238 relations: Acid mine drainage, Afterdamp, Aggregate (geology), Agriculture, Air classifier, Aluminium, Amalgam (chemistry), ANFO, Archimedes, Archimedes' screw, Asteroid mining, Barium, Baryte, Base metal, Bauxite, Beam engine, Beryl, Beryllium, Billy Elliot, Biomining, Blackdamp, Blasting machine, Bootleg mining, Borehole mining, Box cut, Brassed Off, Bucket-wheel excavator, Cassiterite, Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation, Charles Steen, Chemical synthesis, Chromite, Chromium, Cinnabar, Claustrophobia, Clay, Coal, Coal mining, Coal seam fire, Cobalt, Cobaltite, Coltan, Columbite, Construction aggregate, Copper, Cupellation, Damp (mining), Daniel Guggenheim, Davy lamp, De re metallica, ..., Deep sea mining, Deformation monitoring, Detonator, Diamond, Dolomite, Dragline excavator, Dredging, Drift mining, Drilling and blasting, Drilling rig, Drywasher, Dynamite, Ed Schieffelin, Electrometallurgy, Energy law, European Route of Industrial Heritage, Excavator, Extractive metallurgy, Factory, Fire-setting, Firedamp, Fossil fuel, Fossil water, Freeminer, Froth flotation, Galena, Gangue, Gemstone, Geology, Geordie lamp, George Stephenson, Georgius Agricola, Glory hole (petroleum production), Gold, Gold dredge, Gold mining, Gold panning, Gold rush, Gravel, Gravel pit, Gunpowder, Harrison Schmitt, Headframe, Heap leaching, Henry Beecher Dierdorff, Herbert Hoover, History of coal mining, Hoist (mining), Horace Tabor, Humphry Davy, Hurrying, Hushing, Hydraulic mining, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydrometallurgy, Ilmenite, In situ leach, Iron, Iron ore, Kaolinite, Laboratory, Landfill mining, Leaching (chemistry), Lead, Limestone, List of copper ores, List of countries by bentonite production, List of countries by bismuth production, List of countries by feldspar production, List of countries by fluorite production, List of countries by gold production, List of countries by manganese production, List of countries by uranium production, List of decorative stones, List of diamond mines, List of mining companies, List of schools of mines, List of uranium projects, Lixiviant, Loader (equipment), Longwall mining, Magnesite, Magnesium, Malachite, Man engine, Manganese, Mercury (element), Meyer Guggenheim, Mine exploration, Mine reclamation, Mine rescue, Miner, Mineral, Mineral processing, Mining, Mining accident, Mining engineering, Molybdenite, Molybdenum, Mountaintop removal mining, Movement and Surveying Radar, National Coal Mining Museum for England, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, National Mining Hall of Fame, Natural resource, Nickel, Niobium, Oil sands, Oil shale, Oil shale industry, Omega Hydraulic Diggings, Open-pit mining, Ore, Ore genesis, Outline (list), Overburden, Paddy Martinez, Paul Worsey, Pentlandite, Phosphate, Phosphorite, Placer mining, Platinum, Potash, Power shovel, Precious metal, Prospecting, Pumpjack, Pyrolusite, Pyrometallurgy, Quarry, Quartz reef mining, Rare-earth element, Retreat mining, Richard Redmayne, Robert Hunt (scientist), Rock (geology), Rocker box, Ronald F. Tylecote, Room and pillar mining, Russell Fox, Safety lamp, Salt-concrete, Sand, Sand mining, Scheelite, Scientific drilling, Shaft mining, Shale oil extraction, Silver, Silver mining, Slag, Slate, Slate industry, Slope mining, Smelting, Sodium chloride, Sphalerite, Spoil tip, Stamp mill, Steam shovel, Stoping, Subsea (technology), Sulfur, Surface mining, Tailings, Tantalite, Tantalum, Tin, Titanium, Trommel screen, Tungsten, Underground mining (hard rock), Underground mining (soft rock), Underground personnel carrier, Uranium ore, Value (economics), Vein (geology), Wallarah 2 Coal Project, Well drilling, Wellhead, Wheel tractor-scraper, Whitedamp, William Boyce Thompson, William Reid Clanny, Winding engine, Wolframite, Zinc. Expand index (188 more) » « Shrink index
Acid mine drainage, acid and metalliferous drainage (AMD), or acid rock drainage (ARD) is the outflow of acidic water from metal mines or coal mines.
Afterdamp is the toxic mixture of gases left in a mine following an explosion caused by firedamp, which itself can initiate a much larger explosion of coal dust.
In the Earth sciences, aggregrate has three possible meanings.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
An air classifier is an industrial machine which separates materials by a combination of size, shape, and density.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
An amalgam is an alloy of mercury with another metal, which may be a liquid, a soft paste or a solid, depending upon the proportion of mercury.
ANFO (or AN/FO, for ammonium nitrate/fuel oil) is a widely used bulk industrial explosive.
Archimedes of Syracuse (Ἀρχιμήδης) was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer.
An Archimedes' screw, also known by the name the Archimedean screw or screw pump, is a machine historically (and also currently) used for transferring water from a low-lying body of water into irrigation ditches.
Asteroid mining is the exploitation of raw materials from asteroids and other minor planets, including near-Earth objects.
Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.
Baryte or barite (BaSO4) is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate.
A base metal is a common and inexpensive metal, as opposed to a precious metal such as gold or silver.
Bauxite is a sedimentary rock with a relatively high aluminium content.
A beam engine is a type of steam engine where a pivoted overhead beam is used to apply the force from a vertical piston to a vertical connecting rod.
Beryl is a mineral composed of beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate with the chemical formula Be3Al2(SiO3)6.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
Billy Elliot is a 2000 British dance drama film about a boy becoming a professional ballet dancer, set in north-eastern England during the 1984–85 coal miners' strike.
Biomining is a technique of extracting metals from ores and other solid materials typically using prokaryotes or fungi.
Blackdamp (also known as stythe or choke damp) is an asphyxiant, reducing the available oxygen content of air to a level incapable of sustaining human or animal life.
A blasting machine or shot exploder is a portable source of electric current to reliably fire a blasting cap to trigger a main explosive charge.
Bootleg mining or shoemaker mining is illegal coal mining.
Borehole Mining (BHM) is a remote operated method of extracting (mining) mineral resources through boreholes by means of high pressure water jets.
A box cut (box pit) is a small open cut built to supply a secure and safe entrance as access to a slope to an underground mine.
Brassed Off is a 1996 British comedy-drama film written and directed by Mark Herman and starring Pete Postlethwaite, Tara Fitzgerald and Ewan McGregor.
Bucket-wheel excavators (BWEs) are heavy equipment used in surface mining.
Cassiterite is a tin oxide mineral, SnO2.
CMLR can also mean Common Market Law Report Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation is a member of the Sustainable Minerals Institute (previously the Sir James Foots Institute of Mineral Resources), the Centre was established at the University of Queensland in 1993 and has built on more than twenty years involvement with the mining and minerals industries.
Charles Augustus Steen (December 1, 1919 – January 1, 2006), was a geologist who made and lost a fortune after discovering a rich uranium deposit in Utah during the uranium boom of the early 1950s.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
Chromite is an iron chromium oxide: FeCr2O4.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
Cinnabar and cinnabarite, likely deriving from the κιννάβαρι (kinnabari), refer to the common bright scarlet to brick-red form of mercury(II) sulfide (HgS) that is the most common source ore for refining elemental mercury, and is the historic source for the brilliant red or scarlet pigment termed vermilion and associated red mercury pigments.
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
Coal mining is the process of extracting coal from the ground.
A coal-seam fire refers to natural burning of an outcrop or underground coal seam.
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
Cobaltite is a sulfide mineral composed of cobalt, arsenic, and sulfur, CoAsS.
Coltan (short for columbite–tantalites and known industrially as tantalite) is a dull black metallic ore, from which the elements niobium and tantalum are extracted.
Columbite, also called niobite, niobite-tantalite and columbate, is a black mineral group that is an ore of niobium.
Construction aggregate, or simply "aggregate", is a broad category of coarse to medium grained particulate material used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled concrete and geosynthetic aggregates.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Cupellation is a refining process in metallurgy, where ores or alloyed metals are treated under very high temperatures and have controlled operations to separate noble metals, like gold and silver, from base metals like lead, copper, zinc, arsenic, antimony or bismuth, present in the ore.
Historically, gases (other than breathable air) in coal mines in Britain were collectively known as "damps".
Daniel Guggenheim (July 9, 1856 – September 28, 1930) was an American mining magnate and philanthropist, and a son of Meyer and Barbara Guggenheim.
The Davy lamp is a safety lamp for use in flammable atmospheres, invented in 1815 by Sir Humphry Davy.
De re metallica (Latin for On the Nature of Metals) is a book cataloguing the state of the art of mining, refining, and smelting metals, published a year posthumously in 1556 due to a delay in preparing woodcuts for the text.
Deep sea mining is a relatively new mineral retrieval process that takes place on the ocean floor.
Deformation monitoring (also referred to as deformation survey) is the systematic measurement and tracking of the alteration in the shape or dimensions of an object as a result of stresses induced by applied loads.
A detonator, frequently a blasting cap, is a device used to trigger an explosive device.
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
Dolomite is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally The term is also used for a sedimentary carbonate rock composed mostly of the mineral dolomite.
A dragline excavator is a piece of heavy equipment used in civil engineering and surface mining.
Dredging is an excavation activity usually carried out underwater, in harbours, shallow seas or freshwater areas with the purpose of gathering up bottom sediments to deepen or widen the sea bottom / channel.
Drift mining is either the mining of an ore deposit by underground methods, or the working of coal seams accessed by adits driven into the surface outcrop of the coal bed.
Drilling and blasting is the controlled use of explosives and other methods such as gas pressure blasting pyrotechnics, to break rock for excavation.
A drilling rig is a machine that creates holes in the earth subsurface.
A drywasher is a common desert mining tool for gold mining.
Dynamite is an explosive made of nitroglycerin, sorbents (such as powdered shells or clay) and stabilizers.
Edward Lawrence Schieffelin (1847–1897) was an Indian scout and prospector who discovered silver in the Arizona Territory, which led to the founding of Tombstone, Arizona.
Electrometallurgy is the field concerned with the processes of metal electrodeposition There are four categories of these processes.
Energy laws govern the use and taxation of energy, both renewable and non-renewable.
The European Route of Industrial Heritage (ERIH) is a network (theme route) of the most important industrial heritage sites in Europe.
Excavators (hydraulic) are heavy construction equipment consisting of a boom, dipper (or stick), bucket and cab on a rotating platform known as the "house".
Extractive metallurgy is a branch of metallurgical engineering wherein process and methods of extraction of metals from their natural mineral deposits are studied.
A factory or manufacturing plant is an industrial site, usually consisting of buildings and machinery, or more commonly a complex having several buildings, where workers manufacture goods or operate machines processing one product into another.
Fire-setting is a method of traditional mining used most commonly from prehistoric times up to the Middle Ages.
Firedamp is flammable gas found in coal mines.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
Fossil water or paleowater is an ancient body of water that has been contained in some undisturbed space, typically groundwater in an aquifer, for millennia.
Freeminer is an ancient title given to coal or iron miners in the Forest of Dean, Gloucestershire, England, who have earned the right to mine personal plots, known as gales.
Froth flotation is a process for selectively separating hydrophobic materials from hydrophilic.
Galena, also called lead glance, is the natural mineral form of lead(II) sulfide.
In mining, gangue is the commercially worthless material that surrounds, or is closely mixed with, a wanted mineral in an ore deposit.
A gemstone (also called a gem, fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments.
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
The Geordie lamp was a safety lamp for use in inflammable atmospheres, invented by George Stephenson in 1815 as a miner's lamp to prevent explosions due to firedamp in coal mines.
George Stephenson (9 June 1781 – 12 August 1848) was a British civil engineer and mechanical engineer.
Georgius Agricola (24 March 1494 – 21 November 1555) was a German mineralogist and metallurgist.
A glory hole in the context of the offshore petroleum industry is an excavation into the sea floor designed to protect the wellhead equipment installed at the surface of a petroleum well from icebergs or pack ice.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
A gold dredge is a placer mining machine that extracts gold from sand, gravel, and dirt using water and mechanical methods.
Gold mining is the resource extraction of gold by mining.
Gold panning, or simply panning, is a form of placer mining and traditional mining that extracts gold from a placer deposit using a pan.
A gold rush is a new discovery of gold—sometimes accompanied by other precious metals and rare earth minerals—that brings an onrush of miners seeking their fortune.
Gravel is a loose aggregation of rock fragments.
A gravel pit is an open-pit mine for the extraction of gravel.
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.
Harrison Hagan "Jack" Schmitt (born July 3, 1935) is an American geologist, retired NASA astronaut, university professor, former U.S. senator from New Mexico, and the most recent living person to have walked on the Moon.
A headframe (also known as a gallows frame, winding tower, hoist frame,Ernst, Dr.-Ing. Richard (1989). Wörterbuch der Industriellen Technik (5th ed.). Wiesbaden: Oscar Brandstetter, 1989. pit frame, shafthead frame, headgear, headstock or poppethead) is the structural frame above an underground mine shaft.
Heap leaching is an industrial mining process to extract precious metals, copper, uranium, and other compounds from ore via a series of chemical reactions that absorb specific minerals and then re-separates them after their division from other earth materials.
Henry Beecher Dierdorff (January 29, 1851 in Seville, Ohio – January 26, 1935 in Columbus, Ohio) was an American inventor of mining equipment, most notable for the first successful application of electricity to power mining equipment under the surface of earth.
Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964) was an American engineer, businessman and politician who served as the 31st President of the United States from 1929 to 1933 during the Great Depression.
The history of coal mining goes back thousands of years.
In underground mining a hoist or winder is used to raise and lower conveyances within the mine shaft.
Horace Austin Warner ("Haw") Tabor (November 26, 1830 – April 10, 1899), also known as The Bonanza King of Leadville, was an American prospector, businessman, and Republican politician.
Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 177829 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor, who is best remembered today for isolating, using electricity, a series of elements for the first time: potassium and sodium in 1807 and calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium and boron the following year, as well as discovering the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine.
A hurrier, also sometimes called a coal drawer or coal thruster, was a child or woman employed by a collier to transport the coal that they had mined.
Hushing is an ancient and historic mining method using a flood or torrent of water to reveal mineral veins.
Hydraulic mining, or hydraulicking, is a form of mining that uses high-pressure jets of water to dislodge rock material or move sediment.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
Hydrometallurgy is a method for obtaining metals from their ores.
Ilmenite, also known as Manaccanite, is a titanium-iron oxide mineral with the idealized formula.
In-situ leaching (ISL), also called in-situ recovery (ISR) or solution mining, is a mining process used to recover minerals such as copper and uranium through boreholes drilled into a deposit, in situ.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.
Kaolinite is a clay mineral, part of the group of industrial minerals, with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4.
A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.
Landfill mining and reclamation (LFMR) is a process whereby solid wastes which have previously been landfilled are excavated and processed.
Leaching is the process of extracting substances from a solid by dissolving them in a liquid, either naturally or through an industrial process.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
Following is a list of minerals that serve as copper ores in the copper mining process.
Bentonite is an absorbent aluminium phyllosilicate generally impure clay consisting mostly of montmorillonite.
Bismuth is a chemical element that has the symbol Bi and atomic number 83.
This is a list of countries by feldspar production in 2011 mostly based on accessed in April 2013.
This is a list of countries by fluorite in 2006 mostly based on accessed in July 2008.
This is a list of countries by gold production in 2016.
Manganese is a chemical element that is designated by the symbol Mn and has an atomic number of 25.
This is a list of countries by uranium production in 2015.
This is a geographical list of natural stone used for decorative purposes in construction and monumental sculpture produced in various countries.
There are a limited number of commercially aviable diamond mines currently operating in the world, with the 50 largest mines accounting for approximately 90% of global supply.
This is an incomplete alphabetical list of mining companies.
A school of mines (or mining school) is a term used for many engineering schools established in the 18th and 19th centuries that originally focused on mining engineering and applied science.
Uranium production is carried out in about 20 countries around the world, producing a cumulative total of 54,610 tonnes of uranium (tU).
A lixiviant is a liquid medium used in hydrometallurgy to selectively extract the desired metal from the ore or mineral.
A loader is a heavy equipment machine used in construction to move aside or load materials such as asphalt, demolition debris, dirt, snow, feed, gravel, logs, raw minerals, recycled material, rock, sand, woodchips, etc.
Longwall mining is a form of underground coal mining where a long wall of coal is mined in a single slice (typically 0.6 – 1.0 m thick).
Magnesite is a mineral with the chemical formula MgCO3 (magnesium carbonate).
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Malachite is a copper carbonate hydroxide mineral, with the formula Cu2CO3(OH)2.
A man engine is a mechanism of reciprocating ladders and stationary platforms installed in mines to assist the miners' journeys to and from the working levels.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
Meyer Guggenheim (February 1, 1828 – March 15, 1905) was the patriarch of what became known as the Guggenheim family.
Mine exploration is a hobby in which people visit abandoned mines, quarries, and sometimes operational mines.
Mine reclamation is the process of restoring land that has been mined to a natural or economically usable state.
Mine rescue or mines rescue is the specialised job of rescuing miners and others who have become trapped or injured in underground mines because of mining accidents, roof falls or floods and disasters such as explosions caused by firedamp.
A miner is a person who extracts ore, coal, or other mineral from the earth through mining.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
In the field of extractive metallurgy, mineral processing, also known as ore dressing, is the process of separating commercially valuable minerals from their ores.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
A mining accident is an accident that occurs during the process of mining minerals.
Mining engineering is an engineering discipline that applies science and technology to the extraction of minerals from the earth.
Molybdenite is a mineral of molybdenum disulfide, MoS2.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
Mountaintop removal mining (MTR), also known as mountaintop mining (MTM), is a form of surface mining at the summit or summit ridge of a mountain.
In open pit mining operations, people and equipment are constantly at the base of a steep, man-made slope (the highwall or pit-wall).
The National Coal Mining Museum for England is based at the site of Caphouse Colliery in Overton, near Wakefield, West Yorkshire, England.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
The National Mining Hall of Fame is a museum located in Leadville, Colorado, United States, dedicated to commemorating the work of miners and people who work with natural resources.
Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Niobium, formerly known as columbium, is a chemical element with symbol Nb (formerly Cb) and atomic number 41.
Oil sands, also known as tar sands or crude bitumen, or more technically bituminous sands, are a type of unconventional petroleum deposit.
Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) from which liquid hydrocarbons, called shale oil (not to be confused with tight oil—crude oil occurring naturally in shales), can be produced.
The oil shale industry is an industry of mining and processing of oil shale—a fine-grained sedimentary rock, containing significant amounts of kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds), from which liquid hydrocarbons can be manufactured.
The Omega Hydraulic Diggings are located north of what was the town of Omega, California during the California Gold Rush.
Open-pit, open-cast or open cut mining is a surface mining technique of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
Various theories of ore genesis explain how the various types of mineral deposits form within the Earth's crust.
An outline, also called a hierarchical outline, is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships and is a type of tree structure.
In mining, overburden (also called waste or spoil) is the material that lies above an area that lends itself to economical exploitation, such as the rock, soil, and ecosystem that lies above a coal seam or ore body.
Patricio "Paddy" Martinez (1881–1969), American prospector and shepherd, discovered uranium at Haystack Mesa, near Grants, New Mexico in 1950.
Paul N. Worsey is a tenured professor and well-known mining and explosives expert and researcher at the Missouri University of Science and Technology (formerly the University of Missouri-Rolla).
Pentlandite is an iron-nickel sulfide, (Fe,Ni)9S8.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Phosphorite, phosphate rock or rock phosphate is a non-detrital sedimentary rock which contains high amounts of phosphate minerals.
Placer mining is the mining of stream bed (alluvial) deposits for minerals.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Potash is some of various mined and manufactured salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form.
A power shovel (also stripping shovel or front shovel or electric mining shovel or Electric Rope Shovel) is a bucket-equipped machine, usually electrically powered, used for digging and loading earth or fragmented rock and for mineral extraction.
A precious metal is a rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical element of high economic value.
Prospecting is the first stage of the geological analysis (second – exploration) of a territory.
A pumpjack is the overground drive for a reciprocating piston pump in an oil well.
Pyrolusite is a mineral consisting essentially of manganese dioxide (MnO2) and is important as an ore of manganese.
Pyrometallurgy is a branch of extractive metallurgy.
A quarry is a place from which dimension stone, rock, construction aggregate, riprap, sand, gravel, or slate has been excavated from the ground.
Quartz reef mining played an important role in 19th Century gold-mining districts such as Bendigo, Victoria, Central Otago in New Zealand, and the California mother lode.
A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.
Retreat mining is the removal of pillars in the underground mining technique known as room and pillar mining.
Sir Richard Augustine Studdert Redmayne (22 July 1865 – 27 December 1955) was a British civil and mining engineer.
Robert Hunt (6 September 1807 – 17 October 1887) was a British scientist and antiquarian, born at Devonport, Plymouth.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
A rocker box (also known as a cradle) is a gold mining implement for separating alluvial placer gold from sand and gravel which was used in placer mining in the 19th century.
Ronald Frank Tylecote (15 June 1916 – 17 June 1990) was a British archaeologist and metallurgist, generally recognised as the founder of the sub-discipline of archaeometallurgy.
Room and pillar (variant of breast stoping), also called pillar and stall, is a mining system in which the mined material is extracted across a horizontal plane, creating horizontal arrays of rooms and pillars.
Russell Walter Fox AC QC LLB (30 September 1920 – 22 December 2013) was an Australian author, educator, jurist and former chief judge of the Supreme Court of the Australian Capital Territory.
A safety lamp is any of several types of lamp that provides illumination in coal mines and is designed to operate in air that may contain coal dust or gases both of which are potentially flammable or explosive.
Salt-concrete (or salzbeton) is a construction material that is used to reduce the water inflow in mining shafts in salt mines.
Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.
Sand mining is the extraction of sand, mainly through an open pit but sometimes mined from beaches and inland dunes or dredged from ocean and river beds.
Scheelite is a calcium tungstate mineral with the chemical formula CaWO4.
Scientific drilling into the Earth is a way for scientists to probe the Earth's sediments, crust, and upper mantle.
Shaft mining or shaft sinking is excavating a vertical or near-vertical tunnel from the top down, where there is initially no access to the bottom.
Shale oil extraction is an industrial process for unconventional oil production.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Silver mining is the resource extraction of silver by mining.
Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore.
Slate is a fine-grained, foliated, homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shale-type sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash through low-grade regional metamorphism.
The slate industry is the industry related to the extraction and processing of slate.
Slope mining is a method of accessing valuable geological material, such as coal or ore.
Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
Sphalerite ((Zn, Fe)S) is a mineral that is the chief ore of zinc.
A spoil tip (also called a spoil bank, boney pile, gob pile, bing, batch, boney dump or pit heap) is a pile built of accumulated spoil – the overburden or other waste rock removed during coal and ore mining.
A stamp mill (or stamp battery or stamping mill) is a type of mill machine that crushes material by pounding rather than grinding, either for further processing or for extraction of metallic ores.
A steam shovel is a large steam-powered excavating machine designed for lifting and moving material such as rock and soil.
Stoping is the process of extracting the desired ore or other mineral from an underground mine, leaving behind an open space known as a stope.
Subsea is fully submerged ocean equipment, operations or applications, especially when some distance offshore, in deep ocean waters, or on the seabed.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Surface mining, including strip mining, open-pit mining and mountaintop removal mining, is a broad category of mining in which soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit (the overburden) are removed, in contrast to underground mining, in which the overlying rock is left in place, and the mineral is removed through shafts or tunnels.
Tailings, also called mine dumps, culm dumps, slimes, tails, refuse, leach residue or slickens, terra-cone (terrikon), are the materials left over after the process of separating the valuable fraction from the uneconomic fraction (gangue) of an ore.
The mineral group tantalite is the primary source of the chemical element tantalum.
Tantalum is a chemical element with symbol Ta and atomic number 73.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
A trommel screen, also known as a rotary screen, is a mechanical screening machine used to separate materials, mainly in the mineral and solid-waste processing industries.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
Underground hard rock mining refers to various underground mining techniques used to excavate hard minerals, usually those containing metals such as ore containing gold, silver, iron, copper, zinc, nickel, tin and lead, but also involves using the same techniques for excavating ores of gems such as diamonds.
Underground soft rock mining is a group of underground mining techniques used to extract coal, oil shale, potash and other minerals or geological materials from sedimentary ("soft") rocks.
An underground personnel carrier is any heavy duty vehicle designed specifically for the safe transport of personnel and their supplies into underground work areas.
Uranium ore deposits are economically recoverable concentrations of uranium within the Earth's crust.
Economic value is a measure of the benefit provided by a good or service to an economic agent.
In geology, a vein is a distinct sheetlike body of crystallized minerals within a rock.
The Wallarah 2 Coal Project (or W2CP) is a proposal by the Korea Resources Corporation or KORES (owned by the South Korean government and other Korean and Japanese mining companies that comprise the Wyong Areas Coal Joint Venture) to construct a longwall mine near Wyong, New South Wales, Australia.
Well drilling is the process of drilling a hole in the ground for the extraction of a natural resource such as ground water, brine, natural gas, or petroleum, for the injection of a fluid from surface to a subsurface reservoir or for subsurface formations evaluation or monitoring.
A wellhead is the component at the surface of an oil or gas well that provides the structural and pressure-containing interface for the drilling and production equipment.
In civil engineering, a wheel tractor-scraper is a piece of heavy equipment used for earthmoving.
Whitedamp is a noxious mixture of gases formed by the combustion of coal, usually in an enclosed environment such as a coal mine.
William Boyce Thompson, (May 13, 1869 – June 27, 1930), was an American mining engineer, financier, prominent in the Republican party, philanthropist, and founder of Newmont Mining.
William Reid Clanny FRSE (1776 – 10 January 1850) was an Irish physician and inventor of a safety lamp.
A winding engine is a stationary engine used to control a cable, for example to power a mining hoist at a pit head.
Wolframite, (Fe,Mn)WO4, is an iron manganese tungstate mineral that is the intermediate between ferberite (Fe2+ rich) and hübnerite (Mn2+ rich).
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.