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Outline of meteorology

Index Outline of meteorology

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to meteorology: Meteorology – interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere which explains and forecasts weather events. [1]

106 relations: Air mass, Anemometer, Anticrepuscular rays, Atmosphere, Atmospheric pressure, Barograph, Barometer, Black ice, Canary Islands, Ceiling balloon, Ceiling projector, Ceilometer, Climate, Climatology, Cloud, Crepuscular rays, Dark adaptor goggles, Deposition (phase transition), Dew point, Disdrometer, Drought, Dust devil, Effect of Sun angle on climate, El Niño, Equivalent potential temperature, Evaporation, Extratropical cyclone, Extreme weather, Field mill, Flood, Fog, Francis Galton, Freezing rain, Frost, Global warming, Glossary of meteorology, Heat index, Herbert Saffir, High-pressure area, History of surface weather analysis, Hygrometer, Ice, Ice accretion indicator, Ice pellets, Index of meteorology articles, Invest (meteorology), Jet stream, La Palma, Lidar, Lightning detection, ..., List of floods, List of natural disasters by death toll, List of severe weather phenomena, Low-pressure area, Mesoscale meteorology, Meteorological disasters, Meteorology, Mexico, Microscale meteorology, Monsoon, Nephelometer, Nephoscope, Nor'easter, Outline (list), Pilot report, Precipitation, Primitive equations, Pyranometer, Radiosonde, Rain, Rain gauge, Robert Simpson (meteorologist), Snow, Snow gauge, SODAR, Solarimeter, Sounding rocket, Standard day, Stevenson screen, Storm, Sublimation (phase transition), Sunshine recorder, Surface weather analysis, Synoptic scale meteorology, Temperature, Thermo-hygrograph, Thermometer, Tide, Timeline of meteorology, Tropical cyclone, Weather, Weather and climate, Weather balloon, Weather forecasting, Weather front, Weather map, Weather radar, Weather vane, William M. Gray, Wind, Wind chill, Wind direction, Wind profiler, Wind speed, Windsock, Yucatán Peninsula. Expand index (56 more) »

Air mass

In meteorology, an air mass is a volume of air defined by its temperature and water vapor content.

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Anemometer

An anemometer is a device used for measuring the speed of wind, and is also a common weather station instrument.

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Anticrepuscular rays

Anticrepuscular rays, or antisolar rays, are atmospheric optical phenomena similar to crepuscular rays, but appear opposite of the Sun in the sky.

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Atmosphere

An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.

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Atmospheric pressure

Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).

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Barograph

A barograph is a barometer that records the barometric pressure over time.

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Barometer

A barometer is a scientific instrument used in meteorology to measure atmospheric pressure.

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Black ice

Black ice, sometimes called clear ice, is a thin coating of glaze ice on a surface, especially on roads.

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Canary Islands

The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.

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Ceiling balloon

A ceiling balloon also called a pilot balloon or pibal, is used by meteorologists to determine the height of the base of clouds above ground level during daylight hours.

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Ceiling projector

The ceiling projector or cloud searchlight is used to measure the height of the base of clouds (called the ceiling) above the ground.

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Ceilometer

A ceilometer is a device that uses a laser or other light source to determine the height of a cloud ceiling or cloud base.

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Climate

Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.

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Climatology

Climatology (from Greek κλίμα, klima, "place, zone"; and -λογία, -logia) or climate science is the scientific study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time.

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Cloud

In meteorology, a cloud is an aerosol consisting of a visible mass of minute liquid droplets, frozen crystals, or other particles suspended in the atmosphere of a planetary body.

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Crepuscular rays

Crepuscular rays (more commonly known as sunbeams, sun rays, or god rays), in atmospheric optics, are rays of sunlight that appear to radiate from the point in the sky where the sun is located.

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Dark adaptor goggles

Dark adaptor goggles, also called red adaptation goggles, are used in the field of meteorology and astronomy for adapting the eyes to the dark prior to an observation at night.

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Deposition (phase transition)

Deposition is a thermodynamic process, a phase transition in which gas transforms into solid without passing through the liquid phase.

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Dew point

The dew point is the temperature to which air must be cooled to become saturated with water vapor.

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Disdrometer

A disdrometer is an instrument used to measure the drop size distribution and velocity of falling hydrometeors.

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Drought

A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water.

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Dust devil

A dust devil is a strong, well-formed, and relatively long-lived whirlwind, ranging from small (half a metre wide and a few metres tall) to large (more than 10 metres wide and more than 1000 metres tall).

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Effect of Sun angle on climate

The amount of heat energy received at any location on the globe is a direct effect of Sun angle on climate, as the angle at which sunlight strikes the Earth varies by location, time of day, and season due to the Earth's orbit around the Sun and the Earth's rotation around its tilted axis.

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El Niño

El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (commonly called ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific (between approximately the International Date Line and 120°W), including off the Pacific coast of South America.

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Equivalent potential temperature

Equivalent potential temperature, commonly referred to as theta-e \left(\theta_e \right), is a quantity that is conserved during changes to an air parcel's pressure (that is, during vertical motions in the atmosphere), even if water vapor condenses during that pressure change.

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Evaporation

Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.

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Extratropical cyclone

Extratropical cyclones, sometimes called mid-latitude cyclones or wave cyclones, are low-pressure areas which, along with the anticyclones of high-pressure areas, drive the weather over much of the Earth.

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Extreme weather

Extreme weather includes unexpected, unusual, unpredictable, severe or unseasonal weather; weather at the extremes of the historical distribution—the range that has been seen in the past.

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Field mill

A field mill is a specialized instrument used for measuring the strength of electrical fields in the atmosphere near thunderstorm clouds.

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Flood

A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry.

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Fog

Fog is a visible aerosol consisting of minute water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the air at or near the Earth's surface.

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Francis Galton

Sir Francis Galton, FRS (16 February 1822 – 17 January 1911) was an English Victorian era statistician, progressive, polymath, sociologist, psychologist, anthropologist, eugenicist, tropical explorer, geographer, inventor, meteorologist, proto-geneticist, and psychometrician.

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Freezing rain

Freezing rain is the name given to rain precipitation maintained at temperatures below freezing by the ambient air mass that causes freezing on contact with surfaces.

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Frost

Frost is the coating or deposit of ice that may form in humid air in cold conditions, usually overnight.

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Global warming

Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.

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Glossary of meteorology

Most of the terms listed in Wikipedia glossaries are already defined and explained within Wikipedia itself.

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Heat index

The heat index (HI) or humiture is an index that combines air temperature and relative humidity, in shaded areas, to posit a human-perceived equivalent temperature, as how hot it would feel if the humidity were some other value in the shade.

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Herbert Saffir

Herbert Seymour Saffir (29 March 1917 – 21 November 2007) was an American civil engineer who co-developed (with meteorologist Robert Simpson) the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale for measuring the intensity of hurricanes.

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High-pressure area

A high-pressure area, high or anticyclone is a region where the atmospheric pressure at the surface of the planet is greater than its surrounding environment.

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History of surface weather analysis

The history of surface weather analysis concerns the timetable of developments related to surface weather analysis.

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Hygrometer

A hygrometer is an instrument used for measuring the amount of humidity and water vapor in the atmosphere, in soil, or in confined spaces.

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Ice

Ice is water frozen into a solid state.

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Ice accretion indicator

The ice accretion indicator is an L-shaped piece of aluminium long by wide.

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Ice pellets

Ice pellets are a form of precipitation consisting of small, translucent balls of ice.

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Index of meteorology articles

This is a list of meteorology topics.

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Invest (meteorology)

An invest in meteorology (short for investigative area, alternatively written INVEST) is a designated area of disturbed weather that is being monitored for tropical cyclone development.

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Jet stream

Jet streams are fast flowing, narrow, meandering air currents in the atmospheres of some planets, including Earth.

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La Palma

La Palma, also San Miguel de La Palma, is the most north-westerly island of the Canary Islands, Spain.

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Lidar

Lidar (also called LIDAR, LiDAR, and LADAR) is a surveying method that measures distance to a target by illuminating the target with pulsed laser light and measuring the reflected pulses with a sensor.

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Lightning detection

A lightning detector is a device that detects lightning produced by thunderstorms.

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List of floods

This is a list of major floods.

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List of natural disasters by death toll

A natural disaster is a sudden event that causes widespread destruction, lots of collateral damage or loss of life, brought about by forces other than the acts of human beings.

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List of severe weather phenomena

Severe weather phenomena are weather conditions that are hazardous to human life and property.

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Low-pressure area

A low-pressure area, low, or depression, is a region on the topographic map where the atmospheric pressure is lower than that of surrounding locations.

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Mesoscale meteorology

Mesoscale meteorology is the study of weather systems smaller than synoptic scale systems but larger than microscale and storm-scale cumulus systems.

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Meteorological disasters

Meteorological disasters are caused by extreme weather, e.g. rain, drought, snow, extreme heat or cold, ice, or wind.

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Meteorology

Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.

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Mexico

Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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Microscale meteorology

Microscale meteorology is the study of short-lived atmospheric phenomena smaller than mesoscale, about 1 km or less.

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Monsoon

Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.

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Nephelometer

A nephelometer is an instrument for measuring concentration of suspended particulates in a liquid or gas colloid.

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Nephoscope

Nephoscope is an instrument for measuring the altitude, direction, and velocity of clouds.

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Nor'easter

A nor'easter (also northeaster; see below) is a macro-scale cyclone.

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Outline (list)

An outline, also called a hierarchical outline, is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships and is a type of tree structure.

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Pilot report

A pilot report or PIREP is a report of actual weather conditions encountered by an aircraft in flight.

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Precipitation

In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.

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Primitive equations

The primitive equations are a set of nonlinear differential equations that are used to approximate global atmospheric flow and are used in most atmospheric models.

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Pyranometer

A pyranometer is a type of actinometer used for measuring solar irradiance on a planar surface and it is designed to measure the solar radiation flux density (W/m2) from the hemisphere above within a wavelength range 0.3 μm to 3 μm.

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Radiosonde

A radiosonde is a battery-powered telemetry instrument package carried into the atmosphere usually by a weather balloon that measures various atmospheric parameters and transmits them by radio to a ground receiver.

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Rain

Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then becomes heavy enough to fall under gravity.

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Rain gauge

A rain gauge (also known as an udometer, pluviometer, or an ombrometer) is an instrument used by meteorologists and hydrologists to gather and measure the amount of liquid precipitation over a set period of time.

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Robert Simpson (meteorologist)

Robert Homer Simpson (November 19, 1912 – December 18, 2014) was an American meteorologist, hurricane specialist, first director of the National Hurricane Research Project (NHRP) from 1955–1959, and a former director (1967–1974) of the National Hurricane Center (NHC).

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Snow

Snow refers to forms of ice crystals that precipitate from the atmosphere (usually from clouds) and undergo changes on the Earth's surface.

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Snow gauge

A snow gauge is a type of instrument used by meteorologists and hydrologists to gather and measure the amount of solid precipitation (as opposed to liquid precipitation that is measured by a rain gauge) over a set period of time.

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SODAR

SODAR (SOnic Detection And Ranging), also written as sodar, is a meteorological instrument used as a wind profiler to measure the scattering of sound waves by atmospheric turbulence.

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Solarimeter

A solarimeter is a pyranometer, a type of measuring device used to measure combined direct and diffuse solar radiation.

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Sounding rocket

A sounding rocket, sometimes called a research rocket, is an instrument-carrying rocket designed to take measurements and perform scientific experiments during its sub-orbital flight.

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Standard day

The term standard day is used throughout meteorology, aviation, and other sciences and disciplines as a way of defining certain properties of the atmosphere in a manner which allows those who use our atmosphere to effectively calculate and communicate its properties at any given time.

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Stevenson screen

A Stevenson screen or instrument shelter is a shelter or an enclosure to shield meteorological instruments against precipitation and direct heat radiation from outside sources, while still allowing air to circulate freely around them.

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Storm

A storm is any disturbed state of an environment or in an astronomical body's atmosphere especially affecting its surface, and strongly implying severe weather.

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Sublimation (phase transition)

Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.

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Sunshine recorder

"Sunshine recorder" redirects here.

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Surface weather analysis

Surface weather analysis is a special type of weather map that provides a view of weather elements over a geographical area at a specified time based on information from ground-based weather stations.

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Synoptic scale meteorology

The synoptic scale in meteorology (also known as large scale or cyclonic scale) is a horizontal length scale of the order of 1000 kilometers (about 620 miles) or more.

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Temperature

Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

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Thermo-hygrograph

A thermo-hygrograph or hygrothermograph is a chart recorder that measures and records both temperature and humidity (or dew point).

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Thermometer

A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or a temperature gradient.

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Tide

Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of Earth.

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Timeline of meteorology

The timeline of meteorology contains events of scientific and technological advancements in the area of atmospheric sciences.

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Tropical cyclone

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.

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Weather

Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degree to which it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy.

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Weather and climate

There is often confusion between weather and climate.

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Weather balloon

A weather or sounding balloon is a balloon (specifically a type of high-altitude balloon) that carries instruments aloft to send back information on atmospheric pressure, temperature, humidity and wind speed by means of a small, expendable measuring device called a radiosonde.

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Weather forecasting

Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the conditions of the atmosphere for a given location and time.

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Weather front

A weather front is a boundary separating two masses of air of different densities, and is the principal cause of meteorological phenomena outside the tropics.

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Weather map

A weather map displays various meteorological features across a particular area at a particular point in time and has various symbols which all have specific meanings.

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Weather radar

Weather radar, also called weather surveillance radar (WSR) and Doppler weather radar, is a type of radar used to locate precipitation, calculate its motion, and estimate its type (rain, snow, hail etc.). Modern weather radars are mostly pulse-Doppler radars, capable of detecting the motion of rain droplets in addition to the intensity of the precipitation.

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Weather vane

A weather vane, wind vane, or weathercock is an instrument for showing the direction of the wind.

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William M. Gray

William "Bill" Mason Gray (October 9, 1929 – April 16, 2016) was emeritus professor of atmospheric science at Colorado State University (CSU), and the head of the Tropical Meteorology Project at CSU's Department of Atmospheric Sciences.

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Wind

Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale.

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Wind chill

Wind-chill or windchill, (popularly wind chill factor) is the lowering of body temperature due to the passing-flow of lower-temperature air.

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Wind direction

Wind direction is reported by the direction from which it originates.

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Wind profiler

A wind profiler is a type of weather observing equipment that uses radar or sound waves (SODAR) to detect the wind speed and direction at various elevations above the ground.

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Wind speed

Wind speed, or wind flow velocity, is a fundamental atmospheric quantity.

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Windsock

A windsock is a conical textile tube which resembles a giant sock.

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Yucatán Peninsula

The Yucatán Peninsula (Península de Yucatán), in southeastern Mexico, separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico, with the northern coastline on the Yucatán Channel.

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List of basic meteorology topics, Outline of the weather, Outline of weather, Topic outline of meteorology, Topical outline of meteorology.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outline_of_meteorology

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