373 relations: A-series and B-series, A. C. Grayling, Absolute idealism, Absolute space and time, Abstract and concrete, Abstract particulars, Abstraction, Absurdism, Accidentalism (philosophy), Action theory (philosophy), Active intellect, Actualism, Actus Essendi, Adolph Stöhr, Akbariyya, Alan Watts, Aletheia, Alfred North Whitehead, Alvin Plantinga, Analogy of the divided line, Ananda Coomaraswamy, Andrew Baxter, Anti-realism, Appearance and Reality, Arche, Arda Denkel, Aristotelianism, Aristotle, Arthur Schopenhauer, Atomism, Ayn Rand, Élan vital, B-theory of time, Balance (metaphysics), Baruch Spinoza, Basic limiting principle, Being, Being and Nothingness, Bertrand Russell, Best of all possible worlds, Biblical cosmology, Big Bang, Bradley's regress, Brian Leftow, British idealism, Buddhist cosmology, Bundle theory, C. D. Broad, Carlo Michelstaedter, Category of being, ..., Causal closure, Causality, Certainty, Charles François d'Abra de Raconis, Charles Hartshorne, Charles Sanders Peirce, Choice, Cogito, ergo sum, Compatibilism, Conatus, Concept, Conceptualism, Corpuscularianism, Cosmogony, Cosmography, Cosmology, Cosmology in medieval Islam, Cosmos, Counterpart theory, Damon Young, Daniel M. Hausman, David Hume, David Kolb, David Lewis (philosopher), David Malet Armstrong, David Wiggins, Dean Zimmerman, Determinism, Dickinson S. Miller, Discipline (academia), Donald Davidson (philosopher), Dorothy Emmet, Dualistic cosmology, Duns Scotus, Duration (philosophy), Dynamism (metaphysics), Dysteleology, Edward N. Zalta, Eleatics, Emergence, Endurantism, Entity, Epiphenomenon, Epistemicism, Eschatology, Esoteric cosmology, Essence, Essentialism, Eternalism (philosophy of time), Everything, Evidential existentiality, Exemplification theory, Existence, Existentialism, Experience, F. H. Bradley, Ferdinando Cazzamalli, Four causes, Fragmentalism, Frank Cameron Jackson, Free will, Friedrich Adolf Trendelenburg, Friedrich Nietzsche, Frithjof Schuon, G. E. Moore, Geist, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, George Berkeley, George Santayana, Gilbert Ryle, Gilbert Simondon, Gilles Deleuze, Gonzalo Rodriguez-Pereyra, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Graham Harman, Graham Priest, Growing block universe, Hard determinism, Henri Bergson, Heraclitus, Hilary Putnam, Hindu cosmology, Humanistic naturalism, Hume's fork, Hyle, Hylomorphism, Hylozoism, Ian Rumfitt, Idea, Idealism, Identity (philosophy), Identityism, Illusionism (philosophy), Immanence, Immanuel Kant, Incompatibilism, Incorporeality, Indefinite monism, Indeterminism, Information, Inherence, Intellect, Intention, Introduction to Metaphysics (Heidegger), Irrealism (philosophy), Isaac Newton, J. M. E. McTaggart, Jain cosmology, Jay Rosenberg, Jean-Paul Sartre, John Hawthorne, John Locke, Jonathan Schaffer, Joseph A. Bracken, Judith Jarvis Thomson, Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics, Kapila, Katharyn Powers, Kit Fine, Latin, Libertarianism (metaphysics), Lifeworld, Literary nominalism, Logical atomism, Logical holism, Logical possibility, Martin Heidegger, Material monism, Materialism, Matter (philosophy), Meaning (existential), Mechanism (philosophy), Meditations on First Philosophy, Meinong's jungle, Meliorism, Melissus of Samos, Mental representation, Mental substance, Mereological essentialism, Mereological nihilism, Mereotopology, Meta-ontology, Metakosmia, Metaphysical naturalism, Metaphysical nihilism, Metaphysical Society of America, Metaphysical solipsism, Metaphysics, Metaphysics (Aristotle), Michael Devitt, Milič Čapek, Mind, Modal fictionalism, Modal realism, Moderate realism, Monad (philosophy), Monism, Moral universe, Motion (physics), Nathan Salmon, Natural law, Natural theology, Naturalism (philosophy), Nazi Party, Necessitarianism, Necessity and sufficiency, Nihilism, Noetics, Nominalism, Non-essentialism, Non-standard cosmology, Noneism, Norman Geisler, Norman Kemp Smith, Nothing, Notion (philosophy), Object (philosophy), Object-oriented ontology, Objective idealism, Objectivism (Ayn Rand), Ontic, Ontology, Open individualism, Organicism, Ousia, Outline (list), P. F. Strawson, Panlogism, Parmenides, Particular, Pattern, Paul Benacerraf, Paul Weiss (philosopher), Perception, Perdurantism, Peter Glassen, Peter Unger, Peter van Inwagen, Peter Wessel Zapffe, Phenomenalism, Phenomenon, Philosopher, Philosophical fiction, Philosophical Problems of Space and Time, Philosophical realism, Philosophical theology, Philosophy, Philosophy and Theology, Philosophy of self, Philosophy of space and time, Philosophy of Time Society, Physical body, Physical cosmology, Physicalism, Physis, Pirsig's Metaphysics of Quality, Plane of immanence, Plasma cosmology, Plato, Platonic idealism, Platonic realism, Plotinus, Pluralism (philosophy), Popper's three worlds, Potentiality and actuality, Predeterminism, Principle, Principle of plenitude, Process philosophy, Projectivism, Property (philosophy), Pure thought, Qualia, Quality (philosophy), Quantity, Quietism (philosophy), Quodlibet (journal), R. G. Collingwood, Rational mysticism, Reality, Reductionism, Relational space, Religious cosmology, René Descartes, René Guénon, Res extensa, Revisionary materialism, Richard Taylor (philosopher), Robert Merrihew Adams, Robert Stalnaker, Rudolf Carnap, Sally Haslanger, Saul Kripke, Scientific realism, Scotistic realism, Shadworth Hodgson, Simulation hypothesis, Sir William Hamilton, 9th Baronet, Solipsism, Soul, Space, Speculative realism, Spiritualism (philosophy), Stoic categories, Stuart Wilde, Subject (philosophy), Subjectivism, Substance theory, Substantial form, Sufi metaphysics, Supervenience, Synechism, Systematics, Taoism, Teleology, Teleonomy, Temporal finitism, Terence Parsons, The Heythrop Journal, The Journal of Theological Studies, The Metaphysical Club, The Realms of Being, The Review of Metaphysics, The Unreality of Time, Theodore Sider, Theory of everything (philosophy), Theory of forms, Thomas Aquinas, Thomas Brown (philosopher), Thomas Whittaker (metaphysician), Thought, Tim Crane, Time, Timeline of cosmological theories, Transcendence (philosophy), Transcendental idealism, Transcendental perspectivism, Transcendentals, Trenton Merricks, Trope (philosophy), Truth, Truth-value link, Truthmaker theory, Tychism, Universal (metaphysics), Universal science, Universalizability, Universe, University of Freiburg, Unobservable, Value (ethics), Virtual reality, Voluntarism (philosophy), Willard Van Orman Quine, William Alston, William Desmond (philosopher), William Lycan, Wolfgang Smith, World, World disclosure, Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance, Zeno of Elea, 1,000,000,000. 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In philosophy, A-series and B-series are two different descriptions of the temporal ordering relation among events.
Anthony Clifford Grayling (born 3 April 1949), usually known as A. C. Grayling, is a British philosopher and author.
Absolute idealism is an ontologically monistic philosophy "chiefly associated with G. W. F. Hegel and Friedrich Schelling, both German idealist philosophers of the 19th century, Josiah Royce, an American philosopher, and others, but, in its essentials, the product of Hegel".
Absolute space and time is a concept in physics and philosophy about the properties of the universe.
Abstract and concrete are classifications that denote whether a term describes an object with a physical referent or one with no physical referents.
Abstract particulars are metaphysical entities which are both abstract objects and particulars.
Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concepts are derived from the usage and classification of specific examples, literal ("real" or "concrete") signifiers, first principles, or other methods.
In philosophy, "the Absurd" refers to the conflict between the human tendency to seek inherent value and meaning in life and the human inability to find any.
In philosophy, accidentalism denies the causal closure of physical determinism and maintains that events can succeed one another haphazardly or by chance (not in the mathematical but in the popular sense).
Action theory (or theory of action) is an area in philosophy concerned with theories about the processes causing willful human bodily movements of a more or less complex kind.
The active intellect (Latin: intellectus agens; also translated as agent intellect, active intelligence, active reason, or productive intellect) is a concept in classical and medieval philosophy.
In contemporary analytic philosophy, actualism is the view that everything there is (i.e., everything that has being, in the broadest sense) is actual.
Actus Essendi is a Latin expression coined by Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274).
Adolph Stöhr (February 24, 1855 – February 10, 1921) was professor of philosophy at the University of Vienna.
Akbariyya is a branch of Sufi metaphysics based on Andalusian Sufi gnostic and philosopher Ibn Arabi's teaching.
Alan Wilson Watts (6 January 1915 – 16 November 1973) was a British philosopher, writer, and speaker, best known as an interpreter and populariser of Eastern philosophy for a Western audience.
Aletheia (Ancient Greek: ἀλήθεια) is revolution or rising in philosophy.
Alfred North Whitehead (15 February 1861 – 30 December 1947) was an English mathematician and philosopher.
Alvin Carl Plantinga (born November 15, 1932) is a prominent American analytic philosopher who works primarily in the fields of logic, justification, philosophy of religion, and epistemology.
The Analogy of the Divided Line (γραμμὴ δίχα τετμημένη) is presented by the Greek philosopher Plato in the Republic (509d–511e).
Ananda Kentish Muthu Coomaraswamy (ஆனந்த குமாரசுவாமி, Ānanda Kentiś Muthū Kumāraswāmī; 22 August 1877 − 9 September 1947) was a Ceylonese Tamil philosopher and Metaphysicist, as well as a pioneering historian and philosopher of Indian art, particularly art history and symbolism, and an early interpreter of Indian culture to the West.
Andrew Baxter (1686/1687, Aberdeen23 April 1750, Whittingehame, East Lothian) was a Scottish metaphysician.
In analytic philosophy, anti-realism is an epistemological position first articulated by British philosopher Michael Dummett.
Appearance and Reality (1893; second edition 1897)Wollheim 1969.
Arche (ἀρχή) is a Greek word with primary senses "beginning", "origin" or "source of action".
Arda Denkel (1949–2000) was a Turkish philosopher.
Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Arthur Schopenhauer (22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher.
Atomism (from Greek ἄτομον, atomon, i.e. "uncuttable", "indivisible") is a natural philosophy that developed in several ancient traditions.
Ayn Rand (born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum; – March 6, 1982) was a Russian-American writer and philosopher.
Élan vital is a term coined by French philosopher Henri Bergson in his 1907 book Creative Evolution, in which he addresses the question of self-organisation and spontaneous morphogenesis of things in an increasingly complex manner.
The B-theory of time is the name given to one of two positions regarding philosophy of time.
In the metaphysical or conceptual sense, balance is used to mean a point between two opposite forces that is desirable over purely one state or the other, such as a balance between the metaphysical Law and Chaos — law by itself being overly controlling, chaos being overly unmanageable, balance being the point that minimizes the negatives of both.
Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.
A Basic Limiting Principle (B.L.P.) is a general principle that limits our explanations metaphysically or epistemologically, and which normally goes unquestioned or even unnoticed in our everyday or scientific thinking.
Being is the general concept encompassing objective and subjective features of reality and existence.
Being and Nothingness: An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology (L'Être et le néant: Essai d'ontologie phénoménologique), sometimes published with the subtitle A Phenomenological Essay on Ontology, is a 1943 book by the philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre, in which the author asserts the individual's existence as prior to the individual's essence ("existence precedes essence") and seeks to demonstrate that free will exists.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
The phrase "the best of all possible worlds" (le meilleur des mondes possibles; Die beste aller möglichen Welten) was coined by the German polymath Gottfried Leibniz in his 1710 work Essais de Théodicée sur la bonté de Dieu, la liberté de l'homme et l'origine du mal (Essays on the Goodness of God, the Freedom of Man and the Origin of Evil).
Biblical cosmology is the biblical writers' conception of the cosmos as an organised, structured entity, including its origin, order, meaning and destiny.
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
Bradley's Regress is a philosophical problem concerning the nature of relations.
Brian Leftow (born 1956) is the Nolloth Professor of the Philosophy of the Christian Religion at Oriel College, Oxford, succeeding Richard Swinburne, who retired in 2002.
A species of absolute idealism, British idealism was a philosophical movement that was influential in Britain from the mid-nineteenth century to the early twentieth century.
Buddhist cosmology is the description of the shape and evolution of the Universe according to the Buddhist scriptures and commentaries.
Bundle theory, originated by the 18th century Scottish philosopher David Hume, is the ontological theory about objecthood in which an object consists only of a collection (bundle) of properties, relations or tropes.
Charlie Dunbar Broad (30 December 1887 – 11 March 1971), usually cited as C. D. Broad, was an English epistemologist, historian of philosophy, philosopher of science, moral philosopher, and writer on the philosophical aspects of psychical research.
Carlo Michelstaedter or Michelstädter (3 June 1887 – 17 October 1910) was an Italian writer, philosopher, and man of letters.
In ontology, the different kinds or ways of being are called categories of being; or simply categories.
Physical causal closure is a metaphysical theory about the nature of causation in the physical realm with significant ramifications in the study of metaphysics and the mind.
Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.
Certainty is perfect knowledge that has total security from error, or the mental state of being without doubt.
Charles François d'Abra de Raconis (1580–1646) was a French bishop and theologian.
Charles Hartshorne (June 5, 1897 – October 9, 2000) was an American philosopher who concentrated primarily on the philosophy of religion and metaphysics.
Charles Sanders Peirce ("purse"; 10 September 1839 – 19 April 1914) was an American philosopher, logician, mathematician, and scientist who is sometimes known as "the father of pragmatism".
Choice involves decision making.
Cogito, ergo sum is a Latin philosophical proposition by René Descartes usually translated into English as "I think, therefore I am".
Compatibilism is the belief that free will and determinism are mutually compatible and that it is possible to believe in both without being logically inconsistent.
In early philosophies of psychology and metaphysics, conatus (Latin for "effort; endeavor; impulse, inclination, tendency; undertaking; striving") is an innate inclination of a thing to continue to exist and enhance itself.
Concepts are mental representations, abstract objects or abilities that make up the fundamental building blocks of thoughts and beliefs.
Conceptualism is a philosophical theory that explains universality of particulars as conceptualized frameworks situated within the thinking mind.
Corpuscularianism is a physical theory that supposes all matter to be composed of minute particles.
Cosmogony is any model concerning the origin of either the cosmos or universe.
Cosmography is the science that maps the general features of the cosmos or universe, describing both heaven and Earth (but without encroaching on geography or astronomy).
Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.
Islamic cosmology is the cosmology of Islamic societies.
The cosmos is the universe.
In philosophy, specifically in the area of modal metaphysics, counterpart theory is an alternative to standard (Kripkean) possible-worlds semantics for interpreting quantified modal logic.
Damon Young (born 1975 in Melbourne, Victoria) is an Australian philosopher, writer and commentator, and author of the books Distraction, Philosophy in the Garden and How to Think About Exercise.
Daniel M. Hausman (born March 27, 1947 in Chicago, Illinois) is an American philosopher.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
David Kolb (born 1939) is an American philosopher and the Charles A. Dana Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at Bates College in Maine.
David Kellogg Lewis (September 28, 1941 – October 14, 2001) was an American philosopher.
David Malet Armstrong (8 July 1926 – 13 May 2014), often D. M. Armstrong, was an Australian philosopher.
David Wiggins FBA (born 8 March 1933) is a British moral philosopher, metaphysician, and philosophical logician working especially on identity and issues in meta-ethics.
Dean W. Zimmerman is an American professor of philosophy at Rutgers University specializing in metaphysics and philosophy of religion.
Determinism is the philosophical theory that all events, including moral choices, are completely determined by previously existing causes.
Dickinson Sargeant Miller (October 7, 1868 – November 13, 1963) worked with many world-renowned philosophers, including William James, George Santayana, John Dewey, Edmund Husserl, and Ludwig Wittgenstein.
An academic discipline or academic field is a branch of knowledge.
Donald Herbert Davidson (March 6, 1917 – August 30, 2003) was an American philosopher.
Dorothy Mary Emmet (29 September 1904 – 20 September 2000) was a British philosopher and head of Manchester University's philosophy department for over twenty years.
Dualism in cosmology is the moral or spiritual belief that two fundamental concepts exist, which often oppose each other.
John Duns, commonly called Duns Scotus (1266 – 8 November 1308), is generally considered to be one of the three most important philosopher-theologians of the High Middle Ages (together with Thomas Aquinas and William of Ockham).
Duration (French: la durée) is a theory of time and consciousness posited by the French philosopher Henri Bergson.
Dynamism is a general name for a group of philosophical views concerning the nature of matter.
Dysteleology is the philosophical view that existence has no telos or final cause from purposeful design.
Edward N. Zalta (born March 16, 1952) is a senior research scholar at the Center for the Study of Language and Information.
The Eleatics were a pre-Socratic school of philosophy founded by Parmenides in the early fifth century BC in the ancient town of Elea.
In philosophy, systems theory, science, and art, emergence occurs when "the whole is greater than the sum of the parts," meaning the whole has properties its parts do not have.
Endurantism or endurance theory is a philosophical theory of persistence and identity.
An entity is something that exists as itself, as a subject or as an object, actually or potentially, concretely or abstractly, physically or not.
An epiphenomenon (plural: epiphenomena) is a secondary phenomenon that occurs alongside or in parallel to a primary phenomenon.
Epistemicism is a position about vagueness in the philosophy of language or metaphysics, according to which there are facts about the boundaries of a vague predicate which we cannot possibly discover.
Eschatology is a part of theology concerned with the final events of history, or the ultimate destiny of humanity.
Esoteric cosmology is cosmology that is an intrinsic part of an esoteric or occult system of thought.
In philosophy, essence is the property or set of properties that make an entity or substance what it fundamentally is, and which it has by necessity, and without which it loses its identity.
Essentialism is the view that every entity has a set of attributes that are necessary to its identity and function.
Eternalism is a philosophical approach to the ontological nature of time, which takes the view that all existence in time is equally real, as opposed to presentism or the growing block universe theory of time, in which at least the future is not the same as any other time.
Everything (or every thing), is all that exists; the opposite of nothing, or its complement.
The principle of evidential existentiality in philosophy is a principle that explains and gives value to the existence of entities.
Exemplification theory is a theory that states that an event is the exemplification of a property in an entity.
Existence, in its most generic terms, is the ability to, directly or indirectly, interact with reality or, in more specific cases, the universe.
Existentialism is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed.
Experience is the knowledge or mastery of an event or subject gained through involvement in or exposure to it.
Francis Herbert Bradley OM (30 January 1846 – 18 September 1924) was a British idealist philosopher.
Ferdinando Cazzamalli (August 4, 1887 in Crema, Italy – 1958) was an Italian psychiatrist from Crema, Lombardy who was interested in paranormal phenomena.
The "four causes" are elements of an influential principle in Aristotelian thought whereby explanations of change or movement are classified into four fundamental types of answer to the question "why?".
Fragmentalism is a view that holds that the world consists of individual and independent objects.
Frank Cameron Jackson AO (born 1943) is an Australian analytic philosopher, currently Distinguished Professor and former Director of the Research School of Social Sciences at Australian National University.
Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.
Friedrich Adolf Trendelenburg (30 November 1802 – 24 January 1872) was a German philosopher and philologist.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
Frithjof Schuon (June 18, 1907 – May 5, 1998), also known as Īsā Nūr al-Dīn, was an author of German ancestry born in Basel, Switzerland.
George Edward Moore (4 November 1873 – 24 October 1958), usually cited as G. E. Moore, was an English philosopher.
Geist is a German noun with a degree of importance in German philosophy.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.
George Berkeley (12 March 168514 January 1753) — known as Bishop Berkeley (Bishop of Cloyne) — was an Irish philosopher whose primary achievement was the advancement of a theory he called "immaterialism" (later referred to as "subjective idealism" by others).
Jorge Agustín Nicolás Ruiz de Santayana y Borrás, known in English as George Santayana (December 16, 1863September 26, 1952), was a philosopher, essayist, poet, and novelist.
Gilbert Ryle (19 August 1900 – 6 October 1976) was a British philosopher.
Gilbert Simondon (2 October 1924 – 7 February 1989) was a French philosopher best known for his theory of individuation, a major source of inspiration for Gilles Deleuze and Bernard Stiegler.
Gilles Deleuze (18 January 1925 – 4 November 1995) was a French philosopher who, from the early 1960s until his death in 1995, wrote on philosophy, literature, film, and fine art.
Gonzalo Rodriguez-Pereyra (born 7 August 1969) is a philosopher.
Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.
Graham Harman (born May 9, 1968) is Distinguished Professor of Philosophy at SCI-Arc in Los Angeles.
Graham Priest (born 1948) is Distinguished Professor of Philosophy at the CUNY Graduate Center, as well as a regular visitor at the University of Melbourne where he was Boyce Gibson Professor of Philosophy and also at the University of St Andrews.
According to the growing block universe theory of time (or the growing block view), the past and present exist and the future does not exist.
Hard determinism (or metaphysical determinism) is a view on free will which holds that determinism is true, and that it is incompatible with free will, and, therefore, that free will does not exist.
Henri-Louis Bergson (18 October 1859 – 4 January 1941) was a French-Jewish philosopher who was influential in the tradition of continental philosophy, especially during the first half of the 20th century until World War II.
Heraclitus of Ephesus (Hērákleitos ho Ephésios) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, and a native of the city of Ephesus, then part of the Persian Empire.
Hilary Whitehall Putnam (July 31, 1926 – March 13, 2016) was an American philosopher, mathematician, and computer scientist, and a major figure in analytic philosophy in the second half of the 20th century.
In Hindu cosmology, the universe is cyclically created and destroyed.
Humanistic naturalism is the branch of philosophical naturalism wherein human beings are best able to control and understand the world through use of the scientific method, combined with the social and ethical values of humanism.
Hume's fork is an explanation, developed by later philosophers, of David Hume's aggressive, 1730s division of "relations of ideas" from "matters of fact and real existence".
In philosophy, hyle (from ὕλη) refers to matter or stuff.
Hylomorphism (or hylemorphism) is a philosophical theory developed by Aristotle, which conceives being (ousia) as a compound of matter and form.
Hylozoism is the philosophical point of view that matter is in some sense alive.
Ian Rumfitt is a British philosopher currently serving as a senior research fellow of All Souls College, Oxford.
In philosophy, ideas are usually taken as mental representational images of some object.
In philosophy, idealism is the group of metaphysical philosophies that assert that reality, or reality as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.
In philosophy, identity, from ("sameness"), is the relation each thing bears only to itself.
Identityism is the school of Sufi metaphysics of unity of being traditionally known as Wahdat-ul-Wujood or Wahdat al-wujud (Arabic: Literally, unity of existence) formulated by Ibn Arabi.
Illusionism is a metaphysical theory first propounded by professor Saul Smilansky of the University of Haifa.
The doctrine or theory of immanence holds that the divine encompasses or is manifested in the material world.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Incompatibilism is the view that a deterministic universe is completely at odds with the notion that persons have a free will; that there is a dichotomy between determinism and free will where philosophers must choose one or the other.
Incorporeal or uncarnate means without a physical body, presence or form.
Indefinite Monism is a philosophical conception of reality that asserts that only Awareness is real and that the wholeness of Reality can be conceptually thought of in terms of immanent and transcendent aspects.
Indeterminism is the idea that events (certain events, or events of certain types) are not caused, or not caused deterministically.
Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.
Inherence refers to Empedocles' idea that the qualities of matter come from the relative proportions of each of the four elements entering into a thing.
Intellect is a term used in studies of the human mind, and refers to the ability of the mind to come to correct conclusions about what is true or real, and about how to solve problems.
Intention is a mental state that represents a commitment to carrying out an action or actions in the future.
Introduction to Metaphysics (Einführung in die Metaphysik) is a book by Martin Heidegger (published in Germany in 1953)Introduction to Metaphysics, trans.
Irrealism is a philosophical position first advanced by Nelson Goodman in "Ways of Worldmaking", encompassing epistemology, metaphysics, and aesthetics.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
John McTaggart Ellis McTaggart, FBA, commonly John McTaggart or J. M. E. McTaggart (3 September 1866 – 18 January 1925), was an idealist metaphysician.
Jain cosmology is the description of the shape and functioning of the Universe (loka) and its constituents (such as living beings, matter, space, time etc.) according to Jainism.
Jay Frank Rosenberg (April 18, 1942, Chicago – February 21, 2008, Chapel Hill, North Carolina) was a Professor of Philosophy at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, and literary critic.
John Hawthorne is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Southern California.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
Jonathan Schaffer is an American philosopher specializing in metaphysics and epistemology.
Joseph A. Bracken, S.J. is an American philosopher and Catholic theologian.
Judith Jarvis Thomson (born October 4, 1929) is an American moral philosopher.
Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics (Kant und das Problem der Metaphysik) is a 1929 book about Immanuel Kant by the German philosopher Martin Heidegger.
Kapila (कपिल) is a given name of different individuals in ancient and medieval Indian texts, of which the most well-known is the founder of the Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy.
Katharyn Michaelian Powers was a writer for several television series from the 1970s through the 1990s.
Kit Fine (born 26 March 1946) is a British philosopher, currently University Professor and Silver Professor of Philosophy and Mathematics at New York University.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Libertarianism is one of the main philosophical positions related to the problems of free will and determinism, which are part of the larger domain of metaphysics.
Lifeworld (Lebenswelt) may be conceived as a universe of what is self-evident or given, a world that subjects may experience together.
Literary nominalism is a paradigm of thought that is interested in the interconnections between certain aspects of nominalist philosophy and theology and works of literature.
Logical atomism is a philosophical belief that originated in the early 20th century with the development of analytic philosophy.
Logical holism is the belief that the world operates in such a way that no part can be known without the whole being known first.
Logically possible refers to a proposition which can be the logical consequence of another, based on the axioms of a given system of logic.
Martin Heidegger (26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition and philosophical hermeneutics, and is "widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20th century." Heidegger is best known for his contributions to phenomenology and existentialism, though as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy cautions, "his thinking should be identified as part of such philosophical movements only with extreme care and qualification".
Material monism is a Presocratic belief which provides an explanation of the physical world by saying that all of the world's objects are composed of a single element.
Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions.
Matter is the substrate from which physical existence is derived, remaining more or less constant amid changes.
Meaning in existentialism is descriptive; therefore it is unlike typical, prescriptive conceptions of "the meaning of life".
Mechanism is the belief that natural wholes (principally living things) are like complicated machines or artifacts, composed of parts lacking any intrinsic relationship to each other.
Meditations on First Philosophy —The original Meditations, translated, in its entirety.
Meinong's jungle is the name given to the repository of non-existent entities in the ontology of Alexius Meinong.
Meliorism is an idea in metaphysical thinking holding that progress is a real concept leading to an improvement of the world.
Melissus of Samos (Μέλισσος ὁ Σάμιος; fl. 5th century BC) was the third and last member of the ancient school of Eleatic philosophy, whose other members included Zeno and Parmenides.
A mental representation (or cognitive representation), in philosophy of mind, cognitive psychology, neuroscience, and cognitive science, is a hypothetical internal cognitive symbol that represents external reality, or else a mental process that makes use of such a symbol: "a formal system for making explicit certain entities or types of information, together with a specification of how the system does this".
Mental substance is the idea held by dualists and idealists, that minds are made-up of non-physical substance.
Mereological essentialism is a philosophical thesis about the relationship between wholes, their parts, and the conditions of their persistence.
Mereological nihilism (also called compositional nihilism, or rarely simply nihilism) is the mereological position that objects with proper parts do not exist.
In formal ontology, a branch of metaphysics, and in ontological computer science, mereotopology is a first-order theory, embodying mereological and topological concepts, of the relations among wholes, parts, parts of parts, and the boundaries between parts.
Meta-ontology is a term of recent origin first used by Peter van Inwagen in analyzing Willard Van Orman Quine's critique of Rudolf Carnap's metaphysics, where Quine introduced a formal technique for determining the ontological commitments in a comparison of ontologies.
The metakosmia (μετακόσμια; intermundia), according to Epicurean philosophy were the relatively empty spaces in the infinite void where worlds had not been formed by the joining together of the atoms through their endless motion.
Metaphysical naturalism, also called ontological naturalism, philosophical naturalism, and scientific materialism is a philosophical worldview, which holds that there is nothing but natural elements, principles, and relations of the kind studied by the natural sciences.
Metaphysical nihilism is the philosophical theory that there might have been no objects at all—that is, that there is a possible world in which there are no objects at all; or at least that there might have been no concrete objects at all, so that even if every possible world contains some objects, there is at least one that contains only abstract objects.
The Metaphysical Society of America is a philosophical organization founded by Paul Weiss in 1950.
Metaphysical solipsism is the variety of idealism which asserts that nothing exists externally to this one mind, and since this mind is the whole of reality then the "external world" was never anything more than an idea.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Metaphysics (Greek: τὰ μετὰ τὰ φυσικά; Latin: Metaphysica) is one of the principal works of Aristotle and the first major work of the branch of philosophy with the same name.
Michael Devitt (born 1938) is an Australian philosopher currently teaching at the City University of New York in New York City.
Milič Čapek, (26 January 1909 – 17 November 1997) was a Czech–American philosopher.
The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory.
Modal fictionalism is a term used in philosophy, and more specifically in the metaphysics of modality, to describe the position that holds that modality can be analysed in terms of a fiction about possible worlds.
Modal realism is the view propounded by David Kellogg Lewis that all possible worlds are real in the same way as is the actual world: they are "of a kind with this world of ours." It is based on the following tenets: possible worlds exist; possible worlds are not different in kind from the actual world; possible worlds are irreducible entities; the term actual in actual world is indexical, i.e. any subject can declare their world to be the actual one, much as they label the place they are "here" and the time they are "now".
Moderate realism is a position in the debate on the metaphysics of universals that holds that there is no realm in which universals exist (in opposition to Platonic realism), nor do they really exist within the individuals as universals, but rather universals really exist within the particulars as individualised, and multiplied.
Monad (from Greek μονάς monas, "singularity" in turn from μόνος monos, "alone"), refers in cosmogony (creation theories) to the first being, divinity, or the totality of all beings.
Monism attributes oneness or singleness (Greek: μόνος) to a concept e.g., existence.
In literature, a moral universe is the moral nature of the universe as a whole in relation to human life, or a specific moral code.
In physics, motion is a change in position of an object over time.
Nathan U. Salmon (né Nathan Salmon Ucuzoglu in 1951) is an American philosopher in the analytic tradition, specializing in metaphysics, philosophy of language, and philosophy of logic.
Natural law (ius naturale, lex naturalis) is a philosophy asserting that certain rights are inherent by virtue of human nature, endowed by nature—traditionally by God or a transcendent source—and that these can be understood universally through human reason.
Natural theology, once also termed physico-theology, is a type of theology that provides arguments for the existence of God based on reason and ordinary experience of nature.
In philosophy, naturalism is the "idea or belief that only natural (as opposed to supernatural or spiritual) laws and forces operate in the world." Adherents of naturalism (i.e., naturalists) assert that natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural universe, that the changing universe at every stage is a product of these laws.
The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and supported the ideology of Nazism.
Necessitarianism is a metaphysical principle that denies all mere possibility; there is exactly one way for the world to be.
In logic, necessity and sufficiency are terms used to describe an implicational relationship between statements.
Nihilism is the philosophical viewpoint that suggests the denial or lack of belief towards the reputedly meaningful aspects of life.
In philosophy, noetics is a branch of metaphysical philosophy concerned with the study of mind as well as intellect.
In metaphysics, nominalism is a philosophical view which denies the existence of universals and abstract objects, but affirms the existence of general or abstract terms and predicates.
Often synonymous to anti-foundationalism, non-essentialism in philosophy is the non-belief in an essence (from Latin esse) of any given thing, idea, or metaphysical entity (e.g. God).
A non-standard cosmology is any physical cosmological model of the universe that was, or still is, proposed as an alternative to the then-current standard model of cosmology.
Noneism, also known as modal Meinongianism, is a theory in logic and metaphysics first coined by Richard Routley and appropriated again in 2005 by Graham Priest.
Norman Leo Geisler (born July 21, 1932) is a Christian systematic theologian and philosopher.
Norman Duncan Kemp Smith FRSE (5 May 1872 – 3 September 1958) was a Scottish philosopher who was Professor of Psychology (1906–14) and Philosophy (1914–19) at Princeton University and was Professor of Logic and Metaphysics at the University of Edinburgh (1919–45).
Nothing is a concept denoting the absence of something, and is associated with nothingness.
A notion in philosophy is a reflection in the mind of real objects and phenomena in their essential features and relations.
An object is a technical term in modern philosophy often used in contrast to the term subject.
In metaphysics, object-oriented ontology (OOO) is a 21st-century Heidegger-influenced school of thought that rejects the privileging of human existence over the existence of nonhuman objects.
Objective idealism is an idealistic metaphysics that postulates that there is in an important sense only one perceiver, and that this perceiver is one with that which is perceived.
Objectivism is a philosophical system developed by Russian-American writer Ayn Rand (1905–1982).
In philosophy, ontic (from the Greek ὄν, genitive ὄντος: "of that which is") is physical, real, or factual existence.
Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
Open individualism is the view in the philosophy of personal identity, according to which there exists only one numerically identical subject, which is everyone at all times.
Organicism is the philosophical perspective which views the universe and its parts as organic wholes and - either by analogy or literally - as living organisms.
Ousia (οὐσία) is analogous to the English concepts of being and ontic used in contemporary philosophy.
An outline, also called a hierarchical outline, is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships and is a type of tree structure.
Sir Peter Frederick Strawson FBA (23 November 1919 – 13 February 2006), usually cited as P. F. Strawson, was an English philosopher.
In philosophy, panlogism is a Hegelian doctrine that holds that the universe is the act or realization of Logos.
Parmenides of Elea (Παρμενίδης ὁ Ἐλεάτης) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher from Elea in Magna Graecia (Greater Greece, included Southern Italy).
In metaphysics, particulars are defined as concrete, spatiotemporal entities as opposed to abstract entities, such as properties or numbers.
A pattern is a discernible regularity in the world or in a manmade design.
Paul Joseph Salomon Paul Benacerraf (born 1931) is a French-born American philosopher working in the field of the philosophy of mathematics who has been teaching at Princeton University since he joined the faculty in 1960.
Paul Weiss (May 19, 1901 – July 5, 2002) was an American philosopher.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
Perdurantism or perdurance theory is a philosophical theory of persistence and identity.
Peter Glassen (1920–1986) was a professor of philosophy at the University of Manitoba from 1949 until his death in 1986.
Peter K. Unger (born April 25, 1942) is a contemporary American philosopher and professor at New York University.
Peter van Inwagen (born September 21, 1942) is an American analytic philosopher and the John Cardinal O'Hara Professor of Philosophy at the University of Notre Dame.
Peter Wessel Zapffe (December 18, 1899 – October 12, 1990) was a Norwegian metaphysician, author, lawyer and mountaineer.
Phenomenalism is the view that physical objects cannot justifiably be said to exist in themselves, but only as perceptual phenomena or sensory stimuli (e.g. redness, hardness, softness, sweetness, etc.) situated in time and in space.
A phenomenon (Greek: φαινόμενον, phainómenon, from the verb phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural phenomena) is any thing which manifests itself.
A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.
Philosophical fiction refers to the class of works of fiction which devote a significant portion of their content to the sort of questions normally addressed in discursive philosophy.
Philosophical Problems of Space and Time is a 1963 book about the nature of space and time by the philosopher Adolf Grünbaum.
Realism (in philosophy) about a given object is the view that this object exists in reality independently of our conceptual scheme.
Philosophical theology is both a branch and form of theology in which philosophical methods are used in developing or analyzing theological concepts.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Philosophy and Theology is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes articles and reviews exploring connections between philosophy and theology.
The philosophy of self defines, among other things, the conditions of identity that make one subject of experience distinct from all others.
Philosophy of space and time is the branch of philosophy concerned with the issues surrounding the ontology, epistemology, and character of space and time.
The Philosophy of Time Society is an organization which grew out of a National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Seminar on the Philosophy of Time offered by George N. Schlesinger in 1991.
In physics, a physical body or physical object (or simply a body or object) is an identifiable collection of matter, which may be constrained by an identifiable boundary, and may move as a unit by translation or rotation, in 3-dimensional space.
Physical cosmology is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the Universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its origin, structure, evolution, and ultimate fate.
In philosophy, physicalism is the ontological thesis that "everything is physical", that there is "nothing over and above" the physical, or that everything supervenes on the physical.
Physis (Greek: italic phusis) is a Greek theological, philosophical, and scientific term usually translated into English as "nature".
The Metaphysics of Quality (MoQ) is a theory of reality introduced in Robert Pirsig's philosophical novel, Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance (1974) and expanded in Lila: An Inquiry into Morals (1991).
Plane of immanence (plan d'immanence) is a founding concept in the metaphysics or ontology of French philosopher Gilles Deleuze.
Plasma cosmology is a non-standard cosmology whose central postulate is that the dynamics of ionized gases and plasmas play important, if not dominant, roles in the physics of the universe beyond the Solar System.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Platonic idealism usually refers to Plato's theory of forms or doctrine of ideas.
Platonic realism is a philosophical term usually used to refer to the idea of realism regarding the existence of universals or abstract objects after the Greek philosopher Plato (c. 427–c. 347 BC), a student of Socrates.
Plotinus (Πλωτῖνος; – 270) was a major Greek-speaking philosopher of the ancient world.
Pluralism is a term used in philosophy, meaning "doctrine of multiplicity", often used in opposition to monism ("doctrine of unity") and dualism ("doctrine of duality").
Popper's three worlds is a way of looking at reality, described by the British philosopher Karl Popper in a lecture in 1978.
In philosophy, potentiality and actuality are principles of a dichotomy which Aristotle used to analyze motion, causality, ethics, and physiology in his Physics, Metaphysics, Nicomachean Ethics and De Anima, which is about the human psyche.
Predeterminism is the idea that all events are determined in advance.
A principle is a concept or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation.
The principle of plenitude asserts that the universe contains all possible forms of existence.
Process philosophy — also ontology of becoming, processism, or philosophy of organism — identifies metaphysical reality with change and development.
Projectivism in philosophy involves attributing ('projecting') qualities to an object as if those qualities actually belong to it.
In philosophy, mathematics, and logic, a property is a characteristic of an object; a red object is said to have the property of redness.
Pure thought is an English translation of an expression originally attributed to Kant and Hegel.
In philosophy and certain models of psychology, qualia (or; singular form: quale) are defined to be individual instances of subjective, conscious experience.
In philosophy, a quality is an attribute or a property characteristic of an object.
Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude.
Quietism in philosophy is an approach to the subject that sees the role of philosophy as broadly therapeutic or remedial.
Quodlibet: online journal of Christian theology and philosophy is a peer-reviewed academic journal of philosophy.
Robin George Collingwood, FBA (22 February 1889 – 9 January 1943), was an English philosopher, historian and archaeologist.
Rational mysticism, which encompasses both rationalism and mysticism, is a term used by scholars, researchers, and other intellectuals, some of whom engage in studies of how altered states of consciousness or transcendence such as trance, visions, and prayer occur.
Reality is all of physical existence, as opposed to that which is merely imaginary.
Reductionism is any of several related philosophical ideas regarding the associations between phenomena which can be described in terms of other simpler or more fundamental phenomena.
The relational theory of space is a metaphysical theory according to which space is composed of relations between objects, with the implication that it cannot exist in the absence of matter.
A religious cosmology (also mythological cosmology) is a way of explaining the origin, the history and the evolution of the cosmos or universe based on the religious mythology of a specific tradition.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
René-Jean-Marie-Joseph Guénon (15 November 1886 – 7 January 1951), also known as ʿAbd al-Wāḥid Yaḥyá, was a French author and intellectual who remains an influential figure in the domain of metaphysics, having written on topics ranging from sacred science and traditional studies, to symbolism and initiation.
Res extensa is one of the three substances described by René Descartes in his Cartesian ontology (often referred to as "radical dualism"), alongside res cogitans and God.
Revisionary materialism is the view that falls between eliminative materialism and reductive materialism when it comes to a particular psychological phenomenon.
Richard Taylor (November 5, 1919 – October 30, 2003), born in Charlotte, Michigan, was an American philosopher renowned for his dry wit and his contributions to metaphysics.
Robert Merrihew Adams (born September 8, 1937), known to intimates as "Bob", is an American analytic philosopher of metaphysics, religion and morality.
Robert C. Stalnaker (born 1940) is an American philosopher, who is Laurence S. Rockefeller Professor of Philosophy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891 – September 14, 1970) was a German-born philosopher who was active in Europe before 1935 and in the United States thereafter.
Sally Haslanger is the Ford Professor of Philosophy in the Department of Linguistics and Philosophy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and holds the 2015 Spinoza Chair of Philosophy at the University of Amsterdam.
Saul Aaron Kripke (born November 13, 1940) is an American philosopher and logician.
Scientific realism is the view that the universe described by science is real regardless of how it may be interpreted.
Scotist realism, sometimes called Scotist formalism, is the Scotist position on the problem of universals.
Shadworth Hollway Hodgson, FBA (1832-1912) was an English philosopher.
The simulation hypothesis proposes that all of reality, including the earth and the universe, is in fact an artificial simulation, most likely a computer simulation.
Sir William Hamilton, 9th Baronet FRSE DD FSAS (8 March 1788 – 6 May 1856) was a Scottish metaphysician.
Solipsism is the philosophical idea that only one's own mind is sure to exist.
In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc.
Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction.
Speculative realism is a movement in contemporary Continental-inspired philosophy that defines itself loosely in its stance of metaphysical realism against the dominant forms of post-Kantian philosophy (or what it terms "correlationism").
In philosophy, spiritualism is the notion, shared by a wide variety of systems of thought, that there is an immaterial reality that cannot be perceived by the senses.
The term Stoic categories refers to Stoic ideas regarding categories of being: the most fundamental classes of being for all things.
Stuart Wilde (24 September 1946 – 1 May 2013) was a British writer.
A subject is a being who has a unique consciousness and/or unique personal experiences, or an entity that has a relationship with another entity that exists outside itself (called an "object").
Subjectivism is the doctrine that "our own mental activity is the only unquestionable fact of our experience.", instead of shared or communal, and that there is no external or objective truth.
Substance theory, or substance attribute theory, is an ontological theory about objecthood, positing that a substance is distinct from its properties.
A theory of substantial forms asserts that forms (or ideas) organize matter and make it intelligible.
Major ideas in Sufi metaphysics have surrounded the concept of weḥdah (وحدة) meaning "unity", or in Arabic توحيد tawhid.
In philosophy, supervenience is a relation used to describe cases where (roughly speaking) a system's upper-level properties are determined by its lower-level properties.
Synechism (from Greek συνεχής synechḗs, "continuous" + -ism, from σύν syn, "together" + ἔχειν échein>, "to have", "to hold"), a philosophical term proposed by C. S. Peirce to express the tendency to regard things such as space, time, and law as continuous:See p. 115 in Reasoning and the Logic of Things, Ketner, ed., 1992, from Peirce's 1898 lectures.
Biological systematics is the study of the diversification of living forms, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time.
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
Teleology or finality is a reason or explanation for something in function of its end, purpose, or goal.
Teleonomy is the quality of apparent purposefulness and of goal-directedness of structures and functions in living organisms brought about by the exercise, augmentation, and, improvement of reasoning.
Temporal finitism is the doctrine that time is finite in the past.
Terence Parsons (born 1939) is an American contemporary philosopher of the analytic tradition.
The Heythrop Journal is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal covering the relations between philosophy and theology.
The Journal of Theological Studies is an academic journal established in 1899 and now published by Oxford University Press in April and October each year.
The Metaphysical Club was a conversational philosophical club that the future Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., the philosopher and psychologist William James, and the philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce formed in January 1872 in Cambridge, Massachusetts and dissolved in December 1872.
The Realms of Being (1942) is the last major work by Spanish-American philosopher George Santayana.
The Review of Metaphysics is a peer-reviewed academic journal of philosophy.
"The Unreality of Time" is the best-known philosophical work of the Cambridge idealist J. M. E. McTaggart (1866–1925).
Theodore "Ted" Sider is an American philosopher specializing in metaphysics and philosophy of language.
In philosophy, a theory of everything or ToE is an ultimate, all-encompassing explanation or description of nature or reality.
The theory of Forms or theory of Ideas is Plato's argument that non-physical (but substantial) forms (or ideas) represent the most accurate reality.
Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.
Thomas Brown (9 January 1778 – 2 April 1820) was a Scottish philosopher and poet.
Thomas Whittaker (1856–1935) was an English metaphysician and critic.
Thought encompasses a “goal oriented flow of ideas and associations that leads to reality-oriented conclusion.” Although thinking is an activity of an existential value for humans, there is no consensus as to how it is defined or understood.
Timothy Martin Crane (born 17 October 1962) is a philosopher who works mostly on the philosophy of mind and metaphysics.
Time is the indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future.
This timeline of cosmological theories and discoveries is a chronological record of the development of humanity's understanding of the cosmos over the last two-plus millennia.
In philosophy, transcendence conveys the basic ground concept from the word's literal meaning (from Latin), of climbing or going beyond, albeit with varying connotations in its different historical and cultural stages.
Transcendental idealism is a doctrine founded by German philosopher Immanuel Kant in the 18th century.
Transcendental perspectivism is a hybrid philosophy developed by German-born philosopher, Werner Krieglstein.
The transcendentals (transcendentalia) are the properties of being that correspond to three aspects of the human field of interest and are their ideals; science (truth), the arts (beauty) and religion (goodness).
Trenton Merricks is Commonwealth Professor of Philosophy at the University of Virginia.
The term "trope" is both a term which denotes figurative and metaphorical language and one which has been used in various technical senses.
Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard.
The principle of truth-value links is a concept in metaphysics discussed in debates between philosophical realism and anti-realism.
Truthmaker theory is "the branch of metaphysics that explores the relationships between what is true and what exists." A truthmaker for a truthbearer is that entity in virtue of which the truthbearer is true.
Tychism (τύχη "chance") is a thesis proposed by the American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce that holds that absolute chance, or indeterminism, is a real factor operative in the universe.
In metaphysics, a universal is what particular things have in common, namely characteristics or qualities.
Universal science (Universalwissenschaft; scientia generalis, scientia universalis) is a branch of metaphysics.
The concept of universalizability was set out by the 18th-century German philosopher Immanuel Kant as part of his work Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
The University of Freiburg (colloquially Uni Freiburg), officially the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg (Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg), is a public research university located in Freiburg im Breisgau, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
An unobservable (also called impalpable) is an entity whose existence, nature, properties, qualities or relations are not directly observable by humans.
In ethics, value denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do or what way is best to live (normative ethics), or to describe the significance of different actions.
Virtual reality (VR) is an interactive computer-generated experience taking place within a simulated environment, that incorporates mainly auditory and visual, but also other types of sensory feedback like haptic.
Voluntarism is "any metaphysical or psychological system that assigns to the will (Latin: voluntas) a more predominant role than that attributed to the intellect", or, equivalently, "the doctrine that will is the basic factor, both in the universe and in human conduct".
Willard Van Orman Quine (known to intimates as "Van"; June 25, 1908 – December 25, 2000) was an American philosopher and logician in the analytic tradition, recognized as "one of the most influential philosophers of the twentieth century." From 1930 until his death 70 years later, Quine was continually affiliated with Harvard University in one way or another, first as a student, then as a professor of philosophy and a teacher of logic and set theory, and finally as a professor emeritus who published or revised several books in retirement.
William Payne Alston (November 29, 1921 – September 13, 2009) was an American philosopher.
William Desmond (born 1951) is an Irish philosopher who has written on ontology, metaphysics, ethics, and religion.
William G. Lycan (born September 26, 1945) is an American philosopher and Professor Emeritus at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where he was formerly the William Rand Kenan, Jr.
Wolfgang Smith (born 1930) is a mathematician, physicist, philosopher of science, metaphysician, Roman Catholic and member of the Traditionalist School.
The world is the planet Earth and all life upon it, including human civilization.
World disclosure (Erschlossenheit, literally "development, comprehension") refers to how things become intelligible and meaningfully relevant to human beings, by virtue of being part of an ontological world – i.e., a pre-interpreted and holistically structured background of meaning.
Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance: An Inquiry into Values (ZAMM), by Robert M. Pirsig, is a book that was first published in 1974.
Zeno of Elea (Ζήνων ὁ Ἐλεάτης) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher of Magna Graecia and a member of the Eleatic School founded by Parmenides.
1,000,000,000 (one billion, short scale; one thousand million or milliard, yard, long scale) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001.