1397 relations: Abdomen, Abdominal cavity, Abdominal external oblique muscle, Abdominal internal oblique muscle, Abdominopelvic cavity, Abducens nerve, Abductor digiti minimi muscle of foot, Abductor digiti minimi muscle of hand, Abductor hallucis muscle, Abductor pollicis brevis muscle, Abductor pollicis longus muscle, Accessory nerve, Accessory obturator nerve, Acetabulum, Achilles tendon, Acromioclavicular joint, Acromioclavicular ligament, Acromion, Adductor brevis muscle, Adductor canal, Adductor hallucis muscle, Adductor longus muscle, Adductor magnus muscle, Adductor pollicis muscle, Aditus to mastoid antrum, Adrenal gland, Adriaan van den Spiegel, Alar ligament, Amato Lusitano, American Association of Anatomists, American Association of Clinical Anatomists, Anal canal, Anatomical plane, Anatomical terms of motion, Anatomy, Anconeus muscle, Anders Retzius, Andreas Vesalius, Angle of the mandible, Angular artery, Angular vein, Ankle, Annular ligament of radius, Annulus of Zinn, Anococcygeal nerve, Ansa cervicalis, Anterior auricular muscle, Anterior cerebral artery, Anterior choroidal artery, Anterior clinoid process, ..., Anterior communicating artery, Anterior cranial fossa, Anterior cruciate ligament, Anterior ethmoidal artery, Anterior ethmoidal foramen, Anterior ethmoidal nerve, Anterior fontanelle, Anterior humeral circumflex artery, Anterior inferior iliac spine, Anterior intercostal veins, Anterior jugular vein, Anterior labial nerves, Anterior longitudinal ligament, Anterior nasal aperture, Anterior scrotal nerves, Anterior spinal veins, Anterior superior alveolar arteries, Anterior superior iliac spine, Anterior talofibular ligament, Anterior tibial artery, Anterior tibial vein, Anterior tympanic artery, Antitragicus, Antoni de Gimbernat, Aorta, Aortic arch, Aortic hiatus, Aorticorenal ganglion, Apical ligament of dens, Appendicular skeleton, Appendicular vein, Appendix (anatomy), Aqueous humour, Arcuate line of ilium, Arcuate popliteal ligament, Areola, Arm, Artery, Artery of round ligament of uterus, Artery of the pterygoid canal, Arthur Ham, Articular disk, Articular tubercle, Articularis genus muscle, Arytenoid cartilage, Ascending aorta, Ascending colon, Ascending lumbar vein, Ascending palatine artery, Ascending pharyngeal artery, Asterion, Asterion (anatomy), Atlanto-axial joint, Atlanto-occipital joint, Atlas (anatomy), Atrium (heart), Auricle (anatomy), Auriculotemporal nerve, Autonomic nervous system, Axial skeleton, Axilla, Axillary artery, Axillary nerve, Axillary vein, Axis (anatomy), Azygos vein, Ball and socket joint, Bartholin's gland, Basal vein, Basilar artery, Basilic vein, Basivertebral veins, Benjamin Alcock, Biceps, Biceps femoris muscle, Bicipital groove, Bile duct, Bone, Bone marrow, Bony labyrinth, Brachial artery, Brachial plexus, Brachial veins, Brachialis muscle, Brachiocephalic artery, Brachiocephalic vein, Brachioradialis, Brain, Brainstem, Breast, Bregma, British Association of Clinical Anatomists, Broad ligament of the uterus, Bronchial veins, Bronchiole, Bronchus, Bronislaw Onuf-Onufrowicz, Buccal artery, Buccal nerve, Buccinator muscle, Bulb of vestibule, Bulbourethral gland, Buttocks, Cadaver, Calcaneofibular ligament, Calcaneus, Calvaria (skull), Capitate bone, Capitulum of the humerus, Cardiac muscle, Cardiac plexus, Cardinal ligament, Carina of trachea, Carotid sinus, Carpal articulations, Carpal bones, Carpal tunnel, Carpometacarpal joint, Cartilaginous joint, Cavernous sinus, Cecum, Celiac artery, Celiac plexus, Cell biology, Central nervous system, Central retinal artery, Central retinal vein, Cephalic vein, Cerebellum, Cerebral hemisphere, Cerebral veins, Cerebrum, Cervical plexus, Cervical rib, Cervical vertebrae, Cervix, Charaka, Cheek, Chin, Chorda tympani, Chordae tendineae, Choroid, Ciliary body, Ciliary ganglion, Ciliary muscle, Ciliary processes, Circle of Willis, Circulatory system, Circumflex scapular artery, Cisterna chyli, Clavicle, Clavipectoral fascia, Clitoris, Clivus (anatomy), Coccyx, Cochlea, Cochlear duct, Cochlear nerve, Common carotid artery, Common hepatic artery, Common hepatic duct, Common iliac artery, Common iliac vein, Common peroneal nerve, Condylar canal, Condyle (anatomy), Condyle of humerus, Condyloid fossa, Condyloid joint, Confluence of sinuses, Conjoint tendon, Conjunctiva, Conoid ligament, Cooper's ligaments, Coracoacromial ligament, Coracobrachialis muscle, Coracoclavicular ligament, Coracoid process, Cornea, Corniculate cartilages, Coronal suture, Coronary ligament, Coronary sinus, Coronoid fossa of the humerus, Coronoid process of the mandible, Coronoid process of the ulna, Corpus cavernosum penis, Corpus spongiosum penis, Corrugator supercilii muscle, Costal cartilage, Costocervical trunk, Costochondral joint, Costovertebral joints, Cranial cavity, Cranial nerves, Cremaster muscle, Cremasteric artery, Cribriform plate, Cricoarytenoid articulation, Cricoid cartilage, Cricothyroid articulation, Cricothyroid muscle, Crista galli, Crus of diaphragm, Cuboid, Cuneiform bones, Cuneiform cartilages, Cuneonavicular joint, Cystic artery, Cystic duct, Cystic vein, Dartos, Deep artery of arm, Deep artery of the thigh, Deep auricular artery, Deep cervical artery, Deep cervical vein, Deep circumflex iliac vein, Deep facial vein, Deep inguinal ring, Deep lingual vein, Deep palmar arch, Deep perineal pouch, Deep peroneal nerve, Deep temporal arteries, Deep temporal nerves, Deep transverse metacarpal ligament, Deep vein of the thigh, Deltoid ligament, Deltoid muscle, Deltoid tuberosity, Dental alveolus, Depressor anguli oris muscle, Depressor labii inferioris muscle, Depressor septi nasi muscle, Depressor supercilii muscle, Dermis, Descending colon, Descending palatine artery, Diaphysis, Diencephalon, Digastric muscle, Diploë, Diploic veins, Distal radioulnar articulation, Dorsal cuneonavicular ligaments, Dorsal interossei of the foot, Dorsal interossei of the hand, Dorsal lingual veins, Dorsal nasal artery, Dorsal nerve of the clitoris, Dorsal nerve of the penis, Dorsal scapular nerve, Dorsal venous network of hand, Dorsalis pedis artery, Dorsum sellae, Duodenum, Dural venous sinuses, Ear, Ear canal, Eardrum, Eber Landau, Edward Charles Spitzka, Edwin Smith Papyrus, Edwin Stephen Goodrich, Ejaculatory duct, Elbow, Eminence, Emissary veins, Endocardium, Endocrine system, Endolymphatic duct, Endosteum, Epicondyle, Epidermis, Epididymis, Epiglottis, Epiphyseal plate, Epiphysis, Epoophoron, Erector spinae muscles, Esophageal hiatus, Esophageal plexus, Esophagus, Ethmoid bone, Ethmoid bulla, Ethmoidal veins, Eustachian tube, Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle, Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle, Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle, Extensor digiti minimi muscle, Extensor digitorum brevis muscle, Extensor digitorum longus muscle, Extensor digitorum muscle, Extensor hallucis brevis muscle, Extensor hallucis longus muscle, Extensor indicis muscle, Extensor pollicis brevis muscle, Extensor pollicis longus muscle, External anal sphincter, External carotid artery, External iliac artery, External iliac vein, External intercostal membrane, External intercostal muscles, External jugular vein, External nasal nerve, External obturator muscle, External occipital protuberance, External pudendal veins, Extraperitoneal space, Eye, Eyebrow, Eyelash, Eyelid, Face, Facet joint, Facial artery, Facial canal, Facial nerve, Facial skeleton, Facial vein, Falciform ligament, Fallopian tube, Fascia lata, Female reproductive system, Femoral artery, Femoral canal, Femoral nerve, Femoral ring, Femoral triangle, Femoral vein, Femur, Fibrous joint, Fibula, Fibular artery, Fibular collateral ligament, Fibular veins, Flat bone, Flexor carpi radialis muscle, Flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle (foot), Flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle (hand), Flexor digitorum brevis muscle, Flexor digitorum longus muscle, Flexor digitorum profundus muscle, Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle, Flexor hallucis brevis muscle, Flexor hallucis longus muscle, Flexor pollicis brevis muscle, Flexor pollicis longus muscle, Flexor retinaculum of the hand, Fontanelle, Foot, Foramen cecum (frontal bone), Foramen lacerum, Foramen magnum, Foramen ovale (skull), Foramen rotundum, Foramen spinosum, Forearm, Forehead, Foreskin, Fossa (anatomy), Fovea centralis, Friedrich Goll, Frontal bone, Frontal nerve, Frontal sinus, Frontal suture, Frontal vein, Gallbladder, Ganglion impar, Gaspard Goyrand, Gastrocnemius muscle, Gastroduodenal artery, Gastrointestinal tract, Gastrophrenic ligament, Gastrosplenic ligament, Genioglossus, Geniohyoid muscle, Genitofemoral nerve, Geoffrey H. Bourne, George Gulliver, Glabella, Glans penis, Glenoid cavity, Glossopharyngeal nerve, Glottis, Gluteus maximus, Gluteus medius, Gluteus minimus, Gracilis muscle, Great auricular nerve, Great cardiac vein, Great cerebral vein, Great saphenous vein, Greater occipital nerve, Greater omentum, Greater palatine artery, Greater palatine canal, Greater palatine foramen, Greater palatine nerve, Greater petrosal nerve, Greater sciatic foramen, Greater sciatic notch, Greater trochanter, Greater tubercle, Gross anatomy, Gunther von Hagens, Hair, Hamate bone, Hand, Hard palate, Heart, Helicine arteries of penis, Helicis major, Helicis minor, Helicotrema, Hepatic artery proper, Hepatic veins, Hepatoduodenal ligament, Hepatogastric ligament, Hepatophrenic ligament, Hinge joint, Hip, Hip bone, Hippocrates, Histology, History of anatomy, Human, Human back, Human body, Human eye, Human head, Human leg, Human mouth, Human nose, Human penis, Humeroradial joint, Humeroulnar joint, Humerus, Hymen, Hyoglossus, Hyoid bone, Hypoglossal canal, Hypoglossal nerve, Ileocolic artery, Ileocolic vein, Ileum, Iliac crest, Iliacus muscle, Iliocostalis, Iliofemoral ligament, Iliohypogastric nerve, Ilioinguinal nerve, Iliolumbar artery, Iliolumbar vein, Iliopsoas, Iliotibial tract, Ilium (bone), Incisive canals, Incisive foramen, Incisor, Incus, Inferior alveolar artery, Inferior alveolar nerve, Inferior anal nerves, Inferior epigastric artery, Inferior epigastric vein, Inferior gemellus muscle, Inferior gluteal artery, Inferior gluteal nerve, Inferior gluteal veins, Inferior hypogastric plexus, Inferior laryngeal vein, Inferior longitudinal muscle of tongue, Inferior mesenteric artery, Inferior mesenteric plexus, Inferior mesenteric vein, Inferior nasal concha, Inferior oblique muscle, Inferior ophthalmic vein, Inferior orbital fissure, Inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery, Inferior petrosal sinus, Inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle, Inferior phrenic arteries, Inferior phrenic vein, Inferior rectal artery, Inferior rectal veins, Inferior rectus muscle, Inferior sagittal sinus, Inferior thyroid artery, Inferior thyroid veins, Inferior vena cava, Inferior vesical artery, Infraglenoid tubercle, Infraorbital artery, Infraorbital canal, Infraorbital foramen, Infraorbital groove, Infraorbital nerve, Infraspinatus muscle, Infrasternal angle, Infratemporal fossa, Infratrochlear nerve, Inguinal canal, Inguinal ligament, Inguinal triangle, Inner ear, Innermost intercostal muscle, Integumentary system, Interchondral articulations, Intercondylar fossa of femur, Intercostal arteries, Intercostal space, Intercuneiform joints, Intermediate nerve, Intermetacarpal joints, Intermetatarsal joints, Internal carotid artery, Internal carotid plexus, Internal iliac artery, Internal iliac vein, Internal intercostal muscles, Internal jugular vein, Internal obturator muscle, Internal occipital protuberance, Internal pudendal artery, Internal pudendal veins, Internal thoracic artery, Internal thoracic vein, International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, Interosseous membrane, Interosseous membrane of forearm, Interosseous membrane of leg, Interphalangeal joints of foot, Interphalangeal joints of the hand, Interspinales muscles, Interspinous ligament, Intertransversarii, Intertransverse ligament, Intertrochanteric crest, Intertrochanteric line, Intervertebral disc, Intervertebral foramen, Intervertebral veins, Iris (anatomy), Irregular bone, Ischioanal fossa, Ischiofemoral ligament, Ischium, Isthmus of the fauces, James Dixon Boyd, Jean Baptiste Paulin Trolard, Jeffrey Laitman, Jejunum, Johann Conrad Brunner, Johann Conrad Peyer, Johann Gottlieb Walter, Johann Winter von Andernach, John Browne (anatomist), John Hunter (surgeon), Joint, Joseph Lieutaud, Juan Valverde de Amusco, Jugular foramen, Jugular process, Jugular tubercle, Keith L. Moore, Kidney, Knee, Labia majora, Labia minora, Labyrinth of ethmoid, Lacrimal apparatus, Lacrimal artery, Lacrimal bone, Lacrimal canaliculi, Lacrimal caruncle, Lacrimal gland, Lacrimal lake, Lacrimal nerve, Lacrimal papilla, Lacrimal punctum, Lacrimal sac, Lactiferous duct, Lambda, Lambdoid suture, Lanugo, Large intestine, Laryngeal cavity, Larynx, Lateral arcuate ligament, Lateral collateral ligament of ankle joint, Lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh, Lateral epicondyle of the humerus, Lateral meniscus, Lateral pectoral nerve, Lateral plantar artery, Lateral plantar nerve, Lateral pterygoid muscle, Lateral rectus muscle, Lateral sacral artery, Lateral sacral veins, Lateral sural cutaneous nerve, Lateral thoracic artery, Lateral thoracic vein, Lateral umbilical fold, Latissimus dorsi muscle, Left colic artery, Left colic vein, Left coronary artery, Left gastric artery, Left gastric vein, Left gastroepiploic artery, Left gastroepiploic vein, Left triangular ligament, Lennart Olsson, Lens (anatomy), Leonardo da Vinci, Lesser occipital nerve, Lesser omentum, Lesser palatine arteries, Lesser palatine foramina, Lesser palatine nerve, Lesser petrosal nerve, Lesser sac, Lesser sciatic foramen, Lesser sciatic notch, Lesser trochanter, Lesser tubercle, Levator anguli oris, Levator ani, Levator labii superioris, Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi muscle, Levator palpebrae superioris muscle, Levator scapulae muscle, Levator veli palatini, Levatores costarum muscles, Ligament of head of femur, Ligamenta flava, Linea alba (abdomen), Linea aspera, Linea semilunaris, Linea terminalis, Lingual artery, Lingual nerve, Lingual veins, Liver, Long bone, Long posterior ciliary arteries, Long thoracic nerve, Longissimus, Longus capitis muscle, Longus colli muscle, Lower subscapular nerve, Luigi Rolando, Lumbar arteries, Lumbar plexus, Lumbar splanchnic nerves, Lumbar veins, Lumbosacral joint, Lumbosacral trunk, Lumbricals of the foot, Lumbricals of the hand, Lunate, Lung, Lymph node, Lymphatic system, Macula of retina, Male reproductive system, Malleolus, Malleus, Mammary gland, Mandible, Mandibular canal, Mandibular foramen, Mandibular fossa, Mandibular nerve, Mandibular notch, Masseter muscle, Masseteric artery, Masseteric nerve, Mastoid antrum, Mastoid foramen, Mastoid part of the temporal bone, Max Fürbringer, Maxilla, Maxillary artery, Maxillary nerve, Maxillary sinus, Maxillary veins, Medial arcuate ligament, Medial collateral ligament, Medial cutaneous nerve of arm, Medial cutaneous nerve of forearm, Medial epicondyle of the humerus, Medial meniscus, Medial pectoral nerve, Medial plantar artery, Medial plantar nerve, Medial pterygoid muscle, Medial rectus muscle, Medial sural cutaneous nerve, Medial umbilical ligament, Median arcuate ligament, Median cubital vein, Median nerve, Median sacral artery, Median sacral vein, Median umbilical ligament, Medullary cavity, Meibomian gland, Membranous labyrinth, Meninges, Meniscus (anatomy), Mental foramen, Mental nerve, Mental protuberance, Mental tubercle, Mentalis, Mesentery, Mesometrium, Mesosalpinx, Mesovarium, Metacarpal bones, Metacarpophalangeal joint, Metaphysis, Metatarsal bones, Metatarsophalangeal joints, Microscope, Midcarpal joint, Middle cardiac vein, Middle cerebral artery, Middle cervical ganglion, Middle colic artery, Middle colic vein, Middle cranial fossa, Middle ear, Middle meningeal artery, Middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle, Middle rectal artery, Middle rectal veins, Middle suprarenal arteries, Middle temporal artery, Middle thyroid vein, Mitral valve, Modiolus (face), Moll's gland, Mons pubis, Morphology (biology), Mouth, Multifidus muscle, Muscle, Musculocutaneous nerve, Mylohyoid groove, Mylohyoid line, Mylohyoid muscle, Mylohyoid nerve, Nail (anatomy), Nasal bone, Nasal cavity, Nasal meatus, Nasal septum, Nasalis muscle, Nasion, Nasociliary nerve, Nasofrontal vein, Nasolacrimal canal, Nasolacrimal duct, Nasopalatine nerve, Navicular bone, Navicular fossa of male urethra, Neck, Nephron, Nerve of pterygoid canal, Nerve to quadratus femoris, Neurocranium, Niko Miljanić, Nipple, Nose, Nuchal ligament, Nuchal lines, Nutrient canal, Oblique muscle of auricle, Oblique popliteal ligament, Oblique vein of the left atrium, Obliquus capitis inferior muscle, Obliquus capitis superior muscle, Obturator artery, Obturator canal, Obturator foramen, Obturator internus nerve, Obturator nerve, Obturator veins, Occipital artery, Occipital bone, Occipital condyles, Occipital sinus, Occipital vein, Occipitofrontalis muscle, Oculomotor nerve, Olaus Rudbeck, Olecranon, Olecranon fossa, Olfactory nerve, Omohyoid muscle, Ophthalmic artery, Ophthalmic nerve, Opponens digiti minimi muscle of hand, Opponens pollicis muscle, Optic canal, Optic disc, Optic nerve, Ora serrata, Orbicularis oculi muscle, Orbicularis oris muscle, Orbit (anatomy), Orbitalis muscle, Organ of Corti, Ossicles, Ossification center, Otic ganglion, Outer ear, Outline (list), Outline of biology, Outline of health, Outline of health sciences, Outline of medicine, Outline of the human nervous system, Oval window, Ovarian artery, Ovarian ligament, Ovarian vein, Ovary, Palatine bone, Palatine uvula, Palatoglossus muscle, Palatopharyngeus muscle, Palmar interossei muscles, Palmaris brevis muscle, Palmaris longus muscle, Palpebral fissure, Pampiniform venous plexus, Pancreas, Pancreatic islets, Paracolic gutters, Paradidymis, Paranasal sinuses, Paraumbilical vein, Parietal bone, Paroophoron, Parotid gland, Patella, Patellar ligament, Patricia Bergquist, Pectineal line (femur), Pectineal line (pubis), Pectineus muscle, Pectoralis major, Pectoralis minor, Pelvic cavity, Pelvic floor, Pelvic inlet, Pelvic outlet, Pelvic splanchnic nerves, Pelvis, Perforating cutaneous nerve, Pericardiacophrenic artery, Pericardial sinus, Pericardium, Perichondrium, Perilymph, Perineal artery, Perineal nerve, Perineum, Periosteum, Peripheral nervous system, Peritoneum, Peroneus brevis, Peroneus longus, Peroneus tertius, Petro-occipital fissure, Petrosquamous sinus, Petrotympanic fissure, Phalanx bone, Pharyngeal muscles, Pharyngeal nerve, Pharynx, Philipp Bozzini, Phrenic nerve, Phrenicocolic ligament, Phrenicosplenic ligament, Physiology, Pineal gland, Piriformis muscle, Piriformis nerve, Pisiform bone, Pisiform joint, Pisohamate ligament, Pisometacarpal ligament, Pituitary gland, Pivot joint, Plane joint, Plantar calcaneonavicular ligament, Plantar interossei muscles, Plantaris muscle, Platysma muscle, Popliteal artery, Popliteal vein, Popliteus muscle, Portal vein, Posterior auricular artery, Posterior auricular muscle, Posterior auricular nerve, Posterior auricular vein, Posterior cerebral artery, Posterior clinoid processes, Posterior communicating artery, Posterior cranial fossa, Posterior cruciate ligament, Posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh, Posterior ethmoidal artery, Posterior ethmoidal foramen, Posterior ethmoidal nerve, Posterior fontanelle, Posterior humeral circumflex artery, Posterior inferior iliac spine, Posterior intercostal veins, Posterior labial nerves, Posterior labial veins, Posterior longitudinal ligament, Posterior nasal apertures, Posterior scrotal nerves, Posterior scrotal veins, Posterior spinal veins, Posterior superior alveolar artery, Posterior superior iliac spine, Posterior talofibular ligament, Posterior tibial artery, Posterior tibial vein, Princeps pollicis artery, Procerus muscle, Process (anatomy), Pronator quadratus muscle, Pronator teres muscle, Prosector, Prostate, Proximal radioulnar articulation, Psoas major muscle, Pterion, Pterygoid canal, Pterygoid fossa, Pterygoid fovea, Pterygoid hamulus, Pterygoid notch, Pterygoid plexus, Pterygoid processes of the sphenoid, Pterygomaxillary fissure, Pterygopalatine fossa, Pterygopalatine ganglion, Pubic arch, Pubic symphysis, Pubic tubercle, Pubis (bone), Pubocervical ligament, Pubofemoral ligament, Pudendal nerve, Pulmonary artery, Pulmonary plexus, Pulmonary vein, Pupil, Pylorus, Pyramidal eminence, Pyramidalis muscle, Quadrate ligament, Quadratus lumborum muscle, Quadratus plantae muscle, Quadriceps femoris muscle, Radial artery, Radial artery of index finger, Radial collateral ligament of elbow joint, Radial fossa, Radial nerve, Radial styloid process, Radial sulcus, Radial veins, Radiate carpal ligament, Radius (bone), Ramus communicans, Rectum, Rectus abdominis muscle, Rectus capitis anterior muscle, Rectus capitis lateralis muscle, Rectus capitis posterior major muscle, Rectus capitis posterior minor muscle, Rectus femoris muscle, Recurrent laryngeal nerve, Rembrandt, Renal artery, Renal pelvis, Renal vein, Reproductive system, Rete testis, Retina, Retromandibular vein, Rhomboid major muscle, Rhomboid minor muscle, Rib, Rib cage, Right colic artery, Right colic vein, Right coronary artery, Right gastric artery, Right gastric vein, Right gastroepiploic artery, Right gastroepiploic vein, Right triangular ligament, Risorius, Rotatores muscles, Round ligament of uterus, Round window, Saccule, Sacral plexus, Sacral splanchnic nerves, Sacrococcygeal symphysis, Sacroiliac joint, Sacrospinous ligament, Sacrotuberous ligament, Sacrum, Saddle joint, Sagittal suture, Salpingopharyngeus muscle, Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Saphenous nerve, Scalene muscles, Scalene tubercle, Scaphoid bone, Scaphoid fossa, Scapula, Sciatic nerve, Sclera, Scrotum, Sebaceous gland, Sella turcica, Semicircular canals, Semimembranosus muscle, Seminal vesicle, Seminiferous tubule, Semispinalis muscles, Semitendinosus muscle, Serratus anterior muscle, Serratus posterior inferior muscle, Serratus posterior superior muscle, Sesamoid bone, Short bone, Short ciliary nerves, Short gastric arteries, Short posterior ciliary arteries, Shoulder girdle, Shoulder joint, Sigmoid arteries, Sigmoid colon, Sigmoid sinus, Skin, Skin gland, Skull, Small cardiac vein, Small intestine, Small saphenous vein, Smallest cardiac veins, Soleus muscle, Spermatic cord, Sphenoethmoidal recess, Sphenoid bone, Sphenoidal emissary foramen, Sphenoidal sinus, Sphenomandibular ligament, Sphenopalatine artery, Sphenopalatine foramen, Sphenoparietal sinus, Spinal canal, Spinal cord, Spinal nerve, Spinalis, Spiral ganglion, Spleen, Splenic artery, Splenic vein, Splenius muscles, Splenocolic ligament, Splenorenal ligament, Stapedius muscle, Stapes, Stellate ganglion, Sternal angle, Sternoclavicular joint, Sternocleidomastoid muscle, Sternocostal joints, Sternohyoid muscle, Sternothyroid muscle, Sternum, Stomach, Straight sinus, Styloglossus, Stylohyoid muscle, Stylomandibular ligament, Stylomastoid foramen, Stylopharyngeus muscle, Subclavian artery, Subclavian nerve, Subclavian vein, Subclavius muscle, Subcostal arteries, Subcostalis muscle, Subcutaneous tissue, Sublingual fovea, Sublingual gland, Sublingual vein, Submandibular ganglion, Submandibular gland, Submental artery, Suboccipital nerve, Subscapular artery, Subscapular nerves, Subscapularis muscle, Subtalar joint, Superficial inguinal ring, Superficial palmar arch, Superficial perineal pouch, Superficial peroneal nerve, Superficial temporal artery, Superficial temporal vein, Superior alveolar nerves, Superior auricular muscle, Superior cervical ganglion, Superior epigastric artery, Superior epigastric vein, Superior gemellus muscle, Superior gluteal artery, Superior gluteal nerve, Superior gluteal veins, Superior hypogastric plexus, Superior laryngeal nerve, Superior laryngeal vein, Superior longitudinal muscle of tongue, Superior mesenteric artery, Superior mesenteric plexus, Superior mesenteric vein, Superior oblique muscle, Superior ophthalmic vein, Superior orbital fissure, Superior pancreaticoduodenal artery, Superior petrosal sinus, Superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle, Superior rectal artery, Superior rectal vein, Superior rectus muscle, Superior sagittal sinus, Superior thoracic artery, Superior thyroid artery, Superior thyroid vein, Superior transverse scapular ligament, Superior tympanic artery, Superior vena cava, Superior vesical artery, Supinator muscle, Supraclavicular nerves, Supraglenoid tubercle, Supraorbital artery, Supraorbital foramen, Supraorbital nerve, Supraorbital vein, Suprarenal veins, Suprascapular artery, Suprascapular nerve, Suprascapular notch, Suprascapular vein, Supraspinatus muscle, Supraspinous ligament, Suprasternal notch, Supratrochlear artery, Supratrochlear nerve, Supreme intercostal vein, Sural nerve, Suspensory ligament of ovary, Suspensory ligament of penis, Suture (anatomy), Sweat gland, Sympathetic trunk, Symphysis, Synarthrosis, Synchondrosis, Synovial bursa, Synovial joint, Synovial sheath, Talus bone, Tarsometatarsal joints, Tarsus (eyelids), Tarsus (skeleton), Taste, Taste bud, Temporal bone, Temporal fossa, Temporal muscle, Temporal styloid process, Temporomandibular joint, Tensor fasciae latae muscle, Tensor tympani muscle, Tensor veli palatini muscle, Teres major muscle, Teres minor muscle, Terminologia Anatomica, Testicle, Testicular artery, Testicular vein, Thigh, Third occipital nerve, Thomas Wharton (anatomist), Thoracic cavity, Thoracic diaphragm, Thoracic duct, Thoracic inlet, Thoracic outlet, Thoracic splanchnic nerves, Thoracoacromial artery, Thoracodorsal artery, Thoracodorsal nerve, Thorax, Thymus, Thyrocervical trunk, Thyrohyoid muscle, Thyroid, Thyroid cartilage, Thyroid ima artery, Tibia, Tibial nerve, Tibialis anterior muscle, Tibialis posterior muscle, Tibiofibular joint, Tongue, Tooth, Torso, Trachea, Tragicus, Transverse abdominal muscle, Transverse acetabular ligament, Transverse cervical artery, Transverse cervical nerve, Transverse cervical veins, Transverse colon, Transverse facial artery, Transverse ligament of knee, Transverse muscle of auricle, Transverse muscle of the chin, Transverse muscle of tongue, Transverse sinuses, Transverse tarsal joint, Transversus thoracis muscle, Trapezium (bone), Trapezius, Trapezoid, Trapezoid ligament, Trapezoid line, Triceps, Triceps surae muscle, Tricuspid valve, Trigeminal ganglion, Trigeminal nerve, Triquetral bone, Trochlea of humerus, Trochlear nerve, Tuber, Tubercle, Tuberculum sellae, Tubuli seminiferi recti, Tunica albuginea of testis, Tunica vaginalis, Tympanic cavity, Tympanic duct, Tympanic nerve, Tympanic plexus, Ulna, Ulnar artery, Ulnar canal, Ulnar collateral ligament of elbow joint, Ulnar nerve, Ulnar styloid process, Ulnar veins, Umbilical artery, Upper limb, Upper subscapular nerve, Ureter, Urethra, Urinary bladder, Urinary system, Uterine artery, Uterosacral ligament, Uterus, Utricle (ear), Utriculosaccular duct, Vagina, Vaginal artery, Vagus nerve, Vas deferens, Vastus intermedius muscle, Vastus lateralis muscle, Vastus medialis, Ventricle (heart), Vertebra, Vertebral artery, Vertebral column, Vertebral foramen, Vertebral vein, Vertex (anatomy), Vertical muscle of tongue, Vesical veins, Vesico-uterine pouch, Vestibular duct, Vestibular nerve, Vestibulocochlear nerve, Vincent Bochdalek, Vitreous body, Vomer, Vorticose veins, Vulva, Vulval vestibule, Waldeyer's tonsillar ring, Wilhelm His Sr., William Charles Osman Hill, William Cheselden, William Cowper (anatomist), William Hunter (anatomist), William Shippen Sr., Wrist, Xiphisternal joint, Xiphoid process, Zygomatic arch, Zygomatic bone, Zygomatic nerve, Zygomatico-orbital artery, Zygomatico-orbital foramina, Zygomaticofacial foramen, Zygomaticus major muscle, Zygomaticus minor muscle. Expand index (1347 more) » « Shrink index
The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.
The abdominal cavity is a large body cavity in humans and many other animals that contains many organs.
The external oblique muscle (of the abdomen) (also external abdominal oblique muscle) is the largest and the most superficial (outermost) of the three flat muscles of the lateral anterior abdomen.
The internal oblique muscle is a muscle in the abdominal wall that lies below the external oblique and just above the transverse abdominal muscles.
The abdominopelvic cavity is a body cavity that consists of the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity.
The abducens nerve is a nerve that controls the movement of the lateral rectus muscle in humans, responsible for outward gaze.
The abductor digiti minimi (abductor minimi digiti, abductor digiti quinti) is a muscle which lies along the lateral (outer) border of the foot, and is in relation by its medial margin with the lateral plantar artery, vein and nerves.
In human anatomy, the abductor digiti minimi (abductor minimi digiti, abductor digiti quinti, ADM) is a skeletal muscle situated on the ulnar border of the palm of the hand.
The abductor hallucis muscle is an intrinsic muscle of the foot.
The abductor pollicis brevis is a muscle in the hand that functions as an abductor of the thumb.
In human anatomy, the abductor pollicis longus (APL) is one of the extrinsic muscles of the hand.
The accessory nerve is a spinal nerve that supplies the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles.
In human anatomy, the accessory obturator nerve is an accessory nerve in the lumbar region present in about 29% of cases.
The acetabulum (cotyloid cavity) is a concave surface of a pelvis.
The Achilles tendon or heel cord, also known as the calcaneal tendon, is a tendon of the back of the leg, and the thickest in the human body.
The acromioclavicular joint, or AC joint, is a joint at the top of the shoulder.
The acromioclavicular ligament is part of the acromioclavicular joint.
In human anatomy, the acromion (from Greek: akros, "highest", ōmos, "shoulder", plural: acromia) is a bony process on the scapula (shoulder blade).
The adductor brevis is a muscle in the thigh situated immediately deep to the pectineus and adductor longus.
The adductor canal (subsartorial or Hunter’s canal) is an aponeurotic tunnel in the middle third of the thigh, extending from the apex of the femoral triangle to the opening in the adductor magnus, the adductor hiatus.
The Adductor hallucis (Adductor obliquus hallucis) arises by two heads—oblique and transverse and is responsible for adducting the big toe. It has two heads, both are innervated by the lateral plantar nerve.
In the human body, the adductor longus is a skeletal muscle located in the thigh.
The adductor magnus is a large triangular muscle, situated on the medial side of the thigh.
In human anatomy, the adductor pollicis muscle is a muscle in the hand that functions to adduct the thumb.
The aditus to mastoid antrum (otomastoid foramen or entrance or aperture to the mastoid antrum) is a large irregular cavity that leads backward from the epitympanic recess into a considerable air space named the tympanic or mastoid antrum.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
Adriaan van den Spiegel (or Spieghel), name sometimes written as Adrianus Spigelius, (1578 – 7 April 1625) was a Flemish anatomist born in Brussels.
The alar ligaments connect the sides of the dens (on the axis, the second cervical vertebra) to tubercles on the medial side of the occipital condyle.
João Rodrigues de Castelo Branco, better known as Amato Lusitano and Amatus Lusitanus (1511–1568), was a notable Portuguese Jewish physician of the 16th century.
The American Association of Anatomists (AAA), based in Bethesda, MD, was founded in Washington, D.C. in 1888 for the "advancement of anatomical science." AAA is the professional home for an international community of biomedical researchers and educators focusing on anatomical form and function.
The American Association of Clinical Anatomists (AACA) aims to advance the science and art of clinical anatomy.
The anal canal is the terminal part of the large intestine.
An anatomical plane is a hypothetical plane used to transect the human body, in order to describe the location of structures or the direction of movements.
Motion, the process of movement, is described using specific anatomical terms.
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
The anconeus muscle (or anconaeus/anconæus) is a small muscle on the posterior aspect of the elbow joint.
Anders Adolph Retzius (Lund 13 October 1796 – Stockholm 18 April 1860), was a Swedish professor of anatomy and a supervisor at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm.
Andreas Vesalius (31 December 1514 – 15 October 1564) was a 16th-century Flemish anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body).
The angle of the mandible (gonial angle) is located at the posterior border at the junction of the lower border of the ramus of the mandible.
The angular artery is the terminal part of the facial artery; it ascends to the medial angle of the eye's orbit, imbedded in the fibers of the angular head of the Quadratus labii superioris, and accompanied by the angular vein.
The angular vein is the upper most segment of the facial vein, above its junction with the superior labial vein.
The ankle, or the talocrural region, is the region where the foot and the leg meet.
The annular ligament (orbicular ligament) is a strong band of fibers that encircles the head of the radius, and retains it in contact with the radial notch of the ulna.
The annulus of Zinn, also known as the annular tendon or common tendinous ring, is a ring of fibrous tissue surrounding the optic nerve at its entrance at the apex of the orbit.
The anococcygeal nerve is a nerve in the pelvis which provides sensory innervation to the skin over the coccyx.
The ansa cervicalis (or ansa hypoglossi in older literature) is a loop of nerves that are part of the cervical plexus.
The anterior auricular muscle, the smallest of the three auricular muscles, is thin and fan-shaped, and its fibers are pale and indistinct.
The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) is one of a pair of arteries on the brain that supplies oxygenated blood to most midline portions of the frontal lobes and superior medial parietal lobes.
The anterior choroidal artery originates from the internal carotid artery, though it also rarely arises from the middle cerebral artery.
In the sphenoid bone, the posterior border, smooth and rounded, is received into the lateral fissure of the brain; the medial end of this border forms the anterior clinoid process, which gives attachment to the tentorium cerebelli; it is sometimes joined to the middle clinoid process by a spicule of bone, and when this occurs the termination of the groove for the internal carotid artery is converted into a foramen (carotico-clinoid).
In human anatomy, the anterior communicating artery is a blood vessel of the brain that connects the left and right anterior cerebral arteries.
The anterior cranial fossa is a depression in the floor of the cranial base which houses the projecting frontal lobes of the brain.
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of a pair of cruciate ligaments (the other being the posterior cruciate ligament) in the human knee.
The anterior ethmoidal artery, also anterior ethmoid artery is an artery of the head.
The anterior ethmoidal foramen is a small opening in the ethmoid bone in the skull.
The anterior ethmoidal nerve is a nerve which provides sensory branches to the nasal cavity.
The anterior fontanelle (bregmatic fontanelle, frontal fontanelle) is the largest fontanelle, and is placed at the junction of the sagittal suture, coronal suture, and frontal suture; it is lozenge-shaped, and measures about 4 cm in its antero-posterior and 2.5 cm in its transverse diameter.
The anterior humeral circumflex artery (anterior circumflex artery, anterior circumflex humeral artery) is an artery in the arm.
The anterior inferior iliac spine (abbreviated: AIIS) is a bony eminence on the anterior border of the hip bone, or, more precisely, the wing of the ilium (i.e. the upper lateral parts of the pelvis).
The anterior intercostal veins are the veins which drain the anterior intercostal space.
The anterior jugular vein is a vein in the neck.
The anterior labial nerves are branches of the ilioinguinal nerve.
The anterior longitudinal ligament is a ligament that runs down the anterior surface of the spine.
The anterior nasal aperture (piriform or pyriform aperture) is a heart- or pear-shaped opening in the human skull.
The anterior scrotal nerves are branches of the ilioinguinal nerve.
Anterior spinal veins (also known as anterior coronal veins and anterior median spinal veins) are veins that receive blood from the anterior spinal cord.
The anterior superior alveolar arteries originate from the infraorbital artery; they supply the upper incisors and canines; they also supply the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus.
The anterior superior iliac spine (abbreviated: ASIS) is a bony projection of the iliac bone and an important landmark of surface anatomy.
The anterior talofibular ligament is a ligament in the ankle.
The anterior tibial artery of the leg carries blood to the anterior compartment of the leg and dorsal surface of the foot, from the popliteal artery.
The anterior tibial vein is a vein in the lower leg.
The anterior tympanic artery (glaserian artery) is a small artery in the head that supplies the middle ear.
The Antitragicus is an intrinsic muscle of the outer ear.
Don Antonio de Gimbernat y Arbós (Cambrils, Tarragona province, 1734 – Madrid, 1816) was a Spanish surgeon and anatomist.
The aorta is the main artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries (the common iliac arteries).
The aortic arch, arch of the aorta, or transverse aortic arch is the part of the aorta between the ascending and descending aorta.
The aortic hiatus is a hole in the diaphragm.
The aortiocorenal ganglion is composed of the superior mesenteric, renal, and inferior mesenteric ganglia.
The ligament of apex dentis (or apical odontoid ligament) is a ligament that spans between the second cervical vertebra in the neck and the skull.
The appendicular skeleton is the portion of the skeleton of vertebrates consisting of the bones that support the appendages.
The appendicular vein is the vein which drains blood from the vermiform appendix.
The appendix (or vermiform appendix; also cecal appendix; vermix; or vermiform process) is a blind-ended tube connected to the cecum, from which it develops in the embryo.
The aqueous humour is a transparent, watery fluid similar to plasma, but containing low protein concentrations.
The arcuate line of the ilium is a smooth rounded border on the internal surface of the ilium.
The arcuate popliteal ligament is an extracapsular ligament of the knee.
The human areola (areola mammae, in. or) is the pigmented area on the breast around the nipple.
In human anatomy, the arm is the part of the upper limb between the glenohumeral joint (shoulder joint) and the elbow joint.
An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).
The artery of round ligament of uterus is a branch of the inferior epigastric artery.
The artery of the pterygoid canal (Vidian artery) is an artery in the pterygoid canal, in the head.
Arthur Worth Ham (20 February 1902 – 6 September 1992) was a prominent Canadian histologist.
The articular disk (or disc) is a thin, oval plate of fibrocartilage present in several joints which separates synovial cavities.
The articular tubercle (eminentia articularis) is a bony eminence on the temporal bone in the skull.
The articularis genus (subcrureus) is a small skeletal muscle located anteriorly on the thigh just above the knee.
The arytenoid cartilages are a pair of small three-sided pyramids which form part of the larynx, to which the vocal folds (vocal cords) are attached.
The ascending aorta (AAo) is a portion of the aorta commencing at the upper part of the base of the left ventricle, on a level with the lower border of the third costal cartilage behind the left half of the sternum.
The ascending colon is the part of the colon located between the cecum and the transverse colon.
The ascending lumbar vein is a vein that runs up through the lumbar region on the side of the vertebral column.
The ascending palatine artery is an artery in the head that branches off the facial artery and runs up the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle.
The ascending pharyngeal artery is an artery in the neck that supplies the pharynx.
In Greek mythology, Asterion (Greek: Ἀστερίων, gen.: Ἀστερίωνος, literally "starry") or Asterius (Ἀστέριος) may refer to the following figures.
The asterion is the point on the skull corresponding to the posterior end of the parietomastoid suture.
The atlantoaxial joint is a joint in the upper part of the neck between the first and second cervical vertebrae; the atlas and axis.
The atlanto-occipital joint (articulation between the atlas and the occipital bone) consists of a pair of condyloid joints.
In anatomy, the atlas (C1) is the most superior (first) cervical vertebra of the spine.
The atrium is the upper chamber in which blood enters the heart.
The auricle or auricula is the visible part of the ear that resides outside the head.
The auriculotemporal nerve is a branch of the mandibular nerve (V3) that runs with the superficial temporal artery and vein, and provides sensory innervation to various regions on the side of the head.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
The axial skeleton is the part of the skeleton that consists of the bones of the head and trunk of a vertebrate.
The axilla (also, armpit, underarm or oxter) is the area on the human body directly under the joint where the arm connects to the shoulder.
In human anatomy, the axillary artery is a large blood vessel that conveys oxygenated blood to the lateral aspect of the thorax, the axilla (armpit) and the upper limb.
The axillary nerve or the circumflex nerve is a nerve of the human body, that originates from the brachial plexus (upper trunk, posterior division, posterior cord) at the level of the axilla (armpit) and carries nerve fibers from C5 and C6.
In human anatomy, the axillary vein is a large blood vessel that conveys blood from the lateral aspect of the thorax, axilla (armpit) and upper limb toward the heart.
In anatomy, the second cervical vertebra (C2) of the spine is named the axis (from Latin axis, "axle") or epistropheus.
The azygos vein is a vein running up the side of the thoracic vertebral column draining itself towards the superior vena cava.
The ball and socket joint (or spheroid joint) is a type of synovial joint in which the ball-shaped surface of one rounded bone fits into the cup-like depression of another bone.
The Bartholin's glands (also called Bartholin glands or greater vestibular glands) are two pea sized compound racemose glandsManual of Obstetrics.
The basal vein is a vein in the brain.
In human anatomy, the basilar artery is one of the arteries that supplies the brain with oxygen-rich blood.
The basilic vein is a large superficial vein of the upper limb that helps drain parts of the hand and forearm.
The basivertebral veins are veins within the vertebral column.
Benjamin Alcock (1801 – ?) was an Irish anatomist.
The biceps, also biceps brachii is a two-headed muscle that lies on the upper arm between the shoulder and the elbow.
The biceps femoris is a muscle of the thigh located to the posterior, or back.
The bicipital groove (intertubercular groove, sulcus intertubercularis) is a deep groove on the humerus that separates the greater tubercle from the lesser tubercle.
A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile, and is present in most vertebrates.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.
The bony labyrinth (also osseous labyrinth or otic capsule) is the rigid, bony outer wall of the inner ear in the temporal bone.
The brachial artery is the major blood vessel of the (upper) arm.
The brachial plexus is a network of nerves formed by the anterior rami of the lower four cervical nerves and first thoracic nerve (C5, C6, C7, C8, and T1).
In human anatomy, the brachial veins are venae comitantes of the brachial artery in the arm proper.
The brachialis (brachialis anticus) is a muscle in the upper arm that flexes the elbow joint.
The brachiocephalic artery (or brachiocephalic trunk or innominate artery) is an artery of the mediastinum that supplies blood to the right arm and the head and neck.
The left and right brachiocephalic veins (or innominate veins) in the upper chest are formed by the union of each corresponding internal jugular vein and subclavian vein.
The brachioradialis is a muscle of the forearm that flexes the forearm at the elbow.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.
The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of the torso of primates.
The bregma is the anatomical point on the skull at which the coronal suture is intersected perpendicularly by the sagittal suture.
The British Association of Clinical Anatomists is an organization, in the United Kingdom, dedicated to advancing the study of and research into clinical anatomy for the public benefit.
The broad ligament of the uterus is the wide fold of peritoneum that connects the sides of the uterus to the walls and floor of the pelvis.
The bronchial veins are small vessels that return blood from the larger bronchi and structures at the roots of the lungs.
The bronchioles or bronchioli are the passageways by which air passes through the nose or mouth to the alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs, in which branches no longer contain cartilage or glands in their submucosa.
A bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs.
Bronislaw Onuf-Onufrowicz (July 4, 1863 in Yeniseysk – December 29, 1928 in Rutherford, New Jersey) was a Russian-born American neurologist of Polish descent.
The buccal artery (buccinator artery) is a small artery in the head.
The buccal nerve (long buccal nerve) is a nerve in the face.
The buccinator is a thin quadrilateral muscle occupying the interval between the maxilla and the mandible at the side of the face.
In female anatomy, the vestibular bulbs, bulbs of the vestibule or clitoral bulbs are two elongated masses of erectile tissue typically described as being situated on either side of the vaginal opening.
A bulbourethral gland, also called a Cowper's gland for English anatomist William Cowper, is one of two small exocrine glands in the reproductive system of many male mammals (of all domesticated animals, they are only absent in the dog).
The buttocks (singular: buttock) are two rounded portions of the anatomy, located on the posterior of the pelvic region of primates (including humans), and many other bipeds or quadrupeds, and comprise a layer of fat superimposed on the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius muscles.
A cadaver, also referred to as a corpse (singular) in medical, literary, and legal usage, or when intended for dissection, is a deceased body.
The calcaneofibular ligament is a narrow, rounded cord, running from the tip of the lateral malleolus of the fibula downward and slightly backward to a tubercle on the lateral surface of the calcaneus.
In humans, the calcaneus (from the Latin calcaneus or calcaneum, meaning heel) or heel bone is a bone of the tarsus of the foot which constitutes the heel.
The calvaria or skullcap (feminine Latin noun with plural calvariae; however, many medical texts list the word as calvarium, neuter Latin noun with plural calvaria) is the upper part of the neurocranium and covers the cranial cavity containing the brain.
The capitate bone is found in the center of the carpal bone region, colloquially known as the wrist, which is at the distal end of the radius and ulna bones.
In human anatomy of the arm, the lateral portion of the distal articular surface of the humerus consists of a smooth, rounded eminence, named the capitulum of the humerus.
Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is one of the three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle.
The cardiac plexus is a plexus of nerves situated at the base of the heart that innervates the heart.
The cardinal ligament (or Mackenrodt's ligament, lateral cervical ligament, or transverse cervical ligament) is a major ligament of the uterus.
In anatomy, the carina is a ridge of cartilage in the trachea that occurs between the division of the two main bronchi.
In human anatomy, the carotid sinus is a dilated area at the base of the internal carotid artery just superior to the bifurcation of the internal carotid and external carotid at the level of the superior border of thyroid cartilage.
Carpal articulations may refer to.
The carpal bones are the eight small bones that make up the wrist (or carpus) that connects the hand to the forearm.
In the human body, the carpal tunnel or carpal canal is the passageway on the palmar side of the wrist that connects the forearm to the hand.
The carpometacarpal (CMC) joints are five joints in the wrist that articulate the distal row of carpal bones and the proximal bases of the five metacarpal bones.
Cartilaginous joints are connected entirely by cartilage (fibrocartilage or hyaline).
The cavernous sinus within the human head, is a true dural venous sinus (not a venous plexus) creating a cavity called the lateral sellar compartment bordered by the temporal bone of the skull and the sphenoid bone, lateral to the sella turcica.
The cecum or caecum (plural ceca; from the Latin caecus meaning blind) is an intraperitoneal pouch that is considered to be the beginning of the large intestine.
The celiac (or coeliac) artery, also known as the celiac trunk, or truncus coeliacus, is the first major branch of the abdominal aorta.
The celiac plexus or coeliac plexus, also known as the solar plexus because of its radiating nerve fibers, is a complex network of nerves (a nerve plexus) located in the abdomen, near where the celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery, and renal arteries branch from the abdominal aorta.
Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
The central retinal artery (retinal artery) branches off the ophthalmic artery, running inferior to the optic nerve within its dural sheath to the eyeball.
The central retinal vein (retinal vein) is a short vein that runs through the optic nerve, leaves the optic nerve 10 mm from the eyeball and drains blood from the capillaries of the retina into either superior ophthalmic vein or into the cavernous sinus directly.
In human anatomy, the cephalic vein is a superficial vein in the arm.
The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.
The vertebrate cerebrum (brain) is formed by two cerebral hemispheres that are separated by a groove, the longitudinal fissure.
The cerebral veins are divisible into external (superficial cerebral veins) and internal (internal cerebral veins) groups according to the outer surfaces or the inner parts of the hemispheres they drain into.
The cerebrum is a large part of the brain containing the cerebral cortex (of the two cerebral hemispheres), as well as several subcortical structures, including the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulb.
The cervical plexus is a plexus of the anterior rami of the first four cervical spinal nerves which arise from C1 to C4 cervical segment in the neck.
A cervical rib in humans is an extra rib which arises from the seventh cervical vertebra.
In vertebrates, cervical vertebrae (singular: vertebra) are the vertebrae of the neck, immediately below the skull.
The cervix or cervix uteri (neck of the uterus) is the lower part of the uterus in the human female reproductive system.
Charaka (चरक) (~6th – 2nd century BCE) was one of the principal contributors to Ayurveda, a system of medicine and lifestyle developed in Ancient India.
Cheeks (buccae) constitute the area of the face below the eyes and between the nose and the left or right ear.
The chin or the mental region is the area of the face below the lower lip and including the mandibular prominence.
The chorda tympani is a branch of the facial nerve that originates from the taste buds in the front of the tongue, runs through the middle ear, and carries taste messages to the brain.
The chordae tendineae (tendinous chords), colloquially known as the heart strings, are tendon-resembling fibrous cord connective tissue that connect the papillary muscles to the tricuspid valve and the bicuspid valve in the heart.
The choroid, also known as the choroidea or choroid coat, is the vascular layer of the eye, containing connective tissues, and lying between the retina and the sclera.
The ciliary body is a part of the eye that includes the ciliary muscle, which controls the shape of the lens, and the ciliary epithelium, which produces the aqueous humor.
The ciliary ganglion is a parasympathetic ganglion located just behind the eye in the posterior orbit.
The ciliary muscle is a ring of smooth muscleSchachar, Ronald A. (2012). "Anatomy and Physiology." (Chapter 4). in the eye's middle layer (vascular layer) that controls accommodation for viewing objects at varying distances and regulates the flow of aqueous humour into Schlemm's canal. It changes the shape of the lens within the eye, not the size of the pupil which is carried out by the sphincter pupillae muscle and dilator pupillae.
The ciliary processes are formed by the inward folding of the various layers of the choroid, i.e., the choroid proper and the lamina basalis, and are received between corresponding foldings of the suspensory ligament of the lens.
The circle of Willis (also called Willis' circle, loop of Willis, cerebral arterial circle, and Willis polygon) is a circulatory anastomosis that supplies blood to the brain and surrounding structures.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
The circumflex scapular artery (scapular circumflex artery, dorsalis scapulae artery) is a branch of the subscapular artery and part of the scapular anastomoses.
The cisterna chyli (or cysterna chyli, and etymologically more correct, receptaculum chyli) is a dilated sac at the lower end of the thoracic duct in most mammals into which lymph from the intestinal trunk and two lumbar lymphatic trunks flow.
The clavicle or collarbone is a long bone that serves as a strut between the shoulder blade and the sternum or breastbone.
Medially, it blends with the fascia covering the first two intercostal spaces, and is attached also to the first rib medial to the origin of the subclavius.
The clitoris is a female sex organ present in mammals, ostriches and a limited number of other animals.
The clivus (Latin for "slope") is a bony part of the cranium at the skull base, a shallow depression behind the dorsum sellæ that slopes obliquely backward.
The coccyx, commonly referred to as the tailbone, is the final segment of the vertebral column in humans and apes, and certain other mammals such as horses.
The cochlea is the part of the inner ear involved in hearing.
The Cochlear Duct (or Scala Media) is an endolymph filled cavity inside the cochlea, located in between the tympanic duct and the vestibular duct, separated by the basilar membrane and Reissner's membrane (the vestibular membrane) respectively.
The cochlear nerve (also auditory or acoustic neuron) is one of two parts of the vestibulocochlear nerve, a cranial nerve present in amniotes, the other part being the vestibular nerve.
In anatomy, the left and right common carotid arteries (carotids) are arteries that supply the head and neck with oxygenated blood; they divide in the neck to form the external and internal carotid arteries.
The common hepatic artery is a short blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the liver, pylorus of the stomach, duodenum and pancreas.
The common hepatic duct is the duct formed by the convergence of the right hepatic duct (which drains bile from the right functional lobe of the liver) and the left hepatic duct (which drains bile from the left functional lobe of the liver).
The common iliac arteries are two large arteries that originate from the aortic bifurcation at the level of the fourth lumbar vertebra.
In human anatomy, the common iliac veins are formed by the external iliac veins and internal iliac veins.
The common peroneal nerve (common fibular nerve; external popliteal nerve; lateral popliteal nerve) is a nerve in the lower leg that provides sensation over the posterolateral part of the leg and the knee joint.
The condylar canal (or condyloid canal) is a canal in the condyloid fossa of the lateral parts of occipital bone behind the occipital condyle.
A condyle (or; condylus, from kondylos; κόνδυλος knuckle) is the round prominence at the end of a bone, most often part of a joint - an articulation with another bone.
The Condyle of humerus is the distal end of the humerus.
Behind either condyle of the lateral parts of occipital bone is a depression, the condyloid fossa (or condylar fossa), which receives the posterior margin of the superior facet of the atlas when the head is bent backward; the floor of this fossa is sometimes perforated by the condyloid canal, through which an emissary vein passes from the transverse sinus.
A condyloid joint (also called condylar, ellipsoidal, or bicondylar) is an ovoid articular surface, or condyle that is received into an elliptical cavity.
The confluence of sinuses, torcular herophili, or torcula is the connecting point of the superior sagittal sinus, straight sinus, and occipital sinus.
The conjoint tendon (previously known as the inguinal aponeurotic falx) is a structure formed from the lower part of the common aponeurosis of the internal oblique muscle and the transverse abdominalis muscle as it inserts into the crest of the pubis and pectineal line immediately behind the superficial inguinal ring.
The conjunctiva lines the inside of the eyelids and covers the sclera (the white of the eye).
The conoid ligament is the posterior and medial fasciculus of the coracoclavicular ligament.
Cooper's ligaments (also known as the suspensory ligaments of Cooper and the fibrocollagenous septa) are connective tissue in the breast that help maintain structural integrity.
The coracoacromial ligament is a strong triangular band, extending between the coracoid process and the acromion.
The coracobrachialis is the smallest of the three muscles that attach to the coracoid process of the scapula.
The coracoclavicular ligament serves to connect the clavicle with the coracoid process of the scapula.
The coracoid process (from Greek κόραξ, raven) is a small hook-like structure on the lateral edge of the superior anterior portion of the scapula (hence: coracoid, or "like a raven's beak").
The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.
The corniculate cartilages (cartilages of Santorini) are two small conical nodules consisting of elastic cartilage, which articulate with the summits of the arytenoid cartilages and serve to prolong them posteriorly and medially.
The coronal suture is a dense, fibrous connective tissue joint that separates the frontal and parietal bones of the skull.
The coronary ligament of the liver refers to parts of the peritoneal reflections that hold the liver to the inferior surface of the diaphragm.
The coronary sinus is a collection of veins joined together to form a large vessel that collects blood from the heart muscle (myocardium).
Superior to the anterior portion of the trochlea is a small depression, the coronoid fossa, which receives the coronoid process of the ulna during flexion of the forearm.
The mandible's coronoid process (from Greek korone, "like a crown") is a thin, triangular eminence, which is flattened from side to side and varies in shape and size.
The Ulna's coronoid process is a triangular eminence projecting forward from the anterior proximal portion of the ulna.
A corpus cavernosum penis (singular) (cavernous body of the penis) is one of a pair of sponge-like regions of erectile tissue, the corpora cavernosa (plural) (cavernous bodies), which contain most of the blood in the penis during an erection.
The corpus spongiosum is the mass of spongy tissue surrounding the male urethra within the penis.
The corrugator supercilii is a small, narrow, pyramidal muscle close to the eye.
The costal cartilages are bars of hyaline cartilage that serve to prolong the ribs forward and contribute to the elasticity of the walls of the thorax.
The costocervical trunk arises from the upper and back part of the second part of subclavian artery, behind the scalenus anterior on the right side, and medial to that muscle on the left side.
The costochondral joints are the joints between the ribs and costal cartilage in the front of the rib cage.
The costovertebral joints are the articulations that connect the heads of the ribs with the bodies of the thoracic vertebrae.
The cranial cavity, also known as intracranial space, is the space within the skull.
Cranial nerves are the nerves that emerge directly from the brain (including the brainstem), in contrast to spinal nerves (which emerge from segments of the spinal cord).
The cremaster muscle is a muscle that covers the testis and the spermatic cord.
The cremasteric artery (external spermatic artery) is a branch of the inferior epigastric artery which accompanies the spermatic cord, and supplies the Cremaster and other coverings of the cord, anastomosing with the testicular artery (internal spermatic artery in older texts).
In human anatomy, the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone (horizontal lamina or lamina cribrosa) is received into the ethmoidal notch of the frontal bone and roofs in the nasal cavities.
The cricoarytenoid articulation (or joint) is a joint connecting the cricoid cartilage and the arytenoid cartilage.
The cricoid cartilage, or simply cricoid (from the Greek krikoeides meaning "ring-shaped") or cricoid ring, is the only complete ring of cartilage around the trachea.
The cricothyroid articulation (or joint) is a joint connecting the cricoid cartilage and the thyroid cartilage.
The cricothyroid muscle is the only tensor muscle of the larynx aiding with phonation.
The crista galli (Latin: "crest of the rooster") is the upper part of the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone, which rises above the cribriform plate.
The crus of diaphragm (pl. crura), refers to one of two tendinous structures that extends below the diaphragm to the vertebral column.
In geometry, a cuboid is a convex polyhedron bounded by six quadrilateral faces, whose polyhedral graph is the same as that of a cube.
There are three cuneiform bones in the human foot.
In the human larynx, the cuneiform cartilages (from Latin: cunei, "wedge-shaped"; also known as cartilages of Wrisberg) are two small, elongated pieces of yellow elastic cartilage, placed one on either side, in the aryepiglottic fold.
The cuneonavicular joint is a joint (articulation) in the human foot.
The cystic artery (also known as bachelor artery) supplies oxygenated blood to the gallbladder and cystic duct.
The cystic duct is the short duct that joins the gallbladder to the common bile duct.
When present the cystic vein drains the blood from the gall-bladder, and, accompanying the cystic duct, usually ends in the right branch of the portal vein.
The dartos fascia or simply dartos is a layer of connective tissue found in the penile shaft, foreskin, and scrotum.
The deep artery of arm (also known as arteria profunda brachii and the deep brachial artery) is a large vessel which arises from the lateral and posterior part of the brachial artery, just below the lower border of the teres major.
The deep artery of the thigh, (profunda femoris artery or deep femoral artery) is a branch of the femoral artery that, as its name suggests, travels more deeply (posteriorly) than the rest of the femoral artery.
The deep auricular artery often arises in common with the anterior tympanic artery.
The deep cervical artery (Profunda cervicalis) is an artery of the neck.
The deep cervical vein (posterior vertebral or posterior deep cervical vein) accompanies its artery between the Semispinales capitis and colli.
The deep circumflex iliac vein is formed by the union of the venae comitantes of the deep iliac circumflex artery, and joins the external iliac vein about 2 cm.
The anterior facial vein receives a branch of considerable size, the deep facial vein, from the pterygoid venous plexus.
The deep inguinal ring (internal or deep abdominal ring, abdominal inguinal ring, internal inguinal ring) is the entrance to the inguinal canal.
The deep lingual vein is a vein which drains the tongue.
The deep palmar arch (deep volar arch) is an arterial network found in the palm.
The deep perineal pouch (also deep perineal space) is the anatomic space enclosed in part by the perineum, and located superior to the perineal membrane.
The deep peroneal nerve (deep fibular nerve) begins at the bifurcation of the common peroneal nerve between the fibula and upper part of the peroneus longus, passes infero-medially, deep to extensor digitorum longus, to the anterior surface of the interosseous membrane, and comes into relation with the anterior tibial artery above the middle of the leg; it then descends with the artery to the front of the ankle-joint, where it divides into a lateral and a medial terminal branch.
The deep temporal arteries, two in number, anterior and posterior, ascend between the temporalis and the pericranium.
The deep temporal nerves, branches of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve, are two in number, anterior and posterior.
The deep transverse metacarpal ligament (also called the deep transverse palmar ligament) is a narrow fibrous band which runs across the palmar surfaces of the heads of the second, third, fourth and fifth metacarpal bones, connecting them together.
The deep vein of the thigh, (profunda femoris vein or deep femoral vein) is a large deep vein in the thigh.
The deltoid ligament (or medial ligament of talocrural joint) is a strong, flat, triangular band, attached, above, to the apex and anterior and posterior borders of the medial malleolus.
The deltoid muscle is the muscle forming the rounded contour of the human shoulder.
In human anatomy, the deltoid tuberosity is a rough, triangular (See link in infobox.) area on the anterolateral (front-side) surface of the middle of the humerus to which the deltoid muscle attaches.
Dental alveoli (singular alveolus) are sockets in the jaws in which the roots of teeth are held in the alveolar process with the periodontal ligament.
The depressor anguli oris (triangularis) is a facial muscle associated with frowning.
The depressor labii inferioris (or quadratus labii inferioris) is a facial muscle that helps lower the bottom lip.
The depressor septi (Depressor alœ nasi) arises from the incisive fossa of the maxilla.
The Depressor Supercilii is an eye muscle of the human body.
The dermis or corium is a layer of skin between the epidermis (with which it makes up the cutis) and subcutaneous tissues, that primarily consists of dense irregular connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain.
The descending colon is the part of the large intestine from the splenic flexure to the beginning of the sigmoid colon.
The descending palatine artery is a branch of the third part of the maxillary artery supplying the hard and soft palate.
The diaphysis is the main or midsection (shaft) of a long bone.
The diencephalon is a division of the forebrain (embryonic prosencephalon), and is situated between the telencephalon and the midbrain (embryonic mesencephalon).
The digastric muscle (also digastricus) (named digastric as it has two 'bellies') is a small muscle located under the jaw.
Diploë is the spongy cancellous bone separating the inner and outer layers of the cortical bone of the skull.
The diploic veins are large, thin-walled valveless veins that channel in the diploë between the inner and outer layers of the cortical bone in the skull.
The distal radioulnar articulation (inferior radioulnar joint) is a joint between the two bones in the forearm; the radius and ulna.
The dorsal cuneonavicular ligaments consist of fibrous bands that join the dorsal surface of the navicular bone to the dorsal surfaces of the three cuneiform bones.
In human anatomy, the dorsal interossei of the foot are four muscles situated between the metatarsal bones.
In human anatomy, the dorsal interossei (DI) are four muscles in the back of the hand that act to abduct (spread) the index, middle, and ring fingers away from hand's midline (ray of middle finger) and assist in flexion at the metacarpophalangeal joints and extension at the interphalangeal joints of the index, middle and ring fingers.
The dorsal lingual veins are veins which drain the tongue.
The dorsal nasal artery (nasal artery) is an artery of the head.
The dorsal nerve of the clitoris is a nerve in females that branches off the pudendal nerve to innervate the clitoris.
The dorsal nerve of the penis is the deepest division of the pudendal nerve; it accompanies the internal pudendal artery along the ramus of the ischium; it then runs forward along the margin of the inferior ramus of the pubis, between the superior and inferior layers of the fascia of the urogenital diaphragm.
The dorsal scapular nerve arises from the brachial plexus, usually from the plexus root (anterior/ventral ramus) of the cervical nerve C5.
The dorsal venous network of the hand is a network of veins in the superficial fascia on the dorsum of hand formed by the dorsal metacarpal veins.
In human anatomy, the dorsalis pedis artery (dorsal artery of foot), is a blood vessel of the lower limb that carries oxygenated blood to the dorsal surface of the foot.
The dorsum sellae is part of the sphenoid bone in the skull.
The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
The dural venous sinuses (also called dural sinuses, cerebral sinuses, or cranial sinuses) are venous channels found between the endosteal and meningeal layers of dura mater in the brain.
The ear is the organ of hearing and, in mammals, balance.
The ear canal (external acoustic meatus, external auditory meatus, EAM; meatus acusticus externus) is a tube running from the outer ear to the middle ear.
In the anatomy of humans and various other tetrapods, the eardrum, also called the tympanic membrane or myringa, is a thin, cone-shaped membrane that separates the external ear from the middle ear.
Eber Landau (November 8, 1878 – October 30, 1959) was a Baltic German-Swiss anatomist and histologist, born in Rēzekne, Latvia.
Edward Charles Spitzka (November 10, 1852 – January 13, 1914) was an eminent late-19th century alienist, neurologist, and anatomist.
The Edwin Smith Papyrus is an ancient Egyptian medical text, named after the dealer who bought it in 1862, and the oldest known surgical treatise on trauma.
Edwin Stephen Goodrich FRS (Weston-super-Mare, 21 June 1868 – Oxford, 6 January 1946), was an English zoologist, specialising in comparative anatomy, embryology, palaeontology, and evolution.
The ejaculatory ducts (ductus ejaculatorii) are paired structures in male anatomy.
The elbow is the visible joint between the upper and lower parts of the arm.
Eminence may refer to.
The emissary veins connect the extracranial venous system with the intracranial venous sinuses.
The endocardium is the innermost layer of tissue that lines the chambers of the heart.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
From the posterior wall of the saccule a canal, the endolymphatic duct, is given off; this duct is joined by the ductus utriculosaccularis, and then passes along the aquaeductus vestibuli and ends in a blind pouch (endolymphatic sac) on the posterior surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone, where it is in contact with the dura mater.
The endosteum (plural endostea) is a thin vascular membrane of connective tissue that lines the inner surface of the bony tissue that forms the medullary cavity of long bones.
An epicondyle is a rounded eminence on a bone that lies upon a condyle (epi-, "upon" + condyle, from a root meaning "knuckle" or "rounded articular area").
The epidermis is the outer layer of the three layers that make up the skin, the inner layers being the dermis and hypodermis.
The epididymis (plural: epididymides or) is a tube that connects a testicle to a vas deferens in the male reproductive system.
The epiglottis is a flap in the throat that keeps food from entering the windpipe and the lungs.
The epiphyseal plate (or epiphysial plate, physis, or growth plate) is a hyaline cartilage plate in the metaphysis at each end of a long bone.
The epiphysis is the rounded end of a long bone, at its joint with adjacent bone(s).
The epoophoron or epoöphoron (also called organ of Rosenmüller or the parovarium) is a remnant of the mesonephric tubules that can be found next to the ovary and fallopian tube.
The erector spinae or spinal erectors is a set of muscles that straighten and rotate the back.
In human anatomy, the esophageal hiatus is an opening in the diaphragm through which the esophagus and the vagus nerve pass.
The esophageal plexus is formed by nerve fibers from two sources, branches of the vagus nerve and visceral branches of the sympathetic trunk. The esophageal plexus and the cardiac plexus contain the same types of fibers and are both considered thoracic autonomic plexus(es).
The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.
The ethmoid bone (from Greek ethmos, "sieve") is an unpaired bone in the skull that separates the nasal cavity from the brain.
On the lateral wall of the middle meatus is a curved fissure, the hiatus semilunaris, limited below by the edge of the uncinate process of the ethmoid and above by an elevation named the ethmoid bulla (or ethmoidal bulla); the middle ethmoidal cells are contained within this bulla and open on or near to it.
The ethmoidal veins are the venae comitantes of the ethmoidal arteries.
The Eustachian tube, also known as the auditory tube or pharyngotympanic tube, is a tube that links the nasopharynx to the middle ear.
In human anatomy, extensor carpi radialis brevis (Beaver muscle) is a muscle in the forearm that acts to extend and abduct the wrist.
The extensor carpi radialis longus is one of the five main muscles that control movements at the wrist.
In human anatomy, the extensor carpi ulnaris is a skeletal muscle located on the ulnar side of the forearm.
The extensor digiti minimi (extensor digiti quinti proprius) is a slender muscle of the forearm, placed on the ulnar side of the extensor digitorum communis, with which it is generally connected.
The extensor digitorum brevis muscle (sometimes EDB) is a muscle on the upper surface of the foot that helps extend digits 1 through 4.
The extensor digitorum longus is a pennate muscle, situated at the lateral part of the front of the leg.
The extensor digitorum muscle (also known as extensor digitorum communis) is a muscle of the posterior forearm present in humans and other animals.
The extensor hallucis brevis is a muscle on the top of the foot that helps to extend the big toe.
The Extensor hallucis longus is a thin muscle, situated between the Tibialis anterior and the Extensor digitorum longus, that functions to extend the big toe and dorsiflex the foot, and assists with foot eversion and inversion.
In human anatomy, the extensor indicis is a narrow, elongated skeletal muscle in the deep layer of the dorsal forearm, placed medial to, and parallel with, the extensor pollicis longus.
In human anatomy, the extensor pollicis brevis is a skeletal muscle on the dorsal side of the forearm.
In human anatomy, the extensor pollicis longus muscle (EPL) is a skeletal muscle located dorsally on the forearm.
The external anal sphincter (or sphincter ani externus) is a flat plane of muscular fibers, elliptical in shape and intimately adherent to the skin surrounding the margin of the anus.
The external carotid artery is a major artery of the head and neck.
The external iliac arteries are two major arteries which bifurcate off the common iliac arteries anterior to the sacroiliac joint of the pelvis.
The external iliac veins are large veins that connect the femoral veins to the common iliac veins.
Unlike the other two intercostal muscles, the external intercostal muscle does not retain its muscular character all the way to the sternum, and so the tissue in this location is called the external intercostal membrane.
The external intercostal muscles, or external intercostals (Intercostales externi) are eleven in number on both sides.
The external jugular vein receives the greater part of the blood from the exterior of the cranium and the deep parts of the face, being formed by the junction of the posterior division of the retromandibular vein with the posterior auricular vein.
The external nasal nerve (or external nasal branches) are terminal branches of the anterior ethmoidal nerves (from the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve), and provide sensory innervation to the skin of the lower half of the nose and of the septum mobile nasi.
The external obturator muscle, obturator externus muscle (OE) is a flat, triangular muscle, which covers the outer surface of the anterior wall of the pelvis.
Near the middle of the squamous part of occipital bone is the external occipital protuberance, the highest point of which is referred to as the inion.
The external pudendal veins (deep pudendal & superficial pudendal) are veins of the pelvis which drain into the great saphenous vein.
The extraperitoneal space is the portion of the abdomen and pelvis which does not lie within peritoneum.
Eyes are organs of the visual system.
The eyebrow is an area of thick, delicate hairs above the eye that follows the shape of the lower margin of the brow ridges of some mammals.
An eyelash or simply lash is one of the hairs that grows at the edge of the eyelid.
An eyelid is a thin fold of skin that covers and protects the human eye.
The face is a central body region of sense and is also very central in the expression of emotion among humans and among numerous other species.
The facet joints, (or zygapophysial joints, zygapophyseal, apophyseal, or Z-joints) are a set of synovial, plane joints between the articular processes of two adjacent vertebrae.
The facial artery (external maxillary artery in older texts) is a branch of the external carotid artery that supplies structures of the superficial face.
The facial canal (Canalis nervi facialis)(also known as the Fallopian Canal – first described by Gabriele Falloppio-) is a Z-shaped canal running through the temporal bone from the internal acoustic meatus to the stylomastoid foramen.
The facial nerve is the seventh cranial nerve, or simply cranial nerve VII.
The facial skeleton comprises the facial bones that may attach to form a portion of the skull.
The facial vein (or anterior facial vein) is a relatively large vein in the human face.
The falciform ligament is a ligament that attaches the liver to the anterior (ventral) body wall, and separates the left lobe into lateral and medial segments.
The Fallopian tubes, also known as uterine tubes or salpinges (singular salpinx), are two very fine tubes lined with ciliated epithelia, leading from the ovaries of female mammals into the uterus, via the uterotubal junction.
The fascia lata is the deep fascia of the thigh.
The female reproductive system is made up of the internal and external sex organs that function in reproduction of new offspring.
The femoral artery is a large artery in the thigh and the main arterial supply to the leg.
In human anatomy of the leg, the femoral sheath has three compartments.
The femoral nerve is a nerve in the thigh that supplies skin on the upper thigh and inner leg, and the muscles that extend the knee.
The femoral ring is the base of the femoral canal.
The femoral triangle (or Scarpa's triangle) is an anatomical region of the upper third of the thigh.
In the human body, the femoral vein is a blood vessel that accompanies the femoral artery in the femoral sheath.
The femur (pl. femurs or femora) or thigh bone, is the most proximal (closest to the hip joint) bone of the leg in tetrapod vertebrates capable of walking or jumping, such as most land mammals, birds, many reptiles including lizards, and amphibians such as frogs.
Fibrous joints are connected by dense connective tissue, consisting mainly of collagen.
The fibula or calf bone is a leg bone located on the lateral side of the tibia, with which it is connected above and below.
In anatomy, the fibular artery (also known as the peroneal artery) supplies blood to the lateral compartment of the leg.
The fibular collateral ligament (long external lateral ligament or lateral collateral ligament, LCL) is a ligament located on the lateral (outer) side of the knee, and thus belongs to the extrinsic knee ligaments and posterolateral corner of the knee.
In anatomy, the fibular veins (also known as the peroneal veins) are accompanying veins (venae comitantes) of the fibular artery.
Flat bones are bones whose principal function is either extensive protection or the provision of broad surfaces for muscular attachment.
In anatomy, flexor carpi radialis is a muscle of the human forearm that acts to flex and (radial) abduct the hand.
The Flexor digiti minimi brevis (Flexor brevis minimi digiti, Flexor digiti quinti brevis) lies under the metatarsal bone on the little toe, and resembles one of the Interossei.
The flexor digiti minimi brevis is a hypothenar muscle in the hand that flexes the little finger (digit V) at the metacarpophalangeal joint.
The flexor digitorum brevis lies in the middle of the sole of the foot, immediately above the central part of the plantar aponeurosis, with which it is firmly united.
The flexor digitorum longus is situated on the tibial side of the leg.
The flexor digitorum profundus is a muscle in the forearm of humans that flexes the fingers (also known as digits).
Flexor digitorum superficialis (flexor digitorum sublimis) is an extrinsic flexor muscle of the fingers at the proximal interphalangeal joints.
The Flexor hallucis brevis is a muscle of the foot that flexes the big toe.
The flexor hallucis longus muscle (FHL) is one of the three deep muscles of the posterior compartment of the leg that attaches to the plantar surface of the distal phalanx of the great toe.
The flexor pollicis brevis is a muscle in the hand that flexes the thumb.
The flexor pollicis longus (FPL, Latin flexor, bender; pollicis, of the thumb; longus, long) is a muscle in the forearm and hand that flexes the thumb.
The flexor retinaculum (transverse carpal ligament, or anterior annular ligament) is a fibrous band on the palmar side of the hand near the wrist.
A fontanelle (or fontanel) (colloquially, soft spot) is an anatomical feature of the infant human skull comprising any of the soft membranous gaps (sutures) between the cranial bones that make up the calvaria of a fetus or an infant.
The foot (plural feet) is an anatomical structure found in many vertebrates.
The frontal crest of the frontal bone ends below in a small notch which is converted into a foramen, the foramen cecum (or foramen caecum), by articulation with the ethmoid.
The foramen lacerum (lacerated piercing) is a triangular hole in the base of skull, located between the sphenoid, the apex of the petrous temporal and the basilar part of the occipital.
The foramen magnum (great hole) is a large oval opening (foramen) in the occipital bone of the skull in humans and various other animals.
At the base of the skull, the foramen ovale (Latin: oval window) is one of the larger of the several holes (the foramina) that transmit nerves through the skull.
The foramen rotundum is a circular hole in the sphenoid bone that connects the middle cranial fossa and the pterygopalatine fossa.
The foramen spinosum is one of two foramina located in the base of the human skull, on the sphenoid bone.
The forearm is the region of the upper limb between the elbow and the wrist.
In human anatomy, the forehead is an area of the head bounded by three features, two of the skull and one of the scalp.
In male human anatomy, the foreskin is the double-layered fold of smooth muscle tissue, blood vessels, neurons, skin, and mucous membrane part of the penis that covers and protects the glans penis and the urinary meatus.
In anatomy, a fossa (plural fossae; from the Latin "fossa", ditch or trench) is a depression or hollow, usually in a bone, such as the hypophyseal fossa (the depression in the sphenoid bone).
The fovea centralis is a small, central pit composed of closely packed cones in the eye.
Friedrich Goll (March 1, 1829 – November 12, 1903) was a Swiss neuroanatomist born in Zofingen, a town located in the canton of Aargau.
The frontal bone is a bone in the human skull.
The frontal nerve is the largest branch of the ophthalmic nerve(V1), and may be regarded, both from its size and direction, as the continuation of the nerve.
The frontal sinuses are situated behind the brow ridges.
The frontal suture is a fibrous joint that divides the two halves of the frontal bone of the skull in infants and children.
The frontal vein (supratrochlear vein) begins on the forehead in a venous plexus which communicates with the frontal branches of the superficial temporal vein.
In vertebrates, the gallbladder is a small hollow organ where bile is stored and concentrated before it is released into the small intestine.
The pelvic portion of each sympathetic trunk is situated in front of the sacrum, medial to the anterior sacral foramina.
Gaspard Goyrand (1803-1866) was a French general practitioner, surgeon and politician from Aix-en-Provence.
The gastrocnemius muscle (plural gastrocnemii) is a superficial two-headed muscle that is in the back part of the lower leg of humans.
In anatomy, the gastroduodenal artery is a small blood vessel in the abdomen.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
The postero-inferior surface of the stomach is covered by peritoneum, except over a small area close to the cardiac orifice; this area is limited by the lines of attachment of the gastrophrenic ligament, and lies in apposition with the diaphragm, and frequently with the upper portion of the left suprarenal gland.
The gastrosplenic ligament (ligamentum gastrosplenicum or gastrolienal ligament) is part of the greater omentum.
The genioglossus is one of the paired extrinsic muscles of the tongue.
The geniohyoid muscle is a narrow muscle situated superior to the medial border of the mylohyoid muscle.
The genitofemoral nerve refers to a human nerve that is found in the abdomen.
Geoffrey Howard Bourne (17 November 1909 – 19 July 1988) was an Australian-American anatomist and primatologist.
George Gulliver (4 June 1804 – 17 November 1882), was an English anatomist and physiologist.
The glabella, in humans, is the skin between the eyebrows and above the nose.
The glans penis is the sensitive bulbous structure at the distal end of the human penis.
The glenoid cavity or glenoid fossa of scapulaThe word glenoid is pronounced or (both are common) and is from gléne, "socket", reflecting the shoulder joint's ball-and-socket form.
The glossopharyngeal nerve, known as the ninth cranial nerve (CN IX), is a mixed nerve that carries afferent sensory and efferent motor information.
The glottis is defined as the opening between the vocal folds (the rima glottidis).
The gluteus maximus (also known collectively with the gluteus medius and minimus, as the gluteal muscles, and sometimes referred to informally as the "glutes") is the main extensor muscle of the hip.
The gluteus medius one of the three gluteal muscles, is a broad, thick, radiating muscle, situated on the outer surface of the pelvis.
The gluteus minimus (or glutæus minimus), the smallest of the three gluteal muscles, is situated immediately beneath the gluteus medius.
The gracilis muscle (Latin for "slender") is the most superficial muscle on the medial side of the thigh.
The great auricular nerve (or greater auricular nerve) originates from the cervical plexus, composed of branches of spinal nerves C2 and C3.
The great cardiac vein (left coronary vein) begins at the apex of the heart and ascends along the anterior longitudinal sulcus to the base of the ventricles.
The great cerebral vein is one of the large blood vessels in the skull draining the cerebrum of the brain.
The great saphenous vein (GSV, alternately "long saphenous vein") is a large, subcutaneous, superficial vein of the leg.
The greater occipital nerve is a spinal nerve, specifically the medial branch of the dorsal primary ramus of cervical spinal nerve 2.
The greater omentum (also the great omentum, omentum majus, gastrocolic omentum, epiploon, or, especially in animals, caul) is a large apron-like fold of visceral peritoneum that hangs down from the stomach.
The greater palatine artery is a branch of the descending palatine artery (a terminal branch of the maxillary artery) and contributes to the blood supply of the hard palate and nasal septum.
The greater palatine canal (or pterygopalatine canal) is a passage in the skull that transmits the descending palatine artery, vein, and greater and lesser palatine nerves between the pterygopalatine fossa and the oral cavity.
At either posterior angle of the hard palate is the greater palatine foramen, for the transmission of the descending palatine vessels and greater palatine nerve; and running anteriorly (forward) and medially (towards the center-line) from it is a groove, for the same vessels and nerve.
The greater palatine nerve (anterior palatine nerve) is a branch of the pterygopalatine ganglion that carries both general sensory fibres from the maxillary nerve and parasympathetic fibers from the nerve of the pterygoid canal.
The greater (superficial) petrosal nerve (also known as the large superficial petrosal nerve) is a nerve in the skull that branches from the facial nerve; it forms part of a chain of nerves that innervate the lacrimal gland.
The greater sciatic foramen is an opening (foramen) in the posterior human pelvis.
The greater sciatic notch is a notch in the ilium, one of the bones that make up the human pelvis.
The greater trochanter (great trochanter) of the femur is a large, irregular, quadrilateral eminence and a part of the skeletal system.
The greater tubercle of the humerus is situated lateral to the head of the humerus and posterolateral to the lesser tubercle.
Gross anatomy (also called topographical anatomy) is the study of anatomy at the visible (macroscopic) level.
Gunther von Hagens (born Gunther Gerhard Liebchen; 10 January 1945) is a German anatomist who invented the technique for preserving biological tissue specimens called plastination.
Hair is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis.
The hamate bone or unciform bone (from Latin uncus, "hook") is a bone in the human wrist readily distinguishable by its wedge shape and a hook-like process ("hamulus") projecting from its palmar surface.
A hand is a prehensile, multi-fingered appendage located at the end of the forearm or forelimb of primates such as humans, chimpanzees, monkeys, and lemurs.
The hard palate is a thin horizontal bony plate of the skull, located in the roof of the mouth.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
The helicine arteries of penis are arteries in the penis.
The helicis major (or large muscle of helix) is an intrinsic muscle of the outer ear.
The Helicis minor (musculus helicis minor or smaller muscle of helix) is a small skeletal muscle.
The helicotrema (from Greek ἕλιξ meaning coil and τρη̂μα meaning hole) is the part of the cochlear labyrinth where the scala tympani and the scala vestibuli meet.
The hepatic artery proper (also proper hepatic artery), arises from the common hepatic artery and runs alongside the portal vein and the common bile duct to form the portal triad.
In human anatomy, the hepatic veins are the veins that drain de-oxygenated blood from the liver into the inferior vena cava.
The hepatoduodenal ligament is the portion of the lesser omentum extending between the porta hepatis of the liver and the superior part of the duodenum.
The hepatogastric ligament or gastrohepatic ligament connects the liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach.
The Hepatophrenic ligament is a ligament connecting the liver to the diaphragm.
A hinge joint (ginglymus) is a bone joint in which the articular surfaces are molded to each other in such a manner as to permit motion only in one plane.
In vertebrate anatomy, hip (or "coxa"Latin coxa was used by Celsus in the sense "hip", but by Pliny the Elder in the sense "hip bone" (Diab, p 77) in medical terminology) refers to either an anatomical region or a joint.
The hip bone (os coxa, innominate bone, pelvic bone or coxal bone) is a large flat bone, constricted in the center and expanded above and below.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.
The history of anatomy extends from the earliest examinations of sacrificial victims to the sophisticated analyses of the body performed by modern scientists.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
The human back is the large posterior area of the human body, rising from the top of the buttocks to the back of the neck and the shoulders.
The human body is the entire structure of a human being.
The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.
In human anatomy, the head is the upper portion of the human body.
The human leg, in the general meaning, is the entire lower limb of the human body, including the foot, thigh and even the hip or gluteal region.
In human anatomy, the mouth is the first portion of the alimentary canal that receives food and produces saliva.
The human nose is the protruding part of the face that bears the nostrils.
The human penis is an external male intromittent organ that additionally serves as the urinal duct.
The humeroradial joint is the joint between the head of the radius and the capitulum of the humerus, is a limited ball-and-socket joint, hinge type of synovial joint.
The humeroulnar joint (ulnohumeral or trochlear joint), is part of the elbow-joint.
The humerus (plural: humeri) is a long bone in the arm or forelimb that runs from the shoulder to the elbow.
The hymen is a membrane that surrounds or partially covers the external vaginal opening.
The hyoglossus, thin and quadrilateral, arises from the side of the body and from the whole length of the greater cornu of the hyoid bone, and passes almost vertically upward to enter the side of the tongue, between the styloglossus and the inferior longitudinal muscle of the tongue.
The hyoid bone (lingual bone or tongue-bone) is a horseshoe-shaped bone situated in the anterior midline of the neck between the chin and the thyroid cartilage.
The hypoglossal canal is a foramen in the occipital bone of the skull.
The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve, and innervates all the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of the tongue, except for the palatoglossus which is innervated by the vagus nerve.
The ileocolic artery is the lowest branch arising from the concavity of the superior mesenteric artery.
The ileocolic vein is a vein which drains the ileum, colon, and cecum.
The ileum is the final section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
The crest of the ilium (or iliac crest) is the superior border of the wing of ilium and the superolateral margin of the greater pelvis.
The iliacus is a flat, triangular muscle which fills the iliac fossa.
The iliocostalis is the muscle immediately lateral to the longissimus that is the nearest to the furrow that separates the epaxial muscles from the hypaxial.
The iliofemoral ligament is a ligament of the hip joint which extends from the ilium to the femur in front of the joint.
The iliohypogastric nerve is a nerve that originates from the lumbar plexus that supplies sensation to skin over the lateral gluteal region and motor to the internal and transverse abdominal muscles.
The ilioinguinal nerve is a branch of the first lumbar nerve (L1).
The iliolumbar artery is the first branch of the posterior trunk of the internal iliac artery.
The iliolumbar vein is the vena comitans of the iliolumbar artery.
The iliopsoas refers to the joined psoas and the iliacus muscles.
The iliotibial tract or iliotibial band (also known as Maissiat's band or IT Band) is a longitudinal fibrous reinforcement of the fascia lata.
The ilium (plural ilia) is the uppermost and largest part of the hip bone, and appears in most vertebrates including mammals and birds, but not bony fish.
In the opening of the incisive foramen, the orifices of two lateral canals are visible; they are named the incisive canals or foramina of Stensen.
In the human mouth, the incisive foramen, also called anterior palatine foramen, or nasopalatine foramen is a funnel-shaped opening in the bone of the oral hard palate immediately behind the incisor teeth where blood vessels and nerves pass.
Incisors (from Latin incidere, "to cut") are the front teeth present in most mammals.
The anvil or incus is a bone in the middle ear.
The inferior alveolar artery (inferior dental artery) is an artery of the face.
The inferior alveolar nerve (sometimes called the inferior dental nerve) is a branch of the mandibular nerve, which is itself the third branch of the trigeminal nerve.
The Inferior rectal nerves (inferior anal nerves, inferior hemorrhoidal nerve) usually branch from the pudendal nerve but occasionally arises directly from the sacral plexus; they cross the ischiorectal fossa along with the inferior rectal artery and veins, toward the anal canal and the lower end of the rectum, and is distributed to the Sphincter ani externus (external anal sphincter, EAS) and to the integument (skin) around the anus.
In human anatomy, inferior epigastric artery refers to the artery that arises from the external iliac artery and anastomoses with the superior epigastric artery.
In human anatomy, inferior epigastric vein refers to the vein that drains into the external iliac vein and anastomoses from the superior epigastric vein.
The inferior gemellus muscle is a muscle of the human body.
The inferior gluteal artery (sciatic artery), the smaller of the two terminal branches of the anterior trunk of the internal iliac artery, is distributed chiefly to the buttock and back of the thigh.
The inferior gluteal nerve is the main motor neuron that innervates the gluteus maximus muscle.
The inferior gluteal veins (sciatic veins), or venæ comitantes of the inferior gluteal artery, begin on the upper part of the back of the thigh, where they anastomose with the medial femoral circumflex and first perforating veins.
The inferior hypogastric plexus (pelvic plexus in some texts) is a plexus of nerves that supplies the viscera of the pelvic cavity.
The inferior laryngeal vein is a vein which drains the larynx.
The inferior longitudinal muscle of tongue is a narrow band situated on the under surface of the tongue between the genioglossus and hyoglossus.
In human anatomy, the inferior mesenteric artery, often abbreviated as IMA, is the third main branch of the abdominal aorta and arises at the level of L3, supplying the large intestine from the left colic (or splenic) flexure to the upper part of the rectum, which includes the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and part of the rectum.
The inferior mesenteric plexus is derived chiefly from the aortic plexus.
In human anatomy, the inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) is a blood vessel that drains blood from the large intestine.
The inferior nasal concha (inferior turbinated bone or inferior turbinal/turbinate) is one of the turbinates in the nose.
The inferior oblique muscle or obliquus oculi inferior is a thin, narrow muscle placed near the anterior margin of the floor of the orbit.
The inferior ophthalmic vein begins in a venous network at the forepart of the floor and medial wall of the orbit; it receives some vorticose veins and other veins from the inferior rectus muscle, inferior oblique muscle, lacrimal sac and eyelids, runs backward in the lower part of the orbit lying above the inferior rectus and divides into two branches.
The medial wall and the floor of the orbit are separated posteriorly by the inferior orbital fissure which transmits the zygomatic branch of the maxillary nerve and the ascending branches from the pterygopalatine ganglion.
The inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery branches from the superior mesenteric artery or from its first intestinal branch, opposite the upper border of the inferior part of the duodenum.
The inferior petrosal sinuses are two small sinuses situated on the inferior border of the petrous part of the temporal bone, one on each side.
The Inferior pharyngeal constrictor, the thickest of the three constrictors, arises from the sides of the cricoid and thyroid cartilage.
The inferior phrenic arteries are two small vessels, which supply the diaphragm but present much variety in their origin.
The Inferior Phrenic Veins drain the diaphragm and follow the course of the inferior phrenic arteries;.
The inferior rectal artery (inferior hemorrhoidal artery) is an artery that supplies blood to the lower half of the anal canal.
The lower part of the external hemorrhoidal plexus is drained by the inferior rectal veins (or inferior hemorrhoidal veins) into the internal pudendal vein.
The inferior rectus muscle is a muscle in the orbit.
The inferior sagittal sinus (also known as inferior longitudinal sinus), within the human head, is an area beneath the brain which allows blood to drain outwards posteriorly from the center of the head.
The inferior thyroid artery is an artery in the neck.
The inferior thyroid veins appear two, frequently three or four, in number, and arise in the venous plexus on the thyroid gland, communicating with the middle and superior thyroid veins.
The inferior vena cava (or IVC) is a large vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the lower and middle body into the right atrium of the heart.
The inferior vesical artery is an artery in the pelvis that supplies the lower part of the bladder.
The infraglenoid tubercle is the part of the scapula from which the long head of the triceps brachii originates.
The infraorbital artery is an artery in the head that branches off the maxillary artery, emerging through the infraorbital foramen, just under the orbit of the eye.
The infraorbital canal is a canal found at the base of the orbit that opens on to the maxilla.
In human anatomy, the infraorbital foramen is an opening in the maxillary bone of the skull located below the infraorbital margin of the orbit.
Not to be confused with the inferior orbital fissure, which is just lateral to the infraorbital groove. Also not to be confused with the infraorbital canal, into which the groove enters, nor the infraorbital foramen, which is the canal's opening on the other side. The infraorbital groove (or sulcus) is located in the middle of the posterior part of the orbital surface of the maxilla.
After the maxillary nerve enters the infraorbital canal, the nerve is frequently called the infraorbital nerve.
In human anatomy, the infraspinatus muscle is a thick triangular muscle, which occupies the chief part of the infraspinatous fossa.
The lower opening of the thorax is formed by the twelfth thoracic vertebra behind, by the eleventh and twelfth ribs at the sides, and in front by the cartilages of the tenth, ninth, eighth, and seventh ribs, which ascend on either side and form an angle, the infrasternal angle or subcostal angle, into the apex of which the xiphoid process projects.
The infratemporal fossa is an irregularly shaped cavity, situated below and medial to the zygomatic arch.
The infratrochlear nerve is given off from the nasociliary nerve just before it enters the anterior ethmoidal foramen.
The inguinal canals are the two passages in the anterior abdominal wall which in males convey the spermatic cords and in females the round ligament of uterus.
The inguinal ligament (Poupart's ligament or groin ligament) is a band running from the pubic tubercle to the anterior superior iliac spine.
In human anatomy, the inguinal triangle is a region of the abdominal wall.
The inner ear (internal ear, auris interna) is the innermost part of the vertebrate ear.
The innermost intercostal muscle is a layer of intercostal muscles deep to the plane that contains the intercostal nerves and intercostal vessels and the internal intercostal muscles.
The integumentary system comprises the skin and its appendages acting to protect the body from various kinds of damage, such as loss of water or abrasion from outside.
The interchondral articulations are the joints formed between the costal cartilages of the ribs.
The intercondylar fossa of femur (intercondyloid fossa of femur, intercondylar notch of femur) is a deep notch between the rear surfaces of the medial and lateral epicondyle of the femur, two protrusions on the distal end of the femur (thigh bone) that joins the knee.
The intercostal arteries are a group of arteries that supply the area between the ribs ("costae"), called the intercostal space.
The intercostal space (ICS) is the anatomic space between two ribs (Lat. costa).
The intercuneiform joints are the joints (articulations among) the cuneiform bones.
The intermediate nerve, nervus intermedius, nerve of Wrisberg or Glossopalatine nerve, is the part of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) located between the motor component of the facial nerve and the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII).
The intermetacarpal joints are in the hand formed between the metacarpal bones.
Intermetatarsal joints - The base of the first metatarsal is not connected with that of the second by any ligaments; in this respect the great toe resembles the thumb.
The internal carotid artery is a major paired artery, one on each side of the head and neck, in human anatomy.
The internal carotid plexus (internal carotid plexus) is situated on the lateral side of the internal carotid artery, and in the plexus there occasionally exists a small gangliform swelling, the carotid ganglion, on the under surface of the artery.
The internal iliac artery (formerly known as the hypogastric artery) is the main artery of the pelvis.
The internal iliac vein (hypogastric vein) begins near the upper part of the greater sciatic foramen, passes upward behind and slightly medial to the Internal iliac artery and, at the brim of the pelvis, joins with the external iliac vein to form the common iliac vein.
The internal intercostal muscles (intercostales interni) are a group of skeletal muscles located between the ribs.
The internal jugular vein is a paired jugular vein that collects blood from the brain and the superficial parts of the face and neck.
The internal obturator muscle or obturator internus muscle originates on the medial surface of the obturator membrane, the ischium near the membrane, and the rim of the pubis.
Along the internal surface of the occipital bone, at the point of intersection of the four divisions of the cruciform eminence is the internal occipital protuberance.
The internal pudendal artery is one of the three pudendal arteries that branches off the internal iliac artery, providing blood to the external genitalia.
The internal pudendal veins (internal pudic veins) are a set of veins in the pelvis.
In human anatomy, the internal thoracic artery (ITA), previously known as the internal mammary artery (a name still common among surgeons), is an artery that supplies the anterior chest wall and the breasts.
In human anatomy, the internal thoracic vein (previously known as the internal mammary vein) is a vessel that drains the chest wall and breasts.
The International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA) is an umbrella scientific organization of national and multinational Anatomy Associations, dedicated to anatomy and biomorphological sciences.
An interosseous membrane is a broad and thin plane of fibrous tissue that separates many of the bones of the body.
The interosseous membrane of the forearm (rarely middle or intermediate radioulnar joint) is a fibrous sheet that connects the interosseous margins of the radius and the ulna.
The interosseous membrane of the leg (middle tibiofibular ligament) extends between the interosseous crests of the tibia and fibula, helps stabilize the Tib-Fib relationship and separates the muscles on the front from those on the back of the leg.
The interphalangeal joints of the foot are between the phalanges (bones) of the toes.
The interphalangeal joints of the hand are the hinge joints between the phalanges of the fingers that provide flexion towards the palm of the hand.
The interspinales are short muscular fasciculi, placed in pairs between the spinous processes of the contiguous vertebrae, one on either side of the interspinal ligament.
The interspinous ligaments (interspinal ligaments) are thin and membranous ligaments, that connect adjoining spinous processes of the vertebra in the spine.
The intertransversarii are small muscles placed between the transverse processes of the vertebrae.
The intertransverse ligaments are ligaments that are placed between the transverse processes of the spine.
The intertrochanteric crest is a bony ridge located on the posterior side of the head of the femur, stretching obliquely downward and medially from the summit of the greater trochanter to the lesser trochanter.
The intertrochanteric line (or spiral line of the femurWhite (2005), p 256) is a line located on the anterior side of the proximal end of the femur.
An intervertebral disc (or intervertebral fibrocartilage) lies between adjacent vertebrae in the vertebral column.
The intervertebral foramen (also called neural foramen, and often abbreviated as IV foramen or IVF), is a foramen between two spinal vertebrae.
The intervertebral veins accompany the spinal nerves through the intervertebral foramina; they receive the veins from the medulla spinalis, drain the internal and external vertebral plexuses.
In humans and most mammals and birds, the iris (plural: irides or irises) is a thin, circular structure in the eye, responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupil and thus the amount of light reaching the retina.
The irregular bones are bones which, from their peculiar form, cannot be grouped as long, short, flat or sesamoid bones.
The ischioanal fossa (formerly called ischiorectal fossa) is the fat-filled wedge shaped space located lateral to the anal canal and inferior to the pelvic diaphragm.
The ischiocapsular ligament (ischiofemoral ligament, ischiocapsular band; ligament of Bertin) consists of a triangular band of strong fibers on the posterior side of the hip joint.
The ischium forms the lower and back part of the hip bone (os coxae).
The isthmus of the fauces or the oropharyngeal isthmus is a part of the oropharynx directly behind the mouth cavity, bounded superiorly by the soft palate, laterally by the palatoglossal arches, and inferiorly by the tongue.
James Dixon Boyd (29 September 1907 – 7 February 1968) was an Irish-American Professor of Anatomy, Cambridge University from 1951 until his death and a Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge.
Jean Baptiste Paulin Trolard (27 November 1842 in Sedan, Ardennes – 13 April 1910) was an anatomist known for his work on the anastomotic veins of the cerebral circulation.
Jeffrey Todd Laitman, Ph.D. (born October 13, 1951) is an American anatomist and physical anthropologist whose science has combined experimental, comparative, and paleontological studies to understand the development and evolution of the human upper respiratory and vocal tract regions.
The jejunum is the second part of the small intestine in humans and most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
Johann Conrad Brunner (16 January 1653 – 2 October 1727) was a Swiss anatomist, especially cited for his work on the pancreas and duodenum.
Johann Conrad Peyer (26 December 1653 – 29 February 1712) was a Swiss anatomist who was a native of Schaffhausen.
Johann Gottlieb Walter (1 July 1734 – 4 January 1818) was a German physician, specialising in human anatomy.
Johann Winter von Andernach (1505 – 4 October 1574) was a Renaissance physician, university professor, humanist, translator of ancient, mostly medical works, and writer of his own medical, philological and humanities works.
John Browne (1642–1702) was an English anatomist, surgeon and author.
John Hunter (13 February 1728 – 16 October 1793) was a Scottish surgeon, one of the most distinguished scientists and surgeons of his day.
A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the connection made between bones in the body which link the skeletal system into a functional whole.
Joseph Lieutaud (21 June 1703 – 6 December 1780) was a French physician.
Juan Valverde de Amusco (or "de Hamusco") (c. 1525-?) was born in the Crown of Castille in what is now Spain in about the year 1525 and studied medicine in Padua and Rome under Realdo Columbo and Bartolomeo Eustachi.
The jugular foramen is a large foramen (aperture) in the base of the skull.
In the lateral part of the occipital bone, extending lateralward from the posterior half of the condyle is a quadrilateral or triangular plate of bone, the jugular process, excavated in front by the jugular notch, which, in the articulated skull, forms the posterior part of the jugular foramen.
The upper surface of the lateral parts of occipital bone presents an oval eminence, the jugular tubercle, which overlies the hypoglossal canal and is sometimes crossed by an oblique groove for the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves.
Keith Leon Moore (born 5 October 1925 in Brantford, Ontario) is a professor emeritus in the division of anatomy, in the faculty of Surgery, at the University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
The knee joins the thigh with the leg and consists of two joints: one between the femur and tibia (tibiofemoral joint), and one between the femur and patella (patellofemoral joint).
The labia majora (singular: labium majus) are two prominent longitudinal cutaneous folds that extend downward and backward from the mons pubis to the perineum.
The labia minora, Latin for smaller lips, singular: labium minus "smaller lip", also known as the inner labia, inner lips, vaginal lips or nymphae, are two flaps of skin on either side of the human vaginal opening in the vulva, situated between the labia majora (the Latin for larger lips; also called outer labia, or outer lips).
The Labyrinth or Lateral Mass of the ethmoid bone consists of a number of thin-walled cellular cavities, the ethmoidal cells, arranged in three groups, anterior, middle, and posterior, and interposed between two vertical plates of bone; the lateral plate forms part of the orbit, the medial plate forms part of the nasal cavity.
The lacrimal apparatus is the physiological system containing the orbital structures for tear production and drainage.
The lacrimal artery is an artery that arises close to the optic foramen, and is one of the largest branches derived from the ophthalmic artery.
The lacrimal bone is the smallest and most fragile bone of the skull and face; it is roughly the size of the little fingernail.
The lacrimal canaliculi, (sing. canaliculus), also known as the lacrimal canals or lacrimal ducts, are the small channels in each eyelid that commence at minute orifices, termed puncta lacrimalia, on the summits of the papillae lacrimales, seen on the margins of the lids at the lateral extremity of the lacus lacrimalis.
The lacrimal caruncle, or caruncula lacrimalis, is the small, pink, globular nodule at the inner corner (the medial canthus) of the eye.
The lacrimal glands are paired, almond-shaped exocrine glands, one for each eye, that secrete the aqueous layer of the tear film.
The lacrimal lake is the pool of tears in the lower conjunctival cul-de-sac, which drains into the opening of the tear drainage system (the puncta lacrimalia).
The lacrimal nerve is the smallest of the three branches of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve.
At the basal angles of the lacus lacrimalis, on the margin of each eyelid, is a small conical elevation, the lacrimal papilla, the apex of which is pierced by a small orifice, the punctum lacrimale, the commencement of the lacrimal duct.
The lacrimal punctum (plural puncta) or lacrimal point, is a minute opening on the summits of the lacrimal papillae, seen on the margins of the eyelids at the lateral extremity of the lacrimal lake.
The lacrimal sac or lachrymal sac is the upper dilated end of the nasolacrimal duct, and is lodged in a deep groove formed by the lacrimal bone and frontal process of the maxilla.
Lactiferous ducts are those ducts that converge and form a branched system connecting the nipple to the lobules of the mammary gland.
Lambda, Λ, λ (uppercase Λ, lowercase λ; λάμ(β)δα lám(b)da) is the 11th letter of the Greek alphabet.
The lambdoid suture (or lambdoidal suture) is a dense, fibrous connective tissue joint on the posterior aspect of the skull that connects the parietal bones with the occipital bone.
Lanugo (from Latin lana "wool") is very thin, soft, usually unpigmented, downy hair that is sometimes found on the body of a fetal or new-born human.
The large intestine, also known as the large bowel or colon, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates.
The laryngeal cavity (cavity of the larynx) extends from the laryngeal inlet downwards to the lower border of the cricoid cartilage where it is continuous with that of the trachea.
The larynx, commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the top of the neck of tetrapods involved in breathing, producing sound, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration.
The lateral arcuate ligament (also lateral lumbocostal arch and external arcuate ligament) is a ligament under the diaphragm that arches across the upper part of the quadratus lumborum muscle.
The lateral collateral ligament of ankle joint (or external lateral ligament of the ankle-joint) are ligaments of the ankle which attach to the fibula.
The lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh (also called the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve) is a cutaneous nerve that innervates the skin on the lateral part of the thigh.
The lateral epicondyle of the humerus is a small, tuberculated eminence, curved a little forward, and giving attachment to the radial collateral ligament of the elbow joint, and to a tendon common to the origin of the supinator and some of the extensor muscles.
The lateral meniscus (external semilunar fibrocartilage) is a fibrocartilaginous band that spans the lateral side of the interior of the knee joint.
The lateral nerve (lateral anterior thoracic nerve) arises from the lateral cord of the brachial plexus, and through it from the fifth, sixth, and seventh cervical nerves.
The lateral plantar artery (external plantar artery), much larger than the medial, passes obliquely lateralward and forward to the base of the fifth metatarsal bone.
The lateral plantar nerve (external plantar nerve) is a branch of the tibial nerve, in turn a branch of the sciatic nerve and supplies the skin of the fifth toe and lateral half of the fourth, as well as most of the deep muscles, its distribution being similar to that of the ulnar nerve in the hand.
The lateral pterygoid or external pterygoid is a muscle of mastication with two heads.
The lateral rectus muscle is a muscle on the lateral side of the eyeball in the orbit.
The lateral sacral arteries arise from the posterior division of the internal iliac artery; there are usually two, a superior and an inferior.
The lateral sacral veins accompany the lateral sacral arteries on the anterior surface of the sacrum and end in the hypogastric vein.
The lateral sural cutaneous nerve (lateral cutaneous branch of the sural nerve) supplies the skin on the posterior and lateral surfaces of the leg.
In human anatomy, the lateral thoracic artery (or external mammary artery) is a blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the lateral structures of the thorax and breast.
The lateral thoracic vein (sometimes debatably referred to as the long thoracic vein) is a tributary of the axillary vein.
The lateral umbilical fold overlies the inferior epigastric artery (a branch of the external iliac artery) and its accompanying veins.
The latissimus dorsi is a large, flat muscle on the back that stretches to the sides, behind the arm, and is partly covered by the trapezius on the back near the midline.
The left colic artery is a branch of the inferior mesenteric artery that runs to the left behind the peritoneum and in front of the psoas major muscle, and after a short, but variable, course divides into an ascending and a descending branch; the stem of the artery or its branches cross the left ureter and left internal spermatic vessels.
The left colic vein drains the descending colon.
The left coronary artery (abbreviated LCA) is an artery that arises from the aorta above the left cusp of the aortic valve and feeds blood to the left side of the heart.
In human anatomy, the left gastric artery arises from the celiac artery and runs along the superior portion of the lesser curvature of the stomach.
The left gastric vein (or coronary vein) carries blood low in oxygen, tributaries derived from both surfaces of the stomach; it runs from right to left along the lesser curvature of the stomach, between the two layers of the lesser omentum, to the esophageal opening of the stomach, where it receives some esophageal veins.
The left gastroepiploic artery (or left gastro-omental artery), the largest branch of the splenic artery, runs from left to right about a finger’s breadth or more from the greater curvature of the stomach, between the layers of the greater omentum, and anastomoses with the right gastroepiploic (a branch of the right gastro-duodenal artery originating from the hepatic branch of the Coeliac trunk).
The left gastroepiploic vein (left gastro-omental vein) receives branches from the antero-superior and postero-inferior surfaces of the stomach and from the greater omentum; it runs from right to left along the greater curvature of the stomach and ends in the commencement of the splenic vein.
The left triangular ligament is a fold of some considerable size, which connects the posterior part of the upper surface of the left lobe of the liver to the diaphragm; its anterior layer is continuous with the left layer of the falciform ligament.
Lennart Olsson, born 1961, is a Swedish zoologist and embryologist, professor of comparative zoology at the Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
The lens is a transparent, biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the cornea, helps to refract light to be focused on the retina.
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.
The lesser occipital nerve or small occipital nerve is a cutaneous spinal nerve arising between the second and third cervical vertebrae, along with the greater occipital nerve.
The lesser omentum (small omentum or gastrohepatic omentum) is the double layer of peritoneum that extends from the liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach (hepatogastric ligament) and the first part of the duodenum (hepatoduodenal ligament).
The lesser palatine arteries go through the lesser palatine foramina, and supply the soft palate.
Behind the greater palatine foramen is the pyramidal process of the palatine bone, perforated by one or more lesser palatine foramina which carry the lesser palatine nerve, and marked by the commencement of a transverse ridge, for the attachment of the tendinous expansion of the Tensor veli palatini.
The lesser palatine nerve (posterior palatine nerve) is one of two palatine nerves that descends through the greater palatine canal, and emerges by the lesser palatine foramen.
The lesser petrosal nerve (also known as the small superficial petrosal nerve) is the General visceral efferent (GVE) component of the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX), carrying parasympathetic pre-ganglionic fibers from the tympanic plexus to the parotid gland.
The lesser sac, also known as the omental bursa, is the cavity in the abdomen that is formed by the lesser and greater omentum.
The lesser sciatic foramen is an opening (foramen) between the pelvis and the back of the thigh.
Below the ischial spine is a small notch, the lesser sciatic notch; it is smooth, coated in the recent state with cartilage, the surface of which presents two or three ridges corresponding to the subdivisions of the tendon of the Obturator internus, which winds over it.
The lesser trochanter (small trochanter) of the femur is a conical eminence, which varies in size in different subjects.
The lesser tubercle of the humerus, although smaller, is more prominent than the greater tubercle: it is situated in front, and is directed medially and anteriorly.
The levator anguli oris (caninus) is a facial muscle of the mouth arising from the canine fossa, immediately below the infraorbital foramen.
The levator ani is a broad, thin muscle, situated on either side of the pelvis.
The levator labii superioris (or quadratus labii superioris) is a muscle of the human body used in facial expression.
The levator labii superioris alaeque nasi muscle is, translated from Latin, the "lifter of both the upper lip and of the wing of the nose".
The levator palpebrae superioris (Latin for: elevating muscle of upper eyelid) is the muscle in the orbit that elevates the superior (upper) eyelid.
The levator scapulae is a skeletal muscle situated at the back and side of the neck.
The levator veli palatini is the elevator muscle of the soft palate in the human body.
The Levatores costarum, twelve in number on either side, are small tendinous and fleshy bundles, which arise from the ends of the transverse processes of the seventh cervical and upper eleven thoracic vertebrae They pass obliquely downward and laterally, like the fibers of the Intercostales externi, and each is inserted into the outer surface of the rib immediately below the vertebra from which it takes origin, between the tubercle and the angle (Levatores costarum breves).
In human anatomy, the ligament of the head of the femur (round ligament of the femur, ligamentum teres femoris, or the foveal ligament) is a ligament located in the hip.
The ligamenta flava (singular, ligamentum flavum, Latin for yellow ligament) are ligaments of the spine.
The white line (linea alba) is a fibrous structure that runs down the midline of the abdomen in humans and other vertebrates.
The linea aspera (rough line) is a ridge of roughened surface on the posterior surface of the shaft of the femur, to which are attached muscles and intermuscular septum.
The linea semilunaris (also semilunar line or Spigelian line) is a curved tendinous intersection found on either side of the rectus abdominis muscle.
The linea terminalis or innominate line consists of the pectineal line (pecten pubis), the arcuate line, the pubic crest, the sacral ala, and the sacral promontory.
The lingual artery arises from the external carotid between the superior thyroid artery and facial artery.
The lingual nerve is a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (CN V3), which supplies general sensory innervation (not the gustative one) to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue.
The lingual veins begin on the dorsum, sides, and under surface of the tongue, and, passing backward along the course of the lingual artery, end in the internal jugular vein.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
The long bones are those that are longer than they are wide.
The long posterior ciliary arteries are arteries of the head arising, together with the other ciliary arteries, from the ophthalmic artery.
The long thoracic nerve (external respiratory nerve of Bell; posterior thoracic nerve) supplies the serratus anterior muscle.
The longissimus (Latin for 'the longest one') is the muscle lateral to the semispinalis.
The longus capitis muscle (Latin for long muscle of the head, alternatively rectus capitis anticus major), is broad and thick above, narrow below, and arises by four tendinous slips, from the anterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth cervical vertebræ, and ascends, converging toward its fellow of the opposite side, to be inserted into the inferior surface of the basilar part of the occipital bone.
The Longus colli muscle (Latin for long muscle of the neck) is a muscle of the human body.
The lower subscapular nerve (alternatively, inferior subscapular nerve) is a nerve that supplies the lower part of the subscapularis muscle, and also supplies the teres major muscle.
Luigi Rolando (16 June 1773, Turin – 20 April 1831, Turin) was an Italian anatomist known for his pioneering research in brain localization of function.
The lumbar arteries are arteries located in the lower back or lumbar region.
The lumbar plexus is a web of nerves (a nervous plexus) in the lumbar region of the body which forms part of the larger lumbosacral plexus.
The lumbar splanchnic nerves are splanchnic nerves that arise from the lumbar part of the sympathetic trunk and travel to an adjacent plexus near the aorta.
The lumbar veins are veins running along the inside of the posterior abdominal wall.
The lumbosacral joint is a joint of the body, between the last lumbar vertebra and the first sacral segment of the vertebral column.
The lumbosacral trunk is nervous tissue that connects the lumbar plexus with the sacral plexus.
The lumbricals are four small skeletal muscles, accessory to the tendons of the flexor digitorum longus and numbered from the medial side of the foot; they arise from these tendons, as far back as their angles of division, each springing from two tendons, except the first.So the first lumbricle is unipenate and second, third and fourth are bipenate.
The lumbricals are intrinsic muscles of the hand that flex the metacarpophalangeal joints and extend the interphalangeal joints.
Lunate is a crescent or moon-shaped microlith.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.
The lymphatic system is part of the vascular system and an important part of the immune system, comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin, lympha meaning "water") directionally towards the heart.
The macula or macula lutea is an oval-shaped pigmented area near the center of the retina of the human eye and some other animalian eyes.
The male reproductive system consists of a number of sex organs that play a role in the process of human reproduction.
A malleolus is the bony prominence on each side of the human ankle.
The malleus or hammer is a hammer-shaped small bone or ossicle of the middle ear which connects with the incus and is attached to the inner surface of the eardrum.
A mammary gland is an exocrine gland in mammals that produces milk to feed young offspring.
The mandible, lower jaw or jawbone is the largest, strongest and lowest bone in the human face.
In human anatomy, the mandibular canal is a canal within the mandible that contains the inferior alveolar nerve, inferior alveolar artery, and inferior alveolar vein.
The mandibular foramen is an opening on the internal surface of the ramus of the mandible for divisions of the mandibular nerve and blood vessels to pass through.
The mandibular fossa is the depression in the temporal bone that articulates with the mandible.
The mandibular nerve (V3) is the largest of the three divisions of the trigeminal nerve, the fifth cranial nerve (CN V).
The upper border of the ramus of mandible is thin, and is surmounted by two processes, the coronoid process anteriorly and the condyloid process posteriorly, separated by a deep concavity, the mandibular notch, or sigmoid notch.
In human anatomy, the masseter is one of the muscles of mastication.
The masseteric artery is small and passes laterally through the mandibular notch to the deep surface of the masseter muscle, which it supplies.
The masseteric nerve passes laterally, above the pterygoideus externus, in front of the temporomandibular articulation, and behind the tendon of the temporalis; it crosses the mandibular notch with the masseteric artery, to the deep surface of the masseter, in which it ramifies nearly as far as its anterior border.
The mastoid antrum (tympanic antrum, antrum mastoideum, Valsalva's antrum) is an air space in the petrous portion of the temporal bone, communicating posteriorly with the mastoid cells and anteriorly with the epitympanic recess of the middle ear via the aditus to mastoid antrum (entrance to the mastoid antrum).
The mastoid foramen is a hole in the posterior border of the temporal bone.
The mastoid part of the temporal bone is the back part of the temporal bone.
Max Carl Anton Fürbringer (January 30, 1846 – March 6, 1920) was a German anatomist, known for his anatomical investigations of vertebrates and especially for his studies in ornithology on avian morphology and classification.
The maxilla (plural: maxillae) in animals is the upper jawbone formed from the fusion of two maxillary bones.
The maxillary artery supplies deep structures of the face.
The maxillary nerve (CN V2) is one of the three branches or divisions of the trigeminal nerve, the fifth (V) cranial nerve.
The pyramid-shaped maxillary sinus (or antrum of Highmore) is the largest of the paranasal sinuses, and drains into the middle meatus of the nose.
The maxillary veins (internal maxillary vein in older sources) consist of a short trunk which accompanies the first part of the internal maxillary artery.
The medial arcuate ligament (also medial lumbocostal arch and internal arcuate ligament) is a tendinous fascia that arches over the psoas major muscle as it passes through the diaphragm.
The medial collateral ligament (MCL), or tibial collateral ligament (TCL), is one of the four major ligaments of the knee.
The medial brachial cutaneous nerve (lesser internal cutaneous nerve; medial cutaneous nerve of arm) is distributed to the skin on the medial brachial side of the arm.
The medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve (internal cutaneous nerve, medial cutaneous nerve of forearm) arises from the medial cord of the brachial plexus.
The medial epicondyle of the humerus is an epicondyle of the humerus bone of the upper arm in humans.
The medial meniscus is a fibrocartilage semicircular band that spans the knee joint medially, located between the medial condyle of the femur and the medial condyle of the tibia.
The medial pectoral nerve (medial anterior thoracic) arises from the medial cord (sometimes directly from the anterior division of the inferior trunk) of the brachial plexus and through it from the eighth cervical and first thoracic roots.
The medial plantar artery (internal plantar artery), much smaller than the lateral plantar artery, passes forward along the medial side of the foot.
The medial plantar nerve (internal plantar nerve) is the larger of the two terminal divisions of the tibial nerve (medial and lateral plantar nerve), which accompanies the medial plantar artery.
The medial pterygoid (or internal pterygoid muscle), is a thick, quadrilateral muscle of mastication.
The medial rectus muscle is a muscle in the orbit.
The medial sural cutaneous nerve originates from the tibial nerve of the sciatic, descends between the two heads of the Gastrocnemius, and, about the middle of the back of the leg, pierces the deep fascia, and unites with the anastomotic ramus of the common peroneal to form the sural nerve.
The medial umbilical ligament (or cord of umbilical artery) is a paired structure found in human anatomy.
The median arcuate ligament is a ligament under the diaphragm that connects the right and left crura of diaphragm.
In human anatomy, the median cubital vein (or median basilic vein) is a superficial vein of the upper limb.
The median nerve is a nerve in humans and other animals in the upper limb.
The median sacral artery (or middle sacral artery) is a small vessel that arises posterior to the abdominal aorta and superior to its bifurcation.
The median sacral vein (or middle sacral veins) accompanies the corresponding artery along the front of the sacrum, and joins to form a single vein, which ends in the left common iliac vein; sometimes in the angle of junction of the two iliac veins.
The median umbilical ligament (or Xander's ligament is a structure in human anatomy. It is a shrivelled piece of tissue that represents the remnant of the embryonic urachus. It extends from the apex of the bladder to the umbilicus, on the deep surface of the anterior abdominal wall. It is unpaired. It is covered by the median umbilical fold Lateral to this structure are the medial umbilical ligament (which is a different structure, not to be confused) and the lateral umbilical ligament.
The medullary cavity (medulla, innermost part) is the central cavity of bone shafts where red bone marrow and/or yellow bone marrow (adipose tissue) is stored; hence, the medullary cavity is also known as the marrow cavity.
The Meibomian glands (often written with a small m, and also called tarsal glands) are a holocrine type of exocrine glands, at the rim of the eyelids inside the tarsal plate, responsible for the supply of meibum, an oily substance that prevents evaporation of the eye's tear film.
The membranous labyrinth is a collection of fluid filled tubes and chambers which contain the receptors for the senses of equilibrium and hearing.
The meninges (singular: meninx, from membrane, adjectival: meningeal) are the three membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord.
A meniscus is a crescent-shaped fibrocartilaginous anatomical structure that, in contrast to an articular disk, only partly divides a joint cavity.
The mental foramen is one of two foramina (openings) located on the anterior surface of the mandible.
Mental nerve is a sensory nerve which provides sensation to the front of the chin and lower lip as well as the labial gingivae of the mandibular anterior teeth and the premolars.
The symphysis of the external surface of the mandible divides below and encloses a triangular eminence, the mental protuberance, the base of which is depressed in the center but raised on either side to form the mental tubercle.
The mandibular symphysis divides below and encloses a triangular eminence, the mental protuberance, the base of which is depressed in the center but raised on either side to form the mental tubercle.
The mentalis is a paired central muscle of the lower lip, situated at the tip of the chin.
The mesentery is a continuous set of tissues that attaches the intestines to the abdominal wall in humans and is formed by the double fold of peritoneum.
The mesometrium is the mesentery of the uterus.
The mesosalpinx is part of the lining of the abdominal cavity in higher vertebrates, specifically the portion of the broad ligament that stretches from the ovary to the level of the uterine tube.
The mesovarium is the portion of the broad ligament of the uterus that suspends the ovaries.
In human anatomy, the metacarpal bones or metacarpus, form the intermediate part of the skeletal hand located between the phalanges of the fingers and the carpal bones of the wrist which forms the connection to the forearm.
The metacarpophalangeal joints (MCP) are situated between the metacarpal bones and the proximal phalanges of the digits.
The metaphysis is the narrow portion of a long bone between the epiphysis and the diaphysis.
The metatarsal bones, or metatarsus are a group of five long bones in the foot, located between the tarsal bones of the hind- and mid-foot and the phalanges of the toes.
The metatarsophalangeal joints (MTP joints) are the joints between the metatarsal bones of the foot and the proximal bones (proximal phalanges) of the toes.
A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.
The midcarpal joint is formed by the scaphoid, lunate, and triquetral bones in the proximal row, and the trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate bones in the distal row.
The middle cardiac vein commences at the apex of the heart; ascends in the posterior longitudinal sulcus, and ends in the coronary sinus near its right extremity.
The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is one of the three major paired arteries that supply blood to the cerebrum.
The middle cervical ganglion is the smallest of the three cervical ganglia, and is occasionally absent.
The middle colic artery is a branch of the superior mesenteric artery that mostly supplies the transverse colon.
The middle colic vein drains the transverse colon.
The middle cranial fossa, deeper than the anterior cranial fossa, is narrow medially and widens laterally to the sides of the skull.
The middle ear is the portion of the ear internal to the eardrum, and external to the oval window of the inner ear.
The middle meningeal artery (arteria meningea media) is typically the third branch of the first part (retromandibular part) of the maxillary artery, one of the two terminal branches of the external carotid artery.
The middle pharyngeal constrictor is a fanshaped muscle located in the neck.
The middle rectal artery is an artery in the pelvis that supplies blood to the rectum.
The middle rectal veins (or middle hemorrhoidal vein) take origin in the hemorrhoidal plexus and receive tributaries from the bladder, prostate, and seminal vesicle.
The middle suprarenal arteries (middle capsular arteries; suprarenal arteries) are two small vessels which arise, one from either side of the abdominal aorta, opposite the superior mesenteric artery.
The middle temporal artery arises immediately above the zygomatic arch, and, perforating the temporal fascia, gives branches to the Temporalis, anastomosing with the deep temporal branches of the internal maxillary.
The middle thyroid vein (vena thyreoidea media) collects the blood from the lower part of the thyroid gland, and after being joined by some veins from the larynx and trachea, ends in the lower part of the internal jugular vein.
The mitral valve, also known as the bicuspid valve or left atrioventricular valve, is a valve with two flaps in the heart, that lies between the left atrium and the left ventricle.
In facial anatomy, the modiolus is a chiasma of facial muscles held together by fibrous tissue, located lateral and slightly superior to each angle of the mouth.
Glands of Moll, also known as ciliary glands, are modified apocrine sweat glands that are found on the margin of the eyelid.
In human anatomy, and in mammals in general, the mons pubis (pubic mound, also known simply as the mons, and known specifically in females as the mons Venus or mons veneris), is a rounded mass of fatty tissue found over the pubic symphysis of the pubic bones.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
In animal anatomy, the mouth, also known as the oral cavity, buccal cavity, or in Latin cavum oris, is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds.
The Multifidus (multifidus spinae: pl. Multifidi) muscle consists of a number of fleshy and tendinous fasciculi, which fill up the groove on either side of the spinous processes of the vertebrae, from the sacrum to the axis.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
The musculocutaneous nerve arises from the lateral cord of the brachial plexus, opposite the lower border of the pectoralis major, its fibers being derived from C5, C6 and C7.
The margin of the mandibular foramen is irregular; it presents in front a prominent ridge, surmounted by a sharp spine, the lingula mandibulæ, which gives attachment to the sphenomandibular ligament; at its lower and back part is a notch from which the mylohyoid groove runs obliquely downward and forward, and lodges the mylohyoid vessels and nerve.
The mylohyoid line is a line on the inside of the mandible.
The mylohyoid muscle is a paired muscle running from the mandible to the hyoid bone, forming the floor of the oral cavity of the mouth.
The mylohyoid nerve (or nerve to mylohyoid) is a nerve that innervates the mylohyoid muscle and the anterior belly of the digastric muscle.
A nail is a horn-like envelope covering the tips of the fingers and toes in most primates and a few other mammals.
The nasal bones are two small oblong bones, varying in size and form in different individuals; they are placed side by side at the middle and upper part of the face, and form, by their junction, "the bridge" of the nose.
The nasal cavity (nasal fossa, or nasal passage) is a large air filled space above and behind the nose in the middle of the face.
A nasal meatus is a nasal passage of the nasal cavity, of which there are three; the superior meatus, middle meatus and inferior meatus.
The nasal septum separates the left and right airways in the nose, dividing the two nostrils.
The nasalis is a sphincter-like muscle of the nose whose function is to compress the nasal cartilages.
The nasion is the intersection of the frontal bone and two nasal bones of the human skull.
The nasociliary nerve is a branch of the ophthalmic nerve (CN V1; one of three branches of the trigeminal nerve a.k.a. CN V).
The nasofrontal vein is a vein in the eye which drains to the superior ophthalmic vein.
The canal containing the nasolacrimal duct is called the nasolacrimal canal.
The nasolacrimal duct (sometimes called the tear duct) carries tears from the lacrimal sac of the eye into the nasal cavity.
One branch of the pterygopalatine ganglion (trigeminal nerve, maxillary branch), longer and larger than the others, is named the nasopalatine nerve (sometimes called the long sphenopalatine nerve).
The navicular bone is a small bone found in the feet of most mammals.
The cavernous portion of the urethra is narrow, and of uniform size in the body of the penis, measuring about 6 mm in diameter; it is dilated behind, within the bulb, and again anteriorly within the glans penis, where it forms the fossa navicularis urethrae.
The neck is the part of the body, on many vertebrates, that separates the head from the torso.
The nephron (from Greek νεφρός – nephros, meaning "kidney") is the microscopic structural and functional unit of the kidney.
The nerve of the pterygoid canal (Vidian nerve) is formed by the junction of the greater petrosal nerve and the deep petrosal nerve within the pterygoid canal containing the cartilaginous substance, which fills the foramen lacerum.
The nerve to quadratus femoris is a nerve that provides innervation to the quadratus femoris and gemellus inferior muscles.
In human anatomy, the neurocranium, also known as the braincase, brainpan, or brain-pan is the upper and back part of the skull, which forms a protective case around the brain.
The nipple is a raised region of tissue on the surface of the breast from which milk leaves the breast through the lactiferous ducts.
A nose is a protuberance in vertebrates that houses the nostrils, or nares, which receive and expel air for respiration alongside the mouth.
The nuchal ligament is a ligament at the back of the neck that is continuous with the supraspinous ligament.
The nuchal lines are four curved lines on the external surface of the occipital bone.
All bones possess larger or smaller foramina (openings) for the entrance of blood-vessels; these are known as the nutrient foramina, and are particularly large in the shafts of the larger long bones, where they lead into a nutrient canal, which extends into the medullary cavity.
The oblique muscle of auricle (oblique auricular muscle or Tod muscle) is an intrinsic muscle of the outer ear.
The oblique popliteal ligament (posterior ligament) is a broad, flat, fibrous band, formed of fasciculi separated from one another by apertures for the passage of vessels and nerves.
The oblique vein of the left atrium (oblique vein of Marshall) is a small vessel which descends obliquely on the back of the left atrium and ends in the coronary sinus near its left extremity; it is continuous above with the ligament of the left vena cava (lig. venæ cavæ sinistræ vestigial fold of Marshall), and the two structures form the remnant of the left Cuvierian duct.
The obliquus capitis inferior muscle is the larger of the two oblique muscles of the neck.
The obliquus capitis superior muscle is a small muscle in the upper back part of the neck and is one of the suboccipital muscles and part of the suboccipital triangle.
The obturator artery is a branch of the internal iliac artery that passes antero-inferiorly (forwards and downwards) on the lateral wall of the pelvis, to the upper part of the obturator foramen, and, escaping from the pelvic cavity through the obturator canal, it divides into both an anterior and a posterior branch.
The obturator canal is a passageway formed in the obturator foramen by part of the obturator membrane.
The obturator foramen (Latin foramen obturatum) is the large opening created by the ischium and pubis bones of the pelvis through which nerves and blood vessels pass.
The nerve to obturator internus is a nerve that innervates the obturator internus and gemellus superior muscles.
The obturator nerve in human anatomy arises from the ventral divisions of the second, third, and fourth lumbar nerves in the lumbar plexus; the branch from the third is the largest, while that from the second is often very small.
The obturator vein begins in the upper portion of the adductor region of the thigh and enters the pelvis through the upper part of the obturator foramen, in the obturator canal.
The occipital artery arises from the external carotid artery opposite the facial artery.
The occipital bone is a cranial dermal bone, and is the main bone of the occiput (back and lower part of the skull).
The occipital condyles are undersurface protuberances of the occipital bone in vertebrates, which function in articulation with the superior facets of the atlas vertebra.
The occipital sinus is the smallest of the cranial sinuses.
The occipital vein begins as a plexus at the posterior aspect of the scalp from the external occipital protuberance and superior nuchal line to the back part of the vertex of the skull.
The occipitofrontalis muscle (epicranius muscle) is a muscle which covers parts of the skull.
The oculomotor nerve is the third cranial nerve.
Olaus Rudbeck (also known as Olof Rudbeck the Elder, to distinguish him from his son, and occasionally with the surname Latinized as Olaus Rudbeckius) (12 December 1630 – 17 September 1702) was a Swedish scientist and writer, professor of medicine at Uppsala University and for several periods rector magnificus of the same university.
The olecranon from the Greek olene meaning elbow and kranon meaning head is the large, thick, curved bony eminence of the ulna, a long bone in the forearm that projects behind the elbow.
The olecranon fossa is a deep triangular depression on the posterior side of the humerus, superior to the trochlea, in which the summit of the olecranon is received during extension of the forearm.
The olfactory nerve is typically considered the first cranial nerve, or simply CN I, that contains sensory nerve fibers relating to smell.
The omohyoid muscle is a muscle that depresses the hyoid.
The ophthalmic artery (OA) is the first branch of the internal carotid artery distal to the cavernous sinus.
The ophthalmic nerve (first division of fifth cranial nerve, ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve, first division of trigeminal nerve, CN V1, latin: nervus ophthalmicus) is the first branch of the trigeminal nerve.
The opponens digiti minimi (opponens digiti quinti in older texts) is a muscle in the hand.
The opponens pollicis is a small, triangular muscle in the hand, which functions to oppose the thumb.
The optic foramen is the opening to the optic canal. The canal is located in the sphenoid bone; it is bounded medially by the body of the sphenoid and laterally by the lesser wing of the sphenoid. The superior surface of the sphenoid bone is bounded behind by a ridge, which forms the anterior border of a narrow, transverse groove, the chiasmatic groove (optic groove), above and behind which lies the optic chiasma; the groove ends on either side in the optic foramen, which transmits the optic nerve and ophthalmic artery (with accompanying sympathetic nerve fibres) into the orbital cavity. Compared to the optic nerve, the ophthalmic artery is located inferolaterally within the canal. The left and right optic canals are 25mm apart posteriorly and 30mm apart anteriorly. The canals themselves are funnel-shaped (narrowest anteriorly).
The optic disc or optic nerve head is the point of exit for ganglion cell axons leaving the eye.
The optic nerve, also known as cranial nerve II, is a paired nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain.
The ora serrata is the serrated junction between the retina and the ciliary body.
The orbicularis oculi is a muscle in the face that closes the eyelids.
In human anatomy, the orbicularis oris muscle is a complex of muscles in the lips that encircles the mouth.
In anatomy, the orbit is the cavity or socket of the skull in which the eye and its appendages are situated.
The orbitalis muscle is a vestigial or rudimentary nonstriated muscle (smooth muscle) that crosses from the infraorbital groove and sphenomaxillary fissure and is intimately united with the periosteum of the orbit.
The organ of Corti, or spiral organ, is the receptor organ for hearing and is located in the mammalian cochlea.
The ossicles (also called auditory ossicles) are three bones in either middle ear that are among the smallest bones in the human body.
The first step in ossification of the cartilage is that the cartilage cells, at the point where ossification is commencing and which is termed as an ossification center, enlarge and arrange themselves in rows.
The otic ganglion is a small parasympathetic ganglion located immediately below the foramen ovale in the infratemporal fossa and on the medial surface of the mandibular nerve.
The outer ear, external ear, or auris externa is the external portion of the ear, which consists of the auricle (also pinna) and the ear canal.
An outline, also called a hierarchical outline, is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships and is a type of tree structure.
Biology – The natural science that involves the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to health: Health – functional and metabolic efficiency of an organism.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to health sciences: Health sciences – are applied sciences that address the use of science, technology, engineering or mathematics in the delivery of healthcare to human beings.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to medicine: Medicine – science of healing.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the human nervous system: Human nervous system – the part of the human body that coordinates a person's voluntary and involuntary actions and transmits signals between different parts of the body.
The oval window (or fenestra vestibuli) is a membrane-covered opening that leads from the middle ear to the vestibule of the inner ear.
The ovarian artery is an artery that supplies oxygenated blood to the ovary in females.
The ovarian ligament (also called the utero-ovarian ligament or proper ovarian ligament) is a fibrous ligament that connects the ovary to the lateral surface of the uterus.
The ovarian vein, the female gonadal vein, carries deoxygenated blood from its corresponding ovary to inferior vena cava or one of its tributaries.
The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.
The palatine bones are two irregular bones of the facial skeleton in many animal species.
The palatine uvula, usually referred to as simply the uvula, is a conic projection from the posterior edge of the middle of the soft palate, composed of connective tissue containing a number of racemose glands, and some muscular fibers (musculus uvulae).
The palatoglossus, glossopalatinus, or palatoglossal muscle is a small fleshy fasciculus, narrower in the middle than at either end, forming, with the mucous membrane covering its surface, the glossopalatine arch.
The palatopharyngeus (palatopharyngeal or pharyngopalatinus) muscle is a small muscle in the roof of the mouth.
In human anatomy, the palmar or volar interossei (interossei volares in older literature) are three small, unipennate muscles in the hand that lie between the metacarpal bones and are attached to the index, ring, and little fingers.
Palmaris brevis is a thin, quadrilateral muscle, placed beneath the integument of the ulnar side of the hand.
The palmaris longus is a muscle visible as a small tendon between the flexor carpi radialis and the flexor carpi ulnaris, although it is not always present.
The palpebral fissure is the elliptic space between the medial and lateral canthi of the two open lids.
The pampiniform plexus (from Latin pampinus, a tendril, + forma, form) is a network of many small veins found in the human male spermatic cord and to a lesser extent the suspensory ligament of the ovary.
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
The pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans are the regions of the pancreas that contain its endocrine (hormone-producing) cells, discovered in 1869 by German pathological anatomist Paul Langerhans.
The paracolic gutters (paracolic sulci, paracolic recesses) are spaces between the colon and the abdominal wall.
The term paradidymis (organ of Giraldés) is applied to a small collection of convoluted tubules, situated in front of the lower part of the spermatic cord, above the head of the epididymis.
Paranasal sinuses are a group of four paired air-filled spaces that surround the nasal cavity.
In the course of the round ligament of liver, small veins (paraumbilical) are found which establish an anastomosis between the veins of the anterior abdominal wall and the hepatic portal, hypogastric, and iliac veins.
The parietal bones are two bones in the human skull which, when joined together at a fibrous joint, form the sides and roof of the cranium.
The paroophoron (of Johnson) consists of a few scattered rudimentary tubules, best seen in the child, situated in the broad ligament between the epoöphoron and the uterus.
The parotid gland is a major salivary gland in many animals.
The patella, also known as the kneecap, is a thick, circular-triangular bone which articulates with the femur (thigh bone) and covers and protects the anterior articular surface of the knee joint.
The patellar ligament is the distal portion of the common tendon of the quadriceps femoris, which is continued from the patella to the tibial tuberosity.
Dame Patricia Rose Bergquist (née Smyth, 10 March 1933 – 9 September 2009) was a New Zealand scientist who specialised in anatomy and taxonomy.
On the posterior surface of the femur, the intermediate ridge or pectineal line is continued to the base of the lesser trochanter and gives attachment to the pectineus muscle.
The pectineal line of the pubis (also pecten pubis) is a ridge on the superior ramus of the pubic bone.
The pectineus muscle (from the Latin word pecten, meaning comb) is a flat, quadrangular muscle, situated at the anterior (front) part of the upper and medial (inner) aspect of the thigh.
The pectoralis major is a thick, fan-shaped muscle, situated at the chest (anterior) of the human body.
The pectoralis minor is a thin, triangular muscle, situated at the upper part of the chest, beneath the pectoralis major in the human body.
The pelvic cavity is a body cavity that is bounded by the bones of the pelvis.
The pelvic floor or pelvic diaphragm is composed of muscle fibers of the levator ani, the coccygeus muscle, and associated connective tissue which span the area underneath the pelvis.
The pelvic inlet or superior aperture of the pelvis is a planar surface which defines the boundary between the pelvic cavity and the abdominal cavity (or, according to some authors, between two parts of the pelvic cavity, called lesser pelvis and greater pelvis).
The lower circumference of the lesser pelvis is very irregular; the space enclosed by it is named the inferior aperture or pelvic outlet.
Pelvic splanchnic nerves or nervi erigentes are splanchnic nerves that arise from sacral spinal nerves S2, S3, S4 to provide parasympathetic innervation to the hindgut.
The pelvis (plural pelves or pelvises) is either the lower part of the trunk of the human body between the abdomen and the thighs (sometimes also called pelvic region of the trunk) or the skeleton embedded in it (sometimes also called bony pelvis, or pelvic skeleton).
The perforating cutaneous nerve is a cutaneous nerve that supplies skin over the gluteus maximus muscle.
The pericardiacophrenic artery is a long slender branch of the internal thoracic artery.
There are two pericardial sinuses: transverse and oblique.
The pericardium is a double-walled sac containing the heart and the roots of the great vessels.
The perichondrium (from Greek περί (peri 'around') and χόνδρος (chondros 'cartilage')) is a layer of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the cartilage of developing bone.
Perilymph is an extracellular fluid located within the inner ear.
The perineal artery (superficial perineal artery) arises from the internal pudendal artery, and turns upward, crossing either over or under the superficial transverse perineal muscle, and runs forward, parallel to the pubic arch, in the interspace between the bulbocavernosus and ischiocavernosus muscles, both of which it supplies, and finally divides into several posterior scrotal branches which are distributed to the skin and dartos tunic of the scrotum.
The perineal nerve is a nerve arising from the pudendal nerve that supplies the perineum.
The perineum is the space between the anus and scrotum in the male and between the anus and the vulva in the female.
The periosteum is a membrane that covers the outer surface of all bones, except at the joints of long bones.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
The peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity or coelom in amniotes and some invertebrates, such as annelids.
The peroneus brevis muscle (or fibularis brevis) lies under cover of the peroneus longus, and is the shorter and smaller of the peroneus muscles.
In human anatomy, the peroneus longus (also known as fibularis longus) is a superficial muscle in the lateral compartment of the leg, and acts to evert and plantarflex the ankle.
The peroneus tertius (also known as fibularis tertius) is a muscle of the human body located in the lower limb.
This grooved surface of the foramen magnum is separated on either side from the petrous portion of the temporal bone by the petro-occipital fissure, which is occupied in the fresh state by a plate of cartilage; the fissure is continuous behind with the jugular foramen, and its margins are grooved for the inferior petrosal sinus.
The petrosquamous sinus, is a fetal vein that generally disappears by birth and, when present, runs backward along the junction of the squama and petrous portion of the temporal, and opens into the transverse sinus.
The petrotympanic fissure (also known as the squamotympanic fissure or the glaserian fissure) is a fissure in the temporal bone that runs from the temporomandibular joint to the tympanic cavity.
The phalanges (singular: phalanx) are digital bones in the hands and feet of most vertebrates.
The pharyngeal muscles are a group of muscles that form the pharynx, determining the shape of its lumen, and affecting its sound properties as the primary resonating cavity posterior to the oral cavity.
The pharyngeal nerve is a small branch arising from the posterior part of the pterygopalatine ganglion.
The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.
Philipp Bozzini (May 25, 1773 – April 4, 1809) was born in Mainz, Germany.
The phrenic nerve is a nerve that originates in the neck (C3-C5) and passes down between the lung and heart to reach the diaphragm.
A fold of peritoneum, the phrenicocolic ligament is continued from the left colic flexure to the thoracic diaphragm opposite the tenth and eleventh ribs; it passes below and serves to support the spleen, and therefore has received the name of sustentaculum lienis.
The phrenosplenic ligament (lienophrenic ligament or phrenicolienal ligament) is a double fold of peritoneum that connects the thoracic diaphragm and spleen.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
The pineal gland, also known as the conarium, kônarion or epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain.
The piriformis is a muscle in the gluteal region of the lower limb.
The nerve to piriformis is the peripheral nerve that innervates the piriformis muscle.
The pisiform bone, also spelled pisiforme (from the Latin pisifomis, pea-shaped), is a small knobbly, pea-shaped bone that is found in the wrist.
The pisiform joint is a joint between the pisiform and triquetrum.
The pisohamate ligament is a ligament in the hand.
The pisometacarpal ligament joins the pisiform to the base of the fifth metacarpal bone.
An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.
In animal anatomy, a pivot joint (trochoid joint, rotary joint, lateral ginglymus) is a type of synovial joint.
A plane joint (arthrodial joint, gliding joint, plane articulation) is a synovial joint which, under physiological conditions, allows only gliding movement.
The plantar calcaneonavicular ligament (also known as the spring ligament or spring ligament complex) is a complex of three ligaments on the underside of the foot that connect the calcaneus with the navicular bone.
In human anatomy, plantar interossei muscles are three muscles located between the metatarsal bones in the foot.
The plantaris is one of the superficial muscles of the superficial posterior compartment of the leg, one of the fascial compartments of the leg.
The platysma is a superficial muscle that overlaps the sternocleidomastoid.
The popliteal artery is a deeply placed continuation of the femoral artery after it passes through the adductor hiatus, or opening in the distal portion of the adductor magnus muscle.
The popliteal vein is formed by the junction of the venae comitantes of the anterior and posterior tibial vein at the lower border of the popliteus muscle on the medial side of the popliteal artery.
The popliteus muscle in the leg is used for unlocking the knees when walking, by laterally rotating the femur on the tibia during the closed chain portion of the gait cycle (one with the foot in contact with the ground).
The portal vein or hepatic portal vein is a blood vessel that carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder, pancreas and spleen to the liver.
The posterior auricular artery is a small artery that arises from the external carotid artery, above the digastric muscle and stylohyoid muscle, opposite the apex of the styloid process.
The posterior auricular muscle consists of two or three fleshy fasciculi, which arise from the mastoid portion of the temporal bone by short aponeurotic fibers.
The posterior auricular nerve arises from the facial nerve close to the stylomastoid foramen and runs upward in front of the mastoid process; here it is joined by a filament from the auricular branch of the vagus and communicates with the posterior branch of the great auricular as well as with the lesser occipital.
The posterior auricular vein begins upon the side of the head, in a plexus which communicates with the tributaries of the occipital vein and superficial temporal veins.
The posterior cerebral artery (PCA) is one of a pair of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the posterior aspect of the brain (occipital lobe) in human anatomy.
In the sphenoid bone, the anterior boundary of the sella turcica is completed by two small eminences, one on either side, called the anterior clinoid processes, while the posterior boundary is formed by a square-shaped plate of bone, the dorsum sellæ, ending at its superior angles in two tubercles, the posterior clinoid processes, the size and form of which vary considerably in different individuals. The posterior clinoid processes deepen the sella turcica, and give attachment to the tentorium cerebelli.
In human anatomy, the left and right posterior communicating arteries are arteries at the base of the brain that form part of the circle of Willis.
The posterior cranial fossa is part of the cranial cavity, located between the foramen magnum and tentorium cerebelli.
The posterior cruciate ligament (or PCL) is one of the four major ligaments of the knee.
The posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh (also called the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve) provides innervation to the skin of the posterior surface of the thigh and leg, as well as to the skin of the perineum.
The posterior ethmoidal artery is an artery of the head which supplies the nasal septum.
Lateral to either olfactory groove are the internal openings of the anterior and posterior ethmoidal foramina (or canals). The posterior ethmoidal foramen opens at the back part of this margin under cover of the projecting lamina of the sphenoid, and transmits the posterior ethmoidal vessels and nerve.
The posterior ethmoidal nerve is a branch of the nasociliary nerve.
The posterior fontanelle (lambdoid fontanelle, occipital fontanelle) is a gap between bones in the human skull (known as fontanelle), triangular in form and situated at the junction of the sagittal suture and lambdoidal suture.
The posterior humeral circumflex artery (posterior circumflex artery, posterior circumflex humeral artery) arises from the third part of axillary artery at the lower border of the subscapularis, and runs posteriorly with the axillary nerve through the quadrangular space.
The posterior inferior iliac spine is an anatomical landmark that describes a bony "spine", or projection, at the posterior and inferior surface of the iliac bone.
The posterior intercostal veins are veins that drain the intercostal spaces posteriorly.
The posterior labial nerves are branches of the pudendal nerve.
The posterior labial veins are veins which drain to the vesical venous plexus.
The posterior longitudinal ligament is situated within the vertebral canal, and extends along the posterior surfaces of the bodies of the vertebrae, from the body of the axis, where it is continuous with the tectorial membrane of atlanto-axial joint, to the sacrum.
The posterior nasal apertures or internal nostrils are the openings found at the posterior (back part) of the nasal passage between the nasal cavity and the throat in tetrapods with secondary palates, including humans and other mammals (as well as crocodilians and most skinks).
The posterior scrotal branches (in men) or posterior labial branches (in women) are two in number, medial and lateral.
The posterior scrotal veins are veins which drain into the vesical venous plexus.
Posterior spinal veins are small veins which receive blood from the dorsal spinal cord.
The posterior superior alveolar artery (posterior dental artery) is given off from the maxillary, frequently in conjunction with the infraorbital artery just as the trunk of the vessel is passing into the pterygopalatine fossa.
The posterior border of the ala, shorter than the anterior, also presents two projections separated by a notch, the posterior superior iliac spine and the posterior inferior iliac spine.
The posterior talofibular ligament, runs almost horizontally from the malleolar fossa of the lateral malleolus of the fibula to a prominent tubercle on the posterior surface of the talus immediately lateral to the groove for the tendon of the flexor hallucis longus.
The posterior tibial artery of the lower limb carries blood to the posterior compartment of the leg and plantar surface of the foot, from the popliteal artery via the tibial-fibular trunk.
In anatomy, there are two posterior tibial veins of the lower limb.
The princeps pollicis artery, or principal artery of the thumb, arises from the radial artery just as it turns medially towards the deep part of the hand; it descends between the first dorsal interosseous muscle and the oblique head of the adductor pollicis, along the medial side of the first metacarpal bone to the base of the proximal phalanx, where it lies beneath the tendon of the flexor pollicis longus muscle and divides into two branches.
The procerus is a small pyramidal slip of muscle deep to the superior orbital nerve, artery and vein.
In anatomy, a process (processus) is a projection or outgrowth of tissue from a larger body.
Pronator quadratus is a square shaped muscle on the distal forearm that acts to pronate (turn so the palm faces downwards) the hand.
The pronator teres is a muscle of human (located mainly in the forearm) that, along with the pronator quadratus, serves to pronate the forearm (turning it so that the palm faces posteriorly when from the anatomical position).
A prosector is a person with the special task of preparing a dissection for demonstration, usually in medical schools or hospitals.
The prostate (from Ancient Greek προστάτης, prostates, literally "one who stands before", "protector", "guardian") is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male reproductive system in most mammals.
The proximal radioulnar articulation (superior radioulnar joint) is a synovial pivot joint between the circumference of the head of the radius and the ring formed by the radial notch of the ulna and the annular ligament.
The psoas major (from Greek: ψόας - psóās: 'of the loins', genitive singular form of ψόα - psóa 'the loins') is a long fusiform muscle located on the side of the lumbar region of the vertebral column and brim of the lesser pelvis.
The pterion is the region where the frontal, parietal, temporal, and sphenoid bones join together.
The pterygoid canal (also vidian canal) is a passage in the skull leading from just anterior to the foramen lacerum in the middle cranial fossa to the pterygopalatine fossa.
The pterygoid fossa is an anatomical term for the fossa formed by the divergence of the lateral pterygoid plate and the medial pterygoid plate of the sphenoid bone.
The pterygoid fovea (occasionally called pit or depression) is a concave surface on the uppermost medial side of the ramus of the mandible.
The pterygoid hamulus is a hook-like process at the lower extremity of the medial pterygoid plate of the sphenoid bone.
Pterygoid notch (incisura pterygoidea) - a notch on the inferior portion of the pterygoid processes of the sphenoid bone, between the medial and lateral plates into which the pyramidal process of the palatine bone is fitted.
The pterygoid plexus (from Greek pteryx, "wing" and eidos, "shape") is a venous plexus of considerable size, and is situated between the temporalis muscle and lateral pterygoid muscle, and partly between the two pterygoid muscles.
The pterygoid processes of the sphenoid (from Greek pteryx, pterygos, "wing"), one on either side, descend perpendicularly from the regions where the body and the greater wings of the sphenoid bone unite.
The pterygomaxillary fissure is a fissure of the human skull.
In human anatomy, the pterygopalatine fossa (sphenopalatine fossa) is a fossa in the skull.
The pterygopalatine ganglion (Meckel's ganglion, nasal ganglion or sphenopalatine ganglion) is a parasympathetic ganglion found in the pterygopalatine fossa.
The pubic arch, also referred to as the ischiopubic arch, is part of the pelvis.
The pubic symphysis (or symphysis pubis) a cartilaginous joint that sits between and joins left and right the superior rami of the pubic bones.
The pubic tubercle is a prominent forward-projecting tubercle on the upper border of the medial portion of the superior ramus of the pubis.
In vertebrates, the pubic bone is the ventral and anterior of the three principal bones composing either half of the pelvis.
The pubocervical ligament is a ligament connecting the side of the cervix to the pubic symphysis.
The pubofemoral ligament (pubocapsular ligament) is a ligament on the inferior side of the hip joint.
The pudendal nerve is the main nerve of the perineum.
A pulmonary artery is an artery in the pulmonary circulation that carries deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs.
The pulmonary plexus is an autonomic plexus formed from pulmonary branches of vagus nerve and the sympathetic trunk.
The pulmonary veins are the veins that transfer oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.
The pupil is a hole located in the center of the iris of the eye that allows light to strike the retina.
The pylorus, or pyloric part, connects the stomach to the duodenum.
The pyramidal eminence (pyramid) is situated immediately behind the fenestra vestibuli (oval window), and in front of the vertical portion of the facial canal; it is hollow, and contains the Stapedius muscle; its summit projects forward toward the fenestra vestibuli, and is pierced by a small aperture which transmits the tendon of the muscle.
The pyramidalis is a small triangular muscle, anterior to the rectus abdominis muscle, and contained in the rectus sheath.
In human anatomy, the quadrate ligament or ligament of Denucé is one of the ligaments of the proximal radioulnar joint in the upper forearm.
The quadratus lumborum is a muscle of the posterior abdominal wall.
The quadratus plantae (flexor accessorius) is separated from the muscles of the first layer by the lateral plantar vessels and nerve.
The quadriceps femoris (also called the quadriceps extensor, quadriceps or quads), is a large muscle group that includes the four prevailing muscles on the front of the thigh.
In human anatomy, the radial artery is the main artery of the lateral aspect of the forearm.
The radialis indicis artery (radial artery of index finger) is a branch of the radial artery that provides blood to the index finger.
The radial collateral ligament (RCL), lateral collateral ligament (LCL), or external lateral ligamentAs opposed to the "internal lateral ligament" better known as the medial or ulnar collateral ligament is a ligament in the elbow on the side of the radius.
The radial fossa is a slight depression found on the humerus above the front part of the capitulum.
The radial nerve is a nerve in the human body that supplies the posterior portion of the upper limb.
The radial styloid process is a projection of bone on the lateral surface of the distal radius bone.
The radial sulcus (also known as the musculospiral groove, radial groove, or spiral groove) is a broad but shallow oblique depression for the radial nerve and deep brachial artery.
In anatomy, the radial veins are venae comitantes that accompany the radial artery through the back of the hand and the lateral aspect of the forearm.
The radiate carpal ligament is a group of about seven fibrous bands which diverge in all directions on the palmar surface of the carpal bones.
The radius or radial bone is one of the two large bones of the forearm, the other being the ulna.
Ramus communicans (plural rami communicantes) is the Latin term used for a nerve which connects two other nerves, and can be translated as "communicating branch".
The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others.
The rectus abdominis muscle, also known as the "abdominal muscles" or "abs", is a paired muscle running vertically on each side of the anterior wall of the human abdomen, as well as that of some other mammals.
The rectus capitis anterior (rectus capitis anticus minor) is a short, flat muscle, situated immediately behind the upper part of the Longus capitis.
The Rectus capitis lateralis, a short, flat muscle, arises from the upper surface of the transverse process of the atlas, and is inserted into the under surface of the jugular process of the occipital bone.
The rectus capitis posterior major (or rectus capitis posticus major, both being Latin for larger posterior straight muscle of the head) arises by a pointed tendon from the spinous process of the axis, and, becoming broader as it ascends, is inserted into the lateral part of the inferior nuchal line of the occipital bone and the surface of the bone immediately below the line.
The rectus capitis posterior minor (or rectus capitis posticus minor, both being Latin for lesser posterior straight muscle of the head) arises by a narrow pointed tendon from the tubercle on the posterior arch of the atlas, and, widening as it ascends, is inserted into the medial part of the inferior nuchal line of the occipital bone and the surface between it and the foramen magnum, and also takes some attachment to the spinal dura mater.
The rectus femoris muscle is one of the four quadriceps muscles of the human body.
The recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) is a branch of the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) that supplies all the intrinsic muscles of the larynx, with the exception of the cricothyroid muscles.
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (15 July 1606 – 4 October 1669) was a Dutch draughtsman, painter, and printmaker.
The renal arteries normally arise off the left interior side of the abdominal aorta, immediately below the superior mesenteric artery, and supply the kidneys with blood.
The renal pelvis or pelvis of the kidney is the basin-like or funnel-like dilated proximal part of the ureter in the kidney.
The renal veins are veins that drain the kidney.
The reproductive system or genital system is a system of sex organs within an organism which work together for the purpose of sexual reproduction.
The rete testis is an anastomosing network of delicate tubules located in the hilum of the testicle (mediastinum testis) that carries sperm from the seminiferous tubules to the efferent ducts.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
The retromandibular vein (temporomaxillary vein, posterior facial vein), formed by the union of the superficial temporal and maxillary veins, descends in the substance of the parotid gland, superficial to the external carotid artery but beneath the facial nerve, between the ramus of the mandible and the sternocleidomastoideus muscle.
The rhomboid major is a skeletal muscle on the back that connects the scapula with the vertebrae of the spinal column.
In human anatomy, the rhomboid minor is a small skeletal muscle on the back that connects the scapula with the vertebrae of the spinal column.
In vertebrate anatomy, ribs (costae) are the long curved bones which form the rib cage.
The rib cage is an arrangement of bones in the thorax of most vertebrates.
The right colic artery arises from about the middle of the concavity of the superior mesenteric artery, or from a stem common to it and the ileocolic.
The right colic vein drains the ascending colon, and is a tributary of the superior mesenteric vein.
In the coronary circulation, the right coronary artery (RCA) is an artery originating above the right cusp of the aortic valve, at the right aortic sinus in the heart.
The right gastric artery arises above the pylorus from the proper hepatic artery or less frequently from the common hepatic artery, descends to the pyloric end of the stomach, and passes from right to left along its lesser curvature, supplying it with branches, and anastomosing with the left gastric artery.
The right gastric vein (pyloric vein) drains blood from the lesser curvature of the stomach into the hepatic portal vein.
The right gastroepiploic artery (or right gastro-omental artery) is one of the two terminal branches of the gastroduodenal artery.
The right gastroepiploic vein (right gastroomental vein) is a blood vessel that drains blood from the greater curvature and left part of the body of the stomach into the superior mesenteric vein.
The right triangular ligament is situated at the right extremity of the bare area, and is a small fold which passes to the diaphragm, being formed by the apposition of the upper and lower layers of the coronary ligament.
The risorius is a muscle of facial expression which arises in the fascia over the parotid gland and, passing horizontally forward, superficial to the platysma, inserts onto the skin at the angle of the mouth.
The rotatores muscles (rotatores spinae muscles) lie beneath the multifidus and are present in all spinal regions but are most prominent in the thoracic region; they are eleven in number on either side.
The round ligament of the uterus originates at the uterine horns, in the parametrium.
The round window is one of the two openings from the middle ear into the inner ear.
The saccule is a bed of sensory cells situated in the inner ear.
In human anatomy, the sacral plexus is a nerve plexus which provides motor and sensory nerves for the posterior thigh, most of the lower leg and foot, and part of the pelvis.
Sacral splanchnic nerves are splanchnic nerves that connect the inferior hypogastric plexus to the sympathetic trunk in the pelvis.
The sacrococcygeal symphysis (sacrococcygeal articulation, articulation of the sacrum and coccyx) is an amphiarthrodial joint, formed between the oval surface at the apex of the sacrum, and the base of the coccyx.
The sacroiliac joint or SI joint (SIJ) is the joint between the sacrum and the ilium bones of the pelvis, which are connected by strong ligaments.
The sacrospinous ligament (small or anterior sacrosciatic ligament) is a thin, triangular ligament in the human pelvis.
The sacrotuberous ligament (great or posterior sacrosciatic ligament) is situated at the lower and back part of the pelvis.
The sacrum (or; plural: sacra or sacrums) in human anatomy is a large, triangular bone at the base of the spine, that forms by the fusing of sacral vertebrae S1S5 between 18 and 30years of age.
In a saddle joint (sellar joint, articulation by reciprocal reception) the opposing surfaces are reciprocally concave-convex.
The sagittal suture is a dense, fibrous connective tissue joint between the two parietal bones of the skull.
The salpingopharyngeus muscle arises from the superior border of the medial cartilage of the pharyngotympanic tube (Eustachian tube), in the nasal cavity, making the posterior welt of the torus tubarius; it passes downward and blends with the posterior fasciculus of the palatopharyngeus muscle.
Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1 May 1852 – 17 October 1934) was a Spanish neuroscientist and pathologist, specializing in neuroanatomy, particularly the histology of the central nervous system.
The saphenous nerve (long or internal saphenous nerve) is the largest cutaneous branch of the femoral nerve.
The scalene muscles are a group of three pairs of muscles in the lateral neck, namely the anterior scalene, middle scalene, and posterior scalene.
The scalene tubercle is a small projection that runs along the medial border of the first rib between two grooves, which travel anteriorly for the subclavian vein and posteriorly for the subclavian artery.
The scaphoid bone is one of the carpal bones of the wrist.
In the pterygoid processes of the sphenoid, above the pterygoid fossa is a small, oval, shallow depression, the scaphoid fossa, which gives origin to the Tensor veli palatini.
In anatomy, the scapula (plural scapulae or scapulas; also known as shoulder bone, shoulder blade or wing bone) is the bone that connects the humerus (upper arm bone) with the clavicle (collar bone).
The sciatic nerve (also called ischiadic nerve, ischiatic nerve) is a large nerve in humans and animals.
The sclera, also known as the white of the eye, is the opaque, fibrous, protective, outer layer of the human eye containing mainly collagen and some elastic fiber.
The scrotum is an anatomical male reproductive structure that consists of a suspended dual-chambered sack of skin and smooth muscle that is present in most terrestrial male mammals and located under the penis.
Sebaceous glands are microscopic exocrine glands in the skin that secrete an oily or waxy matter, called sebum, to lubricate and waterproof the skin and hair of mammals.
The sella turcica (Latin for Turkish seat) is a saddle-shaped depression in the body of the sphenoid bone of the human skull and of the skulls of other hominids including chimpanzees, orangutans, and gorillas.
The semicircular canals or semicircular ducts are three semicircular, interconnected tubes located in the innermost part of each ear, the inner ear.
The semimembranosus is the most medial of the three hamstring muscles.
The seminal vesicles (glandulae vesiculosae), vesicular glands, or seminal glands, are a pair of simple tubular glands posteroinferior to the urinary bladder of some male mammals.
Seminiferous tubules are located within the testes, and are the specific location of meiosis, and the subsequent creation of male gametes, namely spermatozoa.
The semispinalis muscles are a group of three muscles belonging to the transversospinales.
The semitendinosus is a long superficial muscle in the back of the thigh.
The serratus anterior is a muscle that originates on the surface of the 1st to 8th ribs at the side of the chest and inserts along the entire anterior length of the medial border of the scapula.
The Serratus posterior inferior muscle (or posterior serratus) is a muscle of the human body.
The serratus posterior superior is a thin, quadrilateral muscle, situated at the upper and back part of the thorax, deep to the rhomboid muscles. It arises by a thin and broad aponeurosis from the lower part of the ligamentum nuchae, from the spinous processes of the seventh cervical and upper two or three thoracic vertebrae and from the supraspinal ligament. Inclining downward and lateralward it becomes muscular, and is inserted, by four fleshy digitations, into the upper borders of the second, third, fourth, and fifth ribs, a little beyond their angles. The function of serratus posterior superior is to elevate second to fifth ribs, which aids deep inspiration.
In anatomy, a sesamoid bone is a bone embedded within a tendon or a muscle.
Short bones are designated as those bones that are as wide as they are long.
The branches of the ciliary ganglion are the short ciliary nerves.
The short gastric arteries consist of from five to seven small branches, which arise from the end of the splenic artery, and from its terminal divisions.
The short posterior ciliary arteries from six to twelve in number, arise from the ophthalmic artery as it crosses the optic nerve.
The shoulder girdle or pectoral girdle is the set of bones in the appendicular skeleton which connects to the arm on each side.
The shoulder joint (or glenohumeral joint from Greek glene, eyeball, + -oid, 'form of', + Latin humerus, shoulder) is structurally classified as a synovial ball and socket joint and functionally as a diarthrosis and multiaxial joint.
The sigmoid arteries, two or three in number, run obliquely downward and to the left behind the peritoneum and in front of the psoas major, ureter, and internal spermatic vessels.
The sigmoid colon (pelvic colon) is the part of the large intestine that is closest to the rectum and anus.
The sigmoid sinuses (sigma- or s-shaped hollow curve), also known as the pars sigmoid, are venous sinuses within the skull that receive blood from posterior dural venous sinus veins.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
Skin glands are structures found in mammals that play roles in thermoregulation and excretion.
The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in vertebrates.
The small cardiac vein runs in the coronary sulcus between the right atrium and ventricle and opens into the right extremity of the coronary sinus.
The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the end absorption of food takes place.
The small saphenous vein (also short saphenous vein), is a relatively large superficial vein of the posterior leg.
The smallest cardiac veins (or Thebesian veins) are minute valveless veins in the walls of all four heart chambers.
In humans and some other mammals, the soleus is a powerful muscle in the back part of the lower leg (the calf).
The spermatic cord is the cord-like structure in males formed by the vas deferens (ductus deferens) and surrounding tissue that runs from the deep inguinal ring down to each testicle.
The sphenoethmoidal recess is a small space in the nasal cavity into which the sphenoidal sinus opens.
The sphenoid bone is an unpaired bone of the neurocranium. It is situated in the middle of the skull towards the front, in front of the temporal bone and the basilar part of the occipital bone. The sphenoid bone is one of the seven bones that articulate to form the orbit. Its shape somewhat resembles that of a butterfly or bat with its wings extended.
In the base of the skull, in the great wings of the sphenoid bone, medial to the foramen ovale, a small aperture, the sphenoidal emissary foramen, may occasionally be seen (it is often absent) opposite the root of the pterygoid process.
Each of the paired sphenoidal sinuses (components of the paranasal sinuses) is contained within the body of the sphenoid.
The sphenomandibular ligament (internal lateral ligament) is a flat, thin band which is attached superiorly to the spina angularis (spine) of the sphenoid bone, and, becoming broader as it descends, is fixed to the lingula of the mandibular foramen.
The sphenopalatine artery (nasopalatine artery) is an artery of the head, commonly known as the artery of epistaxis.
The sphenopalatine foramen is a foramen in the skull that connects the nasal cavity with the pterygopalatine fossa.
The cavernous sinus receives the superior ophthalmic vein through the superior orbital fissure, some of the cerebral veins, and also the small sphenoparietal sinus, which courses along the under surface of the small wing of the sphenoid.
The spinal canal (or vertebral canal or spinal cavity) is the space in the vertebral column formed by the vertebrae through which the spinal cord passes.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
A spinal nerve is a mixed nerve, which carries motor, sensory, and autonomic signals between the spinal cord and the body.
The spinalis is a portion of the erector spinae, a bundle of muscles and tendons, located nearest to the spine.
The spiral (cochlear) ganglion is the group of nerve cells that serve the sense of hearing by sending a representation of sound from the cochlea to the brain.
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.
The splenic artery (in the past called the lienal artery) is the blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the spleen.
The splenic vein (formerly the lienal vein) is a blood vessel that drains blood from the spleen, the stomach fundus and part of the pancreas.
The splenius muscles are.
The splenocolic ligament is a peritoneal ligament connecting the splenic capsule to the transverse colon.
The splenorenal ligament (or lienorenal ligament), is derived from the peritoneum, where the wall of the general peritoneal cavity comes into contact with the lesser sac between the left kidney and the spleen; the splenic artery and vein pass between its two layers.
The stapedius is the smallest skeletal muscle in the human body.
The stapes or stirrup is a bone in the middle ear of humans and other mammals which is involved in the conduction of sound vibrations to the inner ear.
The stellate ganglion (or cervicothoracic ganglion) is a sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical ganglion and the first thoracic ganglion, which exists in 80% of cases.
The sternal angle (also known as the angle of Louis or manubriosternal junction) is the synarthrotic joint formed by the articulation of the manubrium and the body of the sternum.
The sternoclavicular joint or sternoclavicular articulation is the joint between the manubrium of the sternum and the clavicle bone.
The sternocleidomastoid muscle (also known as sternomastoid, commonly abbreviated as SCM or simply referred to as sterno muscle), is a paired muscle in the superficial layers of the side of the neck.
The sternocostal joints also known as sternochondral joints (or costosternal articulations), are synovial plane joints of the cartilages of the true ribs with the sternum, with the exception of the first, which is a synarthrosis since the cartilage is directly united with the sternum.
The sternohyoid muscle is a thin, narrow muscle attaching the hyoid bone to the sternum, one of the paired strap muscles of the infrahyoid muscles serving to depress the hyoid bone.
The Sternothyroideus (or sternothyroid muscle) is a muscle in the neck.
The sternum or breastbone is a long flat bone located in the center of the chest.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
The straight sinus, also known as tentorial sinus or the sinus rectus, is an area within the skull beneath the brain that receives venous blood.
The Styloglossus, the shortest and smallest of the three styloid muscles, arises from the anterior and lateral surfaces of the styloid process near its apex, and from the stylomandibular ligament.
The stylohyoid muscle is a slender muscle, lying anterior, and superior of the posterior belly of the digastric muscle.
The stylomandibular ligament is the thickened posterior portion of the investing cervical fascia, which extends from near the apex of the styloid process of the temporal bone to the angle and posterior border of the angle of the mandible, between the masseter and medial pterygoid.
Between the styloid and mastoid processes of the temporal bone is the stylomastoid foramen It is the termination of the facial canal, and transmits the facial nerve and stylomastoid artery.
The stylopharyngeus is a muscle in the head that stretches between the temporal styloid process and the pharynx.
In human anatomy, the subclavian arteries are paired major arteries of the upper thorax, below the clavicle.
The subclavian nerve or nerve to the subclavius is a small filament, which arises from the point of junction of the fifth and sixth cervical nerves.
The subclavian vein is a paired large vein, one on either side of the body.
The subclavius is a small triangular muscle, placed between the clavicle and the first rib.
The subcostal arteries, so named because they lie below the last ribs, constitute the lowest pair of branches derived from the thoracic aorta, and are in series with the intercostal arteries.
The Subcostales (singular: subcostalis) (Infracostales) consist of muscular and aponeurotic fasciculi, which are usually well-developed only in the lower part of the thorax; each originates from the inner surface of one rib, and is inserted into the inner surface of the second or third rib below, near its angle.
The subcutaneous tissue, also called the hypodermis, hypoderm, subcutis, or superficial fascia, is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system in vertebrates.
The sublingual fovea (or sublingual fossa) is a fovea in the mandible for the sublingual gland.
The paired sublingual glands are major salivary glands in the mouth.
The sublingual vein is a vein which drains the tongue.
The submandibular ganglion (or submaxillary ganglion in older texts) is part of the human autonomic nervous system.
The paired submandibular glands (historically known as submaxillary glands) are major salivary glands located beneath the floor of the mouth.
The submental artery is a branch of the facial artery that runs on the underside of the chin.
The suboccipital nerve is the dorsal primary ramus of the first cervical nerve (C1).
The subscapular artery, the largest branch of the axillary artery, arises from the third part of the axillary artery at the lower border of the subscapularis muscle, which it follows to the inferior angle of the scapula, where it anastomoses with the lateral thoracic and intercostal arteries, and with the descending branch of the dorsal scapular artery (a.k.a. deep branch of the transverse cervical artery if it arises from the cervical trunk), and ends in the neighboring muscles.
Subscapular nerves can refer to.
The subscapularis is a large triangular muscle which fills the subscapular fossa and inserts into the lesser tubercle of the humerus and the front of the capsule of the shoulder-joint.
In human anatomy, the subtalar joint, also known as the talocalcaneal joint, is a joint of the foot.
The superficial inguinal ring (subcutaneous inguinal ring or external inguinal ring) is an anatomical structure in the anterior wall of the mammalian abdomen.
The superficial palmar arch is formed predominantly by the ulnar artery, with a contribution from the superficial palmar branch of the radial artery.
The superficial perineal pouch (also superficial perineal compartment/space/sac) is a compartment of the perineum.
The superficial peroneal nerve or superior fibular nerve, innervates the peroneus longus and peroneus brevis muscles and the skin over the antero-lateral aspect of the leg along with the greater part of the dorsum of the foot (with the exception of the first web space, which is innervated by the deep peroneal nerve).
In human anatomy, the superficial temporal artery is a major artery of the head.
The superficial temporal vein is a vein of the side of the head.
Superior alveolar nerves can refer to.
The superior auricular muscle, the largest of the three auriculares muscles, is also thin and fan-shaped.
The superior cervical ganglion (SCG) is part of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) responsible for maintaining homeostasis of the body.
In human anatomy, superior epigastric artery refers to a blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood and arises from the internal thoracic artery (referred to as the internal mammary artery in the accompanying diagram).
In human anatomy, superior epigastric vein refers to a blood vessel that carries deoxygenated blood and drains into the internal thoracic vein.
The superior gemellus muscle is a muscle of the human body.
The superior gluteal artery is the largest branch of the internal iliac artery, and appears to be the continuation of the posterior division of that vessel.
The superior gluteal nerve is a nerve that originates in the pelvis and supplies the gluteus medius, the gluteus minimus and the tensor fasciae latae muscle.
The superior gluteal veins (gluteal veins) are venæ comitantes of the superior gluteal artery; they receive tributaries from the buttock corresponding with the branches of the artery, and enter the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen, above the piriformis, and frequently unite before ending in the hypogastric vein (internal iliac vein).
The superior hypogastric plexus (in older texts, hypogastric plexus or presacral nerve) is a plexus of nerves situated on the vertebral bodies anterior to the bifurcation of the abdominal aorta.
The superior laryngeal nerve is a branch of the vagus nerve.
The superior laryngeal vein is a vein which drains the larynx into the superior thyroid vein.
The Longitudinalis linguæ superior (Superior lingualis) is a thin stratum of oblique and longitudinal fibers immediately underlying the mucous membrane on the dorsum of the tongue.
In human anatomy, the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) arises from the anterior surface of the abdominal aorta, just inferior to the origin of the celiac trunk, and supplies the intestine from the lower part of the duodenum through two-thirds of the transverse colon, as well as the pancreas.
The superior mesenteric plexus is a continuation of the lower part of the celiac plexus, receiving a branch from the junction of the right vagus nerve with the plexus.
The superior mesenteric vein (SMV) is a blood vessel that drains blood from the small intestine (jejunum and ileum).
The superior oblique muscle, or obliquus oculi superior, is a fusiform muscle originating in the upper, medial side of the orbit (i.e. from beside the nose) which abducts, depresses and internally rotates the eye.
The superior ophthalmic vein begins at the inner angle of the orbit in a vein named the nasofrontal which communicates anteriorly with the angular vein; it pursues the same course as the ophthalmic artery, and receives tributaries corresponding to the branches of that vessel.
The superior orbital fissure is a foramen in the skull, although strictly it is more of a cleft, lying between the lesser and greater wings of the sphenoid bone.
The superior pancreaticoduodenal artery is an artery that supplies blood to the duodenum and pancreas.
The superior petrosal sinus is one of the dural venous sinuses located beneath the brain.
The superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle is a muscle in the pharynx.
The superior rectal artery (superior hemorrhoidal artery) is an artery that descends into the pelvis to supply blood to the rectum.
The inferior mesenteric vein begins in the rectum as the superior rectal vein (superior hemorrhoidal vein), which has its origin in the hemorrhoidal plexus, and through this plexus communicates with the middle and inferior hemorrhoidal veins.
The superior rectus muscle is a muscle in the orbit.
The superior sagittal sinus (also known as the superior longitudinal sinus), within the human head, is an unpaired area along the attached margin of the falx cerebri.
The superior thoracic artery (highest thoracic artery) is a small artery located near the armpit in humans.
The superior thyroid artery arises from the external carotid artery just below the level of the greater cornu of the hyoid bone and ends in the thyroid gland.
The superior thyroid vein begins in the substance and on the surface of the thyroid gland, by tributaries corresponding with the branches of the superior thyroid artery, and ends in the upper part of the internal jugular vein.
The superior transverse ligament (transverse or suprascapular ligament) converts the scapular notch into a foramen or opening.
The superior tympanic artery is a small artery in the head.
The superior vena cava (SVC) is the superior of the two venae cavae, the great venous trunks that return deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation to the right atrium of the heart.
The superior vesical artery supplies numerous branches to the upper part of the bladder.
In human anatomy, the supinator is a broad muscle in the posterior compartment of the forearm, curved around the upper third of the radius.
The supraclavicular nerves (descending branches) arise from the third and fourth cervical nerves; they emerge beneath the posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoideus, and descend in the posterior triangle of the neck beneath the platysma and deep cervical fascia.
The supraglenoid tubercle is a region of the scapula from which the long head of the biceps brachii muscle originates.
The supraorbital artery is an artery of the head.
The supraorbital foramen is a bony elongated path located above the orbit (eye socket) and under the forehead.
The supraorbital nerve is a terminal branch of the frontal nerve.
The supraorbital vein begins on the forehead where it communicates with the frontal branch of the superficial temporal vein.
The Suprarenal veins are two in number.
The suprascapular artery is a branch of the thyrocervical trunk.
The suprascapular nerve is a nerve that arises from the brachial plexus.
The suprascapular notch (or scapular notch) is a notch in the superior border of the scapula, just medial to the base of the coracoid process.
The suprascapular vein is a vein running above the scapula.
The supraspinatus (plural supraspinati) is a relatively small muscle of the upper back that runs from the supraspinatous fossa superior portion of the scapula (shoulder blade) to the greater tubercle of the humerus.
The supraspinous ligament, also known as the supraspinal ligament, is a ligament found along the vertebral column.
The suprasternal notch (fossa jugularis sternalis), also known as the jugular notch or the Plender gap or neck dent...
The supratrochlear artery (or frontal artery), one of the terminal branches of the ophthalmic artery, branches off where the ophthalmic artery travels posterior to the trochlea.
In human cranial neuroanatomy, the supratrochlear nerve is a branch of the frontal nerve, which itself comes from the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal (or fifth) cranial nerve.
The supreme intercostal vein (highest intercostal vein) is a paired vein that drains the first intercostal space on its corresponding side.
The sural nerve is a sensory nerve in the calf region (sura) of the leg.
The suspensory ligament of the ovary, also infundibulopelvic ligament (commonly abbreviated IP ligament or simply IP), is a fold of peritoneum that extends out from the ovary to the wall of the pelvis.
In males, the suspensory ligament of the penis is attached to the pubic symphysis, which holds the penis close to the pubic bone and supports it when erect.
In anatomy, a suture is a fairly rigid joint between two or more hard elements of an organism, with or without significant overlap of the elements.
Sweat glands, also known as sudoriferous or sudoriparous glands,, are small tubular structures of the skin that produce sweat.
The sympathetic trunks (sympathetic chain, gangliated cord) are a paired bundle of nerve fibers that run from the base of the skull to the coccyx.
A symphysis is a fibrocartilaginous fusion between two bones.
A synarthrosis is a type of joint which permits very little or no movement under normal conditions.
Where the connecting medium is hyaline cartilage, a cartilaginous joint is termed a synchondrosis.
A bursa (plural bursae or bursas) is a small fluid-filled sac lined by synovial membrane with an inner capillary layer of viscous synovial fluid (similar in consistency to that of a raw egg white).
A synovial joint, also known as diarthrosis, joins bones with a fibrous joint capsule that is continuous with the periosteum of the joined bones, constitutes the outer boundary of a synovial cavity, and surrounds the bones' articulating surfaces.
A synovial sheath is one of the two membranes of a tendon sheath which covers a tendon.
The talus (Latin for ankle), talus bone, astragalus, or ankle bone is one of the group of foot bones known as the tarsus.
The tarsometatarsal joints (Lisfranc joints) are arthrodial joints in the foot.
The tarsi (tarsal plates) are two comparatively thick, elongated plates of dense connective tissue, about in length; one is found in each eyelid, and contributes to its form and support.
The tarsus is a cluster of seven articulating bones in each foot situated between the lower end of tibia and fibula of the lower leg and the metatarsus.
Taste, gustatory perception, or gustation is one of the five traditional senses that belongs to the gustatory system.
Taste buds contain the taste receptor cells, which are also known as gustatory cells.
The temporal bones are situated at the sides and base of the skull, and lateral to the temporal lobes of the cerebral cortex.
The temporal fossa is a shallow depression on the side of the skull bounded by the temporal lines and terminating below the level of the zygomatic arch.
The temporal muscle, also known as the temporalis, is one of the muscles of mastication.
The temporal styloid process is a process of bone that extends down from the temporal bone of the human skull, just below the ear.
The temporomandibular joints (TMJ) are the two joints connecting the jawbone to the skull.
The tensor fasciae latae (or tensor fasciæ latæ) is a muscle of the thigh.
The tensor tympani is a muscle within the ear, located in the bony canal above the osseous portion of the auditory tube.
The tensor veli palatini muscle (tensor palati or tensor muscle of the velum palatinum) is a broad, thin, ribbon-like muscle in the head that tenses the soft palate.
The teres major muscle is a muscle of the upper limb.
The teres minor (Latin teres meaning 'rounded') is a narrow, elongated muscle of the rotator cuff.
Terminologia Anatomica (TA) is the international standard on human anatomic terminology.
The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.
The testicular artery (the male gonadal artery, also called the internal spermatic arteries in older texts) is a branch of the abdominal aorta that supplies blood to the testis.
The testicular vein (or spermatic vein), the male gonadal vein, carries deoxygenated blood from its corresponding testis to the inferior vena cava or one of its tributaries.
In human anatomy, the thigh is the area between the hip (pelvis) and the knee.
While under the Trapezius, the medial branch of the posterior division of the third cervical nerve gives off a branch called the third occipital nerve (also known as the least occipital nerve), which pierces the Trapezius and ends in the skin of the lower part of the back of the head.
Thomas Wharton (1614–1673) was an English physician and anatomist best known for his descriptions of the submandibular duct (one of the salivary ducts) and Wharton's jelly of the umbilical cord.
The thoracic cavity (or chest cavity) is the chamber of the body of vertebrates that is protected by the thoracic wall (rib cage and associated skin, muscle, and fascia).
For other uses, see Diaphragm (disambiguation). The thoracic diaphragm, or simply the diaphragm (partition), is a sheet of internal skeletal muscle in humans and other mammals that extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity.
In human anatomy, the thoracic duct is the larger of the two lymph ducts of the lymphatic system.
The thoracic inlet, also known as the superior thoracic aperture, refers to the opening at the top of the thoracic cavity.
The thoracic outlet is the lower opening of the thoracic cavity whose edges are the lowest ribs.
Thoracic splanchnic nerves are splanchnic nerves that arise from the sympathetic trunk in the thorax and travel inferiorly to provide sympathetic innervation to the abdomen.
The thoracoacromial artery (acromiothoracic artery; thoracic axis) is a short trunk that arises from the second part of the axillary artery, its origin being generally overlapped by the upper edge of the pectoralis minor.
The thoracodorsal artery is a branch of the subscapular artery.
The thoracodorsal nerve is a nerve present in humans and other animals, also known as the middle subscapular nerve or the long subscapular nerve.
The thorax or chest (from the Greek θώραξ thorax "breastplate, cuirass, corslet" via thorax) is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals located between the neck and the abdomen.
The thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system.
The thyrocervical trunk is a branch of the subclavian artery arising from the first portion of this vessel, i.e. between the origin of the subclavian artery and the inner border of the scalenus anterior muscle.
The thyrohyoid muscle is a small skeletal muscle on the neck which depresses the hyoid and elevates the larynx.
The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.
The thyroid cartilage is the largest of the nine cartilages that make up the laryngeal skeleton, the cartilage structure in and around the trachea that contains the larynx.
The thyroid ima artery (thyroidea ima artery, arteria thyroidea ima, thyroid artery of Neubauer or the lowest thyroid artery) is an artery of the head and neck.
The tibia (plural tibiae or tibias), also known as the shinbone or shankbone, is the larger, stronger, and anterior (frontal) of the two bones in the leg below the knee in vertebrates (the other being the fibula, behind and to the outside of the tibia), and it connects the knee with the ankle bones.
The tibial nerve is a branch of the sciatic nerve.
The tibialis anterior is a muscle in humans that originates in the upper two-thirds of the lateral (outside) surface of the tibia and inserts into the medial cuneiform and first metatarsal bones of the foot.
The tibialis posterior is the most central of all the leg muscles, and is located in the deep posterior compartment of the leg.
Tibiofibular joint may refer to.
The tongue is a muscular organ in the mouth of most vertebrates that manipulates food for mastication, and is used in the act of swallowing.
A tooth (plural teeth) is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates and used to break down food.
The torso or trunk is an anatomical term for the central part of the many animal bodies (including that of the human) from which extend the neck and limbs.
The trachea, colloquially called the windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs.
The Tragicus (muscle of tragus or Valsalva muscle) is an intrinsic muscle of the outer ear.
The transverse abdominal muscle (TVA), also known as the transverse abdominis, transversalis muscle and transversus abdominis muscle, is a muscle layer of the anterior and lateral (front and side) abdominal wall which is deep to (layered below) the internal oblique muscle.
The Transverse Acetabular Ligament (transverse ligament) is in reality a portion of the acetabular labrum, though differing from it in having no cartilage cells among its fibers.
The transverse cervical artery (transverse artery of neck or transversa colli artery) is an artery in the neck and a branch of the thyrocervical trunk, running at a higher level than the suprascapular artery.
The transverse cervical nerve (superficial cervical or cutaneous cervical) arises from the second and third spinal nerves, turns around the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoideus about its middle, and, passing obliquely forward beneath the external jugular vein to the anterior border of the muscle, it perforates the deep cervical fascia, and divides beneath the Platysma into ascending and descending branches, which are distributed to the antero-lateral parts of the neck.
The transverse cervical veins are veins that cross the neck.
The transverse colon is the longest and most movable part of the colon.
The transverse facial artery is an artery that branches from the superficial temporal artery and runs across the face.
The transverse or meniscomeniscal ligament is a ligament in the knee joint that connects the anterior convex margin of the lateral meniscus to the anterior end of the medial meniscus.
The transverse muscle of auricle (transverse auricular muscle, transversus auriculae, transversus auricularis or transverse muscle of pinna) is an intrinsic muscle of the outer ear.
The transversus menti, or transverse muscle of the chin, is a facial muscle that is often considered to be the superficial fibers of the depressor anguli oris muscle which cross to the other side of the face.
The transverse muscle of tongue (transversus linguae) is an intrinsic muscle of the tongue.
The transverse sinuses (left and right lateral sinuses), within the human head, are two areas beneath the brain which allow blood to drain from the back of the head. They run laterally in a groove along the interior surface of the occipital bone. They drain from the confluence of sinuses (by the internal occipital protuberance) to the sigmoid sinuses, which ultimately connect to the internal jugular vein. See diagram (at right): labeled under the brain as "" (for Latin: sinus transversus). The transverse sinuses are of large size and begin at the internal occipital protuberance; one, generally the right, being the direct continuation of the superior sagittal sinus, the other of the straight sinus. Each transverse sinus passes lateralward and forward, describing a slight curve with its convexity upward, to the base of the petrous portion of the temporal bone, and lies, in this part of its course, in the attached margin of the tentorium cerebelli; it then leaves the tentorium and curves downward and medialward (an area sometimes referred to as the sigmoid sinus) to reach the jugular foramen, where it ends in the internal jugular vein. In its course it rests upon the squama of the occipital, the mastoid angle of the parietal, the mastoid part of the temporal, and, just before its termination, the jugular process of the occipital; the portion which occupies the groove on the mastoid part of the temporal is sometimes termed the sigmoid sinus. The transverse sinuses are frequently of unequal size, with the one formed by the superior sagittal sinus being the larger; they increase in size as they proceed, from back to center. On transverse section, the horizontal portion exhibits a prismatic form, the curved portion has a semicylindrical form. They receive the blood from the superior petrosal sinuses at the base of the petrous portion of the temporal bone; they communicate with the veins of the pericranium by means of the mastoid and condyloid emissary veins; and they receive some of the inferior cerebral and inferior cerebellar veins, and some veins from the diploë. The petrosquamous sinus, when present, runs backward along the junction of the squama and petrous portion of the temporal, and opens into the transverse sinus.
The transverse tarsal joint or midtarsal joint or Chopart's joint is formed by the articulation of the calcaneus with the cuboid (the calcaneocuboid joint), and the articulation of the talus with the navicular (the talocalcaneonavicular joint).
The transversus thoracis muscle lies internal to the thoracic cage, anteriorly.
The trapezium bone (greater multangular bone) is a carpal bone in the hand.
The trapezius (or trapezoid) is a large paired surface muscle that extends longitudinally from the occipital bone to the lower thoracic vertebrae of the spine and laterally to the spine of the scapula.
In Euclidean geometry, a convex quadrilateral with at least one pair of parallel sides is referred to as a trapezoid in American and Canadian English but as a trapezium in English outside North America.
The trapezoid ligament, the anterior and lateral fasciculus, is broad, thin, and quadrilateral: it is placed obliquely between the coracoid process and the clavicle.
From the conoid tubercle an oblique ridge, the trapezoid line (or trapezoid ridge, or oblique), runs forward and lateralward, and affords attachment to the trapezoid ligament on inferior surface of clavicle.
The triceps, also triceps brachii (Latin for "three-headed muscle of the arm"), is a large muscle on the back of the upper limb of many vertebrates.
The triceps surae is a pair of muscles located at the calf - the two-headed gastrocnemius and the soleus.
The tricuspid valve, or right atrioventricular valve, is on the right dorsal side of the mammalian heart, between the right atrium and the right ventricle.
The trigeminal ganglion (or Gasserian ganglion, or semilunar ganglion, or Gasser's ganglion) is a sensory ganglion of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) that occupies a cavity (Meckel's cave) in the dura mater, covering the trigeminal impression near the apex of the petrous part of the temporal bone.
The trigeminal nerve (the fifth cranial nerve, or simply CN V) is a nerve responsible for sensation in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing; it is the largest of the cranial nerves.
The triquetral bone (also called triquetrum, pyramidal, three-faced, and formerly cuneiform bone) is located in the wrist on the medial side of the proximal row of the carpus between the lunate and pisiform bones.
In the human arm, the humeral trochlea is the medial portion of the articular surface of the elbow joint which articulates with the trochlear notch on the ulna in the forearm.
The trochlear nerve, also called the fourth cranial nerve or cranial nerve IV, is a motor nerve (a somatic efferent nerve) that innervates only a single muscle: the superior oblique muscle of the eye, which operates through the pulley-like trochlea.
Tubers are enlarged structures in some plant species used as storage organs for nutrients.
In anatomy, a tubercle is any round nodule, small eminence, or warty outgrowth found on external or internal organs of a plant or an animal.
The Tuberculum sellae (or the tubercle of the sella turcica) is a part of the sphenoid bone that is an elevation behind the chiasmatic groove.
The tubuli seminiferi recti (also known as the tubuli recti, tubulus rectus, or straight seminiferous tubules) are structures in the testicle connecting the convoluted region of the seminiferous tubules to the rete testis, although the tubuli recti have a different appearance distinguishing them from these two structures.
The tunica albuginea is the fibrous covering of the testis.
The tunica vaginalis is the pouch of serous membrane that covers the testes.
The tympanic cavity is a small cavity surrounding the bones of the middle ear.
The tympanic duct or scala tympani is one of the perilymph-filled cavities in the inner ear of the human.
The tympanic nerve (nerve of Jacobson) is a branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve found near the ear.
In the tympanic cavity, the tympanic nerve (a branch of CN IX) divides into branches which, along with sympathetic fibres from the carotid plexus, form the tympanic plexus. This plexus is located on the surface of the promontory.
The ulna is a long bone found in the forearm that stretches from the elbow to the smallest finger, and when in anatomical position, is found on the medial side of the forearm.
The ulnar artery is the main blood vessel, with oxygenated blood, of the medial aspect of the forearm.
The ulnar canal or ulnar tunnel (also known as Guyon's canal or tunnel) is a semi-rigid longitudinal canal in the wrist that allows passage of the ulnar artery and ulnar nerve into the hand.
The ulnar collateral ligament (UCL or internal lateral ligament) is a thick triangular band at the medial aspect of the elbow uniting the distal aspect of the humerus to the proximal aspect of the ulna.
In human anatomy, the ulnar nerve is a nerve that runs near the ulna bone.
The styloid process of the ulna is found at distal end of the forearm, and projects from the medial and back part of the bone; it descends a little lower than the head, and its rounded end affords attachment to the ulnar collateral ligament of the wrist.
In anatomy, the ulnar veins are venae comitantes for the ulnar artery.
The umbilical artery is a paired artery (with one for each half of the body) that is found in the abdominal and pelvic regions.
The upper limb or upper extremity is the region in a vertebrate animal extending from the deltoid region up to and including the hand, including the arm, axilla and shoulder.
The upper subscapular (short subscapular, superior subscapular) enters the upper part of the Subscapularis muscle, and is frequently represented by two branches.
In human anatomy, the ureters are tubes made of smooth muscle fibers that propel urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
In anatomy, the urethra (from Greek οὐρήθρα – ourḗthrā) is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the urinary meatus for the removal of urine from the body.
The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in humans and some other animals that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination.
The urinary system, also known as the renal system or urinary tract, consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra.
The uterine artery is an artery that supplies blood to the uterus in females.
The uterosacral ligaments (or recto-uterine ligaments) belong to the major ligaments of uterus.
The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.
The utricle, along with the saccule, is one of the two otolith organs located in the vertebrate inner ear.
The utriculosaccular duct (Latin: Ductus utriculosaccularis) is a part of the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear which connects the two parts of the vestibule, the utricle and the saccule.
In mammals, the vagina is the elastic, muscular part of the female genital tract.
The vaginal artery is an artery in females that supplies blood to the vagina and the base of the bladder.
The vagus nerve, historically cited as the pneumogastric nerve, is the tenth cranial nerve or CN X, and interfaces with parasympathetic control of the heart, lungs, and digestive tract.
The vas deferens (Latin: "carrying-away vessel"; plural: vasa deferentia), also called ductus deferens (Latin: "carrying-away duct"; plural: ductus deferentes), is part of the male reproductive system of many vertebrates; these vasa transport sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory ducts in anticipation of ejaculation.
The vastus intermedius (Cruraeus) arises from the front and lateral surfaces of the body of the femur in its upper two-thirds, sitting under the rectus femoris muscle and from the lower part of the lateral intermuscular septum.
The vastus lateralis, also called the vastus externus is the largest and most powerful part of the quadriceps femoris, a muscle in the thigh.
The vastus medialis (vastus internus or teardrop muscle) is an extensor muscle located medially in the thigh that extends the knee.
A ventricle is one of two large chambers in the heart that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the peripheral beds within the body and lungs.
In the vertebrate spinal column, each vertebra is an irregular bone with a complex structure composed of bone and some hyaline cartilage, the proportions of which vary according to the segment of the backbone and the species of vertebrate.
The vertebral arteries are major (main) arteries of the neck.
The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton.
In a typical vertebra, the vertebral foramen is the foramen (opening) formed by the anterior segment (the body), and the posterior part, the vertebral arch.
The vertebral vein is formed in the suboccipital triangle, from numerous small tributaries which spring from the internal vertebral venous plexuses and issue from the vertebral canal above the posterior arch of the atlas.
In arthropod and vertebrate anatomy, the vertex (or cranial vertex) is the upper surface of the head.
The vertical muscle is an intrinsic muscle of the tongue.
The vesical veins are veins in the pelvis that drain blood from the urinary bladder.
In human female anatomy, the vesico-uterine pouch, also known by various other names, is a second but shallower pouch formed from the peritoneum over the uterus and bladder, continued over the intestinal surface and fundus of the uterus onto its vesical surface, which it covers as far as the junction of the body and cervix uteri, and then to the bladder.
The vestibular duct or scala vestibuli is a perilymph-filled cavity inside the cochlea of the inner ear that conducts sound vibrations to the cochlear duct.
The vestibular nerve is one of the two branches of the vestibulocochlear nerve (the cochlear nerve being the other).
The vestibulocochlear nerve (auditory vestibular nerve), known as the eighth cranial nerve, transmits sound and equilibrium (balance) information from the inner ear to the brain.
Vincent Alexander Bochdalek (1801 – February 3, 1883) was a Bohemian anatomist and pathologist.
The vitreous body is the clear gel that fills the space between the lens and the retina of the eyeball of humans and other vertebrates.
The vomer is one of the unpaired facial bones of the skull.
The vorticose veins, referred to clinically as the vortex veins, drain the ocular choroid.
The vulva (wrapper, covering, plural vulvae or vulvas) consists of the external female sex organs.
The vulval vestibule (or vulvar vestibule or vestibule of vagina) is a part of the vulva between the labia minora into which the urinary meatus (urethral opening) and the vaginal opening open.
Waldeyer's tonsillar ring (pharyngeal lymphoid ring or Waldeyer's lymphatic ring) is a ringed arrangement of lymphoid tissue in the pharynx.
Wilhelm His Sr. (9 July 1831 – 1 May 1904) was a Swiss anatomist and professor who invented the microtome.
Dr William Charles Osman Hill FRSE FZS FLS FRAI (13 July 1901 – 25 January 1975) was a British anatomist, primatologist, and a leading authority on primate anatomy during the 20th century.
William Cheselden (19 October 1688 – 10 April 1752) was an English surgeon and teacher of anatomy and surgery, who was influential in establishing surgery as a scientific medical profession.
William Cowper (c. 1666 – 8 March 1709) was an English surgeon and anatomist, famous for his early description of what is now known as the Cowper's gland.
William Hunter (23 May 1718 – 30 March 1783) was a Scottish anatomist and physician.
William Shippen Sr. (October 1, 1712November 4, 1801) was an American physician from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
In human anatomy, the wrist is variously defined as 1) the carpus or carpal bones, the complex of eight bones forming the proximal skeletal segment of the hand;Behnke 2006, p. 76. "The wrist contains eight bones, roughly aligned in two rows, known as the carpal bones."Moore 2006, p. 485. "The wrist (carpus), the proximal segment of the hand, is a complex of eight carpal bones. The carpus articulates proximally with the forearm at the wrist joint and distally with the five metacarpals. The joints formed by the carpus include the wrist (radiocarpal joint), intercarpal, carpometacarpal and intermetacarpal joints. Augmenting movement at the wrist joint, the rows of carpals glide on each other " (2) the wrist joint or radiocarpal joint, the joint between the radius and the carpus and (3) the anatomical region surrounding the carpus including the distal parts of the bones of the forearm and the proximal parts of the metacarpus or five metacarpal bones and the series of joints between these bones, thus referred to as wrist joints.Behnke 2006, p. 77. "With the large number of bones composing the wrist (ulna, radius, eight carpas, and five metacarpals), it makes sense that there are many, many joints that make up the structure known as the wrist."Baratz 1999, p. 391. "The wrist joint is composed of not only the radiocarpal and distal radioulnar joints but also the intercarpal articulations." This region also includes the carpal tunnel, the anatomical snuff box, bracelet lines, the flexor retinaculum, and the extensor retinaculum. As a consequence of these various definitions, fractures to the carpal bones are referred to as carpal fractures, while fractures such as distal radius fracture are often considered fractures to the wrist.
The xiphisternal joint (or xiphisternal synchondrosis) is a location near the bottom of the sternum, where the body of the sternum and the xiphoid process meet.
The xiphoid process, or xiphisternum or metasternum, is a small cartilaginous process (extension) of the lower (inferior) part of the sternum, which is usually ossified in the adult human.
The zygomatic arch, or cheek bone, is formed by the zygomatic process of the temporal bone (a bone extending forward from the side of the skull, over the opening of the ear) and the temporal process of the zygomatic bone (the side of the cheekbone), the two being united by an oblique suture (zygomaticotemporal suture); the tendon of the temporalis passes medial to the arch to gain insertion into the coronoid process of the mandible.
In the human skull, the zygomatic bone (cheekbone or malar bone) is a paired bone which articulates with the maxilla, the temporal bone, the sphenoid bone and the frontal bone.
The zygomatic nerve is not to be confused with the zygomatic branches of the facial nerve. The zygomatic nerve (temporomalar nerve; orbital nerve) is a branch of the maxillary nerve (CN V2, itself a branch of the trigeminal nerve) that enters the orbit and helps to supply the skin over the zygomatic and temporal bones.
The middle temporal artery occasionally gives off a zygomatico-orbital branch, which runs along the upper border of the zygomatic arch, between the two layers of the temporal fascia, to the lateral angle of the orbit.
The zygomatico-orbital foramina are two canals in the skull.
The zygomaticofacial foramen is a small aperture.
The zygomaticus major is a muscle of the human body.
The zygomaticus minor is a muscle of facial expression.
Human Anatomy, List of anatomical topics, List of anatomists, List of basic human anatomy topics, Outline of anatomy, Outline of the human reproductive system, Topic outline of anatomy, Topic outline of human anatomy, Topical outline of human anatomy.