231 relations: Acoustic Doppler velocimetry, Alf Howard, Alireza Shokoohi, American Geophysical Union, American Society of Civil Engineers, American Water Resources Association, Anemometer, Antecedent moisture, Aqueous solution, Aquifer test, Arturo Sanchez-Azofeifa, Barometer, Baseflow, Behavioral modeling in hydrology, Bojidar Spiriev, Bowen ratio, British Hydrological Society, Campbell–Stokes recorder, Canadian Land Surface Scheme, Capacitance probe, Catastrophe modeling, Catchment hydrology, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Chézy formula, Chen Xing (hydrologist), CHyM – Cetemps Hydrological Model, Civil engineering, Climatology, Condensation, Cryosphere, Czesław Zakaszewski, Dam, Darcy's law, Darcy–Weisbach equation, Desertification, DHI (company), Disc permeameter, Disdrometer, Drainage basin, Drinking water, Drizzle, DSSAM Model, Dupuit–Forchheimer assumption, Earth, Earth science, Ecohydrology, Eddy covariance, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Endre Dudich, Environmental engineering, ..., Environmental engineering science, Erosion, Evaporation, Evapotranspiration, FEHM, Fick's laws of diffusion, Field capacity, First flush, Flash flood, Flood, Flood forecasting, Flood Modeller Pro, Flood warning, Fog collection, François-Alphonse Forel, Frequency domain sensor, G. H. Dury, Günter Blöschl, Gedeon Dagan, Generalised likelihood uncertainty estimation, Geography, Geological Society of America, Geomorphology, Giovanni Roncagli, Graupel, Groundwater, Groundwater flow equation, Groundwater model, GSSHA, Hack's law, Hail, HBV hydrology model, Heat flux sensor, HEC-HMS, Hein de Baar, Hjulström curve, Horton overland flow, Hydra (skater), Hydraulic engineering, Hydroacoustics, Hydroelectricity, Hydrogeology, HydroGeoSphere, Hydrography, Hydroinformatics, Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance, Hydrologic Research Center (US), Hydrological transport model, Hydrology, Hydrology (agriculture), Hydrometeorology, Hydrometry, Hygrometer, Hypoxia (environmental), Infiltration (hydrology), Infiltrometer, Infrared thermometer, Interception (water), International Association of Hydrogeologists, International Association of Hydrological Sciences, International Hydrological Programme, International Water Management Institute, Irrigation, Isochrone map, Isotope hydrology, James Dooge, Jan Vladimír Hráský, Jasper A. Vrugt, John R. Philip, John Wiley & Sons, John Williams (water scientist), Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, Journal of Hydrology, Landslide, Level (instrument), Lidar, Limnology, List of drainage basins by area, List of floods, List of waterways, Lysimeter, Majid Hassanizadeh, Manning formula, METRIC, Michal Kravčík, MIKE 11, MODFLOW, Mouse (software), Nash–Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient, National Ground Water Association, National Hydrology Research Centre, National Institute of Hydrology, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service, Natural science, Nephelometer, Net radiometer, Neutron probe, Oasification, Oceanography, Origin of water on Earth, Outline (list), Outline of meteorology, Outline of physical science, Pan evaporation, Penman equation, Penman–Monteith equation, PH meter, Philipp Forchheimer, Physical geography, Pieter Harting, Piezometer, Pipeflow, Pollution, Precipitation, Pressure sensor, Pyranometer, Pyrgeometer, Rain, Rain and snow mixed, Rain gauge, Remote sensing, Resistance thermometer, RheinBlick2050, Richards equation, Runoff model (reservoir), Saeid Eslamian, SahysMod, SaltMod, Sanitary sewer, Science, Scintillometer, Secchi disk, Sedcad, Sedimentation, Shahbaz Khan (hydrologist), SHETRAN, Slug test, Snow, Soil, Sound pressure, Spectroradiometer, Standard step method, Stemflow, Stochastic empirical loading and dilution model, Strahler number, Subsurface flow, Surface runoff, Surface water, Surface-water hydrology, SWAT model, Temporal Analyst, Tensiometer (soil science), Thermometer, Throughfall, Time-domain reflectometer, Torben Larsen, United States Army Corps of Engineers, United States Geological Survey, Valeryan Uryvaev, Ven Te Chow, Vflo, Vit Klemes, WAFLEX, Water, Water balance, Water cycle, Water distribution on Earth, Water pollution, Water potential, Water quality, Water Research, Water resources, Water Resources Research, Water supply, WaterGAP, WEAP, Weather radar, Wind profiler, Winkler test for dissolved oxygen, ZOOMQ3D. Expand index (181 more) » « Shrink index
Acoustic Doppler velocimetry (ADV) is designed to record instantaneous velocity components at a single-point with a relatively high frequency.
Alf Howard (30 April 1906 – 4 July 2010) was an Australian scientist, educator and explorer.
Alireza Shokoohi is an Iranian hydrologist, Professor at Imam Khomeini International University and guest researcher at the University of Oklahoma.
The American Geophysical Union (AGU) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization of geophysicists, consisting of over 62,000 members from 144 countries.
The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) is a tax-exempt professional body founded in 1852 to represent members of the civil engineering profession worldwide.
Founded in 1964, the American Water Resources Association (AWRA) is a non-profit professional association dedicated to the advancement of men and women in water resources management, research, and education.
An anemometer is a device used for measuring the speed of wind, and is also a common weather station instrument.
In hydrology and sewage collection and disposal, antecedent moisture is the relative wetness or dryness of a watershed or sanitary sewershed.
An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water.
An aquifer test (or a pumping test) is conducted to evaluate an aquifer by "stimulating" the aquifer through constant pumping, and observing the aquifer's "response" (drawdown) in observation wells.
Gerardo Arturo Sánchez-Azofeifa is a full professor at the University of Alberta, the director of the university's Center for Earth Observation Sciences, and the director of Tropi-Dry, a research group focusing on land use/policy studies in tropical dry regions of the Americas.
A barometer is a scientific instrument used in meteorology to measure atmospheric pressure.
Baseflow is the portion of the streamflow that is sustained between precipitation events, fed to streams by delayed pathways.
In hydrology, behavioral modeling is a modeling approach that focuses on the modeling of the behavior of hydrological systems.
In meteorology and hydrology, the Bowen ratio is used to describe the type of heat transfer in a water body.
The British Hydrological Society (BHS) was formed in 1983 to advance interest and scholarship in scientific and applied aspects of hydrology and encourage member involvement in relevant national and international professional activities, drawing its membership from academic (universities and research institutes) and operational sectors.
The Campbell–Stokes recorder (sometimes called a Stokes sphere) is a kind of sunshine recorder.
The Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS) is a land surface parametrization scheme for use in large scale climate models.
Capacitance sensors (or Dielectric sensors) use capacitance to measure the dielectric permittivity of a surrounding medium.
Catastrophe modeling (also known as cat modeling) is the process of using computer-assisted calculations to estimate the losses that could be sustained due to a catastrophic event such as a hurricane or earthquake.
Catchment hydrology, is the study of the hydrology in drainage basins.
The Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH) is the United Kingdom's Centre of Excellence for integrated research in hydrology, terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems and their interaction with the atmosphere.
In fluid dynamics, the Chézy formula describes the mean flow velocity of steady, turbulent open channel flow: where.
Chen Xing (July 1921 in Nanjing (Reflections of an old expert: Scientific water management gives us control over water; unscientific water management brings water disasters) 2006-02-27) was one of China's foremost hydrologists and was involved in the design of the Banqiao Dam.
CHyM (Cetemps Hydrological Model) is a distributed grid-based hydrological model developed by Cetemps Center of Excellence at the University of L'Aquila.
Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works such as roads, bridges, canals, dams, airports, sewerage systems, pipelines, and railways.
Climatology (from Greek κλίμα, klima, "place, zone"; and -λογία, -logia) or climate science is the scientific study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time.
Condensation is the change of the physical state of matter from gas phase into liquid phase, and is the reverse of vapourisation.
The cryosphere (from the Greek κρύος kryos, "cold", "frost" or "ice" and σφαῖρα sphaira, "globe, ball") is those portions of Earth's surface where water is in solid form, including sea ice, lake ice, river ice, snow cover, glaciers, ice caps, ice sheets, and frozen ground (which includes permafrost).
Czesław Zakaszewski (July 19, 1886 in Warsaw – February 2, 1959 in Warsaw) was a Polish hydrotechnician and meliorator.
A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water or underground streams.
Darcy's law is an equation that describes the flow of a fluid through a porous medium.
In fluid dynamics, the Darcy–Weisbach equation is a phenomenological equation, which relates the head loss, or pressure loss, due to friction along a given length of pipe to the average velocity of the fluid flow for an incompressible fluid.
Desertification is a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry area of land becomes increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife.
DHI, previously known as DHI - Institut for Vand og Miljø (DHI – Institute for Water and Environment), is an international software development and engineering consultant firm headquartered in Denmark which specializes in hydraulic and hydrological modeling software.
The disc permeameter is a field instrument used for measuring water infiltration in the soil, which is characterized by in situ saturated and unsaturated soil hydraulic properties.
A disdrometer is an instrument used to measure the drop size distribution and velocity of falling hydrometeors.
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.
Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.
Drizzle is a light liquid precipitation consisting of liquid water drops smaller than those of rain – generally smaller than in diameter.
The DSSAM Model (Dynamic Stream Simulation and Assessment Model) is a computer simulation developed for the Truckee River to analyze water quality impacts from land use and wastewater management decisions in the Truckee River Basin.
The Dupuit–Forchheimer assumption holds that groundwater flows horizontally in an unconfined aquifer and that the groundwater discharge is proportional to the saturated aquifer thickness.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of natural science related to the planet Earth.
Ecohydrology (from Greek οἶκος, oikos, "house(hold)"; ὕδωρ, hydōr, "water"; and -λογία, -logia) is an interdisciplinary field studying the interactions between water and ecosystems.
The eddy covariance (also known as eddy correlation and eddy flux) technique is a key atmospheric measurement technique to measure and calculate vertical turbulent fluxes within atmospheric boundary layers.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
Endre Dudich (20 March 1895 – 5 February 1971) was a Hungarian Kossuth Prize-winning professor, academician, and zoologist, noted for his application of mathematical methods for variational study of insects.
Environmental engineering system is the branch of engineering concerned with the application of scientific and engineering principles for protection of human populations from the effects of adverse environmental factors; protection of environments, both local and global, from potentially deleterious effects of natural and human activities; and improvement of environmental quality.
Environmental engineering science (EES) is a multidisciplinary field of engineering science that combines the biological, chemical and physical sciences with the field of engineering.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.
Evapotranspiration (ET) is the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration from the Earth's land and ocean surface to the atmosphere.
FEHM is a groundwater model that has been developed in the at Los Alamos National Laboratory over the past 30 years.
Fick's laws of diffusion describe diffusion and were derived by Adolf Fick in 1855.
Field Capacity is the amount of soil moisture or water content held in the soil after excess water has drained away and the rate of downward movement has decreased.
First flush is the initial surface runoff of a rainstorm.
A flash flood is a rapid flooding of geomorphic low-lying areas: washes, rivers, dry lakes and basins.
A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry.
Flood forecasting is the use of forecasted precipitation and streamflow data in rainfall-runoff and streamflow routing models to forecast flow rates and water levels for periods ranging from a few hours to days ahead, depending on the size of the watershed or river basin.
Flood Modeller Pro is a computer program that simulates the flow of water through river channels and across floodplains using a range of one- and two-dimensional hydraulic solvers, developed by Jacobs.
A Flood warning is closely linked to the task of flood forecasting.
"Atrapanieblas" or fog collection in Alto Patache, Atacama Desert, Chile. Fog collection refers to the collection of water from fog using large pieces of vertical canvas to make the fog-droplets flow down towards a trough below the canvas, known as a fog fence.
François-Alphonse Forel (February 2, 1841 – August 7, 1912) was a Swiss scientist who pioneered the study of lakes, and is thus considered the founder of limnology.
Frequency domain (FD) sensor is an instrument developed for measuring soil moisture content.
George Harry Dury (11 September 1916 – 4 October 1996)James C. Knox, "Dury, George Harry (1916–1996)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford, UK: OUP, 2011).
Professor Günter Blöschl (born 11 July 1961) is an Austrian hydrologist, engineer and academic.
Gedeon Dagan (born December 24, 1932) is a professor Emeritus of Hydrology, School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Israel.
Generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) is a statistical method used in hydrology for quantifying the uncertainty of model predictions.
Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.
The Geological Society of America (GSA) is a nonprofit organization dedicated to the advancement of the geosciences.
Geomorphology (from Ancient Greek: γῆ, gê, "earth"; μορφή, morphḗ, "form"; and λόγος, lógos, "study") is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface.
Giovanni Roncagli (1857–1929) was an Italian naval officer and hydrographer.
Graupel (Enɡlish), also called soft hail or snow pellets, is precipitation that forms when supercooled water droplets are collected and freeze on falling snowflakes, forming balls of rime.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
Used in hydrogeology, the groundwater flow equation is the mathematical relationship which is used to describe the flow of groundwater through an aquifer.
Groundwater models are computer models of groundwater flow systems, and are used by hydrogeologists.
GSSHA (Gridded Surface/Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis) is a two-dimensional, physically based watershed model developed by the Engineer Research and Development Center of the United States Army Corps of Engineers.
Hack's law is an empirical relationship between the length of streams and the area of their basins.
Hail is a form of solid precipitation.
The HBV hydrology model, or Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning model, is a computer simulation used to analyze river discharge and water pollution.
A heat flux sensor is a transducer that generates an electrical signal proportional to the total heat rate applied to the surface of the sensor.
The Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) is designed to simulate the precipitation-runoff processes of dendritic drainage basins.
Henricus "Hein" J.W. de Baar (born 18 November 1949, The Hague) is a Dutch professor of Oceanography.
The Hjulström curve, named after Filip Hjulström (1902–1982), is a graph used by hydrologists and geologists to determine whether a river will erode, transport, or deposit sediment.
In soil science, Horton overland flow describes the tendency of water to flow horizontally across land surfaces when rainfall has exceeded infiltration capacity and depression storage capacity.
Jennifer Wilson, known as Hydra, is a roller derby skater who has played a leading role in the development of the sport.
Hydraulic engineering as a sub-discipline of civil engineering is concerned with the flow and conveyance of fluids, principally water and sewage.
Hydroacoustics is the study and application of sound in water.
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
Hydrogeology (hydro- meaning water, and -geology meaning the study of the Earth) is the area of geology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earth's crust (commonly in aquifers).
HydroGeoSphere (HGS) is a 3D control-volume finite element groundwater model, and is based on a rigorous conceptualization of the hydrologic system consisting of surface and subsurface flow regimes.
Hydrography is the branch of applied sciences which deals with the measurement and description of the physical features of oceans, seas, coastal areas, lakes and rivers, as well as with the prediction of their change over time, for the primary purpose of safety of navigation and in support of all other marine activities, including economic development, security and defence, scientific research, and environmental protection.
Hydroinformatics is a branch of informatics which concentrates on the application of information and communications technologies (ICTs) in addressing the increasingly serious problems of the equitable and efficient use of water for many different purposes.
The Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model is a quasi-two-dimensional hydrologic numerical model for conducting water balance analysis of landfills, cover systems, and other solid waste containment facilities; it was developed for the United States Environmental Protection Agency.
Hydrologic Research Center (HRC), founded in 1993, is a public-benefit non-profit research, technology transfer, and science cooperation and education organization, dedicated to the development of effective and sustainable solutions to global water issues.
An hydrological transport model is a mathematical model used to simulate river or stream flow and calculate water quality parameters.
Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.
Agricultural hydrology is the study of water balance components intervening in agricultural water management, especially in irrigation and drainage.
Hydrometeorology is a branch of meteorology and hydrology that studies the transfer of water and energy between the land surface and the lower atmosphere.
Hydrometry is the monitoring of the components of the hydrological cycle including rainfall, groundwater characteristics, as well as water quality and flow characteristics of surface waters.
A hygrometer is an instrument used for measuring the amount of humidity and water vapor in the atmosphere, in soil, or in confined spaces.
Hypoxia refers to low oxygen conditions.
Infiltration is the process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil.
An infiltrometer is a device used to measure the rate of water infiltration into soil or other porous media.
An infrared thermometer is a thermometer which infers temperature from a portion of the thermal radiation sometimes called black-body radiation emitted by the object being measured.
Interception refers to precipitation that does not reach the soil, but is instead intercepted by the leaves, branches of plants and the forest floor.
The International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH) is a scientific and educational organisation whose aims are to promote research into and understanding of the proper management and protection of groundwater for the common good throughout the world.
The International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) is a non-profit non-governmental scientific organization committed to serving the science of hydrology and the worldwide community of hydrologists.
The International Hydrological Programme (IHP) is UNESCO’s international scientific cooperative program in water research, water resource management,, and capacity- building, and the only broadly based science program of the UN system in this area.
The International Water Management Institute (IWMI) is a non-profit research organisation with headquarters in Colombo, Sri Lanka, and offices across Africa and Asia.
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
An isochrone map (or chart/plan/diagram) in science and urban planning is a map showing areas related to isochrones between different points.
Isotope hydrology is a field of hydrology that uses isotopic dating to estimate the age and origins of water and of movement within the hydrologic cycle.
James Clement Dooge (30 July 1922 – 20 August 2010) was an Irish Fine Gael politician, engineer, climatologist, hydrologist and academic who served as Minister for Foreign Affairs from 1981 to 1982, Leader of Seanad Éireann and Leader of Fine Gael in the Seanad from 1982 to 1987 and Cathaoirleach of Seanad Éireann from 1973 to 1977.
Jan Vladimír Hráský (1857–1939) was a Czech architect, builder, engineer, and hydrologist.
Jasper A. Vrugt (born 1976) is a Dutch scientist/engineer/applied mathematician known for his work in the earth sciences: surface hydrology, soil physics, hydrogeophysics, hydrometeorology, and geophysics.
John Robert Philip AO FAA FRS (18 January 1927, Ballarat26 June 1999, Amsterdam) was an Australian soil physicist and hydrologist, internationally recognised for his contributions to the understanding of movement of water, energy and gases.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
John Williams is an Australian scientist whose life work has been in the study of hydrology and the use of water in the landscape and farming, including land salinity.
The Journal of Hydrologic Engineering is a monthly engineering journal, that was first published by the American Society of Civil Engineers in 1996.
Journal of Hydrology is a peer-reviewed academic journal about hydrological sciences including water based management and related policy issues.
The term landslide or, less frequently, landslip, refers to several forms of mass wasting that include a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep-seated slope failures, mudflows and debris flows.
A level is a surveying optical instrument used to establish or verify points in the same horizontal plane.
Lidar (also called LIDAR, LiDAR, and LADAR) is a surveying method that measures distance to a target by illuminating the target with pulsed laser light and measuring the reflected pulses with a sensor.
Limnology (from Greek λίμνη, limne, "lake" and λόγος, logos, "knowledge"), is the study of inland aquatic ecosystems.
The list of drainage basins by area identifies basins (also known as watersheds or catchments), sorted by area, which drain to oceans, mediterranean seas, rivers, lakes and other water bodies.
This is a list of major floods.
This is a list of waterways, defined as navigable rivers, canals, estuaries, lakes, or firths.
A lysimeter (from Greek λύσις (loosening) and the suffix -meter) is a measuring device which can be used to measure the amount of actual evapotranspiration which is released by plants (usually crops or trees).
Seyed Majid Hassanizadeh (born 1952) is a professor of hydrogeology at Utrecht University, where he heads the Hydrogeology group at the Faculty of Geosciences.
The Manning formula is also known as the Gauckler–Manning formula, or Gauckler–Manning–Strickler formula in Europe.
METRIC (Mapping EvapoTranspiration at high Resolution with Internalized Calibration) is a computer model developed by the University of Idaho, that uses Landsat satellite data to compute and map evapotranspiration (ET).
Michal Kravčík (born 3 February 1956) is a Slovak hydrologist and environmentalist.
MIKE 11 is a computer program that simulates flow and water level, water quality and sediment transport in rivers, flood plains, irrigation canals, reservoirs and other inland water bodies.
MODFLOW is the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference flow model, which is a computer code that solves the groundwater flow equation.
MOUSE, short for MOdel for Urban SEwers, is a computer program that models collection system for urban wastewater and stormwater.
The Nash–Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (NSE) is used to assess the predictive power of hydrological models.
The National Ground Water Association (NGWA), headquartered in Westerville, Ohio, is a membership-based nonprofit organization.
The National Hydrology Research Centre is located in a dedicated building on the Innovation Place Research Park campus in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
National Institute of Hydrology (NIH) is an autonomous society under Ministry of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation, Government of India and has been functioning as a research Institute in the area of hydrology and water resources in the country since December 1978 in Roorkee City.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
The National Weather Service (NWS) is an agency of the United States Federal Government that is tasked with providing weather forecasts, warnings of hazardous weather, and other weather-related products to organizations and the public for the purposes of protection, safety, and general information.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
A nephelometer is an instrument for measuring concentration of suspended particulates in a liquid or gas colloid.
A net radiometer is a type of actinometer used to measure net radiation (NR) at the Earth's surface for meteorological applications.
A neutron probe is a device used to measure the quantity of water present in soil.
In hydrology, oasification is the antonym to desertification by soil erosion; this technique has limited application and is normally considered for much smaller areas than those threatened by desertification.
Oceanography (compound of the Greek words ὠκεανός meaning "ocean" and γράφω meaning "write"), also known as oceanology, is the study of the physical and biological aspects of the ocean.
The origin of water on Earth, or the reason that there is clearly more liquid water on Earth than on the other rocky planets of the Solar System, is not completely understood.
An outline, also called a hierarchical outline, is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships and is a type of tree structure.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to meteorology: Meteorology – interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere which explains and forecasts weather events.
Physical science is a branch of natural science that studies non-living systems, in contrast to life science.
Pan evaporation is a measurement that combines or integrates the effects of several climate elements: temperature, humidity, rain fall, drought dispersion, solar radiation, and wind.
The Penman equation describes evaporation (E) from an open water surface, and was developed by Howard Penman in 1948.
Like the Penman equation, the Penman–Monteith equation (after Howard Penman and John Monteith) approximates net evapotranspiration (ET), requiring as input daily mean temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and solar radiation.
A pH meter is a scientific instrument that measures the hydrogen-ion activity in water-based solutions, indicating its acidity or alkalinity expressed as pH.
Philipp Forchheimer (7 August 1852 in Vienna – 2 October 1933 in Dürnstein, Lower Austria) was an Austrian engineer, a pioneer in the field of civil engineering and practical hydraulics.
Physical geography (also known as geosystems or physiography) is one of the two major sub-fields of geography.
Pieter Harting (27 February 1812 – 3 December 1885) was a Dutch biologist and naturalist, born in Rotterdam.
A piezometer is either a device used to measure liquid pressure in a system by measuring the height to which a column of the liquid rises against gravity, or a device which measures the pressure (more precisely, the piezometric head) of groundwater at a specific point.
In hydrology, pipeflow is a type of subterranean water flow where water travels along cracks in the soil or old root systems found in above ground vegetation.
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
A pressure sensor is a device for pressure measurement of gases or liquids.
A pyranometer is a type of actinometer used for measuring solar irradiance on a planar surface and it is designed to measure the solar radiation flux density (W/m2) from the hemisphere above within a wavelength range 0.3 μm to 3 μm.
A pyrgeometer is a device that measures near-surface infra-red radiation spectrum in the wavelength spectrum approximately from 4.5 µm to 100 µm.
Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then becomes heavy enough to fall under gravity.
Rain and snow mixed is precipitation composed of rain and partially melted snow.
A rain gauge (also known as an udometer, pluviometer, or an ombrometer) is an instrument used by meteorologists and hydrologists to gather and measure the amount of liquid precipitation over a set period of time.
Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation.
Resistance thermometers, also called resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), are sensors used to measure temperature.
RheinBlick2050 is an environmental science research project on the impacts of regional climate change on discharge of the Rhine River and its major tributaries (here: Moselle and Main rivers) in Central Europe.
The Richards equation represents the movement of water in unsaturated soils, and was formulated by Lorenzo A. Richards in 1931.
A runoff model is a mathematical model describing the rainfall–runoff relations of a rainfall catchment area, drainage basin or watershed.
Saeid Eslamian is a Full Professor of Hydrology and Water Resources Sustainability at Isfahan University of Technology in the Department of Water Engineering.
SahysMod is a computer program for the prediction of the salinity of soil moisture, groundwater and drainage water, the depth of the watertable, and the drain discharge in irrigated agricultural lands, using different hydrogeologic and aquifer conditions, varying water management options, including the use of ground water for irrigation, and several crop rotation schedules, whereby the spatial variations are accounted for through a network of polygons.
SaltMod is computer program for the prediction of the salinity of soil moisture, groundwater and drainage water, the depth of the watertable, and the drain discharge (hydrology) in irrigated agricultural lands, using different (geo)hydrologic conditions, varying water management options, including the use of ground water for irrigation, and several cropping rotation schedules.
A sanitary sewer or "foul sewer" is an underground carriage system specifically for transporting sewage from houses and commercial buildings through pipes to treatment facilities or disposal.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
A scintillometer is a scientific device used to measure small fluctuations of the refractive index of air caused by variations in temperature, humidity, and pressure.
The Secchi disk, as created in 1865 by Angelo Secchi, is a plain white, circular disk in diameter used to measure water transparency or turbidity in bodies of water.
SEDCAD is a comprehensive hydrology and sedimentology package, useful for runoff and sediment control design calculations.
Sedimentation is the tendency for particles in suspension to settle out of the fluid in which they are entrained and come to rest against a barrier.
Shahbaz Khan (born in Jhelum Pakistan) is an Australian climatologist and hydrologist.
SHETRAN is a hydrological modelling system for water flow, solute and sediment transport in river catchments.
A slug test is a particular type of aquifer test where water is quickly added or removed from a groundwater well, and the change in hydraulic head is monitored through time, to determine the near-well aquifer characteristics.
Snow refers to forms of ice crystals that precipitate from the atmosphere (usually from clouds) and undergo changes on the Earth's surface.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
Sound pressure or acoustic pressure is the local pressure deviation from the ambient (average or equilibrium) atmospheric pressure, caused by a sound wave.
Spectroradiometers are devices designed to measure the spectral power distribution of a source.
The standard step method (STM) is a computational technique utilized to estimate one-dimensional surface water profiles in open channels with gradually varied flow under steady state conditions.
In hydrology, stemflow is the flow of intercepted water down the trunk or stem of a plant.
The stochastic empirical loading and dilution model (SELDM)Granato, G.E., 2013, Stochastic empirical loading and dilution model (SELDM) version 1.0.0: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 4, chap.
In mathematics, the Strahler number or Horton–Strahler number of a mathematical tree is a numerical measure of its branching complexity.
Subsurface flow, in hydrology, is the flow of water beneath earth's surface as part of the water cycle.
Surface runoff (also known as overland flow) is the flow of water that occurs when excess stormwater, meltwater, or other sources flows over the Earth's surface.
Surface water is water on the surface of the planet such as in a river, lake, wetland, or ocean.
Surface-water hydrology is a field that encompasses all surface waters of the globe (overland flows, rivers, lakes, wetlands, estuaries, oceans, etc.). This is a subset of the hydrologic cycle that does not include atmospheric, and ground waters.
SWAT (Soil & Water Assessment Tool) is a river basin scale model developed to quantify the impact of land management practices in large, complex watersheds.
Temporal Analyst is an extension of ArcMap (ESRI) for storage, management, processing, plotting and analysis of virtually any time-related data inside ArcGISTM application and was developed by DHI.
A tensiometer in soil science is a measuring instrument used to determine the matric water potential (\Psi_m) (soil moisture tension) in the vadose zone.
A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or a temperature gradient.
In Hydrology, throughfall is the process which describes how wet leaves shed excess water onto the ground surface.
A time-domain reflectometer (TDR) is an electronic instrument that uses time-domain reflectometry to characterize and locate faults in metallic cables (for example, twisted pair wire or coaxial cable).
Torben Larsen (May 1, 1942) is a noted Danish scientist working in the field of hydrology and water pollution.
The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is a U.S. federal agency under the Department of Defense and a major Army command made up of some 37,000 civilian and military personnel, making it one of the world's largest public engineering, design, and construction management agencies.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
Valeryan Andreyevich Uryvaev was an eminent Soviet hydrologist and the head of Russian State Hydrological Institute in 1942-1968.
Ven Te Chow (周文德), (October 7, 1919, Hangzhou, China, – July 30, 1981), was an engineer and educator.
Vflo is a commercially available, physics-based distributed hydrologic model generated by Vflo uses radar rainfall data for hydrologic input to simulate distributed runoff.
Vit Klemes (30 April 1932 – 8 March 2010) was a Canadian hydrologist of Czech origin.
WAFLEX is a spreadsheet-based model.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
In hydrology, a water balance equation can be used to describe the flow of water in and out of a system.
The water cycle, also known as the hydrological cycle or the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth.
Water is distributed across earth.
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities.
Water potential is the potential energy of water per unit volume relative to pure water in reference conditions.
Water quality refers to the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological characteristics of water.
Water Research is a journal of the International Water Association, and publishes research on the science and technology of water quality and its management.
Water resources are natural resources of water that are potentially useful.
Water Resources Research is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Geophysical Union, covering research in the social and natural sciences of water.
Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities commercial organisations, community endeavors or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes.
The global freshwater model WaterGAP calculates flows and storages of water on all continents of the globe (except Antarctica), taking into account the human influence on the natural freshwater system by water abstractions and dams.
WEAP: the Water Evaluation And Planning system is a Windows-based decision support system for integrated water resources management and policy analysis.
Weather radar, also called weather surveillance radar (WSR) and Doppler weather radar, is a type of radar used to locate precipitation, calculate its motion, and estimate its type (rain, snow, hail etc.). Modern weather radars are mostly pulse-Doppler radars, capable of detecting the motion of rain droplets in addition to the intensity of the precipitation.
A wind profiler is a type of weather observing equipment that uses radar or sound waves (SODAR) to detect the wind speed and direction at various elevations above the ground.
The Winkler test is used to determine the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water samples.
ZOOMQ3D is a numerical finite-difference model, which simulates groundwater flow in aquifers.