331 relations: Acarology, Acoustics, Aerobiology, Agricultural chemistry, Agroecosystem, Agrophysics, Analytical chemistry, Anatomy, Angiogenesis, Aqueous geochemistry, Arachnology, Astrobiology, Astrochemistry, Astrometry, Astrophysics, Atmospheric chemistry, Atmospheric physics, Atmospheric sciences, Atomic, molecular, and optical physics, Bacteriology, Behavioral neuroscience, Biochemistry, Biogeography, Bioinformatics, Bioinorganic chemistry, Biological anthropology, Biological engineering, Biomechanics, Bioorganic chemistry, Biophysical chemistry, Biophysics, Biotechnology, Building biology, Carcinogenesis, Cetology, Chemical biology, Chemical engineering, Chemical kinetics, Chemical oceanography, Chemical physics, Chemical thermodynamics, Cheminformatics, Chronobiology, Cladistics, Classical mechanics, Climatology, Coastal geography, Coleopterology, Computational chemistry, Computational physics, ..., Condensed matter physics, Conservation biology, Continuum mechanics, Cosmochemistry, Cosmology, Cryobiology, Cryogenics, Developmental biology, Discipline (academia), Discovery science, Dynamics (mechanics), Econophysics, Electrochemistry, Electromagnetism, Embryology, Empirical evidence, Entomology, Environmental chemistry, Environmental geology, Environmental science, Environmental soil science, Epidemiology, Ethology, Evolution, Evolutionary biology, Evolutionary developmental biology, Evolutionary history of life, Experiment, Extragalactic astronomy, Femtochemistry, Flavorist, Flow chemistry, Fluid mechanics, Freshwater biology, Galactic astronomy, Genomics, Geochemistry, Geodesy, Geoinformatics, Geomorphology, Geophysics, Geostatistics, Gerontology, Glaciology, Helminthology, Herpetology, Histology, History of agriculture, History of anatomy, History of astronomy, History of biochemistry, History of biology, History of biotechnology, History of botany, History of cancer, History of cartography, History of chemical engineering, History of chemistry, History of classical mechanics, History of ecology, History of electrochemistry, History of electromagnetic theory, History of evolutionary thought, History of fluid mechanics, History of genetics, History of geodesy, History of geography, History of geology, History of geophysics, History of marine biology, History of materials science, History of mineralogy, History of molecular biology, History of nanotechnology, History of neuroscience, History of optics, History of paleontology, History of pathology, History of pharmacy, History of physics, History of quantum mechanics, History of soil science, History of spectroscopy, History of subatomic physics, History of thermodynamics, History of virology, History of zoology, Hydrogeology, Hydrology, Hypothesis, Ichthyology, Immunochemistry, Inorganic chemistry, Integrative Biology, Isotope geochemistry, John L. Heilbron, Kinesiology, Knowledge, Laboratory, Lepidopterology, Limnology, List of astronomers, List of astronomy journals, List of authors of names published under the ICZN, List of biochemists, List of biologists, List of biology journals, List of biophysicists, List of botanists by author abbreviation (A), List of botany journals, List of carcinologists, List of cartographers, List of chemistry journals, List of chemists, List of climate scientists, List of coleopterists, List of cosmologists, List of earth and atmospheric sciences journals, List of ecologists, List of electrochemists, List of geographers, List of geologists, List of geophysicists, List of glaciologists, List of life sciences, List of malacologists, List of mammalogists, List of meteorologists, List of mineralogists, List of mycologists, List of neurochemists, List of ornithologists, List of paleontologists, List of pathologists, List of physicists, List of physics journals, List of Russian earth scientists, List of zoology journals, Malacology, Mammalogy, Marine biology, Materials physics, Materials science, Mathematical and theoretical biology, Mathematical chemistry, Mathematical physics, Mathematics, Mechanics, Mechanochemistry, Medical physics, Medical research, Medicinal chemistry, Merriam-Webster, Meteorology, Microbiology, Mineralogy, Molecular biology, Molecular mechanics, Morphology (biology), Mutation, Mycology, Myrmecology, Nanotechnology, Natural philosophy, Natural product, Natural science, Nature, Nematology, Neurochemistry, Neurophysics, Neuroscience, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Nuclear chemistry, Nuclear physics, Occam's razor, Ocean chemistry, Oceanography, Oenology, Oncology, Optics, Orbital mechanics, Organic chemistry, Organic geochemistry, Organometallic chemistry, Ornithology, Orthotics, Outline (list), Outline of agriculture, Outline of applied science, Outline of astronomy, Outline of biochemistry, Outline of biology, Outline of botany, Outline of cartography, Outline of cell biology, Outline of chemistry, Outline of Earth sciences, Outline of ecology, Outline of genetics, Outline of geography, Outline of geology, Outline of human anatomy, Outline of immunology, Outline of meteorology, Outline of neuroscience, Outline of organic chemistry, Outline of physical science, Outline of physics, Outline of science, Outline of social science, Paleobiology, Paleoclimatology, Paleontology, Parasitology, Particle physics, Pathology, Peer review, Petrochemistry, Petrology, Pharmacology, Photochemistry, Phylogenetic tree, Physical chemistry, Physical cosmology, Physical law, Physical organic chemistry, Physiology, Phytochemistry, Planetary geology, Planetary science, Plant pathology, Plasma (physics), Polymer chemistry, Polymer physics, Population biology, Population dynamics, Population ecology, Population genetics, Prosthesis, Proteomics, Psychology, Psychophysics, Quantum chemistry, Quantum mechanics, Radiochemistry, Regional geochemistry, Reproducibility, Science, Scientific evidence, Scientific method, Scientific theory, Seismology, Sociobiology, Soil physics, Soil science, Solid-state chemistry, Solid-state physics, Sonochemistry, Spectroscopy, Statics, Stereochemistry, Structural biology, Supramolecular chemistry, Surface science, Synthetic biology, Systematics, Taxonomy (biology), Testability, Theory of relativity, Thermochemistry, Thermodynamics, Timeline of entomology, Timeline of immunology, Topography, Toxicology, Universe, Validity (statistics), Vehicle dynamics, Virology, Volcanology, Zoology. 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Acarology (from Greek /,, a type of mite; and, -logia) is the study of mites and ticks, the animals in the order Acarina.
Acoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound.
Aerobiology (from Greek ἀήρ, aēr, "air"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is a branch of biology that studies organic particles, such as bacteria, fungal spores, very small insects, pollen grains and viruses, which are passively transported by the air.
Agricultural chemistry is the study of both chemistry and biochemistry which are important in agricultural production, the processing of raw products into foods and beverages, and in environmental monitoring and remediation.
An agroecosystem is the basic unit of study in agroecology, and is somewhat arbitrarily defined as a spatially and functionally coherent unit of agricultural activity, and includes the living and nonliving components involved in that unit as well as their interactions.
Agrophysics is a branch of science bordering on agronomy and physics, whose objects of study are the agroecosystem - the biological objects, biotope and biocoenosis affected by human activity, studied and described using the methods of physical sciences.
Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter.
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
Angiogenesis is the physiological process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels.
Aqueous geochemistry studies the role of various elements in watersheds, including copper, sulfur, and mercury.
Arachnology is the scientific study of spiders and related animals such as scorpions, pseudoscorpions, and harvestmen, collectively called arachnids.
Astrobiology is a branch of biology concerned with the origins, early evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe.
Astrochemistry is the study of the abundance and reactions of molecules in the Universe, and their interaction with radiation.
Astrometry is the branch of astronomy that involves precise measurements of the positions and movements of stars and other celestial bodies.
Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space".
Atmospheric chemistry is a branch of atmospheric science in which the chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere and that of other planets is studied.
Atmospheric physics is the application of physics to the study of the atmosphere.
Atmospheric science is the study of the Earth's atmosphere, its processes, the effects other systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems.
Atomic, molecular, and optical physics (AMO) is the study of matter-matter and light-matter interactions; at the scale of one or a few atoms and energy scales around several electron volts.
Bacteriology is the branch and specialty of biology that studies the morphology, ecology, genetics and biochemistry of bacteria as well as many other aspects related to them.
Behavioral neuroscience, also known as biological psychology, biopsychology, or psychobiology, Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary is the application of the principles of biology to the study of physiological, genetic, and developmental mechanisms of behavior in humans and other animals.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time.
Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data.
Bioinorganic chemistry is a field that examines the role of metals in biology.
Biological anthropology, also known as physical anthropology, is a scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their related non-human primates and their extinct hominin ancestors.
Biological engineering or bio-engineering is the application of principles of biology and the tools of engineering to create usable, tangible, economically viable products.
Biomechanics is the study of the structure and function of the mechanical aspects of biological systems, at any level from whole organisms to organs, cells and cell organelles, using the methods of mechanics.
Bioorganic chemistry is a rapidly growing scientific discipline that combines organic chemistry and biochemistry.
Biophysical chemistry is a physical science that uses the concepts of physics and physical chemistry for the study of biological systems.
Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies the approaches and methods of physics to study biological systems.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
Building biology (or Baubiologie) is a field of building science investigating the indoor living environment for a variety of irritants.
Carcinogenesis, also called oncogenesis or tumorigenesis, is the formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.
Cetology (from Greek κῆτος, kētos, "whale"; and -λογία, -logia) or Whalelore is the branch of marine mammal science that studies the approximately eighty species of whales, dolphins, and porpoise in the scientific order Cetacea.
Chemical biology is a scientific discipline spanning the fields of chemistry and biology.
Chemical engineering is a branch of engineering that uses principles of chemistry, physics, mathematics and economics to efficiently use, produce, transform, and transport chemicals, materials and energy.
Chemical kinetics, also known as reaction kinetics, is the study of rates of chemical processes.
Chemical oceanography is the study of ocean chemistry: the behavior of the chemical elements within the Earth's oceans.
Chemical physics is a subdiscipline of chemistry and physics that investigates physicochemical phenomena using techniques from atomic and molecular physics and condensed matter physics; it is the branch of physics that studies chemical processes from the point of view of physics.
Chemical thermodynamics is the study of the interrelation of heat and work with chemical reactions or with physical changes of state within the confines of the laws of thermodynamics.
Cheminformatics (also known as chemoinformatics, chemioinformatics and chemical informatics) is the use of computer and informational techniques applied to a range of problems in the field of chemistry.
Chronobiology is a field of biology that examines periodic (cyclic) phenomena in living organisms and their adaptation to solar- and lunar-related rhythms.
Cladistics (from Greek κλάδος, cládos, i.e., "branch") is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on the most recent common ancestor.
Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies.
Climatology (from Greek κλίμα, klima, "place, zone"; and -λογία, -logia) or climate science is the scientific study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time.
Coastal geography is the study of the constantly changing region between the ocean and the land, incorporating both the physical geography (i.e. coastal geomorphology, geology and oceanography) and the human geography (sociology and history) of the coast.
Coleopterology (from Coleoptera and Greek -λογία, -logia) is a branch of entomology, the scientific study of beetles of the order Coleoptera.
Computational chemistry is a branch of chemistry that uses computer simulation to assist in solving chemical problems.
Computational physics is the study and implementation of numerical analysis to solve problems in physics for which a quantitative theory already exists.
Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic and microscopic physical properties of matter.
Conservation biology is the management of nature and of Earth's biodiversity with the aim of protecting species, their habitats, and ecosystems from excessive rates of extinction and the erosion of biotic interactions.
Continuum mechanics is a branch of mechanics that deals with the analysis of the kinematics and the mechanical behavior of materials modeled as a continuous mass rather than as discrete particles.
Cosmochemistry (from Greek κόσμος kósmos, "universe" and χημεία khemeía) or chemical cosmology is the study of the chemical composition of matter in the universe and the processes that led to those compositions.
Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.
Cryobiology is the branch of biology that studies the effects of low temperatures on living things within Earth's cryosphere or in science.
In physics, cryogenics is the production and behaviour of materials at very low temperatures.
Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop.
An academic discipline or academic field is a branch of knowledge.
"Discovery science" (also known as discovery-based science) is a scientific methodology which emphasizes analysis of large volumes of experimental data with the goal of finding new patterns or correlations, leading to hypothesis formation and other scientific methodologies.
Dynamics is the branch of applied mathematics (specifically classical mechanics) concerned with the study of forces and torques and their effect on motion, as opposed to kinematics, which studies the motion of objects without reference to these forces.
Econophysics is an interdisciplinary research field, applying theories and methods originally developed by physicists in order to solve problems in economics, usually those including uncertainty or stochastic processes and nonlinear dynamics.
Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
Embryology (from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses.
Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.
Entomology is the scientific study of insects, a branch of zoology.
Environmental chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places.
Environmental geology, like hydrogeology, is an applied science concerned with the practical application of the principles of geology in the solving of environmental problems.
Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical, biological and information sciences (including ecology, biology, physics, chemistry, plant science, zoology, mineralogy, oceanology, limnology, soil science, geology and physical geography (geodesy), and atmospheric science) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems.
Environmental soil science is the study of the interaction of humans with the pedosphere as well as critical aspects of the biosphere, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, and the atmosphere.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
Ethology is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.
Evolutionary developmental biology (informally, evo-devo) is a field of biological research that compares the developmental processes of different organisms to infer the ancestral relationships between them and how developmental processes evolved.
The evolutionary history of life on Earth traces the processes by which both living organisms and fossil organisms evolved since life emerged on the planet, until the present.
An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.
Extragalactic astronomy is the branch of astronomy concerned with objects outside the Milky Way galaxy.
Femtochemistry is the area of physical chemistry that studies chemical reactions on extremely short timescales (approximately 10−15 seconds or one femtosecond, hence the name) in order to study the very act of atoms within molecules (reactants) rearranging themselves to form new molecules (products).
A flavorist, also known as flavor chemist, is someone who uses chemistry to engineer artificial and natural flavors.
In flow chemistry, a chemical reaction is run in a continuously flowing stream rather than in batch production.
Fluid mechanics is a branch of physics concerned with the mechanics of fluids (liquids, gases, and plasmas) and the forces on them.
Freshwater biology is the scientific biological study of freshwater ecosystems and is a branch of limnology.
Galactic astronomy is the study of the Milky Way galaxy and all its contents.
Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes.
Geochemistry is the science that uses the tools and principles of chemistry to explain the mechanisms behind major geological systems such as the Earth's crust and its oceans.
Geodesy, also known as geodetics, is the earth science of accurately measuring and understanding three of Earth's fundamental properties: its geometric shape, orientation in space, and gravitational field.
Geoinformatics is the science and the technology which develops and uses information science infrastructure to address the problems of geography, cartography, geosciences and related branches of science and engineering.
Geomorphology (from Ancient Greek: γῆ, gê, "earth"; μορφή, morphḗ, "form"; and λόγος, lógos, "study") is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface.
Geophysics is a subject of natural science concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and its surrounding space environment, and the use of quantitative methods for their analysis.
Geostatistics is a branch of statistics focusing on spatial or spatiotemporal datasets.
Gerontology is the study of the social, cultural, psychological, cognitive, and biological aspects of ageing.
Glaciology (from Latin: glacies, "frost, ice", and Ancient Greek: λόγος, logos, "subject matter"; literally "study of ice") is the scientific study of glaciers, or more generally ice and natural phenomena that involve ice.
Helminthology is the study of parasitic worms (helminths), while helminthiasis describes the medical condition of being infected with helminths.
Herpetology (from Greek "herpein" meaning "to creep") is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of amphibians (including frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, and caecilians (gymnophiona)) and reptiles (including snakes, lizards, amphisbaenids, turtles, terrapins, tortoises, crocodilians, and the tuataras).
Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.
The history of agriculture records the domestication of plants and animals and the development and dissemination of techniques for raising them productively.
The history of anatomy extends from the earliest examinations of sacrificial victims to the sophisticated analyses of the body performed by modern scientists.
Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences, dating back to antiquity, with its origins in the religious, mythological, cosmological, calendrical, and astrological beliefs and practices of prehistory: vestiges of these are still found in astrology, a discipline long interwoven with public and governmental astronomy, and not completely disentangled from it until a few centuries ago in the Western World (see astrology and astronomy).
The history of biochemistry can be said to have started with the ancient Greeks who were interested in the composition and processes of life, although biochemistry as a specific scientific discipline has its beginning around the early 19th century.
The history of biology traces the study of the living world from ancient to modern times.
Biotechnology is the application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of materials by biological agents to provide goods and services.
The history of botany examines the human effort to understand life on Earth by tracing the historical development of the discipline of botany—that part of natural science dealing with organisms traditionally treated as plants.
The history of cancer describes the development of the field of oncology and its role in the history of medicine.
Cartography, or mapmaking, has been an integral part of the human history for thousands of years.
Chemical engineering as a discipline that was developed out of those practising "industrial chemistry" in the late 19th century.
The history of chemistry represents a time span from ancient history to the present.
This article deals with the history of classical mechanics.
Ecology is a new science and considered as an important branch of biological science, having only become prominent during the second half of the 20th century.
Electrochemistry, a branch of chemistry, went through several changes during its evolution from early principles related to magnets in the early 16th and 17th centuries, to complex theories involving conductivity, electric charge and mathematical methods.
The history of electromagnetic theory begins with ancient measures to understand atmospheric electricity, in particular lightning.
Evolutionary thought, the conception that species change over time, has roots in antiquity – in the ideas of the ancient Greeks, Romans, and Chinese as well as in medieval Islamic science.
The history of fluid mechanics, the study of how fluids move and the forces on them, dates back to the Ancient Greeks.
The history of genetics dates from the classical era with contributions by Hippocrates, Aristotle and Epicurus.
Geodesy (/dʒiːˈɒdɨsi/), also named geodetics, is the scientific discipline that deals with the measurement and representation of the Earth.
The history of geography includes many histories of geography which have differed over time and between different cultural and political groups.
The history of geology is concerned with the development of the natural science of geology.
The historical development of geophysics has been motivated by two factors.
Marine biology is a hybrid subject that combines aspects of organismal function, ecological interaction and the study of marine biodiversity.
Materials science has shaped the development of civilizations since the dawn of mankind.
Early writing on mineralogy, especially on gemstones, comes from ancient Babylonia, the ancient Greco-Roman world, ancient and medieval China, and Sanskrit texts from ancient India.
The history of molecular biology begins in the 1930s with the convergence of various, previously distinct biological and physical disciplines: biochemistry, genetics, microbiology, virology and physics.
The history of nanotechnology traces the development of the concepts and experimental work falling under the broad category of nanotechnology.
From the ancient Egyptian mummifications to 18th century scientific research on "globules" and neurons, there is evidence of neuroscience practice throughout the early periods of history.
Optics began with the development of lenses by the ancient Egyptians and Mesopotamians, followed by theories on light and vision developed by ancient Greek philosophers, and the development of geometrical optics in the Greco-Roman world.
The history of paleontology traces the history of the effort to understand the history of life on Earth by studying the fossil record left behind by living organisms.
The history of pathology can be traced to the earliest application of the scientific method to the field of medicine, a development which occurred in the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age and in Western Europe during the Italian Renaissance.
The history of pharmacy as an independent science dates back to the first third of the 19th century.
Physics (from the Ancient Greek φύσις physis meaning "nature") is the fundamental branch of science.
The history of quantum mechanics is a fundamental part of the history of modern physics.
The early concepts of soil were based on ideas developed by a German chemist, Justus von Liebig (1803–1873), and modified and refined by agricultural scientists who worked on samples of soil in laboratories, greenhouses, and on small field plots.
The history of spectroscopy began in the 17th century.
The idea that matter consists of smaller particles and that there exists a limited number of sorts of primary, smallest particles in nature has existed in natural philosophy at least since the 6th century BC.
The history of thermodynamics is a fundamental strand in the history of physics, the history of chemistry, and the history of science in general.
The history of virology — the scientific study of viruses and the infections they cause – began in the closing years of the 19th century.
For the history of zoology see.
Hydrogeology (hydro- meaning water, and -geology meaning the study of the Earth) is the area of geology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earth's crust (commonly in aquifers).
Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.
A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.
Ichthyology (from Greek: ἰχθύς, ikhthys, "fish"; and λόγος, logos, "study"), also known as fish science, is the branch of zoology devoted to the study of fish.
Immunochemistry is a branch of chemistry that involves the study of the molecular mechanisms underlying the function of the immune system, especially the nature of antibodies, antigens and their interactions.
Inorganic chemistry deals with the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds.
Integrative Biology is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the interface between biology and the fields of physics, chemistry, engineering, imaging, and informatics.
Isotope geochemistry is an aspect of geology based upon the study of natural variations in the relative abundances of isotopes of various elements.
John Lewis Heilbron (born 17 March 1934, San Francisco) is an American historian of science best known for his work in the history of physics and the history of astronomy.
Kinesiology is the scientific study of human or non-human body movement.
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.
Lepidopterology (from Ancient Greek λεπίδος (scale) and πτερόν (wing); and -λογία -logia.), is a branch of entomology concerning the scientific study of moths and the three superfamilies of butterflies.
Limnology (from Greek λίμνη, limne, "lake" and λόγος, logos, "knowledge"), is the study of inland aquatic ecosystems.
The following are list of astronomers, astrophysicists and other notable people who have made contributions to the field of astronomy.
This is a list of scientific journals publishing articles in astronomy, astrophysics, and space sciences.
This is a list of authors of names published under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.
Articles about notable biochemists include: Note that the definition of biochemist is fairly loose here, and noted chemical biologists, biophysicists and others are included.
This is a list of notable biologists with a biography in Wikipedia.
This is a list of articles about scientific journals in biology and its various subfields.
This is a list of persons known for their research in biophysics.
The following is a list of botanical scientific journals.
A carcinologist is a scientist who studies crustaceans or is otherwise involved in carcinology (the science of crustaceans).
Cartography is the study of map making and cartographers are map makers.
This is a list of scientific journals in chemistry and its various subfields.
This is a list of chemists.
This list of climate scientists contains famous or otherwise notable persons who have contributed to the study of climate science.
Notable students of coleopterology (beetles) include the following.
This is a list of people who have made noteworthy contributions to cosmology (the study of the history and large-scale structure of the universe) and their cosmological achievements.
This list presents notable scientific journals in earth and atmospheric sciences and its various subfields.
This is a list of ecologists who have pages on Wikipedia, in alphabetical order by surname.
This is a list of electrochemists.
This list of geographers is presented in English alphabetical transliteration order (by surnames).
A geologist is a contributor to the science of geology.
This is a list of geophysicists, people who made notable contributions to geophysics, whether or not geophysics was their primary field.
Glaciology first emerged as a science in the Swiss Alps, where most of the first glaciologist lived.
The life sciences or biological sciences comprise the branches of science that involve the scientific study of life and organisms – such as microorganisms, plants, and animals including human beings – as well as related considerations like bioethics.
This is a list of malacologists, scientists who study Mollusca mollusks, such as snails, clams, octopi, and others.
This is a list of notable mammalogists, in alphabetical order by surname.
The following is a list of notable mineralogists and other people who made notable contributions to mineralogy.
This is a non-exhaustive list of mycologists, or scientists with a specialisation in mycology, with their author abbreviations.
This is a list of neurochemists.
This is a list of ornithologists who have articles, in alphabetical order by surname.
This is a list of notable paleontologists who have made significant contributions to the field of paleontology.
A list of people notable in the field of pathology.
Following is a list of physicists who are notable for their achievements.
This is a list of physics journals with existing articles on Wikipedia.
This list of Russian Earth scientists includes the notable geographers, geologists, oceanographers, meteorologists, ecologists and other representatives of Earth sciences from the Russian Federation, the Soviet Union, the Russian Empire and other predecessor states of Russia.
This is a list of scientific journals which cover the field of zoology.
Malacology is the branch of invertebrate zoology that deals with the study of the Mollusca (mollusks or molluscs), the second-largest phylum of animals in terms of described species after the arthropods.
In zoology, mammalogy is the study of mammals – a class of vertebrates with characteristics such as homeothermic metabolism, fur, four-chambered hearts, and complex nervous systems.
Marine biology is the scientific study of marine life, organisms in the sea.
Material physics is the use of physics to describe the physical properties of materials.
The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.
Mathematical and theoretical biology is a branch of biology which employs theoretical analysis, mathematical models and abstractions of the living organisms to investigate the principles that govern the structure, development and behavior of the systems, as opposed to experimental biology which deals with the conduction of experiments to prove and validate the scientific theories.
Mathematical chemistry is the area of research engaged in novel applications of mathematics to chemistry; it concerns itself principally with the mathematical modeling of chemical phenomena.
Mathematical physics refers to the development of mathematical methods for application to problems in physics.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
Mechanics (Greek μηχανική) is that area of science concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.
Mechanochemistry or mechanical chemistry is the coupling of mechanical and chemical phenomena on a molecular scale and includes mechanical breakage, chemical behaviour of mechanically stressed solids (e.g., stress-corrosion cracking or enhanced oxidation), tribology, polymer degradation under shear, cavitation-related phenomena (e.g., sonochemistry and sonoluminescence), shock wave chemistry and physics, and even the burgeoning field of molecular machines.
Medical physics (also called biomedical physics, medical biophysics or applied physics in medicine) is, generally speaking, the application of physics concepts, theories and methods to medicine or healthcare.
Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research), – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a ''preclinical'' understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials.
Medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry are disciplines at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents, or bio-active molecules (drugs).
Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.
Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.
Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).
Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
Molecular mechanics uses classical mechanics to model molecular systems.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi, including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and their use to humans as a source for tinder, medicine, food, and entheogens, as well as their dangers, such as toxicity or infection.
Myrmecology (from Greek: μύρμηξ, myrmex, "ant" and λόγος, logos, "study") is a branch of entomology focusing on the scientific study of ants.
Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.
Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.
A natural product is a chemical compound or substance produced by a living organism—that is, found in nature.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe.
Nematology is the scientific discipline concerned with the study of nematodes, or roundworms.
Neurochemistry is the study of neurochemicals, including neurotransmitters and other molecules such as psychopharmaceuticals and neuropeptides, that influence the function of neurons.
Neurophysics (or neurobiophysics) is the branch of biophysics dealing with the development and use of physical techniques to gain information about the nervous system on a molecular level.
Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
Nuclear chemistry is the subfield of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes, such as nuclear transmutation, and nuclear properties.
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.
Occam's razor (also Ockham's razor or Ocham's razor; Latin: lex parsimoniae "law of parsimony") is the problem-solving principle that, the simplest explanation tends to be the right one.
Ocean chemistry, also known as marine chemistry, is influenced by turbidity currents, sediments, pH levels, atmospheric constituents, metamorphic activity, and ecology.
Oceanography (compound of the Greek words ὠκεανός meaning "ocean" and γράφω meaning "write"), also known as oceanology, is the study of the physical and biological aspects of the ocean.
Oenology (enology) is the science and study of wine and winemaking; distinct from viticulture, the agricultural endeavours of vine-growing and of grape-harvesting.
Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.
Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
Orbital mechanics or astrodynamics is the application of ballistics and celestial mechanics to the practical problems concerning the motion of rockets and other spacecraft.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
Organic geochemistry is the study of the impacts and processes that organisms have had on the Earth.
Organometallic chemistry is the study of organometallic compounds, chemical compounds containing at least one chemical bond between a carbon atom of an organic molecule and a metal, including alkaline, alkaline earth, and transition metals, and sometimes broadened to include metalloids like boron, silicon, and tin, as well.
Ornithology is a branch of zoology that concerns the study of birds.
Orthotics (Greek: Ορθός, ortho, "to straighten" or "align") is a specialty within the medical field concerned with the design, manufacture and application of orthoses.
An outline, also called a hierarchical outline, is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships and is a type of tree structure.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to agriculture: Agriculture – cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to applied science, which is the branch of science that applies existing scientific knowledge to develop more practical applications, including inventions and other technological advancements.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to astronomy: Astronomy – studies the universe beyond Earth, including its formation and development, and the evolution, physics, chemistry, meteorology, and motion of celestial objects (such as galaxies, planets, etc.) and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth (such as the cosmic background radiation).
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to biochemistry: Biochemistry – study of chemical processes in living organisms, including living matter.
Biology – The natural science that involves the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to botany: Botany – biological discipline which involves the study of plants.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to cartography: Cartography (also called mapmaking) – study and practice of making and using maps or globes.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to cell biology: Cell biology – A branch of biology that includes study of cells regarding their physiological properties, structure, and function; the organelles they contain; interactions with their environment; and their life cycle, division, and death.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to chemistry: Chemistry – science of atomic matter (matter that is composed of chemical elements), especially its chemical reactions, but also including its properties, structure, composition, behavior, and changes as they relate the chemical reactions.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Earth science: Earth science – all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to ecology: Ecology – scientific study of the distribution and abundance of living organisms and how the distribution and abundance are affected by interactions between the organisms and their environment.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to genetics: Genetics – science of genes, heredity, and variation in living organisms.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to geography: Geography – study of earth and its people.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to geology: Geology – one of the Earth sciences – is the study of the Earth, with the general exclusion of present-day life, flow within the ocean, and the atmosphere.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to human anatomy: Human anatomy – scientific study of the morphology of the adult human.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to immunology: Immunology is the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to meteorology: Meteorology – interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere which explains and forecasts weather events.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to neuroscience: Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to organic chemistry: Organic chemistry – scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of carbon-based compounds, hydrocarbons, and their derivatives.
Physical science is a branch of natural science that studies non-living systems, in contrast to life science.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to physics: Physics – natural science that involves the study of matterRichard Feynman begins his ''Lectures'' with the atomic hypothesis, as his most compact statement of all scientific knowledge: "If, in some cataclysm, all of scientific knowledge were to be destroyed, and only one sentence passed on to the next generations..., what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is...
The following outline is provided as a topical overview of science: Science – the systematic effort of acquiring knowledge—through observation and experimentation coupled with logic and reasoning to find out what can be proved or not proved—and the knowledge thus acquired.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to social science: Social science – branch of science concerned with society and human behaviors.
Paleobiology (UK & Canadian English: palaeobiology) is a growing and comparatively new discipline which combines the methods and findings of the natural science biology with the methods and findings of the earth science paleontology.
Paleoclimatology (in British spelling, palaeoclimatology) is the study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth.
Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).
Parasitology is the study of parasites, their hosts, and the relationship between them.
Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.
Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.
Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people of similar competence to the producers of the work (peers).
Petrochemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies the transformation of crude oil (petroleum) and natural gas into useful products or raw materials.
Petrology (from the Greek πέτρος, pétros, "rock" and λόγος, lógos, "subject matter", see -logy) is the branch of geology that studies rocks and the conditions under which they form.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
Photochemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the chemical effects of light.
A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.
Physical Chemistry is the study of macroscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of the principles, practices, and concepts of physics such as motion, energy, force, time, thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics, analytical dynamics and chemical equilibrium.
Physical cosmology is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the Universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its origin, structure, evolution, and ultimate fate.
A physical law or scientific law is a theoretical statement "inferred from particular facts, applicable to a defined group or class of phenomena, and expressible by the statement that a particular phenomenon always occurs if certain conditions be present." Physical laws are typically conclusions based on repeated scientific experiments and observations over many years and which have become accepted universally within the scientific community.
Physical organic chemistry, a term coined by Louis Hammett in 1940, refers to a discipline of organic chemistry that focuses on the relationship between chemical structures and reactivity, in particular, applying experimental tools of physical chemistry to the study of organic molecules.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Phytochemistry is the study of phytochemicals, which are chemicals derived from plants.
Planetary geology, alternatively known as astrogeology or exogeology, is a planetary science discipline concerned with the geology of the celestial bodies such as the planets and their moons, asteroids, comets, and meteorites.
Planetary science or, more rarely, planetology, is the scientific study of planets (including Earth), moons, and planetary systems (in particular those of the Solar System) and the processes that form them.
Plant pathology (also phytopathology) is the scientific study of diseases in plants caused by pathogens (infectious organisms) and environmental conditions (physiological factors).
Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.
Polymer chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline that deals with the structures, chemical synthesis and properties of polymers, primarily synthetic polymers such as plastics and elastomers.
Polymer physics is the field of physics that studies polymers, their fluctuations, mechanical properties, as well as the kinetics of reactions involving degradation and polymerisation of polymers and monomers respectively.
Population biology is an interdisciplinary field combining the areas of ecology and evolutionary biology.
Population dynamics is the branch of life sciences that studies the size and age composition of populations as dynamical systems, and the biological and environmental processes driving them (such as birth and death rates, and by immigration and emigration).
Population ecology is a sub-field of ecology that deals with the dynamics of species populations and how these populations interact with the environment.
Population genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with genetic differences within and between populations, and is a part of evolutionary biology.
In medicine, a prosthesis (plural: prostheses; from Ancient Greek prosthesis, "addition, application, attachment") is an artificial device that replaces a missing body part, which may be lost through trauma, disease, or congenital conditions.
Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteins.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Psychophysics quantitatively investigates the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they produce.
Quantum chemistry is a branch of chemistry whose primary focus is the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Radiochemistry is the chemistry of radioactive materials, where radioactive isotopes of elements are used to study the properties and chemical reactions of non-radioactive isotopes (often within radiochemistry the absence of radioactivity leads to a substance being described as being inactive as the isotopes are stable).
Regional geochemistry is the study of the spatial variation in the chemical composition of materials at the surface of the Earth, on a scale of tens to thousands of kilometres.
Reproducibility is the closeness of the agreement between the results of measurements of the same measurand carried out under changed conditions of measurement.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Scientific evidence is evidence which serves to either support or counter a scientific theory or hypothesis.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
A scientific theory is an explanation of an aspect of the natural world that can be repeatedly tested, in accordance with the scientific method, using a predefined protocol of observation and experiment.
Seismology (from Ancient Greek σεισμός (seismós) meaning "earthquake" and -λογία (-logía) meaning "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies.
Sociobiology is a field of biology that aims to examine and explain social behavior in terms of evolution.
Soil physics is the study of soil physical properties and processes.
Soil science is the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the Earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils.
Solid-state chemistry, also sometimes referred to as materials chemistry, is the study of the synthesis, structure, and properties of solid phase materials, particularly, but not necessarily exclusively of, non-molecular solids.
Solid-state physics is the study of rigid matter, or solids, through methods such as quantum mechanics, crystallography, electromagnetism, and metallurgy.
In chemistry, the study of sonochemistry is concerned with understanding the effect of ultrasound in forming acoustic cavitation in liquids, resulting in the initiation or enhancement of the chemical activity in the solution.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
Statics is the branch of mechanics that is concerned with the analysis of loads (force and torque, or "moment") acting on physical systems that do not experience an acceleration (a.
Stereochemistry, a subdiscipline of chemistry, involves the study of the relative spatial arrangement of atoms that form the structure of molecules and their manipulation.
Structural biology is a branch of molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics concerned with the molecular structure of biological macromolecules (especially proteins, made up of amino acids, and RNA or DNA, made up of nucleic acids), how they acquire the structures they have, and how alterations in their structures affect their function.
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Surface science is the study of physical and chemical phenomena that occur at the interface of two phases, including solid–liquid interfaces, solid–gas interfaces, solid–vacuum interfaces, and liquid–gas interfaces.
Synthetic biology is an interdisciplinary branch of biology and engineering.
Biological systematics is the study of the diversification of living forms, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
Testability, a property applying to an empirical hypothesis, involves two components.
The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.
Thermochemistry is the study of the heat energy associated with chemical reactions and/or physical transformations.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.
Entomology, the scientific study of insects and closely related terrestrial arthropods, has been impelled by the necessity of societies to protect themselves from insect-borne diseases, crop losses to pest insects, and insect-related discomfort, as well as by people's natural curiosity.
Timeline of immunology.
Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.
Toxicology is a discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
Validity is the extent to which a concept, conclusion or measurement is well-founded and likely corresponds accurately to the real world based on probability.
For vehicles such as cars, vehicle dynamics is the study of how the vehicle will react to driver inputs on a given road.
Virology is the study of viruses – submicroscopic, parasitic particles of genetic material contained in a protein coat – and virus-like agents.
Volcanology (also spelled vulcanology) is the study of volcanoes, lava, magma, and related geological, geophysical and geochemical phenomena.
Zoology or animal biology is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems.
Branches of natural science, List of branches of natural science, List of disciplines of natural science, List of fields of natural science, List of natural sciences, List of the branches of natural science, List of the disciplines of natural science, List of the fields of natural science, Outline of natural sciences.