886 relations: Account planning, Acorn, Ad blocking, Ad serving, Ad tracking, Adolescents and food marketing, Advertising, Advertising Age, Advertising agency, Advertising board, Advertising campaign, Advertising in video games, Advertising management, Advertising media selection, Advertising postcard, Advertising research, Advertising slogan, Advertising to children, Adweek, Aerial advertising, Affiliate marketing, Affinity marketing, Aggressiveness strategy, Agricultural marketing, Agricultural value chain, AIDA (marketing), AISDALSLove, Al Ries, Alcohol advertising, Algorithmic pricing, Ambush marketing, American Advertising Museum, American Marketing Association, Andrew S. C. Ehrenberg, Ansoff Matrix, Arabber, Arch Wilkinson Shaw, Arthur Nielsen, Artificial neural network, Arts Marketing Association, Aspirational age, Aspirational brand, Association of National Advertisers, Attack marketing, Attention (advertising), AttentionTracking, Attitude (psychology), Attitudinal targeting, Audience measurement, Audience response, ..., Augmented reality, Australian Market and Social Research Society Limited, Automated retail, Bachelor of Business, Bachelor of Business Administration, Bait-and-switch, Banner blindness, Barriers to entry, Barriers to exit, Barter, Base point pricing, Bass diffusion model, Bazaar, Bazaari, Bedesten, Behavioral economics, Behavioral script, Behavioral targeting, Belief, Benchmarking, Big-box store, Billboard, Blindspots analysis, Blue Ocean Strategy, Borderless selling, Brand, Brand alliances, Brand ambassador, Brand architecture, Brand aversion, Brand awareness, Brand community, Brand development index, Brand equity, Brand extension, Brand implementation, Brand language, Brand licensing, Brand loyalty, Brand management, Brand preference, Brand relationship, Brand strength analysis, Brand tribalism, Brand valuation, Branded asset management, Branded content, Brandweek, Break-even (economics), Broker, Bus advertising, Business analysis, Business marketing, Business plan, Business-to-business, Business-to-government, Buzz monitoring, Byron Sharp, Campaign advertising, Canadian Marketing Association, Cannibalization (marketing), Canonical analysis, Capability management in business, Capitalism, Category development index (marketing), Category killer, Cause marketing, Cause-related loyalty marketing, Celebrity branding, Certification mark, Chain store, Challenger brand, Change impact analysis, Charity shop, Charles Coolidge Parlin, Chi-square automatic interaction detection, Choice modelling, Christopher Lovelock, City marketing, Claritas Prizm, Clayton M. Christensen, Click fraud, Click-through rate, Closeout (sale), Closing (sales), Cluster analysis, Cluster sampling, Co-branding, Co-creation, Co-marketing, Co-promotion, Commercial skipping, Commercialization, Community marketing, Company, Comparative advantage, Competitive advantage, Competitive intelligence, Competitor indexing, Computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software, Concept, Concept testing, Congestion pricing, Conjoint analysis, Construction Marketing Association, Consumer, Consumer behaviour, Consumer confusion, Consumer culture theory, Consumer privacy, Consumer socialization, Consumer-generated advertising, Consumerism, Content analysis, Content marketing, Contextual advertising, Contingency table, Contribution margin, Convenience store, Coolhunting, Copy testing, Copyright, Core competency, Corporate branding, Corporate communication, Corporate identity, Corporate social responsibility, Cosmetics advertising, Cost leadership, Cost per action, Cost per impression, Cost per mille, Cost the limit of price, Cost-plus pricing, Costermonger, Country-of-origin labeling, Creative work, Creativity, Cross-promotion, Crossing the Chasm, Crowdsourcing, Cult brand, Culture, Customer, Customer acquisition cost, Customer analytics, Customer data management, Customer engagement, Customer experience, Customer insight, Customer knowledge, Customer lifecycle management, Customer lifetime value, Customer relationship management, Customer satisfaction, Customer satisfaction research, Customer service, Customer Service System, Customer switching, Customer to customer, DAGMAR marketing, Daniel Starch, Data & Marketing Association, Database marketing, David Aaker, David Ogilvy (businessman), Decoy effect, Defensive strategy (marketing), Delphi method, Demand, Demand curve, Demand forecasting, Demand response, Demand-led growth, Demographic profile, Demographic targeting, Demography, Department store, Derived demand, Design, Design of experiments, Destination marketing organization, Diffusion (business), Diffusion of innovations, Digital billboard, Digital marketing, Digital signage, Direct marketing, Direct marketing association, Direct Marketing Association (South Africa), Direct Marketing Association (United Kingdom), Direct response television, Direct Selling Association, Disconfirmed expectancy, Discount store, Discounts and allowances, Display advertising, Display stand, Disruptive innovation, Distribution (marketing), Diversification (marketing strategy), Diversity marketing, Dominance (economics), Don E. Schultz, Dramaturgy (sociology), Drip pricing, Drop shipping, Dumping (pricing policy), Duopoly, Dynamic pricing, E-commerce, E. Jerome McCarthy, E. St. Elmo Lewis, Early adopter, Eco-innovation, Ecodesign, Economies of scale, Economies of scope, ECRM, Edward Filene, Effective frequency, Effects of advertising on teen body image, Elaboration likelihood model, Electroencephalography, Electronic signage, Email marketing, Email spam, Emerging issues analysis, Employer branding, Employment, End user, Engagement marketing, Ernest Dichter, Escola Superior de Propaganda e Marketing, Ethical consumerism, Ethnography, Euro Car Segment, European Marketing Research Centre, European Sponsorship Association, Evangelism marketing, Everyday low price, Exhibition, Experian, Experience curve effects, Exploratory research, Export parity price, Eye tracking, Factor analysis, Failure, Faith-based marketing, Family, Family in advertising, Fast food advertising, Fictional brand, Field marketing, Fighter brand, Financial transaction, Fire sale, Firmographics, First-mover advantage, Fish marketing, Fleet media, Focus group, Food marketing, Forecasting, Franchising, Front of house, Front office, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, Futures studies, Gap analysis, GE multifactoral analysis, Generic brand, Generic trademark, Geodemographic segmentation, Geodemography, Geographical pricing, George S. Day, Geotargeting, Gerald Ratner, Gerald Zaltman, Gimmick, Global marketing, Goods, Green brands, Green logistics, Green marketing, Grey market, Growth planning, Growth platforms, Growth–share matrix, Guerrilla marketing, Haat bazaar, Hallmark, Hawker (trade), Health marketing, Henry Charles Taylor, Henry Grady Weaver, Herfindahl index, High–low pricing, History of advertising, History of advertising in Britain, History of marketing, Horizontal integration, Household, Huckster, Human billboard, Hype cycle, Hypermarket, I'd Like to Teach the World to Sing (In Perfect Harmony), Idea, Ideation (creative process), Igor Ansoff, Imperfect competition, Import parity price, Impulse purchase, In-game advertising, Inattentional blindness, Inbound marketing, Incentive program, Index of accounting articles, Index of international trade topics, Individual branding, Industrial market segmentation, Industrial marketing, Industry classification, Influencer marketing, Infomercial, Ingredient branding, Innovation, Innovation game, Innovid, Inorganic growth, Inside Retailing, Intellectual property, Intent scale translation, Interactive advertising, Interactive kiosk, Interactive media, Intermarket segmentation, Internal communications, International Journal of Bank Marketing, International Journal of Research in Marketing, Internet, Internet branding, Inverse demand function, J. Walter Thompson, Jack Trout, James Walter Thompson, Jerry (Yoram) Wind, Jobber (fuel), Jobber (merchandising), John E. Jeuck, Joint product pricing, Journal of Consumer Research, Journal of Creative Communications, Journal of Marketing, Journal of Marketing Education, Journal of Marketing Research, Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, Journal of Service Research, Journal of Vacation Marketing, K-means clustering, Kelman's source characteristics, Kiosk, Labelling, Landa bazaar, Large-group awareness training, Latent class model, Law of agency, Law of demand, Law of supply, Lead generation, Lean product development, Learning, Leonard Berry (professor), LGBT marketing, Life-cycle assessment, Lifestyle (sociology), Lifestyle brand, Likert scale, Linear discriminant analysis, List of abbreviations for market segments, List of business theorists, List of Copyright Acts, List of department stores by country, List of economists, List of food labeling regulations, List of magazines by circulation, List of most watched television broadcasts, List of most-listened-to radio programs, List of renamed products, List of shopping streets and districts by city, List of supermarket chains, Lists of newspapers, Local store marketing, Logistics, Logistics engineering, Logit analysis in marketing, Logo, Loss aversion, Loss leader, Loyalty marketing, Loyalty program, Magazine, Managed services, Mandatory labelling, Market (economics), Market cannibalism, Market development, Market economy, Market entry strategy, Market environment, Market penetration, Market power, Market research, Market Research Society, Market segmentation, Market segmentation index, Market share, Market share analysis, Market town, Market value, Marketing, Marketing (British magazine), Marketing (magazine), Marketing buzz, Marketing channel, Marketing effectiveness, Marketing ethics, Marketing information system, Marketing intelligence, Marketing management, Marketing mix, Marketing myopia, Marketing of Halo 3, Marketing performance measurement, Marketing plan, Marketing research, Marketing Research Association, Marketing Science (journal), Marketing strategy, Marketing Theory, Marketing Week, Marketplace, Markup (business), Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Mass customization, Mass marketing, Mass media, Master of Business Administration, Master of Marketing Research, Media context studies (Advertising research), Media planning, Mediaweek (Australia), Meena Bazaar, Megamarketing, Merchandising, Merchant, Mergers and acquisitions, Microsegment, Microsegmenting, Mind share, Mission statement, Mission-driven marketing, Mobile advertising, Mobile billboard, Monopolistic competition, Monopoly, Monopsony, Mosaic (geodemography), Motivation, Movement marketing, Movie theater, Multi-level marketing, Multidimensional scaling, Multimethodology, Multistage sampling, Musée de la Publicité, Museum of Brands, Packaging & Advertising, N. W. Ayer & Son, Nation branding, National brand, Native advertising, Need, Negotiation, Neil H. Borden, Neon message board, Neopets, Neuromarketing, New media, New product development, Newspaper, Newspaper circulation, Niche market, Nicotine marketing, Nielsen Audio, Nielsen Media Research, Nielsen ratings, Nominal group technique, Nonprobability sampling, Nonprofit organization, NVivo, Observational techniques, Oligopoly, Oligopsony, Online advertising, Online panel, Operating margin, Opinion leadership, Organic growth, Organization, Out-of-home advertising, Outline (list), Outline of business management, Outline of commercial law, Outline of economics, Outline of finance, Outline of production, Outsourcing, OzTAM, Packaging and labeling, Paid inclusion, Participatory design, Pasar malam, Pasar pagi, Patent, Paul E. Green, Pawnbroker, Pay for performance (healthcare), Pay-per-click, Peddler, Peer group, Penetration pricing, Perceptual mapping, Performance-based advertising, Persona (user experience), Personal selling, Personalized marketing, PEST analysis, Pester power, Pharmaceutical marketing, Pharmaceutical Marketing and Management, Philip Kotler, Physical attractiveness, Pink-collar worker, Planned obsolescence, Point of sale, Point of sale display, Pop-up ad, Pop-up retail, Porter's five forces analysis, Porter's generic strategies, Positioning (marketing), Post-click marketing, Postmodern marketing, Potato Marketing Corporation of WA, Precision marketing, Predictive buying, Preference regression, Preference-rank translation, Premium pricing, Presentation, Price ceiling, Price controls, Price discrimination, Price elasticity of demand, Price fixing, Price fixing cases, Price floor, Price gouging, Price mechanism, Price override, Price point, Price premium, Price signal, Price skimming, Price system, Price umbrella, Price war, Pricing objectives, Pricing science, Private label, Private Label Strategy, Produce Marketing Association, Product bundling, Product category volume, Product churning, Product design, Product differentiation, Product life-cycle management (marketing), Product life-cycle theory, Product lifecycle, Product line extension, Product lining, Product management, Product naming, Product placement, Product proliferation, Profit impact of marketing strategy, Profit maximization, Project portfolio management, Promotion (marketing), Promotion Marketing Association, Promotional merchandise, Prospect theory, Prospecting, PRWeek, Psychographic segmentation, Psychographics, Psychological pricing, Psychometrics, Purchase funnel, Purchasing power, Pyramid scheme, Q Score, Quality (business), Quality function deployment, Quality management, Quantitative research, Questionnaire construction, Rack jobber, Radio, Random forest, Rate of return pricing, Reach (advertising), Real prices and ideal prices, Rebadging, Rebranding, Reference group, Referral marketing, Relationship marketing, Relationship-based pricing, Resale price maintenance, Research and development, Reservation price, Resource-based view, Retail, Retail concentration, Retail design, Retail media, Retail software, Retailers' cooperative, Return on marketing investment, Reusable packaging, Revenue sharing, Reverse logistics, Richard S. Tedlow, Risk perception, Role theory, Rosser Reeves, Roy Morgan Research, Saddar Bazaar, Sagacity segmentation, Sales, Sales effectiveness, Sales force management system, Sales management, Sales process engineering, Sales Promotion (magazine), Sandwich board, Scale (social sciences), Scenario analysis, Scientific method, Search analytics, Search engine marketing, Search engine optimization, Seasonal packaging, Second-hand shop, Segmenting-targeting-positioning, Self-brand, Self-service, Semantic differential, Service (economics), Service blueprint, Service design, Service innovation, Service mark, Service mark symbol, Service quality, Service recovery, Service recovery paradox, Service system, Service-dominant logic, Serviceable available market, Services marketing, Servicescape, SERVQUAL, Seth Godin, Sex in advertising, Shadow price, Share a Coke, Share of voice, Share of wallet, Sharing economy, Shelby D. Hunt, Shill, Shock advertising, Shopper marketing, Shopping mall, Shrimp marketing, Signage, Silver hallmarks, Simple random sample, Site selection, Situation analysis, Skywriting, Sliding scale fees, Slip-Slop-Slap, Smarketing, SMART criteria, Social class, Social marketing, Social Marketing Quarterly, Social media, Social media marketing, Socially responsible marketing, Societal marketing, Soft launch, Solution selling, Sound trademark, Souq, Specialty catalogs, Speechwriter, Sponsor Magazine, Sports marketing, Stephen Vargo, Stockjobber, Store brand, Store manager, Storyboard, Strategic group, Strategic planning, Strategic service management, Stratified sampling, Streaming media, Street marketing, Street team, Strip mall, Structural equation modeling, Sub-niche market, Subculture, Subliminal stimuli, Subvertising, Supermarket, Supply and demand, Supply chain, Supply chain management, Survey methodology, Sustainability brand, Sustainability metrics and indices, Sustainable market orientation, Sustainable packaging, Switching barriers, SWOT analysis, Symbol-intensive brand, Systematic sampling, Target audience, Target costing, Targeted advertising, Technology acceptance model, Technology adoption life cycle, Technology life cycle, Telemarketing, Television, Television advertisement, Tertiary sector of the economy, Test market, The Advertising Archives, The Experience Economy, The Marketer, Theodore Levitt, Time marketing, Total addressable market, Tourist attraction, Trade, Trade fair, Trade secret, Trademark, Transaction cost, Transfer pricing, Transit media, Trend analysis, Truckside advertisement, Trust-based marketing, Two-part tariff, Umbrella brand, Unique selling proposition, Unit price, User innovation, Utility, Valarie Zeithaml, VALS, Value (economics), Value (ethics), Value (marketing), Value chain, Value migration, Value proposition, Value-based pricing, Value-in-use, Values Modes, Vance Packard, Variable pricing, Variety store, Vending machine, Vendor, Vendor lock-in, Vertical integration, View-through rate, Viral marketing, Virtual customer environment, Vision statement, Visual brand language, Visual merchandising, Want, Warehouse club, Warehouse store, Web analytics, Web banner, Website monetization, Wet market, White-label product, Whole product, Whole-life cost, Wholesale marketing of food, Wholesaling, William F. Eisner Museum of Advertising & Design, Willingness to pay, Window shopping, Wine label, Word of mouth, Word-of-mouth marketing, Wrap advertising, Wroe Alderson, Yield management. Expand index (836 more) » « Shrink index
Account planning brings the consumer into the process of developing advertising.
The acorn, or oak nut, is the nut of the oaks and their close relatives (genera Quercus and Lithocarpus, in the family Fagaceae).
Hussain, D., & Lasage, H. (2014).
Ad serving describes the technology and service that places advertisements on Web sites.
Ad tracking, also known as post-testing or ad effectiveness tracking, is in-market research that monitors a brand’s performance including brand and advertising awareness, product trial and usage, and attitudes about the brand versus their competition.
The United States food and beverage industry has increased the amount of advertising that intensively and aggressively targets children through multiple channels.
Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea.
Ad Age (or Advertising Age) is a global media brand publishing analysis, news and data on marketing and media.
An advertising agency, often referred to as a creative agency, is a business dedicated to creating, planning, and handling advertising and sometimes other forms of promotion and marketing for its clients.
An advertising board, or A-board, is usually a term reserved for the advertising hoardings seen at association football matches, although there are other more general forms such as billboards and posters.
An advertising campaign is a series of advertisement messages that share a single idea and theme which make up an integrated marketing communication (IMC).
Advertising using games is a long-standing practice in the video game industry.
Advertising management is a planned managerial process designed to oversee and control the various advertising activities involved in a program to communicate with a firm's target market and which is ultimately designed to influence the consumer's purchase decisions.
Advertising media selection is the process of choosing the most efficient media for an advertising campaign.
An advertising postcard is a postcard used for advertising purposes (as opposed to a tourism or greeting postcard).
Advertising research is a systematic process of marketing research conducted to improve the efficiency of advertising.
Advertising slogans are short phrases used in advertising campaigns to generate publicity and unify a company’s marketing strategy.
Advertising to children is the act of marketing or advertising products or services to little children as defined by national legislation and advertising standards.
Adweek is a weekly American advertising trade publication that was first published in 1978.
Aerial advertising is a form of advertising that incorporates the use of flogos, manned aircraft, or drones to create, transport, or display, advertising media.
Affiliate marketing is a type of performance-based marketing in which a business rewards one or more affiliates for each visitor or customer brought by the affiliate's own marketing efforts.
Affinity marketing is a concept that consists of a partnership between a company (supplier) and an organization that gathers persons sharing the same interests (known as an affinity group) to bring a greater consumer base to their service, product or opinion.
Business strategies can be categorized in many ways.
Agricultural marketing is inferred to cover the services involved in moving an agricultural product from the farm to the consumer.
The agricultural value chain concept has been used since the beginning of the millennium, primarily by those working in agricultural development in developing countries.
AIDA is an acronym that stands for Attention, Interest, Desire and Action.
AISDALSLove stands for Attention, Interest, Search, Desire, Action, Like/dislike, Share, and Love/hate, is a hierarchy of effects model in advertising adapted from AIDA's hierarchy of effects model (Lewis, 1900; Strong, 1925) which has been used by many researchers, both academicians and practitioners, to measure the effect of an advertisement.
Al Ries is a marketing professional and author.
Alcohol advertising is the promotion of alcoholic beverages by alcohol producers through a variety of media.
Algorithmic pricing is the practice of automatically setting the requested price for items for sale, in order to maximize the seller's profits.
Ambush marketing or ambush advertising is a marketing strategy in which an advertiser "ambushes" an event to compete for exposure against competing advertisers.
The American Advertising Museum was a museum in downtown Portland, Oregon, United States.
The American Marketing Association (AMA) is a professional association for marketing professionals with 30,000 members as of 2012.
Andrew Ehrenberg (1 May 1926 – 25 August 2010) was a statistician and marketing scientist.
The Ansoff Matrix is a strategic planning tool that provides a framework to help executives, senior managers, and marketers devise strategies for future growth.
An arabber (or a-rabber) is a street vendor (hawker) selling fruits and vegetables from a colorful, horse-drawn cart.
Arch Wilkinson Shaw (August 4, 1876 – March 9, 1962) was an American entrepreneur, publisher, editor and management theorist who applied the ideas of scientific management in the areas of offices and the tertiary sector.
Arthur Charles Nielsen Sr. (September 5, 1897June 1, 1980) was an American businessman, electrical engineer and market research analyst who founded the ACNielsen company, a market research company.
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) or connectionist systems are computing systems vaguely inspired by the biological neural networks that constitute animal brains.
The (AMA) is a membership organisation for those working in the arts, culture and heritage sector.
In advertising and marketing, aspirational age is an ideal age whose characteristics consumers aspire to embody.
In consumer marketing, an aspirational brand (or product) means a large segment of its exposure audience wishes to own it, but for economic reasons cannot.
The Association of National Advertisers (ANA) is a representative body for the marketing community in the United States.
Also known as guerrilla marketing or ambush marketing, attack marketing is a form of marketing that incorporates a series of creative and strategic techniques used to build and maintain public awareness surrounding a person, place, product, or event.
In advertising research, attention is the qualitative measure of an advertisement's effectiveness in arousing interest in a viewer.
AttentionTracking is an attention measurement procedure.
In psychology, attitude is a psychological construct, a mental and emotional entity that inheres in, or characterizes a person.
For the purpose of better understanding attitudinal targeting, it can be discussed using the 5 Ws and one H: who, what, when, where, why, and how.
Audience measurement measures how many people are in an audience, usually in relation to radio listenership and television viewership, but also in relation to newspaper and magazine readership and, increasingly, web traffic on websites.
Audience response is a type of interaction associated with the use of audience response systems, to create interactivity between a presenter and its audience.
Augmented Reality (AR) is an interactive experience of a real-world environment whose elements are "augmented" by computer-generated perceptual information, sometimes across multiple sensory modalities, including visual, auditory, haptic, somatosensory, and olfactory.
The Australian Market and Social Research Society Limited (AMSRS) is a professional membership body which represents approximately 2,100 market research professionals who are committed to strengthening the standards and awareness of both market and social research in Australia.
Automated retail is the category of self-service, standalone kiosks in heavily trafficked locations such as airports, malls, resorts and convenience stores.
A Bachelor of Business (BBus, BBus (Major)) is a three-year undergraduate business degree offered by traditional and newer universities from the post-Dawkins era in Australia, New Zealand.
The Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA or B.B.A.) is a bachelor's degree in commerce, Arts and business administration.
Bait-and-switch is a form of fraud used in retail sales but also employed in other contexts.
Banner blindness is a phenomenon in web usability where visitors to a website consciously or subconsciously ignore banner-like information, which can also be called ad blindness or banner noise.
In theories of competition in economics, a barrier to entry, or an economic barrier to entry, is a cost that must be incurred by a new entrant into a market that incumbents do not have or have not had to incur.
In economics, barriers to exit are obstacles in the path of a firm which wants to leave a given market or industrial sector.
In trade, barter is a system of exchange where participants in a transaction directly exchange goods or services for other goods or services without using a medium of exchange, such as money.
Base point pricing is the system of firms setting prices of their goods based on a base cost plus transportation costs to a given market.
The Bass Model or Bass Diffusion Model was developed by Frank Bass.
A bazaar is a permanently enclosed marketplace or street where goods and services are exchanged or sold.
Bazaari (Persian: بازاری) is the name given to the merchant class and workers of bazaars, the traditional marketplaces of Iran.
A bedestan (variants: bezistan, bezisten, bedesten) is a covered market usually for haberdashery and craftsmanship.
Behavioral economics studies the effects of psychological, cognitive, emotional, cultural and social factors on the economic decisions of individuals and institutions and how those decisions vary from those implied by classical theory.
In the behaviorism approach to psychology, behavioral scripts are a sequence of expected behaviors for a given situation.
Behavioral targeting comprises a range of technologies and techniques used by online website brands, publishers and advertisers aimed at increasing the effectiveness of marketing and advertising using user web-browsing behavior information.
Belief is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case with or without there being empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty.
Benchmarking is comparing ones business processes and performance metrics to industry bests and best practices from other companies.
A big-box store (also supercenter, superstore, or megastore) is a physically large retail establishment, usually part of a chain of stores.
A billboard (also called a hoarding in the UK and many other parts of the world) is a large outdoor advertising structure (a billing board), typically found in high-traffic areas such as alongside busy roads.
Blindspots analysis (also blind spots analysis) is a method aimed at uncovering obsolete, incomplete, or incorrect assumptions in a decision maker’s mental scheme of the environment.
Blue Ocean Strategy is a marketing theory from a book published in 2004 which was written by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD.
Borderless selling is the process of selling services to clients outside the country of origin of services through modern methods which eliminate the actions specifically designed to hinder international trade.
A brand is a name, term, design, symbol, or other feature that distinguishes an organization or product from its rivals in the eyes of the customer.
Brand alliances is a branding strategy used in a business alliance.
A brand ambassador (sometimes also called a corporate ambassador) is a person who is hired by an organization or company to represent a brand in a positive light and by doing so help to increase brand awareness and sales.
Brand architecture is the structure of brands within an organizational entity.
Brand aversion is an antonym of brand loyalty.
Brand awareness refers to the extent to which customers are able to recall or recognise a brand.
A brand community is a community formed on the basis of attachment to a product or brand.
The brand development index or BDI quantifies how well a brand performs in a market, compared with its average performance among all markets.
'Brand equity' is a phrase used in the marketing industry which describes the value of having a well-known brand name, based on the idea that the owner of a well-known brand name can generate more revenue simply from brand recognition; that is from products with that brand name than from products with a less well known name, as consumers believe that a product with a well-known name is better than products with less well-known names.
Brand extension or brand stretching is a marketing strategy in which a firm marketing a product with a well-developed image uses the same brand name in a different product category.
In marketing, brand implementation refers to the physical representation and consistent application of brand identity across visual and verbal media.
Brand language is the body of words, phrases, and terms that an organization uses to describe its purpose or in reference to its products.
Licensing means renting or leasing of an intangible asset.
Brand loyalty is defined as positive feelings towards a brand and dedication to purchase the same product or service repeatedly now and in the future from the same brand, regardless of a competitor’s actions or changes in the environment.
In marketing, brand management is the analysis and planning on how that brand is perceived in the market.
Brand preference is strongly linked to brand choice that can influence the consumer decision making and activate brand purchase.
For more than half a century, scholarship has been generated to help managers and stakeholders understand how to drive favorable brand attitudes, brand loyalty, repeat purchase, customer lifetime value, customer advocacy, and communities of like-minded individuals organized around brands.
Brand strength analysis describes efforts to determine the strength a brand has compared with its competitors.
A brand tribe is a group of people who are linked by a shared belief around a brand.
Brand valuation is the job of estimating the total financial value of the brand.
Branded asset management refers to the implementation of brand modifications and life-cycle management of branded assets.
Branded content (also known as branded entertainment) is the practice of marketing via the creation of content that is funded or outright produced by an advertiser.
Brandweek is a one-of-a-kind three-day brand marketing symposium and a part of Adweek, LLC.
The break-even point (BEP) in economics, business—and specifically cost accounting—is the point at which total cost and total revenue are equal.
A broker is an individual person who arranges transactions between a buyer and a seller for a commission when the deal is executed.
In bus advertising, buses and their related infrastructure is a medium commonly used by advertisers to reach the public with their message.
Business analysis is a research discipline of identifying business needs and determining solutions to business problems.
Business marketing is a marketing practice of individuals or organizations (including commercial businesses, governments and institutions).
A business plan is a formal statement of business goals, reasons they are attainable, and plans for reaching them.
Business-to-business (B2B or, in some countries, BtoB) refers to a situation where one business makes a commercial transaction with another.
Business-to-government (B2G) or business-to-administration (B2A) is a derivative of B2B marketing and often referred to as a market definition of "public sector marketing" which encompasses marketing products and services to various government levels through integrated marketing communications techniques such as strategic public relations, branding, marketing communications (marcom), advertising, and web-based communications.
Buzz monitoring is the monitoring of consumer responses to commercial services and products in order to establish the marketing buzz surrounding a new or existing offer.
Byron Sharp is Professor of Marketing Science at the University of South Australia, known for his work on loyalty programs.
In politics, campaign advertising is the use of an advertising campaign through the media to influence a political debate, and ultimately, voters.
The Canadian Marketing Association (CMA) is a national not-for-profit trade association.
In marketing strategy, cannibalization refers to a reduction in sales volume, sales revenue, or market share of one product as a result of the introduction of a new product by the same producer.
In statistics, canonical analysis (from κανων bar, measuring rod, ruler) belongs to the family of regression methods for data analysis.
Capability management is the approach to the management of an organization, typically a business organization or firm, based on the "theory of the firm" as a collection of capabilities that may be exercised to earn revenues in the marketplace and compete with other firms in the industry.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
The category development index (CDI) measures the sales performance of a category of goods or services in a specific group, compared with its average performance among all consumers.
A category killer is a retailer that specializes in and carries a deep product assortment within a given category and through selection, pricing and market penetration obtains a massive competitive advantage over other retailers.
Cause marketing is defined as a type of corporate social responsibility, in which a company’s promotional campaign has the dual purpose of increasing profitability while bettering society.
Cause-related loyalty marketing is a recent trend in cause marketing.
Celebrity branding or celebrity endorsement is a form of advertising campaign or marketing strategy used by brands, companies, or a non-profit organization which involves celebrities or a well-known person using their social status or their fame to help promote a product, service or even raise awareness on environmental or social matters.
A certification mark (or conformity mark) on a commercial product indicates the existence of an accepted product standard or regulation and a claim that the manufacturer has verified compliance with those standards or regulations.
Chain store(s) or retail chain(s) are retail outlets that share a brand and central management, and usually have standardized business methods and practices.
A challenger brand is a brand in an industry where it is neither the market leader nor a niche brand.
Change impact analysis (IA) is defined by Bohner and Arnold as "identifying the potential consequences of a change, or estimating what needs to be modified to accomplish a change", and they focus on IA in terms of scoping changes within the details of a design.
A charity shop or thrift shop is a retail establishment run by a charitable organization to raise money.
Charles Coolidge Parlin (1872 – October 15, 1942) was the American "manager of the division of commercial research of the Curtis Publishing Company" in charge of selling advertising spots in the Saturday Evening Post.
Chi-square automatic interaction detection (CHAID) is a decision tree technique, based on adjusted significance testing (Bonferroni testing).
Choice modelling attempts to model the decision process of an individual or segment via revealed preferences or stated preferences made in a particular context or contexts.
Christopher Lovelock (12 July 1940 – 24 February 2008) was born in the town of Saltash, Cornwall in the United Kingdom.
City marketing (related to city branding) is the promotion of a city, or a district within it, with the aim of encouraging certain activities to take place there.
Nielsen PRIZM is a set of geo-demographic segments for the United States, developed by Claritas Inc., which was then acquired by The Nielsen Company.
Clayton Magleby Christensen (born April 6, 1952) is an American academic, business consultant, and religious leader who currently serves as the Kim B. Clark Professor of Business Administration at the Harvard Business School of Harvard University.
Click fraud is a type of fraud that occurs on the Internet in pay-per-click (PPC) online advertising.
Click-through rate (CTR) is the ratio of users who click on a specific link to the number of total users who view a page, email, or advertisement.
A closeout sale is the final sale of an item either by a retailer or sell off of a retailer inventory to a 3rd party company.
Closing is a sales term which refers to the process of making a sale.
Cluster analysis or clustering is the task of grouping a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group (called a cluster) are more similar (in some sense) to each other than to those in other groups (clusters).
Cluster sampling is a sampling plan used when mutually homogeneous yet internally heterogeneous groupings are evident in a statistical population.
Co-branding, is a marketing strategy that involves strategic alliance of multiple brand names jointly used on single product or service.
Co-creation is a management initiative, or form of economic strategy, that brings different parties together (for instance, a company and a group of customers), in order to jointly produce a mutually valued outcome.
Co-marketing (Collaborate marketing) is a marketing practice where two companies cooperate with separate distribution channels, sometimes including profit sharing.
Co-promotion is a marketing practice that allows two or more companies to combine their sales force in order to promote a product under the same brand name and price with a single marketing strategy.
Commercial skipping is a feature of some digital video recorders that makes it possible to automatically skip commercials in recorded programs.
Commercialization or commercialisation is the process of introducing a new product or production method into commerce—making it available on the market.
Community marketing is a strategy to engage an audience in an active, non-intrusive prospect and customer conversation.
A company, abbreviated as co., is a legal entity made up of an association of people for carrying on a commercial or industrial enterprise.
The law or principle of comparative advantage holds that under free trade, an agent will produce more of and consume less of a good for which they have a comparative advantage.
In business, a competitive advantage is the attribute that allows an organization to outperform its competitors.
Competitive intelligence (CI) is the action of defining, gathering, analyzing, and distributing intelligence about products, customers, competitors, and any aspect of the environment needed to support executives and managers in strategic decision making for an organization.
Competitor indexing is a price setting technique used by marketers.
Computer Assisted/Aided Qualitative Data Analysis Software (CAQDAS) offers tools that assist with qualitative research such as transcription analysis, coding and text interpretation, recursive abstraction, content analysis, discourse analysis, grounded theory methodology, etc.
Concepts are mental representations, abstract objects or abilities that make up the fundamental building blocks of thoughts and beliefs.
Concept testing (to be distinguished from pre-test markets and test markets which may be used at a later stage of product development research) is the process of using surveys (and sometimes qualitative methods) to evaluate consumer acceptance of a new product idea prior to the introduction of a product to the market.
Congestion pricing or congestion charges is a system of surcharging users of public goods that are subject to congestion through excess demand such as higher peak charges for use of bus services, electricity, metros, railways, telephones, and road pricing to reduce traffic congestion; airlines and shipping companies may be charged higher fees for slots at airports and through canals at busy times.
Conjoint analysis is a survey based statistical technique used in market research that helps determine how people value different attributes (feature, function, benefits) that make up an individual product or service.
The Construction Marketing Association (CMA) is an association for marketing professionals in the construction industry, based in Naperville, Illinois, in the United States.
A consumer is a person or organization that use economic services or commodities.
Consumer behaviour is the study of individuals, groups, or organizations and all the activities associated with the purchase, use and disposal of goods and services, including the consumer's emotional, mental and behavioural responses that precede or follow these activities.
Consumer confusion is a state of mind that leads to consumers making imperfect purchasing decisions or lacking confidence in the correctness of their purchasing decisions.
Consumer culture theory is the study of consumption choices and behaviors from a social and cultural point of view, as opposed to an economic or psychological one.
Consumer privacy is a form of information privacy concerned with the legal and political issues arising from the interaction of the public's expectation of privacy with the collection and dissemination of data by businesses or merchants.
Consumer socialization is the process by which young people acquire skills, knowledge and attitudes relevant to their functioning as consumers in the marketplace.
Consumer-generated advertising is advertising on consumer generated media.
Consumerism is a social and economic order and ideology that encourages the acquisition of goods and services in ever-increasing amounts.
Content analysis is a research method for studying documents and communication artifacts, which might be texts of various formats, pictures, audio or video.
Content marketing is a form of marketing focused on creating, publishing, and distributing content for a targeted audience online.
Contextual advertising is a form of targeted advertising for advertisements appearing on websites or other media, such as content displayed in mobile browsers.
In statistics, a contingency table (also known as a cross tabulation or crosstab) is a type of table in a matrix format that displays the (multivariate) frequency distribution of the variables.
Contribution margin (CM), or dollar contribution per unit, is the selling price per unit minus the variable cost per unit.
A convenience store or convenience shop is a small retail business that stocks a range of everyday items such as groceries, snack foods, confectionery, soft drinks, tobacco products, over-the-counter drugs, toiletries, newspapers, and magazines.
Coolhunting is a neologism coined in the early 1990s referring to a new kind of marketing professionals who make observations and predictions in changes of new or existing "cool" cultural fads and trends.
Copy testing is a specialized field of marketing research that determines an advertisement’s effectiveness based on consumer responses, feedback, and behavior.
Copyright is a legal right, existing globally in many countries, that basically grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine and decide whether, and under what conditions, this original work may be used by others.
A core competency is a concept in management theory introduced by C. K. Prahalad and Gary Hamel.
Corporate branding refers to the practice of promoting the brand name of a corporate entity, as opposed to specific products or services.
Corporate communication is a set of activities involved in managing and orchestrating all internal and external communications aimed at creating favourable point of view among stakeholders on which the company depends.
A corporate identity or corporate image is the manner which a corporation, firm or business presents themselves to the public (such as customers and investors as well as employees).
Corporate social responsibility (CSR, also called corporate sustainability, sustainable business, corporate conscience, corporate citizenship or responsible business) is a type of international private business self-regulation.
Cosmetic advertising is the promotion of cosmetics and beauty products by the cosmetics industry through a variety of media.
In business strategy, cost leadership is establishing a competitive advantage by having the lowest cost of operation in the industry.
Cost per acquisition (CPA), also known as cost per action, pay per acquisition (PPA) and cost per conversion, is an online advertising pricing model where the advertiser pays for a specified acquisition - for example a sale, click, or form submit (e.g., contact request, newsletter sign up, registration etc.) Direct response advertisers often consider CPA the optimal way to buy online advertising, as an advertiser only pays for the ad when the desired acquisition has occurred.
Cost per impression (CPI), or cost per thousand impressions (CPM), is a term used in traditional advertising media selection, as well as online advertising and marketing related to web traffic.
Cost per mille (CPM), also called cost per thousand (CPT) (in Latin, French and Italian, mille means one thousand), is a commonly used measurement in advertising.
Cost the limit of price was a maxim coined by Josiah Warren, indicating a (prescriptive) version of the labor theory of value.
Cost-plus pricing is a pricing strategy in which the selling price is determined by adding a specific dollar amount markup to a product's unit cost.
Costermonger, coster, or costard is a street seller of fruit and vegetables, in London and other British towns.
Country of origin labeling (COOL) (or mCOOL) was a requirement signed into American law under Title X of the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (also known as the 2002 Farm Bill), codified at as Notice of country of origin.
A creative work is a manifestation of creative effort including fine artwork (sculpture, paintings, drawing, sketching, performance art), dance, writing (literature), filmmaking, and musical composition.
Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new and somehow valuable is formed.
Cross-promotion is a form of marketing promotion where customers of one product or service are targeted with promotion of a related product.
Crossing the Chasm: Marketing and Selling High-Tech Products to Mainstream Customers or simply Crossing the Chasm (1991, revised 1999 and 2014), is a marketing book by Geoffrey A. Moore that focuses on the specifics of marketing high tech products during the early start up period.
Crowdsourcing is a sourcing model in which individuals or organizations obtain goods and services.
A Cult brand is a product or service with a committed customer base.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
In sales, commerce and economics, a customer (sometimes known as a client, buyer, or purchaser) is the recipient of a good, service, product or an idea - obtained from a seller, vendor, or supplier via a financial transaction or exchange for money or some other valuable consideration.
Customer Acquisition Cost is the cost associated in convincing a customer to buy a product/service.
Customer analytics is a process by which data from customer behavior is used to help make key business decisions via market segmentation and predictive analytics.
Customer data management (CDM) is the ways in which businesses keep track of their customer information and survey their customer base in order to obtain feedback.
Customer engagement is a business communication connection between an external stakeholder (consumer) and an organization (company or brand) through various channels of correspondence.
In commerce, customer experience (CX) is the product of an interaction between an organization and a customer over the duration of their relationship.
A customer insight, or consumer insight, is an interpretation of trends in human behaviors which aims to increase effectiveness of a product or service for the consumer, as well as increase sales for mutual benefit.
Customer knowledge (CK) is the combination of experience, value and insight information which is needed, created and absorbed during the transaction and exchange between the customers and enterprise.
Customer lifecycle management or CLM is the measurement of multiple customer related metrics, which, when analyzed for a period of time, indicate performance of a business.
In marketing, customer lifetime value (CLV or often CLTV), lifetime customer value (LCV), or life-time value (LTV) is a prediction of the net profit attributed to the entire future relationship with a customer.
Customer relationship management (CRM) is an approach to manage a company's interaction with current and potential customers.
Customer satisfaction (often abbreviated as CSAT, more correctly CSat) is a term frequently used in marketing.
Customer satisfaction research is that area of marketing research which focuses on customers' perceptions with their shopping or purchase experience.
Customer service is the provision of service to customers before, during and after a purchase.
The Customer Service System (CSS) of the BT Group (previously British Telecommunications) is the core operational support system for BT, bringing in 70% of income for the company (figures from 1997).
In marketing and microeconomics, customer switching or consumer switching describes "customers/consumers abandoning a product or service in favor of a competitor".
Customer to customer (C2C) markets provide an innovative way to allow customers to interact with each other.
Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results abbr.
Daniel Starch (1883–1979) was an American psychologist and marketing researcher.
The Data & Marketing Association (formerly, Direct Marketing Association), also known as the DMA, is a trade organization for marketers which seeks to advance and protect responsible data-driven marketing.
Database marketing is a form of direct marketing using databases of customers or potential customers to generate personalized communications in order to promote a product or service for marketing purposes.
David Allen Aaker (born 1938) is an American organizational theorist, consultant and Professor Emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley's Haas School of Business, a specialist in marketing with a focus on brand strategy.
David Mackenzie Ogilvy (23 June 1911 – 21 July 1999) was an advertising tycoon, founder of Ogilvy & Mather, and known as the father of advertising.
In marketing, the decoy effect (or attraction effect or asymmetric dominance effect) is the phenomenon whereby consumers will tend to have a specific change in preference between two options when also presented with a third option that is asymmetrically dominated.
Defensive strategy is defined as a marketing tool that helps companies to retain valuable customers that can be taken away by competitors.
The Delphi method is a structured communication technique or method, originally developed as a systematic, interactive forecasting method which relies on a panel of experts.
In economics, demand is the quantities of a commodity or a service that people are willing and able to buy at various prices, over a given period of time.
In economics, the demand curve is the graph depicting the relationship between the price of a certain commodity and the amount of it that consumers are willing and able to purchase at any given price.
Demand forecasting is the art and science of forecasting customer demand to optimize supply decisions by corporate supply chain and business management.
Demand response is a change in the power consumption of an electric utility customer to better match the demand for power with the supply.
Demand-led growth is the foundation of an economic theory claiming that an increase in aggregate demand will ultimately cause an increase in total output in the long run.
Demographic profiling is a tool utilized by marketers so that they may be as efficient as possible with advertising products or services and identifying any possible gaps in their marketing strategy.
Demographic targeting is a form of behavioral advertising in which advertisers target online advertisements at consumers based on demographic information.
Demography (from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, implies "writing, description or measurement") is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings.
A department store is a retail establishment offering a wide range of consumer goods in different product categories known as "departments".
In economics derived demand is demand for a factor of production or intermediate good that occurs as a result of the demand for another intermediate or Economics help - Derived In essence, the demand for one is dependent on that whose demand its demand is derived from.
Design is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object, system or measurable human interaction (as in architectural blueprints, engineering drawings, business processes, circuit diagrams, and sewing patterns).
The design of experiments (DOE, DOX, or experimental design) is the design of any task that aims to describe or explain the variation of information under conditions that are hypothesized to reflect the variation.
A destination marketing organization (DMO) or convention and visitors bureau (CVB) is an organization that promotes a town, city, region, or country in order to increase the number of visitors.
Diffusion is the process by which a new idea or new product is accepted by the market.
Diffusion of innovations is a theory that seeks to explain how, why, and at what rate new ideas and technology spread.
A digital billboard is a billboard that displays digital images that are changed by a computer every few seconds.
Digital marketing is the marketing of products or services using digital technologies, mainly on the Internet, but also including mobile phones, display advertising, and any other digital medium.
Digital signage is a sub-segment of electronic signage.
Direct marketing is a form of advertising where organizations communicate directly to customers through a variety of media including cell phone text messaging, email, websites, online adverts, database marketing, fliers, catalog distribution, promotional letters, and targeted television, newspaper, and magazine advertisements, as well as outdoor advertising.
23 direct marketing trade associations from five continents established an International Federation of Direct Marketing Associations.
The Direct Marketing Association of South Africa (DMASA) is a and self-regulatory organization empowered by law to ensure that direct marketers adhere to a strict code of practice, and to protect the rights of consumers when buying from direct marketing organisations.
The UK DMA is a trade organization which seeks to advance all forms of direct marketing.
Direct response television (DRTV) is any television advertising that asks consumers to respond directly to the company — usually either by calling an toll-free telephone number, sending an SMS message, or by visiting a web site.
The Direct Selling Association (DSA) is the name of several similar trade associations in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Malaysia, Singapore, and New Zealand that represent direct selling companies, primarily those that use multi-level marketing compensation plans.
Disconfirmed expectancy is a psychological term for what is commonly known as a failed prophecy.
A discount store or discount shop is a retail shop which sells products at prices that are lower than the typical market price.
Discounts and allowances are reductions to a basic price of goods or services.
Display advertising is advertising on websites or apps through banners or other ad formats made of text, images, flash, video, and audio.
A display stand is an advertising tool that has a direct impact on product sales.
In business, a Disruptive innovation is an innovation that creates a new market and value network and eventually disrupts an existing market and value network, displacing established market-leading firms, products, and alliances.
Distribution (or place) is one of the four elements of the marketing mix.
Diversification is a corporate strategy to enter into a new market or industry in which the business doesn't currently operate, while also creating a new product for that new market.
Diversity marketing (or in-culture marketing) is a marketing paradigm which sees marketing (and especially marketing communications) as a way to connect with the different individuals in the market.
Market dominance is a measure of the strength of a brand, product, service, or firm, relative to competitive offerings.
Don Edward Schultz (born January 20, 1934) is Professor Emeritus of Service at Northwestern University's Medill School.
Dramaturgy is a sociological perspective commonly used in microsociological accounts of social interaction in everyday life.
Drip pricing is a technique used by online retailers of goods and services whereby a headline price is advertised at the beginning of the purchase process, following which additional fees, taxes or charges, which may be unavoidable, are then incrementally disclosed or "dripped".
Drop shipping is a supply chain management method in which the retailer does not keep goods in stock but instead transfers the customer orders and shipment details to either the manufacturer, another retailer, or a wholesaler, who then ships the goods directly to the customer.
Dumping, in economics, is a kind of injuring pricing, especially in the context of international trade.
A duopoly (from Greek δύο, duo (two) + πωλεῖν, polein (to sell)) is a form of oligopoly where only two sellers exist in one market.
Dynamic pricing, also referred to as surge pricing, demand pricing, or time-based pricing is a pricing strategy in which businesses set flexible prices for products or service based on current market demands.
E-commerce is the activity of buying or selling of products on online services or over the Internet.
Edmund Jerome McCarthy (February 20, 1928 – December 3, 2015) was an American marketing professor and author.
An early adopter (sometimes misspelled as early adapter or early adaptor) or lighthouse customer is an early customer of a given company, product, or technology.
Eco-innovation is the development of products and processes that contribute to sustainable development, applying the commercial application of knowledge to elicit direct or indirect ecological improvements.
Ecodesign is an approach to designing products with special consideration for the environmental impacts of the product during its whole lifecycle.
In microeconomics, economies of scale are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to their scale of operation (typically measured by amount of output produced), with cost per unit of output decreasing with increasing scale.
Economies of scope are "efficiencies formed by variety, not volume" (the latter concept is "economies of scale").
The eCRM or electronic customer relationship management encompasses all the CRM functions with the use of the net environment i.e., intranet, extranet and internet.
Edward Albert Filene (September 3, 1860 – September 26, 1937) was an American businessman and philanthropist.
In advertising, the effective frequency is the number of times a person must be exposed to an advertising message before a response is made and before exposure is considered wasteful.
The effects of advertising on body image have been studied by researchers, ranging from psychologists to marketing professionals.
The elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion is a dual process theory describing the change of attitudes.
Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain.
Electronic signage (also called electronic signs or electronic displays) are illuminant advertising media in the signage industry.
Email marketing is the act of sending a commercial message, typically to a group of people, using email.
Email spam, also known as junk email, is a type of electronic spam where unsolicited messages are sent by email.
Emerging issues analysis (sometimes capitalized as Emerging Issues Analysis, and abbreviated as EIA) is a term used in futures studies and strategic planning, to describe the process of identifying and studying issues that have not been influential or important in the past, but that might be influential in the future.
Employer brand is the term commonly used to describe reputation as an employer, and its value proposition to its employees, as opposed to its more general corporate brand reputation and value proposition to customers.
Employment is a relationship between two parties, usually based on a contract where work is paid for, where one party, which may be a corporation, for profit, not-for-profit organization, co-operative or other entity is the employer and the other is the employee.
In product development, an end user (sometimes end-user) is a person who ultimately uses or is intended to ultimately use a product.
Engagement marketing, sometimes called "experiential marketing", "event marketing", "on-ground marketing", "live marketing", "participation marketing", or "special events" is a marketing strategy that directly engages consumers and invites and encourages them to participate in the evolution of a brand or a brand experience.
Ernest Dichter (14 August 1907 – 21 November 1991) was an American psychologist and marketing expert known as the "father of motivational research." Dichter pioneered the application of Freudian psychoanalytic concepts and techniques to business — in particular to the study of consumer behavior in the marketplace.
The Superior School of Advertising and Marketing (Escola Superior de Propaganda e Marketing, ESPM) is a private higher education institution in Brazil.
Ethical consumerism (alternatively called ethical consumption, ethical purchasing, moral purchasing, ethical sourcing, ethical shopping or green consumerism) is a type of consumer activism that is based on the concept of dollar voting.
Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures.
Vehicle segments for cars in Europe do not have formal characterization or regulations.
European Marketing Research Centre (EMRC) (is a not-for-profit international association, founded in 1992 in Brussels, Belgium. The organization exists to encourage and facilitate private sector investment in Africa to create sustainable economic development and drive regional change through international partnerships. EMRC is a collective network of entrepreneurs, financiers, consultants and officials based throughout the world. The organization’s strategic focus is to support economic development in Africa through partnership between African entrepreneurs and ventures and international corporations, and financial services firms. EMRC also supports intercontinental collaboration between African ventures. EMRC aims to unlock the potential of Africa’s agribusiness sector to help alleviate local poverty and to address supply constraints associated with global food demand. EMRC also operates in other natural resources sectors in Africa. Its events include the AgriBusiness Forum (ABF) and the Africa Finance & Investment Forum (AFIF), which are annual events with the ABF being held on the African continent and AFIF taking place in Europe. The organization also conducts regular trade missions, with early missions taking in Israel and India. In January 2014 Monty Jones was nominated president of EMRC. Jones replaced Professor Pierre Mathijsen, professor of European Law at the University of Brussels and managing partner of the law firm Eurolegal EEIG, who had been at the helm of EMRC for a decade.
The European Sponsorship Association (ESA) represents those involved in sponsorship across Europe.
Evangelism marketing is an advanced form of word-of-mouth marketing in which companies develop customers who believe so strongly in a particular product or service that they freely try to convince others to buy and use it.
Everyday low price (also abbreviated as EDLP) is a pricing strategy promising consumers a low price without the need to wait for sale price events or comparison shopping.
An exhibition, in the most general sense, is an organised presentation and display of a selection of items.
Experian plc is a consumer credit reporting agency.
In management, models of the learning curve effect and the closely related experience curve effect express the relationship between equation and efficiency or between efficiency gains and investment in the effort.
Exploratory research is research conducted for a problem that has not been studied more clearly, intended to establish priorities, develop operational definitions and improve the final research design.
Export Parity Price or EPP is defined as, "The price that a producer gets or can expect to get for its product if exported, equal to the Freight on Board price minus the costs of getting the product from the farm or factory to the border.
Eye tracking is the process of measuring either the point of gaze (where one is looking) or the motion of an eye relative to the head.
Factor analysis is a statistical method used to describe variability among observed, correlated variables in terms of a potentially lower number of unobserved variables called factors.
Failure is the state or condition of not meeting a desirable or intended objective, and may be viewed as the opposite of success.
Faith-based marketing is the integration of religious faith into marketing and business.
Every person has his/her own family.mother reproduces with husband for children.In the context of human society, a family (from familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage or other relationship), or co-residence (as implied by the etymology of the English word "family" from Latin familia 'family servants, domestics collectively, the servants in a household,' thus also 'members of a household, the estate, property; the household, including relatives and servants,' abstract noun formed from famulus 'servant, slave ') or some combination of these.
Since the industrial revolution, the image of the family in advertising has become a prominent symbol in advertising and is utilized in marketing campaigns to increase profits.
Fast food advertising promotes fast food products and utilizes numerous aspects to reach out to the public.
A fictional brand is a non-existing brand used in artistic or entertainment productions, such as paintings, books, comics, movies, TV serials, and music.
Field marketing (also field selling) is a traditional discipline in direct marketing, it involves people distributing, auditing, selling or sampling promotions on the "field".
In marketing, a fighter brand (sometimes called a fighting brand) is a lower-priced offering launched by a company to take on, and ideally take out, specific competitors that are attempting to under-price them.
A financial transaction is an agreement, or communication, carried out between a buyer and a seller to exchange an asset for payment.
A fire sale is the sale of goods at extremely discounted prices, typically when the seller faces bankruptcy.
Firmographics (also known as emporographics or firm demographics) are sets of characteristics to segment prospect organizations.
In marketing strategy, first-mover advantage (FMA) is the advantage gained by the initial ("first-moving") significant occupant of a market segment.
Fish marketing is the marketing and sale of fish products.
The term fleet media refers to the placement of advertisements on the side of trucks, vans, and other forms of transportation that form part of a commercial fleet.
A focus group is a small, but demographically diverse group of people and whose reactions are studied especially in market research or political analysis in guided or open discussions about a new product or something else to determine the reactions that can be expected from a larger population.
Food marketing brings together the food producer and the consumer through a chain of marketing activities.
Forecasting is the process of making predictions of the future based on past and present data and most commonly by analysis of trends.
Franchising is based on a marketing concept which can be adopted by an organisation as a strategy for business expansion.
In the performing arts, front of house (FOH) is the part of a performance venue that is open to the public.
The front office or reception is an area where visitors arrive and first encounter a staff at a place of business.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow.
Futures studies (also called futurology) is the study of postulating possible, probable, and preferable futures and the worldviews and myths that underlie them.
In management literature, gap analysis involves the comparison of actual performance with potential or desired performance.
GE multifactoral analysis is a technique used in brand marketing and product management to help a company decide what product(s) to add to its product portfolio and which opportunities in the market they should continue to invest in.
Generic brands of consumer products (often supermarket goods) are distinguished by the absence of a brand name.
A generic trademark, also known as a genericized trademark or proprietary eponym, is a trademark or brand name that, due to its popularity or significance, has become the generic name for, or synonymous with, a general class of product or service, usually against the intentions of the trademark's holder.
In marketing, geodemographic segmentation is a multivariate statistical classification technique for discovering whether the individuals of a population fall into different groups by making quantitative comparisons of multiple characteristics with the assumption that the differences within any group should be less than the differences between groups.
Geodemography includes the application of geodemographic classifications for business, social research and public policy but has a parallel history in academic research seeking to understand the processes by which settlements (notably, cities) evolve and neighborhoods are formed.
Geographical pricing, in marketing, is the practice of modifying a basic list price based on the geographical location of the buyer.
George S. Day is an educator in the field of marketing.
Geo targeting in geomarketing and internet marketing is the method of determining the geolocation of a website visitor and delivering different content to that visitor based on their location.
Gerald Irving Ratner (born 1 November 1949) is a British businessman and motivational speaker.
Gerald Zaltman is the Joseph C. Wilson Professor Emeritus at Harvard Business School and the author and editor of 20 books, most recently How Customers Think (2003) and Marketing Metaphoria (2008).
A gimmick is a novel device or idea designed primarily to attract attention or increase appeal, often with little intrinsic value.
Global marketing is “marketing on a worldwide scale reconciling or taking commercial advantage of global operational differences, similarities and opportunities in order to meet global objectives".
In economics, goods are materials that satisfy human wants and provide utility, for example, to a consumer making a purchase of a satisfying product.
Green brands are those brands that consumers associate with environmental conservation and sustainable business practices.
Green logistics describes all attempts to measure and minimize the ecological impact of logistics activities.
Green marketing products that are presumed to be environmentally safe.
A grey or gray market (sometimes confused with the similar term parallel market) refers to the trade of a commodity through distribution channels that are legal but unintended by the original manufacturer or trade mark proprietor.
Growth planning, is a strategic business activity that enables business owners to plan and track organic growth in their revenue.
Growth platforms are specific initiatives selected by a business organization to increase their revenue and earnings growth.
The growth–share matrix (aka the product portfolio matrix, Boston Box, BCG-matrix, Boston matrix, Boston Consulting Group analysis, portfolio diagram) is a chart that was created by Bruce D. Henderson for the Boston Consulting Group in 1970 to help corporations to analyze their business units, that is, their product lines.
Guerrilla marketing is an advertisement strategy concept designed for businesses to promote their products or services in an unconventional way with little budget to spend.
A haat bazaar, most often called only haat or hat, is an open-air market that serves as a trading venue for local people in rural areas and some towns of Nepal, India and Bangladesh.
A hallmark is an official mark or series of marks struck on items made of metal, mostly to certify the content of noble metals—such as platinum, gold, silver and in some nations, palladium.
A hawker is a vendor of merchandise that can be easily transported; the term is roughly synonymous with peddler or costermonger.
Health marketing is a new, customer-centered, approach to public health promotion that applies traditional marketing principles and theories alongside science-based strategies to protect and promote the health of diverse populations.It involves creating, communicating, and delivering messages for the public on prevention, health promotion and health protection.
Henry Charles Taylor (April 16, 1873 – April 28, 1969) was an American agricultural economist.
Henry Grady Weaver (December 24, 1889 – January 3, 1949) was the director of Customer Research Staff for General Motors Corporation, and shown on the cover of the November 14, 1938 issue of Time Magazine.
The Herfindahl index (also known as Herfindahl–Hirschman Index, HHI, or sometimes HHI-score) is a measure of the size of firms in relation to the industry and an indicator of the amount of competition among them.
High–low pricing (or hi–low pricing) is a type of pricing strategy adopted by companies, usually small and medium-sized retail firms, where a firm charges a high price for an item and later when the item's popularity has passed, sell it to customers by giving discounts or through clearance sales.
The history of advertising can be traced to ancient civilizations.
The history of advertising in Britain has been a major part of the history of its capitalist economy for three centuries.
The study of the history of marketing, as a discipline, is meaningful because it helps to define the baselines upon which change can be recognised and understand how the discipline evolves in response to those changes.
Horizontal integration is the process of a company increasing production of goods or services at the same part of the supply chain.
A household consists of one or more people who live in the same dwelling and also share meals or living accommodation, and may consist of a single family or some other grouping of people.
The term huckster describes a person who sells something or serves biased interests, using pushy or showy tactics.
A human billboard is someone who applies an advertisement on his or her person.
The hype cycle is a branded graphical presentation developed and used by the American research, advisory and information technology firm Gartner, for representing the maturity, adoption and social application of specific technologies.
In commerce, a hypermarket is a superstore combining a supermarket and a department store.
"I'd Like to Teach the World to Sing (In Perfect Harmony)" is a pop song that originated as the jingle "Buy the World a Coke" in the groundbreaking 1971 "Hilltop" television commercial for Coca-Cola.
In philosophy, ideas are usually taken as mental representational images of some object.
Ideation is the creative process of generating, developing, and communicating new ideas, where an idea is understood as a basic element of thought that can be either visual, concrete, or abstract.
Harry Igor Ansoff (рус. Игорь Ансов; original surname is Ansov) (December 12, 1918 – July 14, 2002) was a Russian American applied mathematician and business manager.
In economic theory, imperfect competition is a type of market structure showing some but not all features of competitive markets.
Import parity price or IPP is defined as, “The price that a purchaser pays or can expect to pay for imported goods; thus the c.i.f. import price plus tariff plus transport cost to the purchaser's location.
An impulse purchase or impulse buying is an unplanned decision to buy a product or service, made just before a purchase.
In-game advertising (IGA) refers to advertising in computer and video games.
Inattentional blindness, also known as perceptual blindness, is a psychological lack of attention that is not associated with any vision defects or deficits.
Inbound marketing is a technique for drawing customers to products and services via content marketing, social media marketing, search engine optimization and branding.
An incentive program is a formal scheme used to promote or encourage specific actions or behavior by a specific group of people during a defined period of time.
This page is an index of accounting topics.
This is a list of international trade topics.
Individual branding, also called individual product branding, flanker brands or multibranding, is "a branding strategy in which products are given brand names that are newly created and generally not connected to names of existing brands offered by the company." Each brand, even within a same company, has a unique name, identity and image, allowing the company to target different market segments, tailor pricing and marketing strategies, and separate the image and reputation of different products.
Industrial market segmentation is a scheme for categorizing industrial and business customers to guide strategic and tactical decision-making, especially in sales and marketing.
Industrial marketing (or business-to-business marketing) is the marketing of goods and services by one business to another.
Industry classification or industry taxonomy is a type of economic taxonomy that organizes companies into industrial groupings based on similar production processes, similar products, or similar behavior in financial markets.
Influencer marketing is a form of marketing in which focus is placed on influential people rather than the target market as a whole.
An infomercial is a form of television commercial, which generally includes a toll-free telephone number or website.
In marketing, ingredient-branding is creating a brand for an ingredient or component of a product, to project the high quality or performance of the ingredient.
Innovation can be defined simply as a "new idea, device or method".
The phrase innovation game refers to a form of primary market research developed by Luke Hohmann where customers play a set of directed games as a means of generating feedback about a product or service.
Innovid is a video marketing platform.
Inorganic growth is the rate of growth of business, sales expansion etc.
Inside Retailing is an International trade magazine and websites for the retailing industry, published by Octomedia.
Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect, and primarily encompasses copyrights, patents, and trademarks.
Intent scale translation is a mathematical technique used by marketers to convert stated purchase intentions into purchase probabilities, that is, into an estimate of actual buying behaviour.
Interactive advertising uses online or offline interactive media to communicate with consumers and to promote products, brands, services, and public service announcements, corporate or political groups.
An interactive kiosk is a computer terminal featuring specialized hardware and software that provides access to information and applications for communication, commerce, entertainment, or education.
Interactive media normally refers to products and services on digital computer-based systems which respond to the user's actions by presenting content such as text, moving image, animation, video, audio, and video games.
Intermarket segmentation refers to forming segments of consumers who have similar needs and buying behaviour even though they are located in different countries.
Internal communications (IC) is the function responsible for effective communications among participants within an organization.
The International Journal of Bank Marketing is a peer-reviewed academic journal in the field of financial services marketing.
International Journal of Research in Marketing is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Elsevier.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
Internet branding (also referred to as Online branding) is a brand management technique that uses the World Wide Web as a medium for positioning a brand in the marketplace.
In economics, an 'inverse demand function', P.
John Francis "Jack" Trouts (January 31, 1935 – June 4, 2017) was an owner of Trout & Partners, a consulting firm.
James Walter Thompson (October 28, 1847 – October 16, 1928) was the founder of the J. Walter Thompson advertising agency and a pioneer of many advertising techniques.
Jerry (Yoram) Wind is The Lauder Professor and Professor of Marketing at The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, and is the founding director of the Wharton "think tank,” The SEI Center for Advanced Studies in Management.
A jobber, or petroleum marketer, is a person or company that purchases quantities of refined fuel from refining companies (e.g. BP, Shell, Exxon), either for sale to retailers (e.g., gasoline stations), or to sell directly to the users of those products (e.g., home heating oil to homeowners, lubricating oils to industrial operations or repair shops, jet fuel to FBOs, etc.). In essence, the jobber acts as the "middleman" between the company that refines the petroleum products and those that either use them or market them at retail prices.
Jobber, in merchandising, can be synonymous with "wholesaler" or "distributor" or "broker" or "middleman." A business which buys goods and bulk products from importers, other wholesalers, or manufacturers, and then sells to retailers, was historically called a jobbing house (or jobbing center).
John E. Jeuck (October 17, 1916 - December 18, 2009) was an American professor of business and dean (1952-1955) of the University of Chicago Booth School of Business.
In microeconomics, joint product pricing is the firm's problem of choosing prices for joint products, which are two or more products produced from the same process or operation, each considered to be of value.
The Journal of Consumer Research is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal covering research on all aspects of consumer behavior, including psychology, marketing, sociology, economics, anthropology, and communications.
The Journal of Creative Communications is a blind peer reviewed academic journal that promotes inquiry into contemporary communication issues within wider social, economic, cultural and technological contexts.
The Journal of Marketing is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal covering the field of marketing.
The Journal of Marketing Education is a triannual peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers on marketing education.
Journal of Marketing Research is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the American Marketing Association.
The Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering research on marketing.
The Journal of Service Research is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the field of business studies.
The Journal of Vacation Marketing is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the field of marketing as related to the tourism, hospitality, and events industries.
k-means clustering is a method of vector quantization, originally from signal processing, that is popular for cluster analysis in data mining.
Kelman's source characteristics identify three characteristics of successful marketing communications sources.
A kiosk is a small, separated garden pavilion open on some or all sides.
Labelling or labeling is describing someone or something in a word or short phrase.
Landa bazaar is a type of a bazaar or a marketplace with lowest prices where only secondhand general goods are exchanged or sold.
Large-group awareness training (LGAT) refers to activities usually offered by groups linked with the human potential movement which claim to increase self-awareness and bring about desirable transformations in individuals' personal lives.
In statistics, a latent class model (LCM) relates a set of observed (usually discrete) multivariate variables to a set of latent variables.
The law of agency is an area of commercial law dealing with a set of contractual, quasi-contractual and non-contractual fiduciary relationships that involve a person, called the agent, that is authorized to act on behalf of another (called the principal) to create legal relations with a third party.
In microeconomics, the law of demand states that, "conditional on all else being equal, as the price of a good increases (↑), quantity demanded decreases (↓); conversely, as the price of a good decreases (↓), quantity demanded increases (↑)".
The law of supply is a fundamental principle of economic theory which states that, keeping other factors constant, an increase in price results in an increase in quantity supplied.
In marketing, lead generation is the initiation of consumer interest or enquiry into products or services of a business.
Lean product development (LPD) is a lean approach to meet the challenges of product development, notably.
Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.
Leonard L. (Len) Berry (born 1942) is a distinguished professor of marketing at Texas A&M University and a senior fellow at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement.
LGBT marketing is the act of marketing to LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) customers, either with dedicated ads or general ads, or through sponsorships of LGBT organizations and events, or through the targeted use of any other element of the marketing mix.
Life-cycle assessment (LCA, also known as life-cycle analysis, ecobalance, and cradle-to-grave analysis) is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and disposal or recycling.
Lifestyle is the interests, opinions, behaviours, and behavioural orientations of an individual, group, or culture.
A lifestyle brand is a brand that attempts to embody the values, aspirations, interests, attitudes, or opinions of a group or a culture for marketing purposes.
A Likert scale (but more commonly pronounced) is a psychometric scale commonly involved in research that employs questionnaires.
Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), normal discriminant analysis (NDA), or discriminant function analysis is a generalization of Fisher's linear discriminant, a method used in statistics, pattern recognition and machine learning to find a linear combination of features that characterizes or separates two or more classes of objects or events.
Some market segments are referred to by acronyms and initials.
This is an annotated list of important business writers.
This is a list of copyright Acts, which are laws enacting the copyright.
This is a list of department stores.
This is an incomplete alphabetical list by surname of notable economists, experts in the social science of economics, past and present.
The packaging and labeling of food is subject to regulation in most regions/jurisdictions, both to prevent false advertising and to promote food safety.
The following list of the magazines in the world by circulation is based upon the number of copies distributed, on average, for each issue.
The following content contains the tentative list of the most watched television broadcasts around the world in selected countries, with the corresponding peak viewership (or ratings share) records, the corresponding year of such broadcast, and the mentioned media research organizations tallying nationwide viewership records.
In the United States, radio listenership is gauged by Nielsen and others for both commercial radio and public radio.
This is a list of renamed or repositioned products.
This page lists shopping streets and districts by city.
As of October 2017, this is a list of supermarket chains, past and present, which operate or have branches in more than one country, whether under the parent corporation's name or another name.
Below are lists of newspapers organized by continent.
Local store marketing (LSM), also known as "neighborhood marketing", is a marketing term that refers to the application of different variables in a business' marketing mix dependent on localized specifications including the consumer, competition, and store characteristics.
Logistics is generally the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation.
Logistics engineering is a field of engineering dedicated to the scientific organization of the purchase, transport, storage, distribution, and warehousing of materials and finished goods.
Logit analysis is a statistical technique used by marketers to assess the scope of customer acceptance of a product, particularly a new product.
A logo (abbreviation of logotype, from λόγος logos "word" and τύπος typos "imprint") is a graphic mark, emblem, or symbol used to aid and promote public identification and recognition.
In cognitive psychology and decision theory, loss aversion refers to people's tendency to prefer avoiding losses to acquiring equivalent gains: it is better to not lose $5 than to find $5.
A loss leader (also leader) is a pricing strategy where a product is sold at a price below its market cost to stimulate other sales of more profitable goods or services.
Loyalty marketing is an approach to marketing, based on strategic management, in which a company focuses on growing and retaining existing customers through incentives.
Loyalty programs are structured marketing strategies designed by merchants to encourage customers to continue to shop at or use the services of businesses associated with each program.
A magazine is a publication, usually a periodical publication, which is printed or electronically published (sometimes referred to as an online magazine).
Managed services is the practice of outsourcing on a proactive basis management responsibilities and functions and a strategic method intended to improve operations and cut expenses.
Mandatory labelling or labeling (see spelling differences) is the requirement of consumer products to state their ingredients or components.
A market is one of the many varieties of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange.
Market cannibalization, market cannibalism, or corporate cannibalism is the practice of slashing the price of a product or introducing a new product into a market of established product categories.
Market development is a growth strategy that identifies and develops new market segments for current products.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
A market entry strategy is the planned method of delivering goods or services to a new target market and distributing them there.
The business environment is a marketing term and refers to factors and forces that affect a firm's ability to build and maintain successful customer relationships.
Market penetration refers to the successful selling of a product or service in a specific market.
In economics and particularly in industrial organization, market power is the ability of a firm to profitably raise the market price of a good or service over marginal cost.
Market research (also in some contexts known as industrial research) is any organized effort to gather information about target markets or customers.
The Market Research Society is a professional body for market research based in London.
Market segmentation is the process of dividing a broad consumer or business market, normally consisting of existing and potential customers, into sub-groups of consumers (known as segments) based on some type of shared characteristics.
Market segmentation index—or the Celli index of market segmentation, named after the Italian economist Gianluca Celli—is a measure of market segmentation.
Market share is the percentage of a market (defined in terms of either units or revenue) accounted for by a specific entity.
Market share analysis is a part of market analysis and indicates how well a firm is doing in the marketplace compared to its competitors.
Market town or market right is a legal term, originating in the Middle Ages, for a European settlement that has the right to host markets, distinguishing it from a village and city.
Market value or OMV (Open Market Valuation) is the price at which an asset would trade in a competitive auction setting.
Marketing is the study and management of exchange relationships.
Marketing was a British monthly trade magazine founded in 1931, and owned by Haymarket Media Group.
Marketing is a Canadian business magazine about marketing, advertising and media.
Marketing buzz or simply buzz—a term used in viral marketing—is the interaction of consumers and users of a product or service which amplifies or alters the original marketing message.
A marketing channel is the people, organizations, and activities necessary to transfer the ownership of goods from the point of production to the point of consumption.
Marketing effectiveness is the measure of how effective a given marketer's go to market strategy is toward meeting the goal of maximizing their spending to achieve positive results in both the short- and long-term.
Marketing ethics is an area of applied ethics which deals with the moral principles behind the operation and regulation of marketing.
A marketing information system (MKIS) is a management information system (MIS) designed to support marketing decision making.
'Marketing intelligence (MI) is the everyday information relevant to a company’s markets, gathered and analyzed specifically for the purpose of accurate and confident decision-making in determining market opportunity, market penetration strategy, and market development metrics.
Marketing management is the process of developing strategies and planning for product or services, advertising, promotions, sales to reach desired customer segment.
The marketing mix (also known as the 4 Ps) is a foundation model in marketing.
Marketing Myopia is a term used in marketing as well as the title of a marketing paper written by Theodore Levitt.
The first-person shooter video game Halo 3 was the focus of an extensive marketing campaign which began with the game's developer, Bungie, announcing the game via a trailer at the Electronic Entertainment Expo in May 2006.
Marketing performance measurement (MPM), or marketing performance management, is the systematic management of marketing resources and processes to achieve measurable gain in return on investment and efficiency, while maintaining quality in customer experience.
A marketing plan may be part of an overall business plan.
Marketing research is "the process or set of processes that links the producers, customers, and end users to the marketer through information used to identify and define marketing opportunities and problems; generate, refine, and evaluate marketing actions; monitor marketing performance; and improve understanding of marketing as a process.
In January, 2017, the Marketing Research Association merged with CASRO to form the Insights Association. The Marketing Research Association (MRA) is a 501(c)(6) non-profit, membership trade association, incorporated in New York state.
Marketing Science is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences.
Marketing strategy is a long-term, forward-looking approach to planning with the fundamental goal achieving a sustainable competitive advantage.
Marketing Theory is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering the field of marketing.
Marketing Week is a business magazine focused on the marketing industry in the UK.
A market, or marketplace, is a location where people regularly gather for the purchase and sale of provisions, livestock, and other goods.
Markup is the ratio between the cost of a good or service and its selling price.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper “A Theory of Human Motivation” in Psychological Review.
Mass customization, in marketing, manufacturing, call centres and management, is the use of flexible computer-aided manufacturing systems to produce custom output.
Mass marketing is a market strategy in which a firm decides to ignore market segment differences and appeal the whole market with one offer or one strategy, which supports the idea of broadcasting a message that will reach the largest number of people possible.
The mass media is a diversified collection of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication.
The Master of Business Administration (MBA or M.B.A.) is a master's degree in business administration (management).
The Master of Marketing Research (MMR) is a graduate degree program that may be from one to three years in length.
Media context studies refers to the group of studies investigating “how and which media context variables influence the effects of the advertisements embedded in the context“.
Media planning is generally outsourced to a media agency and entails sourcing and selecting optimal media platforms for a client's brand or product to use.
Mediaweek is an Australian weekly trade magazine serving news regarding the Australian newspaper, television, radio, magazine and outdoor advertising industries.
Meenā Bāzār or Mina Bazaar (مینا بازار, मीना बाज़ार, মীনা বাজার) is a special bazaar to sell items to raise money for charity and non-profit organizations.
Megamarketing is a term coined by U.S. marketing academic, Philip Kotler, to describe the type of marketing activity required when it is necessary to manage elements of the firm's external environment (governments, the media, pressure groups, etc.) as well as the marketing variables; Kotler suggests that two more Ps must be added to the marketing mix: public relations and power.
In the broadest sense, merchandising is any practice which contributes to the sale of products to a retail consumer.
A merchant is a person who trades in commodities produced by other people.
Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) are transactions in which the ownership of companies, other business organizations, or their operating units are transferred or consolidated with other entities.
In marketing, a microsegment is a more advanced form of market segmentation that groups a number of customers of the business into specific segments based on various factors including behavioral predictions.
Microsegmentation is a marketing process that uses techniques such as data mining, artificial intelligence, and algorithms to recognize and predict minute consumer spending and behavioral patterns.
Mind share relates generally to the development of consumer awareness or popularity, and is one of the main objectives of advertising and promotion.
A mission statement is a short statement of an organization's purpose, identifying the goal of its operations: what kind of product or service it provides, its primary customers or market, and its geographical region of operation.
Mission-driven marketing, or mission-based marketing refers to a strategic marketing approach which uses an organization’s core mission as the foundation and focus of its marketing communications.
Mobile advertising is a form of advertising via mobile (wireless) phones or other mobile devices.
A mobile billboard also known as "truck side advertising" used for advertising on the side of a trucks or trailer.
Monopolistic competition is a type of imperfect competition such that many producers sell products that are differentiated from one another (e.g. by branding or quality) and hence are not perfect substitutes.
A monopoly (from Greek μόνος mónos and πωλεῖν pōleîn) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity.
In economics, a monopsony (from Ancient Greek μόνος (mónos) "single" + ὀψωνία (opsōnía) "purchase") is a market structure in which only one buyer interacts with many would-be sellers of a particular product.
Mosaic UK is Experian’s system for classification of UK households.
Motivation is the reason for people's actions, desires, and needs.
Movement marketing, or cultural movement marketing, is a marketing model that begins with an idea on the rise in culture.
A movie theater/theatre (American English), cinema (British English) or cinema hall (Indian English) is a building that contains an auditorium for viewing films (also called movies) for entertainment.
Multi-level marketing (MLM) also called pyramid selling, network marketing, and referral marketing, is a marketing strategy for the sale of products or services where the revenue of the MLM company is derived from a non-salaried workforce selling the company's products/services, while the earnings of the participants are derived from a pyramid-shaped or binary compensation commission system.
Multidimensional scaling (MDS) is a means of visualizing the level of similarity of individual cases of a dataset.
Multimethodology or multimethod research includes the use of more than one method of data collection or research in a research study or set of related studies.
In statistics, multistage sampling is the taking of samples in stages using smaller and smaller sampling units at each stage.
The Musée de la Publicité was a museum of advertising history located in the Louvre's Rohan and Marsan wings, 1st arrondissement of Paris, at 107, rue de Rivoli, Paris, France.
The Museum of Brands, Packaging and Advertising in London examines the history of consumer culture from Victorian times to the present day.
Nation branding aims to measure, build and manage the reputation of countries (closely related to place branding).
The brand name of a product that is distributed nationally under a brand name owned by the producer or distributor, as opposed to local brands (products distributed only in some areas of the country), and private label brands (products that carry the brand of the retailer rather than the producer.) National brands must compete with local and private brands.
Native advertising is a type of advertising, mostly online, that matches the form and function of the platform upon which it appears.
A need is something that is necessary for an organism to live a healthy life.
Negotiation comes from the Latin neg (no) and otsia (leisure) referring to businessmen who, unlike the patricians, had no leisure time in their industriousness; it held the meaning of business (le négoce in French) until the 17th century when it took on the diplomatic connotation as a dialogue between two or more people or parties intended to reach a beneficial outcome over one or more issues where a conflict exists with respect to at least one of these issues.
Neil Hopper Borden (1895–1980) was an American academic, who served as a professor of advertising at the Harvard Graduate School of Business Administration.
A neon (or glass) message board or glassboard is an erasable luminescent whiteboard-like writing pad that enables users to leave messages for others.
Neopets (originally NeoPets) is a virtual pet website.
Neuromarketing is a commercial marketing communication field that applies neuropsychology to marketing research, studying consumers' sensorimotor, cognitive, and affective response to marketing stimuli.
New media are forms of media that are native to computers, computational and relying on computers for re-distribution.
In business and engineering, new product development (NPD) covers the complete process of bringing a new product to market.
A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events.
A newspaper's circulation is the number of copies it distributes on an average day.
A niche market is the subset of the market on which a specific product is focused.
Nicotine marketing is the marketing of nicotine-containing products or use.
Nielsen Audio (formerly Arbitron) is a consumer research company in the United States that collects listener data on radio broadcasting audiences.
Nielsen Media Research (NMR) is an American firm that measures media audiences, including television, radio, theatre films (via the AMC Theatres MAP program) and newspapers.
Nielsen ratings are the audience measurement systems operated by Nielsen Media Research that seek to determine the audience size and composition of television programming in the United States.
The nominal group technique (NGT) is a group process involving problem identification, solution generation, and decision making.
Sampling is the use of a subset of the population to represent the whole population or to inform about (social) processes that are meaningful beyond the particular cases, individuals or sites studied.
A non-profit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity or non-profit institution, is dedicated to furthering a particular social cause or advocating for a shared point of view.
NVivo is a qualitative data analysis (QDA) computer software package produced by QSR International.
In marketing and the social sciences, observational research (or field research) is a social research technique that involves the direct observation of phenomena in their natural setting.
An oligopoly (from Ancient Greek ὀλίγος (olígos) "few" + πωλεῖν (polein) "to sell") is a market form wherein a market or industry is dominated by a small number of large sellers (oligopolists).
An oligopsony (from Ancient Greek ὀλίγοι (oligoi) "few" + ὀψωνία (opsōnia) "purchase") is a market form in which the number of buyers is small while the number of sellers in theory could be large.
Online advertising, also called online marketing or Internet advertising or web advertising, is a form of marketing and advertising which uses the Internet to deliver promotional marketing messages to consumers.
An Online panel is a group of selected research participants who have agreed to provide information at specified intervals over an extended period of time.
In business, operating margin—also known as operating income margin, operating profit margin and return on sales (ROS)—is the ratio of operating income ("operating profit" in the UK) to net sales, usually presented in percent.
Opinion leadership is leadership by an active media user who interprets the meaning of media messages or content for lower-end media users.
Organic business growth is related to the growth of natural systems and organisms, societies and economies, as a dynamic organizational process, that for business expansion is marked by increased output, customer base expansion, or new product development, as opposed to mergers and acquisitions, which is inorganic growth.
An organization or organisation is an entity comprising multiple people, such as an institution or an association, that has a collective goal and is linked to an external environment.
Out-of-home (OOH) advertising or outdoor advertising, also known as out-of-home media or outdoor media, is advertising that reaches the consumers while they are outside their homes.
An outline, also called a hierarchical outline, is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships and is a type of tree structure.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to management: Business management – management of a business.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to commercial law: Commercial law – body of law that governs business and commercial transactions.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to economics: Economics – analyzes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to finance: Finance – addresses the ways in which individuals and organizations raise and allocate monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to production: Production – act of creating 'use' value or 'utility' that can satisfy a want or need.
In business, outsourcing is an agreement in which one company contracts its own internal activity to a different company.
OzTAM is an Australian audience measurement research firm that collects and markets television ratings data.
Packaging is the science, art and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use.
Paid inclusion is a search engine marketing product where the search engine company charges fees related to inclusion of websites in their search index.
Participatory design (originally co-operative design, now often co-design) is an approach to design attempting to actively involve all stakeholders (e.g. employees, partners, customers, citizens, end users) in the design process to help ensure the result meets their needs and is usable.
Pasar malam (Nacht Markt or Avondmarkt) is an Indonesian and Malay word that literally means "night market" (the word comes from bazaar in Persian).
Pasar pagi (Malay/Indonesian, lit.: "morning market") is a type of traditional market found in Indonesia and Malaysia, quite similar to a wet market.
A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.
Paul E. Green (4 April 1927 – 21 September 2012)) was a US marketing professor and statistician. He was S.S. Kresge Professor of Marketing, and later Professor Emeritus at the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania. He was the founder of conjoint analysis and one of "major architects of modern marketing science and practice", having popularised the use of Bayesian statistics, multidimensional scaling, clustering, and qualitative data analysis within the marketing discipline. He wrote more than sixteen books and 200 articles on market research-related subjects. His seminal article, "Conjoint Analysis in Consumer Research: Issues and Outlook," has been cited more than 750 times in ISI and has some 4,000 citations on Google Scholar. In 1980 he became a Fellow of the American Statistical Association. In 1996 the Journal of Marketing Research established the Paul E. Green Award for the best article in the Journal of Marketing Research was established in his honour. He was the recipient of many awards including: The Parlin Award for Advancement of Science in Marketing, the AMA/Irwin Marketing Educator of the Year Award, The Outstanding Marketing Educator Award, and the Lifetime Achievement in Marketing Research Award and he was also the subject of a biographical outline in the Legends of Marketing, series published by Sage Publications.
A pawnbroker is an individual or business (pawnshop or pawn shop) that offers secured loans to people, with items of personal property used as collateral.
In the healthcare industry, pay for performance (P4P), also known as "value-based purchasing", is a payment model that offers financial incentives to physicians, hospitals, medical groups, and other healthcare providers for meeting certain performance measures.
Pay-per-click (PPC), also known as cost per click (CPC), is an internet advertising model used to direct traffic to websites, in which an advertiser pays a publisher (typically a website owner or a network of websites) when the ad is clicked.
A peddler, in British English pedlar, also known as a canvasser, chapman, cheapjack, hawker, higler, huckster, monger, or solicitor, is a traveling vendor of goods.
In sociology, a peer group is both a social group and a primary group of people who have similar interests (homophily), age, background, or social status.
Penetration pricing is a pricing strategy where the price of a product is initially set low to rapidly reach a wide fraction of the market and initiate word of mouth.
Perceptual mapping is a diagrammatic technique used by asset marketers that attempts to visually display the perceptions of customers or potential customers.
Performance-based advertising, also known as pay for performance advertising, is a form of advertising in which the purchaser pays only when there are measurable results.
A persona, (also user persona, customer persona, buyer persona) in user-centered design and marketing is a fictional character created to represent a user type that might use a site, brand, or product in a similar way.
Personal selling occurs when a sales representative meets with a potential client for the purpose of transacting a sale.
Personalized marketing, or one-to-one marketing, individual marketing is a marketing strategy by which companies leverage data analysis and digital technology to deliver individualized messages and product offerings to current or prospective customers.
PEST analysis (political, economic, socio-cultural and technological) describes a framework of macro-environmental factors used in the environmental scanning component of strategic management.
“Pester Power” or “The Nag Factor”, as the phenomenon is known in US literature, is the “tendency of children, who are bombarded with marketers’ messages, to unrelentingly request advertised items”.
Pharmaceutical marketing, sometimes called medico-marketing or pharma marketing in some countries, is the business of advertising or otherwise promoting the sale of pharmaceutical drugs.
Pharmaceutical Marketing and Management is an undergraduate college degree program which began at the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science.
Philip Kotler (born May 27, 1931) is an American marketing author, consultant, and professor; currently the S. C. Johnson Distinguished Professor of International Marketing at the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University.
Physical attractiveness is the degree to which a person's physical features are considered aesthetically pleasing or beautiful.
In the United States and (at least some) other English-speaking countries, a pink-collar worker refers to someone working in the care-oriented career field or in jobs historically considered to be "women’s work." This may include jobs in nursing, teaching, secretarial work, waitressing, or child care.
Planned obsolescence, or built-in obsolescence, in industrial design and economics is a policy of planning or designing a product with an artificially limited useful life, so it will become obsolete (that is, unfashionable or no longer functional) after a certain period of time.
The point of sale (POS) or point of purchase (POP) is the time and place where a retail transaction is completed.
A point-of-sale display (POS display) is a specialized form of sales promotion that is found near, on, or next to a checkout counter (the "point of sale").
Pop-up ads or pop-ups are forms of online advertising on the World Wide Web.
Pop-up retail, also known as pop-up store (pop-up shop in the UK, Australia and Ireland) or flash retailing, is a trend of opening short-term sales spaces that started in Los Angeles and now pop up all over the United States, Canada, China, Japan, Mexico, France, Germany, the United Kingdom and Australia.
Porter's Five Forces Framework is a tool for analyzing competition of a business.
Porter's generic strategies describe how a company pursues competitive advantage across its chosen market scope.
Positioning refers to the place that a brand occupies in the mind of the customer and how it is distinguished from products from competitors.
Post-click marketing is emerging as a recognized practice that aims at improving sales and marketing results by focusing on website visitors when they respond to online marketing activities such as pay per click advertising, HTML e-mails, and paid searches with the objective on increasing conversion rates.
Postmodern Marketing is a term derived from postmodern philosophical movements where there are cultural tendencies of inherent suspicion towards a global cultural narrative or meta-narrative.
The Potato Marketing Corporation of Western Australia (PMC) was a statutory corporation created by the Government of Western Australia's Marketing of Potatoes Act 1946.
Precision marketing is a marketing technique that suggests successful marketing is to retain, cross-sell and upsell existing customers.
Predictive Buying is the name of the industry dedicated to algorithmic consumer analytics yielding future buying patterns.
Preference regression is a statistical technique used by marketers to determine consumers’ preferred core benefits.
Preference-rank translation is a mathematical technique used by marketers to convert stated preferences into purchase probabilities, that is, into an estimate of actual buying behaviour.
Premium pricing (also called image pricing or prestige pricing) is the practice of keeping the price of a product or service artificially high in order to encourage favorable perceptions among buyers, based solely on the price.
A presentation is the process of presenting a topic to an audience.
A price ceiling is a government-imposed price control, or limit, on how high a price is charged for a product.
Price controls are governmental restrictions on the prices that can be charged for goods and services in a market.
Price discrimination is a microeconomic pricing strategy where identical or largely similar goods or services are transacted at different prices by the same provider in different markets.
Price elasticity of demand (PED or Ed) is a measure used in economics to show the responsiveness, or elasticity, of the quantity demanded of a good or service to a change in its price when nothing but the price changes.
Price fixing is an agreement between participants on the same side in a market to buy or sell a product, service, or commodity only at a fixed price, or maintain the market conditions such that the price is maintained at a given level by controlling supply and demand.
This is a partial list of notable price fixing and bid rigging cases.
A price floor is a government- or group-imposed price control or limit on how low a price can be charged for a product.
Price gouging is a pejorative term referring to when a seller spikes the prices of goods, services or commodities to a level much higher than is considered reasonable or fair, and is considered exploitative, potentially to an unethical extent.
In economics, a price mechanism is the manner in which the prices of goods or services affect the supply and demand of goods and services, principally by the price elasticity of demand.
A price override is a feature of a retail management system which allows an authorised person to change the automated price of a product or service, in order to apply a discount.
Price points are prices at which demand for a given product is supposed to stay relatively high.
Price premium, or relative price, is the percentage by which a product’s selling price exceeds (or falls short of) a benchmark price.
A price signal is information conveyed to consumers and producers, via the price charged for a product or service, which provides a signal to increase or decrease supply or demand.
Price skimming is a pricing strategy in which a marketer sets a relatively high initial price for a product or service at first, then lowers the price over time.
In economics, a price system is a component of any economic system that uses prices expressed in any form of money for the valuation and distribution of goods and services and the factors of production.
A price umbrella, also known as the umbrella effect, is a pricing effect often created by a dominant company, in which competing firms can find buyers as long as they set their price at or below the level of the dominant one.
Price war is "commercial competition characterized by the repeated cutting of prices below those of competitors".
Pricing objectives or goals give direction to the whole pricing process.
Pricing science is the application of social and business science methods to the problem of setting prices.
Private-label products or services, also known as "phantom brands", are typically those manufactured or provided by one company for offer under another company's brand.
Private Label Strategy: How to Meet the Store Brand Challenge is a book by Nirmalya Kumar and Jan Benedict Steenkamp.
About Produce Marketing Association The Produce Marketing Association (PMA) is the leading global trade association representing companies from every segment of the global produce and floral supply chain.
In marketing, product bundling is offering several products or services for sale as one combined product or service package.
Product category volume (PCV) is the weighted measure of distribution based on store sales within the product category.
Product churning is the business practice whereby more of the product is sold than is beneficial to the consumer.
Product design as a verb is to create a new product to be sold by a business to its customers.
In economics and marketing, product differentiation (or simply differentiation) is the process of distinguishing a product or service from others, to make it more attractive to a particular target market.
Product life-cycle management (PLM) is the succession of strategies by business management as a product goes through its life-cycle.
The Product Life Cycle Theory is an economic theory that was developed by Raymond Vernon in response to the failure of the Heckscher-Ohlin model to explain the observed pattern of international trade.
In industry, product lifecycle management (PLM) is the process of managing the entire lifecycle of a product from inception, through engineering design and manufacture, to service and disposal of manufactured products.
A product line extension is the use of an established product brand name for a new item in the same product category.
In marketing jargon, product lining is offering several related products for sale individually.
Product management is an organizational lifecycle function within a company dealing with the planning, forecasting, and production, or marketing of a product or products at all stages of the product lifecycle.
Product naming is the discipline of deciding what a product will be called, and is very similar in concept and approach to the process of deciding on a name for a company or organization.
Product placement, also known as embedded marketing, is a marketing technique in which references to specific brands or products are incorporated into another work, such as a film or television program, with specific promotional intent.
Product proliferation occurs when organizations market many variations of the same products.
The Profit Impact of Market Strategy (PIMS) database "yields solid evidence in support of both common sense and counter-intuitive principles for gaining and sustaining competitive advantage": Tom Peters and Nancy Austin.
In economics, profit maximization is the short run or long run process by which a firm may determine the price, input, and output levels that lead to the greatest profit.
Project Portfolio Management (PPM) is the centralized management of the processes, methods, and technologies used by project managers and project management offices (PMOs) to analyze and collectively manage current or proposed projects based on numerous key characteristics.
In marketing, promotion refers to any type of marketing communication used to inform or persuade target audiences of the relative merits of a product, service, brand or issue.
The Promotion Marketing Association (PMA) is an advocacy group and trade association for the promotion and integrated marketing sector.
Promotional merchandise, sometimes nicknamed swag, schwag, or tchotchke, are products, branded with a logo or slogan, used in marketing and communication programs.
Prospect theory is a behavioral economic theory that describes the way people choose between probabilistic alternatives that involve risk, where the probabilities of outcomes are known (.
Prospecting is the first stage of the geological analysis (second – exploration) of a territory.
PRWeek is a trade magazine for the public relations industry.
Psychographic segmentation has been used in marketing research as a form of market segmentation which divides consumers into sub-groups based on shared psychological characteristics, including subconscious or conscious beliefs, motivations, and priorities to explain and predict consumer behavior.
Psychographics can be defined as a qualitative methodology used to describe consumers on psychological attributes.
Psychological pricing (also price ending, charm pricing) is a pricing/marketing strategy based on the theory that certain prices have a psychological impact.
Psychometrics is a field of study concerned with the theory and technique of psychological measurement.
The purchase funnel, or purchasing funnel, is a consumer focused marketing model which illustrates the theoretical customer journey towards the purchase of a product or service.
Purchasing power (sometimes retroactively called adjusted for inflation) is the number and quality or value of goods and services that can be purchased with a unit of currency.
A pyramid scheme (commonly known as pyramid scams) is a business model that recruits members via a promise of payments or services for enrolling others into the scheme, rather than supplying investments or sale of products or services.
The Q Score (popularly known as Q-Rating) is a measurement of the familiarity and appeal of a brand, celebrity, company, or entertainment product (e.g., television show) used in the United States.
In business, engineering, and manufacturing, quality has a pragmatic interpretation as the non-inferiority or superiority of something; it's also defined as being suitable for its intended purpose (fitness for purpose) while satisfying customer expectations.
Quality function deployment (QFD) is a method developed in Japan beginning in 1966 to help transform the voice of the customer into engineering characteristics for a product.
Quality management ensures that an organization, product or service is consistent.
In natural sciences and social sciences, quantitative research is the systematic empirical investigation of observable phenomena via statistical, mathematical or computational techniques.
Questionnaire construction refers to the design of a questionnaire to gather statistically useful information about a given topic.
A rack jobber (also known as a rack merchandiser) is a company or trader that has an agreement with a retailer to display and sell products in a store.
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
Random forests or random decision forests are an ensemble learning method for classification, regression and other tasks, that operate by constructing a multitude of decision trees at training time and outputting the class that is the mode of the classes (classification) or mean prediction (regression) of the individual trees.
Target rate of return pricing is a pricing method used almost exclusively by market leaders or monopolists.
In the application of statistics to advertising and media analysis, reach refers to the total number of different people or households exposed, at least once, to a medium during a given period.
The distinction between real prices and ideal prices is a distinction between actual prices paid for products, services, assets and labour (the money that actually changes hands), and computed prices which are not actually charged or paid in market trade, although they may facilitate trade.
Badge engineering, sometimes called rebadging, is the practice of applying a different badge or trademark (brand, logo or manufacturer's name/make/marque) to an existing product (e.g., an automobile) and subsequently marketing the variant as a distinct product.
Rebranding is a marketing strategy in which a new name, term, symbol, design, or combination thereof is created for an established brand with the intention of developing a new, differentiated identity in the minds of consumers, investors, competitors, and other stakeholders.
A reference group is a group to which an individual or another group is compared.
Referral marketing is a method of promoting products or services to new customers through referrals, usually word of mouth.
Relationship marketing was first defined as a form of marketing developed from direct response marketing campaigns which emphasizes customer retention and satisfaction, rather than a focus on sales transactions.
Relationship-Based Pricing (RBP), also known as Relationship based Pricing is a concept in the banking industry.
Resale price maintenance (RPM) (US) or retail price maintenance (UK) is the practice whereby a manufacturer and its distributors agree that the distributors will sell the manufacturer's product at certain prices (resale price maintenance), at or above a price floor (minimum resale price maintenance) or at or below a price ceiling (maximum resale price maintenance).
Research and development (R&D, R+D, or R'n'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products.
Reservation (or reserve) price is a limit on the price of a good or a service.
The resource-based view (RBV) is a managerial framework used to determine the strategic resources with the potential to deliver comparative advantage to a firm.
Retail is the process of selling consumer goods or services to customers through multiple channels of distribution to earn a profit.
Retail concentration refers to the market-share generally belonging to the top 4 or 5 mass distribution firms present in a regional market, as a percentage of the total.
Retail design is a creative and commercial discipline that combines several different areas of expertise together in the design and construction of retail space.
Retail media is marketing to consumers at or near their point of purchase, or point of choice between competing brands or products.
Retail software is computer software typically installed on PC type computers or more recently (past 2005) delivered via the Internet (also known as cloud-based).
A retailers' cooperative is a type of cooperative which employs economies of scale on behalf of its retailer members.
Return on marketing investment (ROMI) is the contribution to profit attributable to marketing (net of marketing spending), divided by the marketing 'invested' or risked.
Reusable packaging is manufactured of durable materials and is specifically designed for multiple trips and extended life.
Revenue sharing is the distribution of profits and losses between stakeholders, who could be general partners (and limited partners in a limited partnership), a company's employees, or between companies in a business alliance.
Reverse logistics is for all operations related to the reuse of products and materials.
Richard S. Tedlow is the MBA Class of 1949 Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School, where he is a specialist in the history of business.
Risk perception is the subjective judgement that people make about the characteristics and severity of a risk.
Role theory is a perspective in sociology and in social psychology that considers most of everyday activity to be the acting out of socially defined categories (e.g., mother, manager, teacher).
Rosser Reeves (10 September 1910 – 24 January 1984) was an American advertising executive and pioneer of television advertising; Reeves generated millions for his clients.
Roy Morgan Research is an Australian market research company headquartered in Melbourne.
Saddar Bazaar (صدر بازار) is usually the main market or bazaar in most of the Cantonments of Pakistan and India.
Sagacity segmentation is a means of segmenting a population of interest using life-cycle stage, income and occupation variables.
Sales is activity related to selling or the amount of goods or services sold in a given time period.
Sales effectiveness refers to the ability of a company’s sales professionals to “win” at each stage of the customer’s buying process, and ultimately earn the business on the right terms and in the right timeframe.
Salesforce management systems (also sales force automation systems (SFA)) are information systems used in customer relationship management (CRM) marketing and management that help automate some sales and sales force management functions.
Sales management is a business discipline which is focused on the practical application of sales techniques and the management of a firm's sales operations.
Sales process engineering is the engineering of better sales processes.
Sales Promotion magazine is a monthly UK business-to-business magazine for people working in marketing.
A sandwich board is a type of advertisement composed of two boards (holding a message or graphic) and being either.
In the social sciences, scaling is the process of measuring or ordering entities with respect to quantitative attributes or traits.
Scenario analysis is a process of analyzing possible future events by considering alternative possible outcomes (sometimes called "alternative worlds").
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
Search analytics is the use of search data to investigate particular interactions among Web searchers, the search engine, or the content during searching episodes.
Search engine marketing (SEM) is a form of Internet marketing that involves the promotion of websites by increasing their visibility in search engine results pages (SERPs) primarily through paid advertising.
Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process of affecting the online visibility of a website or a web page in a web search engine's unpaid results—often referred to as "natural", "organic", or "earned" results.
Seasonal packaging is a way of marketing a product and sparking sales in consumer segments that infrequently buy the product, by wrapping the product in a package closlely related to seasons such as Valentine's Day, Easter, Mother's Day, Memorial Day, the Fourth of July, Labor Day, back-to-school, Halloween, Thanksgiving, Christmas and New Year's.
A second-hand shop is a shop which sells goods that are not new.
In marketing, segmenting, targeting and positioning (STP) is a broad framework that summarizes and simplifies the process of market segmentation.
Throughout the long history of consumer research, there has been much interest regarding how consumers choose which brand to buy and why they continue to purchase these brands.
Self-service is the practice of serving oneself, usually when purchasing items.
Semantic Differential (SD) is a type of a rating scale designed to measure the connotative meaning of objects, events, and concepts.
In economics, a service is a transaction in which no physical goods are transferred from the seller to the buyer.
The service blueprint is a technique originally used for service design and innovation, but has also found applications in diagnosing problems with operational efficiency.
Service design is the activity of planning and organizing people, infrastructure, communication and material components of a service in order to improve its quality and the interaction between the service provider and its customers.
The concept of service Innovation was first discussed in Miles (1993) and has been developed in the past two decades.
A service mark or servicemark is a trademark used in the United States and several other countries to identify a service rather than a product.
The service mark symbol (℠), the letters SM in superscript style) is a symbol used in the United States to provide notice that the preceding mark is a service mark. This symbol has some legal force and is typically used for service marks not yet registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office; registered service marks are instead marked with the same symbol used for registered trademarks, the registered trademark symbol ®. The proper manner to display the symbol is immediately following the mark in superscript style. The character is mapped in Unicode as. Unlike the similar trademark symbol, there is no simple way to type the service mark symbol on Microsoft Windows, but the built-in charmap application can help. In Microsoft Outlook or Word type and. On Macintosh systems, the symbol can be inserted by using the Character Palette. On Linux systems, it can be inserted by pressing, then and finally.
Service quality (SQ), in its contemporary conceptualisation, is a comparison of perceived expectations (E) of a service with perceived performance (P), giving rise to the equation SQ.
Service recovery is, according to Fitzsimmons (2011 - p136), a "Service recovery converting a previously dissatisfied customer into a loyal customer." It is the action a service provider takes in response to service failure.
The service recovery paradox (SRP) is a situation in which a customer thinks more highly of a company after the company has corrected a problem with their service, compared to how he or she would regard the company if non-faulty service had been provided.
A service system (or customer service system, CSS) is a configuration of technology and organizational networks designed to deliver services that satisfy the needs, wants, or aspirations of customers.
Service-dominant (S-D) logic is a meta-theoretical framework for explaining value creation, through exchange, among configurations of actors.
Serviceable addressable market (SAM; also served available market) is the part of the total addressable market (TAM) that can actually be reached.
Services marketing is a specialised branch of marketing.
Servicescape is a model developed by Booms and Bitner to emphasize the impact of the physical environment in which a service process takes place.
SERVQUAL is a multi-dimensional research instrument, designed to capture consumer expectations and perceptions of a service along the five dimensions that are believed to represent service quality.
Seth Godin is an American author and former dot com business executive.
Sex in advertising is the use of sex appeal in advertising to help sell a particular product or service.
A shadow price is commonly referred to as a monetary value assigned to currently unknowable or difficult-to-calculate costs.
Share a Coke is a multi-national marketing campaign in for Coca-Cola.
Share of Voice in Online Advertising is an ad revenue model that focuses on weight or percentage among other advertisers.
Share of wallet (SOW) is a survey method used in performance management that helps managers understand the amount of business a company gets from specific customers.
Sharing economy is an umbrella term with a range of meanings, often used to describe economic activity involving online transactions.
Shelby D. Hunt (born 1939) is an American organizational theorist, the Jerry S. Rawls and P. W. Horn Professor of Marketing at the Texas Tech University, and a highly cited marketing researcher.
A shill, also called a plant or a stooge, is a person who publicly helps or gives credibility to a person or organization without disclosing that they have a close relationship with the person or organization.
Shock advertising or Shockvertising is a type of advertising that "deliberately, rather than inadvertently, startles and offends its audience by violating norms for social values and personal ideals".
Shopper marketing is "understanding how one's target consumers behave as shoppers, in different channels and formats, and leveraging this intelligence to the benefit of all stakeholders, defined as brands, consumers, retailers and shoppers." According to Chris Hoyt, "Shopper marketing brand marketing in retail environment." Since it includes category management, displays, sales, packaging, promotion, research and marketing "Shopper marketing is the elephant in the room that nobody sees the same way." Shopper marketing is not limited to in-store marketing activities, a common and highly inaccurate assumption that impairs the spread of any industry definition.
A shopping mall is a modern, chiefly North American, term for a form of shopping precinct or shopping center, in which one or more buildings form a complex of shops representing merchandisers with interconnecting walkways that enable customers to walk from unit to unit.
Shrimp are marketed and commercialised with several issues in mind.
Signage is the design or use of signs and symbols to communicate a message to a specific group, usually for the purpose of marketing or a kind of advocacy.
A silver object that is to be sold commercially is, in most countries, stamped with one or more silver hallmarks indicating the purity of the silver, the mark of the manufacturer or silversmith, and other (optional) markings to indicate date of manufacture and additional information about the piece.
In statistics, a simple random sample is a subset of individuals (a sample) chosen from a larger set (a population).
Site selection indicates the practice of new facility location, both for business and government.
Situation analysis refers to a collection of methods that managers use to analyze an organization's internal and external environment to understand the organization's capabilities, customers, and business environment.
Skywriting is the process of using a small aircraft, able to expel special smoke during flight, to fly in certain patterns that create writing readable by someone on the ground.
Sliding scale fees are variable prices for products, services, or taxes based on a customer's ability to pay.
Slip-Slop-Slap was the iconic and internationally recognised sun protection campaign prominent in Australia and New Zealand during the 1980s.
Smarketing is the process of integrating the sales and marketing processes of a business.
SMART is a mnemonic acronym, giving criteria to guide in the setting of objectives, for example in project management, employee-performance management and personal development.
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.
Social marketing is the use of marketing theory, skills and practices to achieve social change.
Social Marketing Quarterly is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering social marketing.
Social media are computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks.
Social media marketing is the use of social media platforms and websites to promote a product or service.
Socially responsible marketing is a marketing philosophy that a company should take into consideration; "What is in the best interest of society in the present and long term?"Armstrong, Gary, and Philip Kotler.
The societal marketing concept is a marketing concept that holds that a company should make marketing decisions not only by considering consumers' wants, the company's requirements, but also society's long-term interests.
A soft launch, also known as a soft opening, is a preview release of a product or service to a limited audience prior to the general public.
Solution selling is a sales methodology.
A sound trademark is a trademark where sound is used to perform the trademark function of uniquely identifying the commercial origin of products or services.
A souq or souk (سوق, שוק shuq, Spanish: zoco, also spelled shuk, shooq, soq, esouk, succ, suk, sooq, suq, soek) is a marketplace or commercial quarter in Western Asian, North African and some Horn African cities (ሱቅ sooq).
Specialty catalogs are a promotion and distribution technique commonly employed by direct marketers.
A speechwriter is a person who is hired to prepare and write speeches that will be delivered by another person.
Sponsor Magazine was created by Norman R. Glenn for commercial broadcasting, radio and TV advertising buyers.
Sports marketing is a subdivision of marketing which focuses both on the promotion of sports events and teams as well as the promotion of other products and services through sporting events and sports teams.
Stephen L. Vargo, Ph.D is a Shidler Distinguished Professor and Professor of Marketing at the University of Hawai’i at Manoa.
Stockjobbers were institutions that acted as market makers in the London Stock Exchange.
Store brands or shop brands are a line of products strategically branded by a retailer within a single brand identity.
A retail manager (or store manager) is the person ultimately responsible for the day-to-day operations (or management) of a retail store.
A storyboard is a graphic organizer in the form of illustrations or images displayed in sequence for the purpose of pre-visualizing a motion picture, animation, motion graphic or interactive media sequence.
A strategic group is a concept used in strategic management that groups companies within an industry that have similar business models or similar combinations of strategies.
Strategic planning is an organization's process of defining its strategy, or direction, and making decisions on allocating its resources to pursue this strategy.
Strategic service management (SSM) is a business strategy that aims to optimize the post-sales service that a company provides, by synchronizing service parts and resources forecasting, service partners, workforce technicians, and service pricing.
In statistics, stratified sampling is a method of sampling from a population.
Streaming media is multimedia that is constantly received by and presented to an end-user while being delivered by a provider.
Street marketing is marketing or promoting products or services in an unconventional way in public places.
A street team is a term used in marketing to describe a group of people who 'hit the streets' promoting an event or a product.
A strip mall (also called a shopping plaza, shopping center, or mini-mall) is an open-air shopping mall where the stores are arranged in a row, with a sidewalk in front.
Structural equation modeling (SEM) includes a diverse set of mathematical models, computer algorithms, and statistical methods that fit networks of constructs to data.
In marketing, a sub-niche market is a very small market niche having specific appeal.
A subculture is a group of people within a culture that differentiates itself from the parent culture to which it belongs, often maintaining some of its founding principles.
Subliminal stimuli (the prefix sup- literally "below, or less than", while the prefix sub- literally "up to"), contrary to supraliminal stimuli or "above threshold", are any sensory stimuli below an individual's threshold for conscious perception.
Subvertising (a portmanteau of subvert and advertising) is the practice of making spoofs or parodies of corporate and political advertisements.
A supermarket is a self-service shop offering a wide variety of food and household products, organized into aisles.
In microeconomics, supply and demand is an economic model of price determination in a market.
A supply chain is a system of organizations, people, activities, information, and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer.
In commerce, supply chain management (SCM), the management of the flow of goods and services, involves the movement and storage of raw materials, of work-in-process inventory, and of finished goods from point of origin to point of consumption.
A field of applied statistics of human research surveys, survey methodology studies the sampling of individual units from a population and associated techniques of survey data collection, such as questionnaire construction and methods for improving the number and accuracy of responses to surveys.
Sustainability brands are products and services that are branded to signify a special added value in terms of environmental and social benefits to the customer and thus enable the differentiation from competitors.
Sustainable metrics and indices are measures of sustainability, and attempt to quantify beyond the generic concept.
Traditionally, market orientation (MO) focuses on microenvironment and the functional management of an organisation.
Sustainable packaging is the development and use of packaging which results in improved sustainability.
Switching barriers or switching costs are terms used in microeconomics, strategic management, and marketing to describe any impediment to a customer's changing of suppliers (customer switching).
SWOT analysis (or SWOT matrix) is a strategic planning technique used to help a person or organization identify the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats related to business competition or project planning.
A symbol-intensive brand is a brand adopted not only for its functional benefits, but above all, for the strong symbolism and significance that it is able to transmit, allowing a consumer to express his or her identity, to signal status or manifest a sense of belonging to a group.
Systematic sampling is a statistical method involving the selection of elements from an ordered sampling frame.
A target audience is the intended audience or readership of a publication, advertisement, or other message.
Target costing is an approach to determine a product’s life-cycle cost which should be sufficient to develop specified functionality and quality, while ensuring its desired profit.
Targeted advertising is a form of advertising where online advertisers can use sophisticated methods to target the most receptive audiences with certain traits, based on the product or person the advertiser is promoting.
The technology acceptance model (TAM) is an information systems theory that models how users come to accept and use a technology.
The technology adoption lifecycle is a sociological model that describes the adoption or acceptance of a new product or innovation, according to the demographic and psychological characteristics of defined adopter groups.
The technology life-cycle (TLC) describes the commercial gain of a product through the expense of research and development phase, and the financial return during its "vital life".
Telemarketing (sometimes known as inside sales, or telesales in the UK and Ireland) is a method of direct marketing in which a salesperson solicits prospective customers to buy products or services, either over the phone or through a subsequent face to face or Web conferencing appointment scheduled during the call.
Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.
A television advertisement (also called a television commercial, commercial or ad in American English, and known in British English as a TV advert or simply an advert) is a span of television programming produced and paid for by an organization.
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory.
A test market, in the field of business and marketing, is a geographic region or demographic group used to gauge the viability of a product or service in the mass market prior to a wide scale roll-out.
The Advertising Archives is a picture library and museum with an archive of one million British and American press ads, TV stills, magazine covers, catalogues, greetings cards, posters, illustrations and cultural ephemera dating from 1850 to the present day.
The term "Experience Economy" was first used in a 1998 article by B. Joseph Pine II and James H. Gilmore describing the experience economy as the next economy following the agrarian economy, the industrial economy, and the most recent service economy.
The Marketer was a marketing magazine published ten times a year by Redactive Publishing Ltd.
Theodore Levitt (March 1, 1925, Vollmerz, Main-Kinzig-Kreis, Germany – June 28, 2006, Belmont, Massachusetts) was an American economist and professor at Harvard Business School.
Time marketing is the research of timing in releasing a new product to the market.
Total addressable market (TAM), also called total available market, is a term that is typically used to reference the revenue opportunity available for a product or service.
A tourist attraction is a place of interest where tourists visit, typically for its inherent or exhibited natural or cultural value, historical significance, natural or built beauty, offering leisure and amusement.
Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.
A trade fair (trade show, trade exhibition, or expo) is an exhibition organized so that companies in a specific industry can showcase and demonstrate their latest products and services, meet with industry partners and customers, study activities of rivals, and examine recent market trends and opportunities.
A trade secret is a formula, practice, process, design, instrument, pattern, commercial method, or compilation of information not generally known or reasonably ascertainable by others by which a business can obtain an economic advantage over competitors or customers.
A trademark, trade mark, or trade-markThe styling of trademark as a single word is predominantly used in the United States and Philippines only, while the two-word styling trade mark is used in many other countries around the world, including the European Union and Commonwealth and ex-Commonwealth jurisdictions (although Canada officially uses "trade-mark" pursuant to the Trade-mark Act, "trade mark" and "trademark" are also commonly used).
In economics and related disciplines, a transaction cost is a cost in making any economic trade when participating in a market.
In taxation and accounting, transfer pricing refers to the rules and methods for pricing transactions within and between enterprises under common ownership or control.
Transit media is a form of out-of-home advertising that displays advertisements in or on the outside of vehicles such as on the side of or above the seats of a bus or tram.
Trend analysis is the widespread practice of collecting information and attempting to spot a pattern.
A truckside advertisement or truckside ad is a billboard that is affixed to a truck that is for the purpose of advertising to the general public.
Trust-based marketing is a marketing theory based on building consumer relationships through trustworthy dialogue and unbiased information.
A two-part tariff (TPT) is a pricing technique in which the price of a product or service is composed of two parts - a lump-sum fee as well as a per-unit charge.
Umbrella branding (also known as family branding) is a marketing practice involving the use of a single brand name for the sale of two or more related products.
The unique selling proposition (USP) or unique selling point is a marketing concept first proposed as a theory to explain a pattern in successful advertising campaigns of the early 1940s.
Average prices represent, quite simply, total sales revenue divided by total units sold.
User innovation refers to innovation by intermediate users (e.g. user firms) or consumer users (individual end-users or user communities), rather than by suppliers (producers or manufacturers).
Within economics the concept of utility is used to model worth or value, but its usage has evolved significantly over time.
Valarie Zeithaml is a marketing professor and author.
VALS ("Values and Lifestyles") is a proprietary research methodology used for psychographic market segmentation.
Economic value is a measure of the benefit provided by a good or service to an economic agent.
In ethics, value denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do or what way is best to live (normative ethics), or to describe the significance of different actions.
Value in marketing, also known as customer-perceived value, is the difference between a prospective customer's evaluation of the benefits and costs of one product when compared with others.
A value chain is a set of activities that a firm operating in a specific industry performs in order to deliver a valuable product or service for the market.
In marketing, value migration is the shifting of value-creating forces.
A value proposition is a promise of value to be delivered, communicated, and acknowledged.
Value-based price (also value optimized pricing) is a pricing strategy which sets prices primarily, but not exclusively, according to the perceived or estimated value of a product or service to the customer rather than according to the cost of the product or historical prices.
Value-in-use is the net present value (NPV) of a cash flow or other benefits that an asset generates for a specific owner under a specific use.
Values Modes is a segmentation tool in the United Kingdom, based on the British Values Survey.
Vance Oakley Packard (May 22, 1914 – December 12, 1996) was an American journalist and social critic.
Variable pricing is a pricing strategy for products.
A variety store (also pound shop, dollar store, and other names) is a retail store that sells a wide range of inexpensive household goods.
A vending machine is an automated machine that provides items such as snacks, beverages, cigarettes and lottery tickets to consumers after money, a credit card, or specially designed card is inserted into the machine.
In a supply chain, a vendor, or a seller, is an enterprise that contributes goods or services.
In economics, vendor lock-in, also known as proprietary lock-in or customer lock-in, makes a customer dependent on a vendor for products and services, unable to use another vendor without substantial switching costs.
In microeconomics and management, vertical integration is an arrangement in which the supply chain of a company is owned by that company.
A view-through rate (VTR), measures the number of post-impression response or viewthrough from display media impressions viewed during and following an online advertising campaign.
Viral marketing or viral advertising is a business strategy that uses existing social networks to promote a product.
A Virtual Customer Environment (VCE) is a web forum to facilitate customer co-innovation or user innovation.
A vision statement is a declaration of an organization's objectives, intended to guide its internal decision-making.
Visual brand language is the unique "alphabet" of design elements – such as shape, color, materials, finish, typography and composition – which directly and subliminally communicate a company's values and personality through compelling imagery and design style.
Visual merchandising is the practice in the retail industry of developing floor plans and three-dimensional displays in order to maximize sales.
The idea of want can be examined from many perspectives.
A warehouse club (or wholesale club) is a retail store, usually selling a wide variety of merchandise, in which customers may buy large, wholesale quantities of the store's products, which makes these clubs attractive to both bargain hunters and small business owners.
A warehouse store or warehouse supermarket is a food and grocery retailer that operates stores geared toward offering deeper discounted prices than a traditional supermarket.
Web analytics is the measurement, collection, analysis and reporting of web data for purposes of understanding and optimizing web usage.
A web banner or banner ad is a form of advertising on the World Wide Web delivered by an ad server.
Website monetization is the process of converting existing traffic being sent to a particular website into revenue.
In Hong Kong English and Singapore English, a wet market is a market selling fresh meat and produce, distinguished from dry markets which sell durable goods such as cloth and electronics.
A white label product is a product or service produced by one company (the producer) that other companies (the marketers) rebrand to make it appear as if they had made it.
In marketing, a whole product is a generic product (or core product) augmented by everything that is needed for the customer to have a compelling reason to buy.
Whole-life cost, or Life-cycle cost (LCC), refers to the total cost of ownership over the life of an asset.
The consumption and production of marketed food are spatially separated.
Wholesaling, jobbing, or distributing is the sale of goods or merchandise to retailers; to industrial, commercial, institutional, or other professional business users; or to other wholesalers and related subordinated services.
The William F. Eisner Museum of Advertising & Design, or The Eisner, was an advertising museum located in Historic Third Ward in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in the United States.
Willingness to pay (WTP) is the maximum price at or below which a consumer will definitely buy one unit of a product.
Window shopping, sometimes called browsing, refers to an activity in which a consumer browses through or examines a store's merchandise as a form of leisure or external search behaviour without a current intent to buy.
Wine labels are important sources of information for consumers since they tell the type and origin of the wine.
Word of mouth or viva voce, is the passing of information from person to person by oral communication, which could be as simple as telling someone the time of day.
Word-of-mouth marketing (WOMM, WOM marketing), also called word of mouth advertising, differs from naturally occurring word of mouth, in that it is actively influenced or encouraged by organizations (e.g. 'seeding' a message in a networks rewarding regular consumers to engage in WOM, employing WOM 'agents').
Wrap advertising or a vehicle wrap is known as the marketing practice of completely or partially covering (wrapping) a vehicle in an advertisement or livery.
Wroe Alderson (1898–1965), an active Quaker, is widely recognized as the most important marketing theorist of the twentieth centuryJones, D. G. B. and Shaw, E. H., (2003) A History of Marketing Thought, in the Handbook of Marketing, ed.
Yield management is a variable pricing strategy, based on understanding, anticipating and influencing consumer behavior in order to maximize revenue or profits from a fixed, time-limited resource (such as airline seats or hotel room reservations or advertising inventory).