archaeological record.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
A number of varieties of Homo are grouped into the broad category of archaic humans in the period contemporary and predating the emergence of the earliest anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) over 315 kya.
Archontology is the study of historical offices and important positions in state, international, political, religious and other organizations and societies.
Arnold Joseph Toynbee (14 April 1889 – 22 October 1975) was a British historian, philosopher of history, research professor of international history at the London School of Economics and the University of London and author of numerous books.
Art history is the study of objects of art in their historical development and stylistic contexts; that is genre, design, format, and style.
An artifact, or artefact (see American and British English spelling differences), is something made or given shape by humans, such as a tool or a work of art, especially an object of archaeological interest.
The Atomic Age, also known as the Atomic Era, is the period of history following the detonation of the first nuclear ("atomic") bomb, Trinity, on July 16, 1945, during World War II.
Auxiliary (or ancillary) sciences of history are scholarly disciplines which help evaluate and use historical sources and are seen as auxiliary for historical research.
Axial Age (also Axis Age, from Achsenzeit) is a term coined by German philosopher Karl Jaspers in the sense of a "pivotal age" characterizing the period of ancient history from about the 8th to the 3rd century BCE.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
A bead is a small, decorative object that is formed in a variety of shapes and sizes of a material such as stone, bone, shell, glass, plastic, wood or pearl and with a small hole for threading or stringing.
Bedding, also known as bedclothes or bed linen, is the materials laid above the mattress of a bed for hygiene, warmth, protection of the mattress, and decorative effect.
Behavioral modernity is a suite of behavioral and cognitive traits that distinguishes current Homo sapiens from other anatomically modern humans, hominins, and primates.
Big History is an academic discipline which examines history from the Big Bang to the present.
In archaeology, a bone tool is a tool created from bone.
The bow and arrow is a ranged weapon system consisting of an elastic launching device (bow) and long-shafted projectiles (arrows).
The branches of science, also referred to as sciences, "scientific fields", or "scientific disciplines" are commonly divided into three major groups.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Burial or interment is the ritual act of placing a dead person or animal, sometimes with objects, into the ground.
Business history deals with the history of business organizations, methods, government regulation, labor relations, and impact on society.
A canoe is a lightweight narrow vessel, typically pointed at both ends and open on top, propelled by one or more seated or kneeling paddlers facing the direction of travel using a single-bladed paddle.
Cassius Dio or Dio Cassius (c. 155 – c. 235) was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek origin.
A century (from the Latin centum, meaning one hundred; abbreviated c.) is a period of 100 years.
The Chalcolithic (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998), p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BCE, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic... Also called Copper Age - Origin early 20th cent.: from Greek khalkos 'copper' + lithos 'stone' + -ic". χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and λίθος líthos, "stone") period or Copper Age, in particular for eastern Europe often named Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of copper"), was a period in the development of human technology, before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze, leading to the Bronze Age.
Chalcolithic Europe, the Chalcolithic (also Aeneolithic, Copper Age) period of Prehistoric Europe, lasted roughly from 3500 to 1700 BC.
A Chinese era name is the regnal year, reign period, or regnal title used when traditionally numbering years in an emperor's reign and naming certain Chinese rulers.
A chronicle (chronica, from Greek χρονικά, from χρόνος, chronos, "time") is a historical account of facts and events ranged in chronological order, as in a time line.
Chronology (from Latin chronologia, from Ancient Greek χρόνος, chrónos, "time"; and -λογία, -logia) is the science of arranging events in their order of occurrence in time.
The chronology of the universe describes the history and future of the universe according to Big Bang cosmology.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity.
Cliometrics, sometimes called new economic history, or econometric history, is the systematic application of economic theory, econometric techniques, and other formal or mathematical methods to the study of history (especially social and economic history).
Codicology (from Latin, genitive, "notebook, book"; and Greek, -logia) is the study of codices or manuscript books written on parchment (or paper) as physical objects.
Contemporary history, in English-language historiography, is a subset of modern history which describes the historical period from approximately 1945 to the present.
The control of fire by early humans was a turning point in the cultural aspect of human evolution.
Cooking or cookery is the art, technology, science and craft of preparing food for consumption.
The Corded Ware culture (Schnurkeramik; céramique cordée; touwbekercultuur) comprises a broad archaeological horizon of Europe between 2900 BCE – circa 2350 BCE, thus from the late Neolithic, through the Copper Age, and ending in the early Bronze Age.
Counterfactual history, also sometimes referred to as virtual history, is a form of historiography that attempts to answer "what if" questions known as counterfactuals.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
Cultural history combines the approaches of anthropology and history to look at popular cultural traditions and cultural interpretations of historical experience.
Cultural identity is the identity or feeling of belonging to a group.
The "Dark Ages" is a historical periodization traditionally referring to the Middle Ages, that asserts that a demographic, cultural, and economic deterioration occurred in Western Europe following the decline of the Roman Empire.
A design classic is an industrially manufactured object with timeless aesthetic value.
Diplomatic history deals with the history of international relations between states.
Diplomatics (in American English, and in most anglophone countries), or diplomatic (in British English), is a scholarly discipline centred on the critical analysis of documents: especially, historical documents.
An academic discipline or academic field is a branch of knowledge.
Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.
Homo erectus, or its immediate australopithecine-derived ancestors, are thought to have first dispersed out of Africa and into Eurasia shortly after 2 million years ago (also known as Out of Africa I), well before the emergence of anatomically modern humans some 300,000 years ago.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.
Econometrics is the application of statistical methods to economic data and is described as the branch of economics that aims to give empirical content to economic relations.
Economic history is the study of economies or economic phenomena of the past.
Edward Gibbon FRS (8 May 173716 January 1794) was an English historian, writer and Member of Parliament.
Environmental history is the study of human interaction with the natural world over time, emphasising the active role nature plays in influencing human affairs and vice versa.
Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφή, "inscription") is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.
An era is a span of time defined for the purposes of chronology or historiography, as in the regnal eras in the history of a given monarchy, a calendar era used for a given calendar, or the geological eras defined for the history of Earth.
The emergence of religious behavior by the Neolithic period has been discussed in terms of evolutionary psychology, the origin of language and mythology, cross-cultural comparison of the anthropology of religion, as well as evidence for spirituality or cultic behavior in the Upper Paleolithic, and similarities in great ape behavior.
The formation and evolution of the Solar System began 4.6 billion years ago with the gravitational collapse of a small part of a giant molecular cloud.
Francis Parkman Jr. (September 16, 1823 – November 8, 1893) was an American historian, best known as author of The Oregon Trail: Sketches of Prairie and Rocky-Mountain Life and his monumental seven-volume France and England in North America. These works are still valued as historical sources and as literature.
The future is what will happen in the time after the present.
A future history is a postulated history of the future and is used by authors of science fiction and other speculative fiction to construct a common background for fiction.
Futures studies (also called futurology) is the study of postulating possible, probable, and preferable futures and the worldviews and myths that underlie them.
Genealogy (from γενεαλογία from γενεά, "generation" and λόγος, "knowledge"), also known as family history, is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history.
The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.
Heraldry is a broad term, encompassing the design, display, and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, rank, and pedigree.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 AD and lasted until around 1250 AD.
A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, and is regarded as an authority on it.
The term historical Jesus refers to attempts to "reconstruct the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth by critical historical methods", in "contrast to Christological definitions ('the dogmatic Christ') and other Christian accounts of Jesus ('the Christ of faith')." It also considers the historical and cultural context in which Jesus lived.
Historical regions (or historical countries) are geographic areas which at some point in time had a cultural, ethnic, linguistic or political basis, regardless of present-day borders.
In historiography, the term historical revisionism identifies the re-interpretation of the historical record.
Historical thinking is a set of critical literacy skills for evaluating and analyzing primary source documents to construct a meaningful account of the past.
The historicity of the Bible is the question of the Bible's "acceptability as a history," in the words of Thomas L. Thompson, a scholar who has written widely on this topic as it relates to the Old Testament.
Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject.
The historiography of science is the study of the history and methodology of the sub-discipline of history, known as the history of science, including its disciplinary aspects and practices (methods, theories, schools) and to the study of its own historical development ("History of History of Science", i.e., the history of the discipline called History of Science).
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
This history by period summarizes significant eras in the history of the world, from the ancient world to the present day.
The history of agricultural science is a sub-field of the history of agriculture which looks at the scientific advancement of techniques and understanding of agriculture.
The history of agriculture records the domestication of plants and animals and the development and dissemination of techniques for raising them productively.
History of anthropology in this article refers primarily to the 18th- and 19th-century precursors of modern anthropology.
Archaeology is the study of human activity in the past, primarily through the recovery and analysis of the material culture and environmental data that they have left behind, which includes artifacts, architecture, biofacts (also known as eco-facts) and cultural landscapes (the archaeological record).
The history of architecture traces the changes in architecture through various traditions, regions, overarching stylistic trends, and dates.
The history of art focuses on objects made by humans in visual form for aesthetic purposes.
The history of Artificial Intelligence (AI) began in antiquity, with myths, stories and rumors of artificial beings endowed with intelligence or consciousness by master craftsmen; as Pamela McCorduck writes, AI began with "an ancient wish to forge the gods." The seeds of modern AI were planted by classical philosophers who attempted to describe the process of human thinking as the mechanical manipulation of symbols.
Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences, dating back to antiquity, with its origins in the religious, mythological, cosmological, calendrical, and astrological beliefs and practices of prehistory: vestiges of these are still found in astrology, a discipline long interwoven with public and governmental astronomy, and not completely disentangled from it until a few centuries ago in the Western World (see astrology and astronomy).
The history of aviation extends for more than two thousand years, from the earliest forms of aviation such as kites and attempts at tower jumping to supersonic and hypersonic flight by powered, heavier-than-air jets.
The History of Ayyavazhi traces the religious history of Ayyavazhi, a belief-system originated in the mid-19th century in Southern India.
The history of banking began with the first prototype banks were the merchants of the world, who made grain loans to farmers and traders who carried goods between cities.
The history of biology traces the study of the living world from ancient to modern times.
Biotechnology is the application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of materials by biological agents to provide goods and services.
The history of Buddhism spans from the 5th century BCE to the present.
Calculus, known in its early history as infinitesimal calculus, is a mathematical discipline focused on limits, functions, derivatives, integrals, and infinite series.
Cartography, or mapmaking, has been an integral part of the human history for thousands of years.
Chemical engineering as a discipline that was developed out of those practising "industrial chemistry" in the late 19th century.
The history of chemistry represents a time span from ancient history to the present.
The history of chess can be traced back nearly 1500 years, although the earliest origins are uncertain.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, Christendom, and the Church with its various denominations, from the 1st century to the present.
The study of the history of clothing and textiles traces the availability and use of textiles and other materials.
Since prehistoric times, significant changes in communication technologies (media and appropriate inscription tools) have evolved in tandem with shifts in political and economic systems, and by extension, systems of power.
The history of computer science began long before our modern discipline of computer science.
The history of creationism relates to the history of thought based on the premise that the natural universe had a beginning, and came into being supernaturally.
Throughout the history of criminal justice, evolving forms of punishment, added rights for offenders and victims, and policing reforms have reflected changing customs, political ideals, and economic conditions.
The history of dance is difficult to access because dance does not often leave behind clearly identifiable physical artifacts that last over millennia, such as stone tools, hunting implements or cave paintings.
The history of Earth concerns the development of planet Earth from its formation to the present day.
Ecology is a new science and considered as an important branch of biological science, having only become prominent during the second half of the 20th century.
The history of economic thought deals with different thinkers and theories in the subject that became political economy and economics, from the ancient world to the present day in the 21st Century.
The systematic provision of learning techniques to most children, such as literacy, has been a development of the last 150 or 200 years, or even last 50 years in some countries.
This article details the history of electrical engineering.
The history of electromagnetic theory begins with ancient measures to understand atmospheric electricity, in particular lightning.
The concept of engineering has existed since ancient times as humans devised fundamental inventions such as the pulley, lever, and wheel.
Although the start of the history of film is not clearly defined, the commercial, public screening of ten of Lumière brothers' short films in Paris on 28 December 1895 can be regarded as the breakthrough of projected cinematographic motion pictures.
The history of games dates to the ancient human past.
The history of geography includes many histories of geography which have differed over time and between different cultural and political groups.
The history of geology is concerned with the development of the natural science of geology.
History of Hinduism denotes a wide variety of related religious traditions native to the Indian subcontinent notably in modern-day Nepal and India.
The history of ideas is a field of research in history that deals with the expression, preservation, and change of human ideas over time.
The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.
The history of Islam concerns the political, social,economic and cultural developments of the Islamic civilization.
Linguistics, as a study, endeavors to describe and explain the human faculty of language.
The history of literature is the historical development of writings in prose or poetry that attempt to provide entertainment, enlightenment, or instruction to the reader/listener/observer, as well as the development of the literary techniques used in the communication of these pieces.
The history of logic deals with the study of the development of the science of valid inference (logic).
The study of the history of marketing, as a discipline, is meaningful because it helps to define the baselines upon which change can be recognised and understand how the discipline evolves in response to those changes.
Materials science has shaped the development of civilizations since the dawn of mankind.
The area of study known as the history of mathematics is primarily an investigation into the origin of discoveries in mathematics and, to a lesser extent, an investigation into the mathematical methods and notation of the past.
The earliest recorded systems of weights and measures originate in the 3rd or 4th millennium BC.
The history of medicine shows how societies have changed in their approach to illness and disease from ancient times to the present.
The history of money concerns the development of means of carrying out transactions involving a medium of exchange.
Music is found in every known culture, past and present, varying widely between times and places.
The history of painting reaches back in time to artifacts from pre-historic humans, and spans all cultures.
The history of photography has roots in remote antiquity with the discovery of two critical principles, that of the camera obscura image projection and the fact that some substances are visibly altered by exposure to light, as discovered by observation.
Physics (from the Ancient Greek φύσις physis meaning "nature") is the fundamental branch of science.
Poetry as an art form predates written text.
Political science as a separate field is a rather late arrival in terms of social sciences.
The first high-level programming language was Plankalkül, created by Konrad Zuse between 1942 and 1945.
Protestantism originated from work of several theologians starting in the 12th century, although there could have been earlier cases of which there is no surviving evidence.
The history of pseudoscience is the study of pseudoscientific theories over time.
Today, psychology is defined as "the scientific study of behavior and mental processes." Philosophical interest in the mind and behavior dates back to the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Persia, Greece, China, and India.
The history of religion refers to the written record of human religious experiences and ideas.
The history of science is the study of the development of science and scientific knowledge, including both the natural and social sciences.
The history of science and technology (HST) is a field of history which examines how humanity's understanding of the natural world (science) and ability to manipulate it (technology) have changed over the centuries.
The history of science in classical antiquity encompasses both those inquiries into the workings of the universe aimed at such practical goals as establishing a reliable calendar or determining how to cure a variety of illnesses and those abstract investigations known as natural philosophy.
The history of science in early cultures refers to the study of protoscience in ancient history, prior to the development of science in the Middle Ages.
During the Renaissance, great advances occurred in geography, astronomy, chemistry, physics, mathematics, manufacturing, anatomy and engineering.
The history of scientific method considers changes in the methodology of scientific inquiry, as distinct from the history of science itself.
Sociology as a scholarly discipline emerged primarily out of enlightenment thought, shortly after the French Revolution, as a positivist science of society.
From its beginnings in the 1960s, writing software has evolved into a profession concerned with how best to maximize the quality of software and of how to create it.
The history of sports may extend as far back as the beginnings of military training, with competition used as a mean to determine whether individuals were fit and useful for service.
The history of Taoism stretches throughout Chinese history.
The history of technology is the history of the invention of tools and techniques and is similar to other sides of the history of humanity.
The Levant is a geographical term that refers to a large area in Southwest Asia, south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea in the west, the Arabian Desert in the south, and Mesopotamia in the east.
The history of the Catholic Church begins with Jesus Christ and His teachings (c. 4 BC – c. AD 30), and the Catholic Church is a continuation of the early Christian community established by Jesus.
The history of the Puritans can be traced back to the first Vestments Controversy in the reign of Edward VI, the formation of an identifiable Puritan movement in the 1560s and ends in a decline in the mid-18th century.
The history of the social sciences has origin in the common stock of Western philosophy and shares various precursors, but began most intentionally in the early 19th century with the positivist philosophy of science.
The history of the world is the history of humanity (or human history), as determined from archaeology, anthropology, genetics, linguistics, and other disciplines; and, for periods since the invention of writing, from recorded history and from secondary sources and studies.
The history of theatre charts the development of theatre over the past 2,500 years.
The history of transport is largely one of technological innovation.
The history of Wicca documents the rise of the Neopagan religion of Wicca and related witchcraft-based Neopagan religions.
History painting is a genre in painting defined by its subject matter rather than artistic style.
Homo (Latin homō "human being") is the genus that encompasses the extant species Homo sapiens (modern humans), plus several extinct species classified as either ancestral to or closely related to modern humans (depending on a species), most notably Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis.
Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture.
History is the study of the past.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
The Information Age (also known as the Computer Age, Digital Age, or New Media Age) is a 21st century period in human history characterized by the rapid shift from traditional industry that the Industrial Revolution brought through industrialization, to an economy based on information technology.
Intellectual history refers to the historiography of ideas and thinkers.
The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is located at the Fordham University History Department and Center for Medieval Studies.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
John Bagnell Bury, (16 October 1861 – 1 June 1927) was an Irish historian, classical scholar, Medieval Roman historian and philologist.
The, also known as, is the first of the two elements that identify years in the Japanese era calendar scheme.
Jean Froissart (Old French, Middle French Jehan, –) was a French-speaking medieval author and court historian from the Low Countries, who wrote several works, including Chronicles and Meliador, a long Arthurian romance, and a large body of poetry, both short lyrical forms, as well as longer narrative poems.
Jewish history is the history of the Jews, and their religion and culture, as it developed and interacted with other peoples, religions and cultures.
Korean era names were used during the period of Silla, Goguryeo, Balhae, Taebong, Goryeo, Joseon, and the Korean Empire.
Landscape history is the study of the way in which humanity has changed the physical appearance of the environment - both present and past.
The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
Legal history or the history of law is the study of how law has evolved and why it changed.
The Linear Pottery culture is a major archaeological horizon of the European Neolithic, flourishing 5500–4500 BC.
This is a list of historians.
Historical classification groups the various history topics into different categories according to subject matter as shown below.
This is a list of Neolithic cultures of China that have been unearthed by archaeologists.
The categorization of the past into discrete, quantified named blocks of time is called periodization.
This is a list of timelines currently on Wikipedia.
This is an index to articles listing battles.
Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 12 or 17) – often rendered as Titus Livy, or simply Livy, in English language sources – was a Roman historian.
The Lower Paleolithic (or Lower Palaeolithic) is the earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.
Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body.
Marxist historiography, or historical materialist historiography, is a school of historiography influenced by Marxism.
Mehrgarh (Balochi: Mehrgaŕh; مهرګړ; مہرگڑھ), sometimes anglicized as Mehergarh or Mehrgar, is a Neolithic (7000 BCE to c. 2500/2000 BCE) site located near the Bolan Pass on the Kacchi Plain of Balochistan, Pakistan, to the west of the Indus River valley.
Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Mesoamerican chronology divides the history of prehispanic Mesoamerica into several periods: the Paleo-Indian (first human habitation–3500 BCE), the Archaic (before 2600 BCE), the Preclassic or Formative (2000 BCE–250 CE), the Classic (250–900CE), and the Postclassic (900–1521 CE), Colonial (1521–1821), and Postcolonial (1821–present).
In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.
The emergence of metallurgy in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica occurred relatively late in the region's history, with distinctive works of metal apparent in West Mexico by roughly AD 800, and perhaps as early as AD 600.
A microlith is a small stone tool usually made of flint or chert and typically a centimetre or so in length and half a centimetre wide.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Military history is a humanities discipline within the scope of general historical recording of armed conflict in the history of humanity, and its impact on the societies, their cultures, economies and changing local and international relationships.
Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, global, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history.
Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths.
A narrative or story is a report of connected events, real or imaginary, presented in a sequence of written or spoken words, or still or moving images, or both.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
Naval history is the area of military history concerning war at sea and the subject is also a sub-discipline of the broad field of maritime history.
Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Neolithic Europe is the period when Neolithic technology was present in Europe, roughly between 7000 BCE (the approximate time of the first farming societies in Greece) and c. 1700 BCE (the beginning of the Bronze Age in northwest Europe).
News is information about current events.
Nomadic pastoralism is a form of pastoralism when livestock are herded in order to find fresh pastures on which to graze.
Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins, tokens, paper money, and related objects.
Onomastics or onomatology is the study of the origin, history, and use of proper names.
Oral history is the collection and study of historical information about individuals, families, important events, or everyday life using audiotapes, videotapes, or transcriptions of planned interviews.
The origin of the domestic dog is not clear.
An outline, also called a hierarchical outline, is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships and is a type of tree structure.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to archaeology: Archaeology – study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation, and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to classical studies: Classical studies (Classics for short) – earliest branch of the humanities, which covers the languages, literature, history, art, and other cultural aspects of the ancient Mediterranean world.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the Middle Ages: Middle Ages – periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the Renaissance: Renaissance – cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to war: War – organised and often prolonged armed conflict that is carried out by states and/or non-state actors – is characterised by extreme violence, social disruption, and economic destruction.
Palaeography (UK) or paleography (US; ultimately from παλαιός, palaiós, "old", and γράφειν, graphein, "to write") is the study of ancient and historical handwriting (that is to say, of the forms and processes of writing, not the textual content of documents).
Paleo-Indians, Paleoindians or Paleoamericans is a classification term given to the first peoples who entered, and subsequently inhabited, the Americas during the final glacial episodes of the late Pleistocene period.
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
The past is the set of all events that occurred before a given point in time.
Periodization is the process or study of categorizing the past into discrete, quantified named blocks of timeAdam Rabinowitz.
Phaleristics (from the Greek mythological hero Φάληρος Phaleros "Phalerus" via the Latin phalera "heroics"; sometimes spelled faleristics) is an auxiliary science of history which studies military, chivalric, dynastic, fraternal, civil and student orders, awards, medals and decorations and their systems of awards in differing countries (such as the British honours system).
Philately is the study of stamps and postal history and other related items.
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Philosophy of history is the philosophical study of history and the past.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
Political history is the narrative and analysis of political events, ideas, movements, organs of government, voters, parties and leaders.
Post-classical history (also called the Post-Antiquity era, Post-Ancient Era, or Pre-Modern Era) is a periodization commonly used by the school of "world history" instead of Middle Ages (Medieval) which is roughly synonymous.
The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.
The present (or here and now) is the time that is associated with the events perceived directly and in the first time, not as a recollection (perceived more than once) or a speculation (predicted, hypothesis, uncertain).
In historical studies, prosopography is an investigation of the common characteristics of a historical group, whose individual biographies may be largely untraceable, by means of a collective study of their lives, in multiple career-line analysis.
A proto-city is a large village or town of the Neolithic such as Jericho and Çatalhöyük, "On the Konya plain in central Anatolia lies the extraordinary settlement of Catal Huyuk, which was nothing less than a proto-city (perhaps, indeed, the proto-city), founded in the mid-seventh millennium BC." and also any prehistoric settlement which has both rural and urban features.
Pseudohistory is a form of pseudoscholarship that attempts to distort or misrepresent the historical record, often using methods resembling those used in legitimate historical research.
Psychohistory is the study of the psychological motivations of historical events.
Public history is a broad range of activities undertaken by people with some training in the discipline of history who are generally working outside of specialized academic settings.
Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.
In paleoanthropology, the recent African origin of modern humans, also called the "Out of Africa" theory (OOA), recent single-origin hypothesis (RSOH), replacement hypothesis, or recent African origin model (RAO), is the dominant model of the geographic origin and early migration of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens).
Recorded history or written history is a historical narrative based on a written record or other documented communication.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Samuel Eliot Morison (July 9, 1887 – May 15, 1976) was an American historian noted for his works of maritime history and American history that were both authoritative and popular.
The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature.
Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions.
A shelter is a basic architectural structure or building that provides protection from the local environment.
Sigillography (sometimes referred to under its Greek name, sphragistics) is one of the auxiliary sciences of history.
Social change is an alteration in the social order of a society.
Social history, often called the new social history, is a field of history that looks at the lived experience of the past.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
The sociology and philosophy of science, as well as the entire field of science studies, have in the 20th century been occupied with the question of large-scale patterns and trends in the development of science, and asking questions about how science "works" both in a philosophical and practical sense.
The South Asian Stone Age covers the Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic periods in South Asia.
The Space Age is a time period encompassing the activities related to the Space Race, space exploration, space technology, and the cultural developments influenced by these events.
A spear is a pole weapon consisting of a shaft, usually of wood, with a pointed head.
A spear-thrower or atlatl (or; ahtlatl) is a tool that uses leverage to achieve greater velocity in dart-throwing, and includes a bearing surface which allows the user to store energy during the throw.
Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.
The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.
A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made either partially or entirely out of stone.
The following entries cover events related to the study of archaeology which occurred in the listed year.
Tell Halaf (تل حلف) is an archaeological site in the Al Hasakah governorate of northeastern Syria, near the Turkish border, just opposite Ceylanpınar.
Thomas Babington Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay, FRS FRSE PC (25 October 1800 – 28 December 1859) was a British historian and Whig politician.
Time is the indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future.
In sociology and anthropology, time discipline is the general name given to social and economic rules, conventions, customs, and expectations governing the measurement of time, the social currency and awareness of time measurements, and people's expectations concerning the observance of these customs by others.
This is a timeline of architecture, indexing the individual year in architecture pages.
Babylonian astronomers discover an 18.6-year cycle in the rising and setting of the Moon.
A timeline of atomic and subatomic physics.
The purpose of this timeline is to give a detailed account of Buddhism from the birth of Gautama Buddha to the present.
The purpose of this timeline is to give a detailed account of Christianity from the beginning of the current era (AD) to the present.
Timeline of electromagnetism and classical optics lists, within the history of electromagnetism, the associated theories, technology, and events.
Timeline of geology.
The timeline of historic inventions is a chronological list of particularly important or significant technological inventions and the people who created the inventions.
This is a timeline of country and capital changes around the world.
This timeline of Islamic history relates the Gregorian and Islamic calendars in the history of Islam.
This is a timeline of pure and applied mathematics history.
The timeline of meteorology contains events of scientific and technological advancements in the area of atmospheric sciences.
This is a record of historically important programming languages, by decade.
This article is a general timeline of psychology.
The timeline of religion is a chronological catalogue of important and noteworthy religious events in pre-historic and modern times.
This is a timeline of sociology.
Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.
The Ubaid period (c. 6500 to 3800 BC) is a prehistoric period of Mesopotamia.
A universal history is a work aiming at the presentation of the history of humankind as a whole, coherent unit.
The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.
Urban history is a field of history that examines the historical nature of cities and towns, and the process of urbanization.
The Uruk period (ca. 4000 to 3100 BC) existed from the protohistoric Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age period in the history of Mesopotamia, following the Ubaid period and succeeded by the Jemdet Nasr period.
Following is the era names of Vietnamese monarchs.
The Viking Age (793–1066 AD) is a period in European history, especially Northern European and Scandinavian history, following the Germanic Iron Age.
The Vinča culture, also known as Turdaș culture or Turdaș–Vinča culture, is a Neolithic archaeological culture in Serbia and smaller parts of Romania (particularly Transylvania), dated to the period 5700–4500 BC.
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
William James "Will" Durant (November 5, 1885 – November 7, 1981) was an American writer, historian, and philosopher.
Women's history is the study of the role that women have played in history and the methods required to do so.
World history or global history (not to be confused with diplomatic, transnational or international history) is a field of historical study that emerged as a distinct academic field in the 1980s.
The Yamna people or Yamnaya culture (traditionally known as the Pit Grave culture or Ochre Grave culture) was a late Copper Age to early Bronze Age culture of the region between the Southern Bug, Dniester and Ural rivers (the Pontic steppe), dating to 3300–2600 BC.
17th century philosophy in the West is generally regarded as seeing the start of modern philosophy, and the shaking off of the medieval approach, especially scholasticism.