326 relations: Acronyms in healthcare, Al-Zahrawi, Alexander Fleming, Allan McLeod Cormack, Amato Lusitano, Ambroise Paré, Anatomical terminology, Anatomy, Ancient Egyptian medicine, Ancient Iranian medicine, Andreas Vesalius, Anesthesiology, Anesthetic, Anthony Atala, Antibiotic, Antiseptic, Artificial heart, Artificial urinary bladder, Avicenna, Ayurveda, Babylonia, Bacteria, Bacteriology, Behavior, Bezoar, Biliary tract, Biochemistry, Bioinformatics, Biological engineering, Biophysics, Biostatistics, Biotechnology, Blood, Blood vessel, Borsippa, Brain, Byzantium, Cancer, Cardiology, Cardiovascular disease, Cell (biology), Cell biology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Child, Cholera, Christiaan Barnard, Circulatory system, Clinic, Clinical research, Controlled Substances Act, ..., CT scan, Cure, Cytogenetics, Dentistry, Dermatology, Diabetes mellitus, Disease, Drugs controlled by the UK Misuse of Drugs Act, Ear, Embryology, Emergency department, Emergency medicine, Endocrine system, Endocrinology, Epidemic, Epidemiology, Eye surgery, Family medicine, Fellowship (medicine), Female reproductive system, First aid, Food and Drug Administration, Fungus, Galen, Gallbladder, Garcia de Orta, Gastroenterology, Gene therapy, General practitioner, Genetics, Geriatrics, Glossary of clinical research, Glossary of communication disorders, Glossary of diabetes, Glossary of medicine, Glossary of psychiatry, Godfrey Hounsfield, Grapefruit–drug interactions, Guy de Chauliac, Gynaecology, Healing, Health, Health care, Heart, Heart transplantation, Hematology, Hepatology, Herbalism, Heredity, Hesy-Ra, Hippocrates, Histology, History of medicine, Homeopathy, Homeostasis, Hospice, Hospital, Human brain, Human digestive system, Human eye, Human musculoskeletal system, Human nose, Ian Donald, ICD-10, Ignaz Semmelweis, Immune system, Immunodeficiency, Immunohistochemistry, Immunology, Index of HIV/AIDS-related articles, Index of oncology articles, Index of oral health and dental articles, Index of topics related to life extension, Infection, Intensive care medicine, Internal medicine, Internship (medicine), Jewish medicine, John Hunter (surgeon), Kidney, Life support, List of abbreviations for diseases and disorders, List of abbreviations for medical organisations and personnel, List of abbreviations used in health informatics, List of abbreviations used in medical prescriptions, List of antiviral drugs, List of bones of the human skeleton, List of burn centers in the United States, List of cancer types, List of childhood diseases and disorders, List of clinically important bacteria, List of comic book drugs, List of cutaneous conditions, List of disability-related terms with negative connotations, List of diseases caused by insects, List of distinct cell types in the adult human body, List of drugs, List of drugs banned by WADA, List of emergency medicine courses, List of eponymous fractures, List of eponymously named diseases, List of eponymously named medical signs, List of fictional diseases, List of fictional medicines and drugs, List of foodborne illness outbreaks in the United States, List of forms of alternative medicine, List of genetic disorders, List of hospice programs, List of human anatomical features, List of human anatomical parts named after people, List of human blood components, List of human hormones, List of important publications in medicine, List of important publications in psychology, List of infectious diseases, List of infectious diseases causing flu-like syndrome, List of largest selling pharmaceutical products, List of LGBT medical organizations, List of macronutrients, List of medical abbreviations, List of medical abbreviations: Latin abbreviations, List of medical and health informatics journals, List of medical inhalants, List of medical journals, List of medical organisations, List of medical roots, suffixes and prefixes, List of medical schools, List of medical symptoms, List of mental disorders, List of micronutrients, List of nerves of the human body, List of neurological conditions and disorders, List of notifiable diseases, List of optometric abbreviations, List of parasites of humans, List of pharmaceutical companies, List of pharmacy associations, List of physicians, List of protective human features, List of psychedelic drugs, List of psychiatric medications, List of psychiatric medications by condition treated, List of psychotherapies, List of regions in the human brain, List of related male and female reproductive organs, List of Schedule I drugs (US), List of Schedule II drugs (US), List of Schedule III drugs (US), List of Schedule IV drugs (US), List of Schedule V drugs (US), List of skeletal muscles of the human body, List of surgical procedures, List of systemic diseases with ocular manifestations, List of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, List of vaccine topics, List of Veterans Affairs medical facilities, List of withdrawn drugs, Lists of hospitals in the United States, Liver, Louis Pasteur, Magnetic resonance imaging, Malnutrition, Medical biology, Medical diagnosis, Medical education, Medical equipment, Medical ethics, Medical imaging, Medical research, Medical school, Medical terminology, Medical ultrasound, Medication, Medicine, Medicine in the medieval Islamic world, Medieval medicine of Western Europe, Mental disorder, Mental process, Michael Servetus, Microbiology, Microorganism, Microscopy, Molecular biology, Mouth, Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, Nanobiotechnology, National Academy of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Neologism, Neoplasm, Nephrology, Nervous system, Neurology, Neuroscience, Nobel Prize in Physics, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Nutrition, Obstetrics, Old age, Oncology, Ophthalmology, Optometry, Organism, Oribasius, Orthopedic surgery, Otorhinolaryngology, Outline (list), Outline of autism, Outline of clinical research, Outline of emergency medicine, Outline of exercise, Outline of health, Outline of health sciences, Outline of human anatomy, Outline of neuroscience, Outline of nutrition, Outline of obstetrics, Outline of psychology, Palliative care, Parasitology, Pathogenesis, Pathology, Paul Lauterbur, Pediatrics, Penicillin, Percivall Pott, Peseshet, Peter Mansfield, Pharmacology, Physical examination, Physician, Physiology, Poison, Postpartum infections, Prehistoric medicine, Preventive healthcare, Primary care, Protozoa, Psychiatry, Psychology, Pulmonology, Radiography, Radiology, Realdo Colombo, Reproductive system, Residency (medicine), Respiratory system, Rheumatism, Rheumatology, Robert Jarvik, Robert Koch, Science, Siddha medicine, Spinal cord, Sports medicine, Surgery, Systems biology, Theodoric Borgognoni, Therapy, Thomas Browne, Thomas Sydenham, Throat, Tissue (biology), Toxicology, Traditional Chinese medicine, United States National Library of Medicine, Urinary system, Urology, Virology, Virus, Virus latency, Visual system, Wilhelm Röntgen, William Harvey, Wong Fun, X-ray. 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Acronyms are very commonly used in healthcare settings.
Abū al-Qāsim Khalaf ibn al-‘Abbās al-Zahrāwī al-Ansari (أبو القاسم خلف بن العباس الزهراوي;‎ 936–1013), popularly known as Al-Zahrawi (الزهراوي), Latinised as Abulcasis (from Arabic Abū al-Qāsim), was an Arab Muslim physician, surgeon and chemist who lived in Al-Andalus.
Sir Alexander Fleming (6 August 1881 – 11 March 1955) was a Scottish physician, microbiologist, and pharmacologist.
Allan MacLeod Cormack (February 23, 1924 – May 7, 1998) was a South African American physicist who won the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (along with Godfrey Hounsfield) for his work on X-ray computed tomography (CT).
João Rodrigues de Castelo Branco, better known as Amato Lusitano and Amatus Lusitanus (1511–1568), was a notable Portuguese Jewish physician of the 16th century.
Ambroise Paré (c. 1510 – 20 December 1590) was a French barber surgeon who served in that role for kings Henry II, Francis II, Charles IX and Henry III.
Anatomical terminology is a form of scientific terminology used by anatomists, zoologists, and health professionals such as doctors.
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
The medicine of the ancient Egyptians is some of the oldest documented.
The practice and study of medicine in Persia has a long and prolific history.
Andreas Vesalius (31 December 1514 – 15 October 1564) was a 16th-century Flemish anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body).
Anesthesiology (spelled anaesthesiology in UK English), called anaesthetics in UK English according to some sources but not according to others, is the medical speciality concerned with anesthesia (loss of sensation) and anesthetics (substances that cause this loss).
An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery, completely blocking any feeling as opposed to an analgesic.
Anthony Atala, M.D. (born July 14, 1958) is the W.H. Boyce Professor and Director of the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, and Chair of the Department of Urology at Wake Forest School of Medicine in North Carolina.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Antiseptics (from Greek ἀντί anti, "against" and σηπτικός sēptikos, "putrefactive") are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction.
An artificial heart is a device that replaces the heart.
The two main methods for replacing bladder function involve either redirecting urine flow or replacing the bladder in situ.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
Ayurveda is a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bacteriology is the branch and specialty of biology that studies the morphology, ecology, genetics and biochemistry of bacteria as well as many other aspects related to them.
Behavior (American English) or behaviour (Commonwealth English) is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment.
A bezoar is a mass found trapped in the gastrointestinal system, though it can occur in other locations.
The biliary tract, (biliary tree or biliary system) refers to the liver, gall bladder and bile ducts, and how they work together to make, store and secrete bile.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data.
Biological engineering or bio-engineering is the application of principles of biology and the tools of engineering to create usable, tangible, economically viable products.
Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies the approaches and methods of physics to study biological systems.
Biostatistics is the application of statistics to a wide range of topics in biology.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
Borsippa (Sumerian: BAD.SI.(A).AB.BAKI; Akkadian: Barsip and Til-Barsip): Vol.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Cardiology (from Greek καρδίᾱ kardiā, "heart" and -λογία -logia, "study") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
Biologically, a child (plural: children) is a human being between the stages of birth and puberty.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Christiaan Neethling Barnard (8 November 1922 – 2 September 2001) was a South African cardiac surgeon who performed the world's first human-to-human heart transplant on 3 December 1967 at Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
A clinic (or outpatient clinic or ambulatory care clinic) is a healthcare facility that is primarily focused on the care of outpatients.
Clinical research is a branch of healthcare science that determines the safety and effectiveness (efficacy) of medications, devices, diagnostic products and treatment regimens intended for human use.
The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) is the statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
A cure is a substance or procedure that ends a medical condition, such as a medication, a surgical operation, a change in lifestyle or even a philosophical mindset that helps end a person's sufferings; or the state of being healed, or cured.
Cytogenetics is a branch of genetics that is concerned with how the chromosomes relate to cell behaviour, particularly to their behaviour during mitosis and meiosis.
Dentistry is a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the oral cavity, commonly in the dentition but also the oral mucosa, and of adjacent and related structures and tissues, particularly in the maxillofacial (jaw and facial) area.
Dermatology (from ancient Greek δέρμα, derma which means skin and λογία, logia) is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin, nails, hair and its diseases.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Drugs controlled by the United Kingdom (UK) Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 are listed in this article.
The ear is the organ of hearing and, in mammals, balance.
Embryology (from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses.
An emergency department (ED), also known as an accident & emergency department (A&E), emergency room (ER), emergency ward (EW) or casualty department, is a medical treatment facility specializing in emergency medicine, the acute care of patients who present without prior appointment; either by their own means or by that of an ambulance.
Emergency medicine, also known as accident and emergency medicine, is the medical specialty concerned with caring for undifferentiated, unscheduled patients with illnesses or injuries requiring immediate medical attention.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
Endocrinology (from endocrine + -ology) is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones.
An epidemic (from Greek ἐπί epi "upon or above" and δῆμος demos "people") is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time, usually two weeks or less.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
Eye surgery, also known as ocular surgery, is surgery performed on the eye or its adnexa, typically by an ophthalmologist.
Family medicine (FM), formerly family practice (FP), is a medical specialty devoted to comprehensive health care for people of all ages; the specialist is named a family physician or family doctor.
A Fellowship is the period of medical training, in the United States and Canada, that a physician or dentist may undertake after completing a specialty training program (residency).
The female reproductive system is made up of the internal and external sex organs that function in reproduction of new offspring.
First aid is the assistance given to any person suffering a sudden illness or injury, with care provided to preserve life, prevent the condition from worsening, or to promote recovery.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
In vertebrates, the gallbladder is a small hollow organ where bile is stored and concentrated before it is released into the small intestine.
Garcia de Orta (or Garcia d'Orta) (1501? – 1568) was a Portuguese Renaissance Sephardi Jewish physician, herbalist and naturalist.
Gastroenterology (MeSH heading) is the branch of medicine focused on the digestive system and its disorders.
In the medicine field, gene therapy (also called human gene transfer) is the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid into a patient's cells as a drug to treat disease.
In the medical profession, a general practitioner (GP) is a medical doctor who treats acute and chronic illnesses and provides preventive care and health education to patients.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Geriatrics, or geriatric medicine, is a specialty that focuses on health care of elderly people.
A glossary of terms used in clinical research.
This is a glossary of medical terms related to communications disorders such as blindness and deafness.
The following is a glossary of diabetes which explains terms connected with diabetes.
This glossary of medical terms is a list of definitions about medicine, its sub-disciplines, and related fields.
This glossary covers terms found in the psychiatric literature; the word origins are primarily Greek, but there are also Latin, French, German, and English terms.
Sir Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield, CBE, FRS, (28 August 1919 – 12 August 2004) was an English electrical engineer who shared the 1979 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Allan McLeod Cormack for his part in developing the diagnostic technique of X-ray computed tomography (CT).
Some fruit juices and fruits can interact with numerous drugs, in many cases causing adverse effects.
Guy de Chauliac, also called Guido or Guigo de Cauliaco (c. 1300 – 25 July 1368), was a French physician and surgeon who wrote a lengthy and influential treatise on surgery in Latin, titled Chirurgia Magna.
Gynaecology or gynecology (see spelling differences) is the medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive systems (vagina, uterus, and ovaries) and the breasts.
Healing (literally meaning to make whole) is the process of the restoration of health from an unbalanced, diseased or damaged organism.
Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
A heart transplant, or a cardiac transplant, is a surgical transplant procedure performed on patients with end-stage heart failure or severe coronary artery disease when other medical or surgical treatments have failed.
Hematology, also spelled haematology, is the branch of medicine concerned with the study of the cause, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to blood.
Hepatology is the branch of medicine that incorporates the study of liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas as well as management of their disorders.
Herbalism (also herbal medicine or phytotherapy) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet.
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.
Hesy-Ra (also read Hesy-Re and Hesire) was an Ancient Egyptian high official during the early 3rd dynasty.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.
The history of medicine shows how societies have changed in their approach to illness and disease from ancient times to the present.
Homeopathy or homœopathy is a system of alternative medicine developed in 1796 by Samuel Hahnemann, based on his doctrine of like cures like (similia similibus curentur), a claim that a substance that causes the symptoms of a disease in healthy people would cure similar symptoms in sick people.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
Hospice care is a type of care and philosophy of care that focuses on the palliation of a chronically ill, terminally ill or seriously ill patient's pain and symptoms, and attending to their emotional and spiritual needs.
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder).
The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.
The human musculoskeletal system (also known as the locomotor system, and previously the activity system) is an organ system that gives humans the ability to move using their muscular and skeletal systems.
The human nose is the protruding part of the face that bears the nostrils.
Ian Donald (December 1910 – 19 June 1987) was a Scottish physician who pioneered the use of diagnostic ultrasound in medicine.
ICD-10 is the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), a medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO).
Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis (Semmelweis Ignác Fülöp; 1 July 1818 – 13 August 1865) was a Hungarian physician of ethnic-German ancestry, now known as an early pioneer of antiseptic procedures.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer is compromised or entirely absent.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) involves the process of selectively imaging antigens (proteins) in cells of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues.
Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.
This is a list of AIDS-related topics, many of which were originally taken from the public domain U.S. Department of Health Glossary of HIV/AIDS-Related Terms, 4th Edition.
This is a list of terms related to oncology.
Dental pertains to the teeth, including dentistry.
Following is a list of topics related to life extension.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Intensive care medicine, or critical care medicine, is a branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and management of life-threatening conditions that may require sophisticated life support and monitoring.
Internal medicine or general medicine (in Commonwealth nations) is the medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases.
Medical intern is a term used in some countries to describe a physician in training who has completed medical school and has a medical degree, but does not yet have a full license to practice medicine unsupervised.
Jewish medicine is medical practice of the Jewish people, including writing in the languages of both Hebrew and Arabic.
John Hunter (13 February 1728 – 16 October 1793) was a Scottish surgeon, one of the most distinguished scientists and surgeons of his day.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Life support refers to the treatments and techniques performed in an emergency in order to support life after the failure of one or more vital organs.
This is a list of acronyms and initials related to diseases (infectious or non-infectious) and medical disorders.
Organizations and personnel.
This is a list of abbreviations used in health informatics.
This is a list of abbreviations used in medical prescriptions, including hospital orders (the patient-directed part of which is referred to as sig codes).
This is a list of antiviral drugs.
The human skeleton of an adult consists of 206 bones.
This is a list of burn centers in the United States.
This is a list of cancer types.
The term childhood disease refers to disease that is contracted or becomes symptomatic before the age of 18 years old.
This is a list of bacteria that are significant in medicine.
This is a list of performance enhancers, serums, trigger chemicals, booster drugs, and mutagenic foods in fictional universes, that were used to give a specific hero or villain their powers.
Many conditions affect the human integumentary system—the organ system covering the entire surface of the body and composed of skin, hair, nails, and related muscle and glands.
The following is a list of terms used to describe disabilities or people with disabilities that may be considered negative and/or offensive by people with or without disabilities.
Invertebrates are very common vectors of disease.
There are many different types of cell in the human body.
This list of drugs banned by WADA is determined by the World Anti-Doping Agency, established in 1999 to deal with the increasing problem of doping in the sports world.
This list of emergency medicine courses contains programs often required to be taken by emergency medical providers, including emergency medical technicians, paramedics, and emergency physicians.
Eponymous fractures and fracture-dislocations are most commonly named after the doctor who first described them.
An eponymous disease is a disease named after a person: usually the physician who first identified the disease or, less commonly, a patient who suffered from the disease.
Eponymous medical signs are those that are named after a person or persons, usually the physicians who first described them, but occasionally named after a famous patient.
This article is a list of fictional diseases, disorders, infections, and pathogens which appear in fiction where they have a major plot or thematic importance.
The use of fictional medicine and drugs has history in both fiction (usually fantasy or science fiction) and the real world.
In 1999, an estimated 5,000 deaths, 325,000 hospitalizations and 76 million illnesses were caused by foodborne illnesses within the US.
This is a list of articles covering alternative medicine topics.
The following is a list of genetic disorders and if known, type of mutation and the chromosome involved.
Hospice is a type of care and a philosophy of care which focuses on the palliation of a terminally ill patient's symptoms.
The detailed list of human anatomical features.
This is a list of human anatomical parts named after people.
In blood banking, the fractions of Whole Blood used for transfusion are also called components.
The following is a list of hormones found in Homo sapiens.
This is a list of important publications in medicine, organized by field.
This is a list of important publications in psychology, organized by field.
Infectious diseases arranged by name.
This is a list of infectious diseases, other than the most common ones, that cause flu-like syndrome (influenza-like illness).
Drugs with sales above $5 billion in 2015 included.
List of LGBT medical organizations, consisting of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) medical professionals, promoting LGBT health, or supportive and affirming of the LGBT community.
This list is a categorization of the most common food components based on their macronutrients.
Abbreviations are used very frequently in medicine.
The main discussion of these abbreviations in the context of drug prescriptions and other medical prescriptions is at List of abbreviations used in medical prescriptions.
This is a list of journals related to medical and health informatics.
Medical journals are published regularly to communicate new research to clinicians, medical scientists, and other healthcare workers.
The following is a list of medical organizations.
This is a list of roots, suffixes, and prefixes used in medical terminology, their meanings, and their etymology.
Medical schools are developed, monitored and credentialed by national organizations in each country.
Medical symptoms are complaints which indicate disease.
The following is a list of mental disorders as defined by the DSM and ICD.
The following is a list of micronutrients.
The following is a list of nerves in the human body.
This is a list of major and frequently observed neurological disorders (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), symptoms (e.g., back pain), signs (e.g., aphasia) and syndromes (e.g., Aicardi syndrome).
The following is a list of notifiable diseases arranged by country.
Certain abbreviations are current within the profession of optometry.
* Parasites Category:Foodborne illnesses.
It is limited to those companies notable enough to have articles in Wikipedia.
The following is a list of organizations for professionals involved in the practice of pharmacy.
This is a list of famous physicians in history.
This is a list of human features that offer protection against disease.
The following is a list of psychedelic drugs of various classes.
This is an alphabetical list of psychiatric medications used by psychiatrists and other physicians to treat mental illness or distress.
This is a list of psychiatric medications used by psychiatrists and other physicians to treat mental illness or distress.
This is an alphabetical list of psychotherapies.
The human brain anatomical regions are ordered following standard neuroanatomy hierarchies.
This list of related male and female reproductive organs shows how the male and female reproductive organs of the human reproductive system are related, sharing a common developmental path.
This is the list of Schedule I drugs as defined by the United States Controlled Substances Act.
This is the list of Schedule II drugs as defined by the United States Controlled Substances Act.
This is the list of Schedule III drugs as defined by the United States Controlled Substances Act at and, with modifications through August 22, 2014.
This is the list of Schedule IV drugs as defined by the United States Controlled Substances Act.
This is the list of Schedule V drugs as defined by the United States Controlled Substances Act.
This is a table of skeletal muscles of the human anatomy.
The names of many surgical procedure names can be broken into parts to indicate the meaning.
An ocular manifestation of a systemic disease is an eye condition that directly or indirectly results from a disease process in another part of the body.
This is a list of therapeutic, diagnostic and preventive monoclonal antibodies, antibodies that are clones of a single parent cell.
This is a list of vaccine-related topics.
Veterans' health care in the U.S. is separated geographically into 21 regions (numbered 1-12 and 15-23) In January 2002, the Veterans Health Administration announced the merger of VISNs 13 and 14 to create a new, combined network, VISN 23.
Drugs or medicines may be withdrawn from commercial markets because of risks to patients, but also because of commercial reasons (e.g. lack of demand and relatively high production costs).
Lists of hospitals in each U.S. state and district.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
Medical biology is a field of biology that has practical applications in medicine, health care and laboratory diagnostics.
Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.
Medical education is education related to the practice of being a medical practitioner; either the initial training to become a physician (i.e., medical school and internship), or additional training thereafter (e.g., residency, fellowship and continuing medical education).
Medical equipment (also known as armamentarium) is designed to aid in the diagnosis, monitoring or treatment of medical conditions.
Medical ethics is a system of moral principles that apply values to the practice of clinical medicine and in scientific research.
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research), – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a ''preclinical'' understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials.
A medical school is a tertiary educational institution —or part of such an institution— that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians and surgeons.
Medical terminology is language used to precisely describe the human body including its components, processes, conditions affecting it, and procedures performed upon it.
Medical ultrasound (also known as diagnostic sonography or ultrasonography) is a diagnostic imaging technique based on the application of ultrasound.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine is the science of medicine developed in the Islamic Golden Age, and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of Islamic civilization.
Medieval medicine in Western Europe was composed of a mixture of existing ideas from antiquity, spiritual influences and what Claude Lévi-Strauss identifies as the "shamanistic complex" and "social consensus." In the Early Middle Ages, following the fall of the Western Roman Empire, standard medical knowledge was based chiefly upon surviving Greek and Roman texts, preserved in monasteries and elsewhere.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
Mental process or mental function are all the things that individuals can do with their minds.
Michael Servetus (Miguel Serveto, Michel Servet), also known as Miguel Servet, Miguel Serveto, Michel Servet, Revés, or Michel de Villeneuve (29 September 1509 or 1511 – 27 October 1553), was a Spanish (then French) theologian, physician, cartographer, and Renaissance humanist.
Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye).
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
In animal anatomy, the mouth, also known as the oral cavity, buccal cavity, or in Latin cavum oris, is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds.
Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī (Abūbakr Mohammad-e Zakariyyā-ye Rāzī, also known by his Latinized name Rhazes or Rasis) (854–925 CE), was a Persian polymath, physician, alchemist, philosopher, and important figure in the history of medicine.
Nanobiotechnology, bionanotechnology, and nanobiology are terms that refer to the intersection of nanotechnology and biology.
The National Academy of Medicine (NAM), formerly called the Institute of Medicine (IoM), is an American nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.
A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
Nephrology (from Greek nephros "kidney", combined with the suffix -logy, "the study of") is a specialty of medicine and pediatrics that concerns itself with the kidneys: the study of normal kidney function and kidney disease, the preservation of kidney health, and the treatment of kidney disease, from diet and medication to renal replacement therapy (dialysis and kidney transplantation).
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.
The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.
Obstetrics is the field of study concentrated on pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period.
Old age refers to ages nearing or surpassing the life expectancy of human beings, and is thus the end of the human life cycle.
Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.
Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine and surgery (both methods are used) that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit.
Optometry is a health care profession which involves examining the eyes and applicable visual systems for defects or abnormalities as well as the medical diagnosis and management of eye disease.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Oribasius or Oreibasius (Ὀρειβάσιος; c. 320 – 403) was a Greek medical writer and the personal physician of the Roman emperor Julian the Apostate.
Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics, also spelled orthopaedic, is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system.
Otorhinolaryngology (also called otolaryngology and otolaryngology–head and neck surgery) is a surgical subspecialty within medicine that deals with conditions of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) and related structures of the head and neck.
An outline, also called a hierarchical outline, is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships and is a type of tree structure.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to autism: Autism – disorder of neural development characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to clinical research: Clinical research is the aspect of biomedical research that addresses the assessment of new pharmaceutical and biological drugs, medical devices and vaccines in humans.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to emergency medicine: Emergency medicine – medical specialty involving care for undifferentiated, unscheduled patients with acute illnesses or injuries that require immediate medical attention.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to exercise: Exercise – any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to health: Health – functional and metabolic efficiency of an organism.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to health sciences: Health sciences – are applied sciences that address the use of science, technology, engineering or mathematics in the delivery of healthcare to human beings.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to human anatomy: Human anatomy – scientific study of the morphology of the adult human.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to neuroscience: Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and a topical guide to nutrition.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to obstetrics: Obstetrics – medical specialty dealing with the care of all women's reproductive tracts and their children during pregnancy (prenatal period), childbirth and the postnatal period.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to psychology: Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes.
Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach to specialized medical and nursing care for people with life-limiting illnesses.
Parasitology is the study of parasites, their hosts, and the relationship between them.
The pathogenesis of a disease is the biological mechanism (or mechanisms) that leads to the diseased state.
Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.
Paul Christian Lauterbur (May 6, 1929 – March 27, 2007) was an American chemist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2003 with Peter Mansfield for his work which made the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) possible.
Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents.
Penicillin (PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (use by mouth), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use).
Percivall Pott (6 January 1714 in London – 22 December 1788) was an English surgeon, one of the founders of orthopedics, and the first scientist to demonstrate that a cancer may be caused by an environmental carcinogen.
Peseshet, who lived under the Fourth Dynasty (albeit a date to the Fifth Dynasty is also possible), is often credited with being the earliest known female physician in ancient Egypt, though another, Merit-Ptah lived earlier.
Sir Peter Mansfield FRS (9 October 1933 – 8 February 2017) was an English physicist who was awarded the 2003 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, shared with Paul Lauterbur, for discoveries concerning Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
A physical examination, medical examination, or clinical examination (more popularly known as a check-up) is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.
Postpartum infections, also known as childbed fever and puerperal fever, are any bacterial infections of the female reproductive tract following childbirth or miscarriage.
Prehistoric medicine is any use of medicine from before the invention of writing and the documented history of medicine.
Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.
Primary care is the day-to-day healthcare given by a health care provider.
Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Pulmonology is a medical speciality that deals with diseases involving the respiratory tract.
Radiography is an imaging technique using X-rays to view the internal form of an object.
Radiology is the science that uses medical imaging to diagnose and sometimes also treat diseases within the body.
Realdo Colombo (c. 1515, Cremona – 1559, Rome) was an Italian professor of anatomy and a surgeon at the University of Padua between 1544 and 1559.
The reproductive system or genital system is a system of sex organs within an organism which work together for the purpose of sexual reproduction.
Residency is a stage of graduate medical training.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
Rheumatism or rheumatic disorder is an umbrella term for conditions causing chronic, often intermittent pain affecting the joints and/or connective tissue.
Rheumatology (Greek ρεύμα, rheuma, flowing current) is a branch of medicine devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of rheumatic diseases.
Robert Koffler Jarvik, M.D. (born May 11, 1946) is an American scientist, researcher, and entrepreneur known for his role in developing the Jarvik-7 artificial heart.
Robert Heinrich Hermann Koch (11 December 1843 – 27 May 1910) was a German physician and microbiologist.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Siddha medicine is a system of traditional medicine originating in ancient Tamilakam (Tamil Nadu) in South India.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
Sports medicine, also known as sport and exercise medicine is a branch of medicine that deals with physical fitness and the treatment and prevention of injuries related to sports and exercise.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
Systems biology is the computational and mathematical modeling of complex biological systems.
Theodoric Borgognoni (1205 – 1296/8), also known as Teodorico de'Borgognoni, and Theodoric of Lucca, was an Italian who became one of the most significant surgeons of the medieval period.
Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.
Sir Thomas Browne (19 October 1605 – 19 October 1682) was an English polymath and author of varied works which reveal his wide learning in diverse fields including science and medicine, religion and the esoteric.
Thomas Sydenham (10 September 1624 – 29 December 1689) was an English physician.
In vertebrate anatomy, the throat is the front part of the neck, positioned in front of the vertebra.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Toxicology is a discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine.
The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government, is the world's largest medical library.
The urinary system, also known as the renal system or urinary tract, consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra.
Urology (from Greek οὖρον ouron "urine" and -λογία -logia "study of"), also known as genitourinary surgery, is the branch of medicine that focuses on surgical and medical diseases of the male and female urinary-tract system and the male reproductive organs.
Virology is the study of viruses – submicroscopic, parasitic particles of genetic material contained in a protein coat – and virus-like agents.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Virus latency (or viral latency) is the ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant (latent) within a cell, denoted as the lysogenic part of the viral life cycle.
The visual system is the part of the central nervous system which gives organisms the ability to process visual detail, as well as enabling the formation of several non-image photo response functions.
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (27 March 1845 – 10 February 1923) was a German mechanical engineer and physicist, who, on 8 November 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range known as X-rays or Röntgen rays, an achievement that earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901.
William Harvey (1 April 1578 – 3 June 1657) was an English physician who made seminal contributions in anatomy and physiology.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.