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Outline of nanotechnology

Index Outline of nanotechnology

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to nanotechnology: Nanotechnology is science, engineering, and technology conducted at the nanoscale, which is about 1 to 100 nanometers. [1]

175 relations: Aggregated diamond nanorod, Alex Zettl, Allotropes of carbon, American Chemistry Council, Andre Geim, Applications of nanotechnology, Atom probe, Atomic force microscopy, Bingel reaction, Break junction, Buckminsterfullerene, Buckypaper, Calculus, Carbon nanofoam, Carbon nanotube, Carbon nanotube actuators, Catalysis, Ceramic engineering, Chemical vapor deposition, Chemistry, Chris Phoenix (nanotechnologist), Colloid, Colloidal crystal, Computer science, Diamondoid, DNA computing, DNA machine, DNA nanotechnology, DNA origami, Electron microscope, Electron-beam lithography, Endohedral fullerene, Endohedral hydrogen fullerene, Energy applications of nanotechnology, Engineering, Engines of Creation, Erwin Wilhelm Müller, Field ion microscope, Foresight Institute, Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, Fullerene, Fullerene chemistry, Gerd Binnig, Gold nanocage, Graphene, Graphene nanoribbon, Green nanotechnology, Grey goo, Harry Kroto, Health and safety hazards of nanomaterials, ..., Heinrich Rohrer, History of nanotechnology, Impact of nanotechnology, Institute of Occupational Medicine, Ion-beam sculpting, Joseph Wang, K. Eric Drexler, Lab-on-a-chip, List of nanotechnology organizations, Macromolecule, Mark Ratner, Materials science, Mechanosynthesis, Medicine, Mesh networking, Microelectromechanical systems, Micromachinery, Microscopy, Millipede memory, Miniaturization, Molecular assembler, Molecular electronics, Molecular engineering, Molecular modelling, Molecular nanotechnology, Molecular scale electronics, Molecular self-assembly, Monolayer, Nano-abacus, Nanoarchitectonics, Nanobiotechnology, Nanochondrion, Nanocircuitry, Nanocomposite, Nanocomputer, Nanocrystal, Nanoelectromechanical relay, Nanoelectromechanical systems, Nanoelectronics, Nanoengineering, Nanofabrics, Nanofiber, Nanofoam, Nanoimprint lithography, Nanolithography, Nanomaterials, Nanomechanics, Nanomedicine, Nanomesh, Nanometre, Nanometrology, Nanomotor, Nanoparticle, Nanophotonics, Nanopillar, Nanopin film, Nanopore, Nanopore sequencing, Nanoring, Nanorobotics, Nanorod, Nanoscopic scale, Nanosensor, Nanoshell, Nanostructure, Nanosubmarine, Nanotechnology, Nanotechnology in fiction, Nanotoxicology, Nanotribology, Nanotube membrane, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, National Nanotechnology Initiative, NBI Knowledgebase, Norio Taniguchi, OCSiAl, Outline (list), Phaedon Avouris, Photolithography, Photonic crystal, Physics, Potential applications of carbon nanotubes, Potential well, Prato reaction, Programmable matter, Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies, Protein engineering, Quantum computing, Quantum dot, Quantum heterostructure, Quantum mechanics, Quantum point contact, Quantum tunnelling, Ralph Merkle, Regulation of nanotechnology, Richard Feynman, Richard Smalley, Robert Freitas, Robotics, Rusnano, Sarfus, Scanning probe lithography, Scanning probe microscopy, Scanning tunneling microscope, Science, Sculptured thin film, Self-assembled monolayer, Self-assembly, Self-organization, Self-reconfiguring modular robot, Self-replication, Smartdust, Societal impact of nanotechnology, Sumio Iijima, Super-resolution microscopy, Supramolecular assembly, Supramolecular chemistry, Surface micromachining, Synthetic molecular motor, Technological singularity, Timeline of carbon nanotubes, Tissue engineering, Utility fog, Wet nanotechnology. Expand index (125 more) »

Aggregated diamond nanorod

Aggregated diamond nanorods, or ADNRs, are a nanocrystalline form of diamond, also known as nanodiamond or hyperdiamond.

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Alex Zettl

Alex Zettl is an American professor of experimental condensed-matter physics.

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Allotropes of carbon

Carbon is capable of forming many allotropes due to its valency.

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American Chemistry Council

The American Chemistry Council (ACC), formerly known as the Manufacturing Chemists' Association (at its founding in 1872) and then as the Chemical Manufacturers' Association (from 1978 until 2000), is an industry trade association for American chemical companies, based in Washington, D.C.

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Andre Geim

Sir Andre Konstantin Geim, FRS, HonFRSC, HonFInstP (born 21 October 1958) is a Soviet-born Dutch-British physicist working in the School of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Manchester.

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Applications of nanotechnology

The 2000s have seen the beginnings of the applications of nanotechnology in commercial products, although most applications are limited to the bulk use of passive nanomaterials.

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Atom probe

The atom probe was introduced at the by Erwin Wilhelm Müller and J. A. Panitz.

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Atomic force microscopy

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) or scanning force microscopy (SFM) is a very-high-resolution type of scanning probe microscopy (SPM), with demonstrated resolution on the order of fractions of a nanometer, more than 1000 times better than the optical diffraction limit.

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Bingel reaction

The Bingel reaction in fullerene chemistry is a fullerene cyclopropanation reaction to a methanofullerene first discovered by C. Bingel in 1993 with the bromo derivative of diethyl malonate in the presence of a base such as sodium hydride or DBU.

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Break junction

A break junction is an electronic device which consists of two metal wires separated by a very thin gap, on the order of the inter-atomic spacing (less than a nanometer).

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Buckminsterfullerene

Buckminsterfullerene is a type of fullerene with the formula C60.

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Buckypaper

Buckypaper is a thin sheet made from an aggregate of carbon nanotubes or carbon nanotube grid paper.

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Calculus

Calculus (from Latin calculus, literally 'small pebble', used for counting and calculations, as on an abacus), is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations.

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Carbon nanofoam

Carbon nanofoam is an allotrope of carbon discovered in 1997 by Andrei V. Rode and co-workers at the Australian National University in Canberra.

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Carbon nanotube

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure.

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Carbon nanotube actuators

The exceptional electrical and mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes have made them alternatives to the traditional electrical actuators for both microscopic and macroscopic applications.

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Catalysis

Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.

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Ceramic engineering

Ceramic engineering is the science and technology of creating objects from inorganic, non-metallic materials.

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Chemical vapor deposition

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is deposition method used to produce high quality, high-performance, solid materials, typically under vacuum.

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Chemistry

Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.

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Chris Phoenix (nanotechnologist)

Chris Phoenix (born December 25, 1970) is the co-founder (with Mike Treder) and Director of Research of the Center for Responsible Nanotechnology (CRN), and has worked in the field of advanced nanotechnology for over 15 years.

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Colloid

In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.

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Colloidal crystal

A colloidal crystal is an ordered array of colloid particles, analogous to a standard crystal whose repeating subunits are atoms or molecules.

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Computer science

Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.

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Diamondoid

In chemistry, diamondoids are variants of the carbon cage molecule known as adamantane (C10H16), the smallest unit cage structure of the diamond crystal lattice.

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DNA computing

DNA computing is a branch of computing which uses DNA, biochemistry, and molecular biology hardware, instead of the traditional silicon-based computer technologies.

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DNA machine

A DNA machine is a molecular machine constructed from DNA.

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DNA nanotechnology

DNA nanotechnology is the design and manufacture of artificial nucleic acid structures for technological uses.

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DNA origami

DNA origami is the nanoscale folding of DNA to create non-arbitrary two- and three-dimensional shapes at the nanoscale.

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Electron microscope

An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.

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Electron-beam lithography

Electron-beam lithography (often abbreviated as e-beam lithography) is the practice of scanning a focused beam of electrons to draw custom shapes on a surface covered with an electron-sensitive film called a resist (exposing).

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Endohedral fullerene

Endohedral fullerenes, also called endofullerenes, are fullerenes that have additional atoms, ions, or clusters enclosed within their inner spheres.

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Endohedral hydrogen fullerene

Endohedral hydrogen fullerene (H2@C60) is an endohedral fullerene containing molecular hydrogen.

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Energy applications of nanotechnology

Over the past few decades, the fields of science and engineering have been seeking to develop new and improved types of energy technologies that have the capability of improving life all over the world.

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Engineering

Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.

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Engines of Creation

Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology is a 1986 molecular nanotechnology book written by K. Eric Drexler with a foreword by Marvin Minsky.

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Erwin Wilhelm Müller

Erwin Wilhelm Müller (or Mueller) (June 13, 1911 – May 17, 1977) was a German physicist who invented the Field Emission Electron Microscope (FEEM), the Field Ion Microscope (FIM), and the Atom-Probe Field Ion Microscope.

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Field ion microscope

The Field ion microscope (FIM) was invented by Müller in 1951 It is a type of microscope that can be used to image the arrangement of atoms at the surface of a sharp metal tip.

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Foresight Institute

The Foresight Institute is a Palo Alto, California-based research non-profit dedicated to promoting the development of nanotechnology (and other emerging technologies).

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Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development

The Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, also called Framework Programmes or abbreviated FP1 to FP7 with "FP8" being named "Horizon 2020", are funding programmes created by the European Union/European Commission to support and foster research in the European Research Area (ERA).

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Fullerene

A fullerene is a molecule of carbon in the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, tube, and many other shapes.

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Fullerene chemistry

Fullerene chemistry is a field of organic chemistry devoted to the chemical properties of fullerenes.

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Gerd Binnig

Gerd Binnig (born 20 July 1947) is a German physicist, who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986 for the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope.

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Gold nanocage

Inorganic Nanocages are hollow, porous gold nanoparticles ranging in size from 10 to over 150 nm.

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Graphene

Graphene is a semi-metal with a small overlap between the valence and the conduction bands (zero bandgap material).

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Graphene nanoribbon

Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs, also called nano-graphene ribbons or nano-graphite ribbons) are strips of graphene with width less than 50 nm.

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Green nanotechnology

Green nanotechnology refers to the use of nanotechnology to enhance the environmental sustainability of processes producing negative externalities.

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Grey goo

Grey goo (also spelled gray goo) is a hypothetical end-of-the-world scenario involving molecular nanotechnology in which out-of-control self-replicating robots consume all biomass on Earth while building more of themselves, a scenario that has been called ecophagy ("eating the environment", more literally "eating the habitation").

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Harry Kroto

Sir Harold Walter Kroto (born Harold Walter Krotoschiner; 7 October 1939 – 30 April 2016), known as Harry Kroto, was an English chemist.

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Health and safety hazards of nanomaterials

The health and safety hazards of nanomaterials include the potential toxicity of various types of nanomaterials, as well as fire and dust explosion hazards.

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Heinrich Rohrer

Heinrich Rohrer (6 June 1933 – 16 May 2013) was a Swiss physicist who shared half of the 1986 Nobel Prize in Physics with Gerd Binnig for the design of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM).

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History of nanotechnology

The history of nanotechnology traces the development of the concepts and experimental work falling under the broad category of nanotechnology.

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Impact of nanotechnology

The impact of nanotechnology extends from its medical, ethical, mental, legal and environmental applications, to fields such as engineering, biology, chemistry, computing, materials science, and communications.

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Institute of Occupational Medicine

The Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) was founded in 1969 by the National Coal Board (NCB) as an independent charity in the UK and retains this charitable purpose and status today.

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Ion-beam sculpting

Ion-Beam sculpting is a two-step process to make solid-state nanopores.

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Joseph Wang

Joseph Wang is a widely recognized American researcher and inventor.

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K. Eric Drexler

Kim Eric Drexler (born April 25, 1955) is an American engineer best known for popularizing the potential of molecular nanotechnology (MNT), from the 1970s and 1980s.

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Lab-on-a-chip

A lab-on-a-chip (LOC) is a device that integrates one or several laboratory functions on a single integrated circuit (commonly called a "chip") of only millimeters to a few square centimeters to achieve automation and high-throughput screening.

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List of nanotechnology organizations

This is a list of organizations involved in nanotechnology.

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Macromolecule

A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).

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Mark Ratner

Mark A. Ratner (born December 8, 1942, Cleveland) is Lawrence B. Dumas Distinguished University Professor of Chemistry and Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at Northwestern University.

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Materials science

The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.

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Mechanosynthesis

Mechanosynthesis is a term for hypothetical chemical syntheses in which reaction outcomes are determined by the use of mechanical constraints to direct reactive molecules to specific molecular sites.

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Medicine

Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

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Mesh networking

A mesh network is a local network topology in which the infrastructure nodes (i.e. bridges, switches and other infrastructure devices) connect directly, dynamically and non-hierarchically to as many other nodes as possible and cooperate with one another to efficiently route data from/to clients.

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Microelectromechanical systems

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS, also written as micro-electro-mechanical, MicroElectroMechanical or microelectronic and microelectromechanical systems and the related micromechatronics) is the technology of microscopic devices, particularly those with moving parts.

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Micromachinery

Micromachines are mechanical objects that are fabricated in the same general manner as integrated circuits.

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Microscopy

Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye).

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Millipede memory

Millipede memory is a non-volatile computer memory stored on nanoscopic pits burned into the surface of a thin polymer layer, read and written by a MEMS-based probe.

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Miniaturization

Miniaturization (Br.Eng.: Miniaturisation) is the trend to manufacture ever smaller mechanical, optical and electronic products and devices.

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Molecular assembler

A molecular assembler, as defined by K. Eric Drexler, is a "proposed device able to guide chemical reactions by positioning reactive molecules with atomic precision".

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Molecular electronics

Molecular electronics is the study and application of molecular building blocks for the fabrication of electronic components.

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Molecular engineering

Molecular engineering is an emerging field of study concerned with the design and testing of molecular properties, behavior and interactions in order to assemble better materials, systems, and processes for specific functions.

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Molecular modelling

Molecular modelling encompasses all methods, theoretical and computational, used to model or mimic the behaviour of molecules.

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Molecular nanotechnology

Molecular nanotechnology (MNT) is a technology based on the ability to build structures to complex, atomic specifications by means of mechanosynthesis.

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Molecular scale electronics

Molecular scale electronics, also called single-molecule electronics, is a branch of nanotechnology that uses single molecules, or nanoscale collections of single molecules, as electronic components.

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Molecular self-assembly

Molecular self-assembly is the process by which molecules adopt a defined arrangement without guidance or management from an outside source.

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Monolayer

A monolayer is a single, closely packed layer of atoms, molecules, or cells.

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Nano-abacus

The nano-abacus is a nano-sized abacus developed by IBM scientists.

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Nanoarchitectonics

Nanoarchitectonics is a scientific jargon term coined at the National Institute for Materials Science for one of its leading units, International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA).

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Nanobiotechnology

Nanobiotechnology, bionanotechnology, and nanobiology are terms that refer to the intersection of nanotechnology and biology.

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Nanochondrion

Nanochondria are hypothetical nanomachines that are meant to live inside or with biological cells.

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Nanocircuitry

Nanocircuits are electrical circuits operating on the nanometer scale.

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Nanocomposite

Nanocomposite is a multiphase solid material where one of the phases has one, two or three dimensions of less than 100 nanometers (nm), or structures having nano-scale repeat distances between the different phases that make up the material.

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Nanocomputer

Nanocomputer refers to a computer smaller than the microcomputer, which is smaller than the minicomputer.

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Nanocrystal

A nanocrystal is a material particle having at least one dimension smaller than 100 nanometres, based on quantum dots (a nanoparticle) and composed of atoms in either a single- or poly-crystalline arrangement.

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Nanoelectromechanical relay

A nanoelectromechanical (NEM) relay is an electrically actuated switch that is built on the nanometer scale using semiconductor fabrication techniques.

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Nanoelectromechanical systems

Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) are a class of devices integrating electrical and mechanical functionality on the nanoscale.

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Nanoelectronics

Nanoelectronics refer to the use of nanotechnology in electronic components.

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Nanoengineering

Nanoengineering is the practice of engineering on the nanoscale.

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Nanofabrics

Nanofabrics are textiles engineered with small particles that give ordinary materials advantageous properties such as superhydrophobicity (extreme water resistance, also see "Lotus effect"), odor and moisture elimination, increased elasticity and strength, and bacterial resistance.

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Nanofiber

Nanofibers are fibers with diameters in the nanometer range.

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Nanofoam

Nanofoams are a class of nanostructured, porous materials (foams) containing a significant population of pores with diameters less than 100 nm.

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Nanoimprint lithography

Nanoimprint lithography is a method of fabricating nanometer scale patterns.

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Nanolithography

Nanolithography is the branch of nanotechnology concerned with the study and application of fabricating nanometer-scale structures, meaning patterns with at least one lateral dimension between 1 and 1,000 nm.

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Nanomaterials

Nanomaterials describe, in principle, materials of which a single unit is sized (in at least one dimension) between 1 to 1000 nanometres (10−9 meter) but usually is 1 to 100 nm (the usual definition of nanoscale).

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Nanomechanics

Nanomechanics is a branch of nanoscience studying fundamental mechanical (elastic, thermal and kinetic) properties of physical systems at the nanometer scale.

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Nanomedicine

Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology.

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Nanomesh

The nanomesh is a new inorganic nanostructured two-dimensional material, similar to graphene.

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Nanometre

The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).

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Nanometrology

Nanometrology is a subfield of metrology, concerned with the science of measurement at the nanoscale level.

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Nanomotor

A nanomotor is a molecular or nanoscale device capable of converting energy into movement.

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Nanoparticle

Nanoparticles are particles between 1 and 100 nanometres (nm) in size with a surrounding interfacial layer.

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Nanophotonics

Nanophotonics or nano-optics is the study of the behavior of light on the nanometer scale, and of the interaction of nanometer-scale objects with light.

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Nanopillar

Nanopillars is an emerging technology within the field of nanostructures.

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Nanopin film

Nanopin film is an experimental material in nanotechnology developed in 2005 with unusual superhydrophobic properties.

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Nanopore

A nanopore is a pore of nanometer size.

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Nanopore sequencing

Nanopore sequencing is a third generation approach used in the sequencing of biopolymers- specifically, polynucleotides in the form of DNA or RNA.

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Nanoring

A nanoring is a small ringformed crystal.

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Nanorobotics

Nanorobotics is an emerging technology field creating machines or robots whose components are at or near the scale of a nanometre (10−9 meters).

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Nanorod

In nanotechnology, nanorods are one morphology of nanoscale objects.

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Nanoscopic scale

The nanoscopic scale (or nanoscale) usually refers to structures with a length scale applicable to nanotechnology, usually cited as 1–100 nanometers.

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Nanosensor

Nanosensors are sensors whose active elements include nanomaterials.

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Nanoshell

A nanoshell, or rather a nanoshell plasmon, is a type of spherical nanoparticle consisting of a dielectric core which is covered by a thin metallic shell (usually gold).

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Nanostructure

A nanostructure is a structure of intermediate size between microscopic and molecular structures.

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Nanosubmarine

Nanosubmarines, or nanosubs, are synthetic microscopic devices that can navigate and perform specific tasks within the human body.

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Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.

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Nanotechnology in fiction

The use of nanotechnology in fiction has attracted scholarly attention.

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Nanotoxicology

Nanotoxicology is the study of the toxicity of nanomaterials.

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Nanotribology

Nanotribology is the branch of tribology that studies friction, wear, adhesion and lubrication phenomena at the nanoscale, where atomic interactions and quantum effects are not negligible.

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Nanotube membrane

Nanotube membranes are either a single, open-ended nanotube(CNT) or a film composed of an array of nanotubes that are oriented perpendicularly to the surface of an impermeable film matrix like the cells of a honeycomb.

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National Cancer Institute

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is one of eleven agencies that are part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

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National Institutes of Health

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.

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National Nanotechnology Initiative

The National Nanotechnology Initiative is a United States federal government program for the science, engineering, and technology research and development for nanoscale projects.

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NBI Knowledgebase

NBI is short for the Nanomaterial-Biological Interactions Knowledgebase, located at Oregon State University.

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Norio Taniguchi

was a professor of Tokyo University of Science.

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OCSiAl

OCSiAl is an international nanotechnology company conducting its operations worldwide.

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Outline (list)

An outline, also called a hierarchical outline, is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships and is a type of tree structure.

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Phaedon Avouris

Phaedon Avouris (Φαίδων Αβούρης; born 1945) is a Greek chemical physicist.

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Photolithography

Photolithography, also termed optical lithography or UV lithography, is a process used in microfabrication to pattern parts of a thin film or the bulk of a substrate.

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Photonic crystal

A photonic crystal is a periodic optical nanostructure that affects the motion of photons in much the same way that ionic lattices affect electrons in solids.

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Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Potential applications of carbon nanotubes

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are cylinders of one or more layers of graphene (lattice).

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Potential well

A potential well is the region surrounding a local minimum of potential energy.

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Prato reaction

The Prato reaction is a particular example of the well-known 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides to olefins.

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Programmable matter

Programmable matter is matter which has the ability to change its physical properties (shape, density, moduli, conductivity, optical properties, etc.) in a programmable fashion, based upon user input or autonomous sensing.

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Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies

The Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies was established in 2005 as a partnership between the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and the Pew Charitable Trusts.

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Protein engineering

Protein engineering is the process of developing useful or valuable proteins.

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Quantum computing

Quantum computing is computing using quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement.

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Quantum dot

Quantum dots (QD) are very small semiconductor particles, only several nanometres in size, so small that their optical and electronic properties differ from those of larger particles.

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Quantum heterostructure

Quantum heterostructure is a heterostructure in a substrate (usually a semiconductor material), where size restricts the movements of the charge carriers forcing them into a quantum confinement.

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Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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Quantum point contact

A quantum point contact (QPC) is a narrow constriction between two wide electrically conducting regions, of a width comparable to the electronic wavelength (nano- to micrometer).

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Quantum tunnelling

Quantum tunnelling or tunneling (see spelling differences) is the quantum mechanical phenomenon where a particle tunnels through a barrier that it classically cannot surmount.

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Ralph Merkle

Ralph C. Merkle (born February 2, 1952) is a computer scientist.

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Regulation of nanotechnology

Because of the ongoing controversy on the implications of nanotechnology, there is significant debate concerning whether nanotechnology or nanotechnology-based products merit special government regulation.

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Richard Feynman

Richard Phillips Feynman (May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) was an American theoretical physicist, known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model.

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Richard Smalley

Richard Errett Smalley (June 6, 1943 – October 28, 2005) was the Gene and Norman Hackerman Professor of Chemistry and a Professor of Physics and Astronomy at Rice University, in Houston, Texas.

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Robert Freitas

Robert A. Freitas Jr. (born 1952) is a nanotechnology scientist.

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Robotics

Robotics is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and science that includes mechanical engineering, electronics engineering, computer science, and others.

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Rusnano

Rusnano (Роснано; formerly Russian Corporation of Nanotechnologies) is a government-owned joint-stock company established as a $10B Private Equity and Venture Capital Evergreen Fund by the government of Russia and aimed at commercializing developments in nanotechnology.

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Sarfus

Sarfus is an optical quantitative imaging technique based on the association of.

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Scanning probe lithography

Scanning probe lithography (SPL) describes a set of nanolithographic methods to pattern material on the nanoscale using scanning probes. It is a direct-write, mask-less approach which bypasses the diffraction limit and can reach resolutions below 10 nm.

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Scanning probe microscopy

Scanning probe microscope (SPM) is a branch of microscopy that forms images of surfaces using a physical probe that scans the specimen.

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Scanning tunneling microscope

A scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is an instrument for imaging surfaces at the atomic level.

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Science

R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.

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Sculptured thin film

Sculptured thin films (STFs) are nanostructured materials with unidirectionally varying properties that can be designed and realized in a controllable manner using variants of physical vapor deposition.

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Self-assembled monolayer

Self-assembled monolayers (SAM) of organic molecules are molecular assemblies formed spontaneously on surfaces by adsorption and are organized into more or less large ordered domains.

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Self-assembly

Self-assembly is a process in which a disordered system of pre-existing components forms an organized structure or pattern as a consequence of specific, local interactions among the components themselves, without external direction.

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Self-organization

Self-organization, also called (in the social sciences) spontaneous order, is a process where some form of overall order arises from local interactions between parts of an initially disordered system.

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Self-reconfiguring modular robot

Modular self-reconfiguring robotic systems or self-reconfigurable modular robots are autonomous kinematic machines with variable morphology.

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Self-replication

Self-replication is any behavior of a dynamical system that yields construction of an identical copy of itself.

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Smartdust

Smartdust is a system of many tiny microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) such as sensors, robots, or other devices, that can detect, for example, light, temperature, vibration, magnetism, or chemicals.

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Societal impact of nanotechnology

The societal impact of nanotechnology are the potential benefits and challenges that the introduction of novel nanotechnological devices and materials may hold for society and human interaction.

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Sumio Iijima

Sumio Iijima (飯島 澄男 Iijima Sumio, born May 2, 1939) is a Japanese physicist, often cited as the inventor of carbon nanotubes.

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Super-resolution microscopy

Super-resolution microscopy, in light microscopy, is a term that gathers several techniques, which allow images to be taken with a higher resolution than the one imposed by the diffraction limit.

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Supramolecular assembly

A supramolecular assembly or "supermolecule" is a well defined complex of molecules held together by noncovalent bonds.

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Supramolecular chemistry

file:Supramolecular Assembly Lehn.jpg |Self-Assembly of a Circular Double Helicate Cucurbituril gyroscope AngewChemIntEd 2002 v41 p275 hires.png|Host-guest complex within another host (cucurbit10uril) Rotaxane Crystal Structure EurJOrgChem page2565 year1998.png| Category:Chemistry.

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Surface micromachining

Surface micromachining builds microstructures by deposition and etching structural layers over a substrate.

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Synthetic molecular motor

Synthetic molecular motors are molecular machines capable of continuous directional rotation under an energy input.

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Technological singularity

The technological singularity (also, simply, the singularity) is the hypothesis that the invention of artificial superintelligence (ASI) will abruptly trigger runaway technological growth, resulting in unfathomable changes to human civilization.

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Timeline of carbon nanotubes

No description.

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Tissue engineering

Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physicochemical factors to improve or replace biological tissues.

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Utility fog

Utility fog (coined by Dr. John Storrs Hall in 1993) is a hypothetical collection of tiny robots that can replicate a physical structure.

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Wet nanotechnology

Wet nanotechnology (also known as wet nanotech) involves working up to large masses from small ones.

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Redirects here:

List of basic nanotechnology topics, List of nanoengineering topics, List of nanotechnologists, List of nanotechnology topics, Topic outline of nanotechnology, Topical outline of nanotechnology.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outline_of_nanotechnology

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