104 relations: Acetylcholine, Acetylcholinesterase, Action potential, Agnosia, Agraphia, Albert Einstein's brain, Altered level of consciousness, Alzheimer's disease, Amnesia, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Anatomy, Anesthetic, Anosognosia, Aphasia, Apraxia, Behavioral neuroscience, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Brain, Brain damage, Brain stimulation, Brain–computer interface, Central nervous system, Closed-head injury, Cognitive neuroscience, Cognitive science, Coma, Computational neuroscience, Dementia, Dendrite, Development of the nervous system, Developmental biology, Dopamine, Drug, Dyslexia, Electroencephalography, Electrophysiology, Epilepsy, Evolution of nervous systems, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, Genetics, Hemispatial neglect, History of neuroscience, Human brain, Huntington's disease, Hydrocephalus, Immunostaining, Intermittent rhythmic delta activity, Linguistics, List of neuroscientists, ..., Long-term potentiation, Memory and aging, Molecular biology, Molecular neuroscience, Multiple sclerosis, Narcotic, Nervous system, Neural circuit, Neural network, Neural oscillation, Neurite, Neuroanatomy, Neurobiological effects of physical exercise, Neurochemistry, Neuroethics, Neuroethology, Neuroevolution, Neuroglia, Neuroimaging, Neuroinformatics, Neurolinguistics, Neurology, Neuron, Neuron doctrine, Neuropharmacology, Neurophilosophy, Neurophysiology, Neuroplasticity, Neuropsychology, Neuroscience, Neuroscience of free will, Neurosurgery, Neurotransmitter, Noogenesis, Nutritional neuroscience, Outline (list), Outline of brain mapping, Outline of the human nervous system, Paralysis, Parkinson's disease, Philosophy of mind, Physiology, Positron emission tomography, Psychiatry, Psychoactive drug, Psychology, Rabies, ResearchGate, Schizophrenia, Stroke, Synapse, Synaptic plasticity, Systems neuroscience, Traumatic brain injury. Expand index (54 more) » « Shrink index
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
Acetylcholinesterase, encoded by HGNC gene ACHE; EC 188.8.131.52) is the primary cholinesterase in the body. It is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of acetylcholine and of some other choline esters that function as neurotransmitters. AChE is found at mainly neuromuscular junctions and in chemical synapses of the cholinergic type, where its activity serves to terminate synaptic transmission. It belongs to carboxylesterase family of enzymes. It is the primary target of inhibition by organophosphorus compounds such as nerve agents and pesticides.
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
Agnosia is the inability to process sensory information.
Agraphia is an acquired neurological disorder causing a loss in the ability to communicate through writing, either due to some form of motor dysfunction or an inability to spell.
The brain of physicist Albert Einstein has been a subject of much research and speculation.
An altered level of consciousness is any measure of arousal other than normal.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
Amnesia is a deficit in memory caused by brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neurone disease (MND), and Lou Gehrig's disease, is a specific disease which causes the death of neurons controlling voluntary muscles.
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery, completely blocking any feeling as opposed to an analgesic.
Anosognosia (from Ancient Greek ἀ- a-, "without", νόσος nosos, "disease" and γνῶσις gnōsis, "knowledge") is a deficit of self-awareness, a condition in which a person with some disability seems unaware of its existence.
Aphasia is an inability to comprehend and formulate language because of damage to specific brain regions.
Apraxia is a motor disorder caused by damage to the brain (specifically the posterior parietal cortex) in which the individual has difficulty with the motor planning to perform tasks or movements when asked, provided that the request or command is understood and he/she is willing to perform the task.
Behavioral neuroscience, also known as biological psychology, biopsychology, or psychobiology, Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary is the application of the principles of biology to the study of physiological, genetic, and developmental mechanisms of behavior in humans and other animals.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Brain damage or brain injury (BI) is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells.
Brain stimulation may refer to.
A brain–computer interface (BCI), sometimes called a neural-control interface (NCI), mind-machine interface (MMI), direct neural interface (DNI), or brain–machine interface (BMI), is a direct communication pathway between an enhanced or wired brain and an external device.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Closed-head injury is a type of traumatic brain injury in which the skull and dura mater remain intact.
The term cognitive neuroscience was coined by George Armitage Miller and Michael Gazzaniga in year 1976.
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.
Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.
Computational neuroscience (also known as theoretical neuroscience or mathematical neuroscience) is a branch of neuroscience which employs mathematical models, theoretical analysis and abstractions of the brain to understand the principles that govern the development, structure, physiology and cognitive abilities of the nervous system.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
Dendrites (from Greek δένδρον déndron, "tree"), also dendrons, are branched protoplasmic extensions of a nerve cell that propagate the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project.
Development of the nervous system refers to the processes that generate, shape, and reshape the nervous system of animals, from the earliest stages of embryogenesis to adulthood.
Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
Dyslexia, also known as reading disorder, is characterized by trouble with reading despite normal intelligence.
Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain.
Electrophysiology (from Greek ἥλεκτρον, ēlektron, "amber"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
The evolution of nervous systems dates back to the first development of nervous systems in animals (or metazoans).
Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Hemispatial neglect, also called hemiagnosia, hemineglect, unilateral neglect, spatial neglect, contralateral neglect, unilateral visual inattention,Unsworth, C. A. (2007).
From the ancient Egyptian mummifications to 18th century scientific research on "globules" and neurons, there is evidence of neuroscience practice throughout the early periods of history.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
Huntington's disease (HD), also known as Huntington's chorea, is an inherited disorder that results in death of brain cells.
Hydrocephalus is a condition in which there is an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain.
In biochemistry, immunostaining is any use of an antibody-based method to detect a specific protein in a sample.
Intermittent rhythmic delta activity (IRDA) is a type of brain wave abnormality found in electroencephalograms (EEG).
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
Many famous neuroscientists are from the 20th and 21st century, as neuroscience is a fairly new science.
In neuroscience, long-term potentiation (LTP) is a persistent strengthening of synapses based on recent patterns of activity.
Age-related memory loss, sometimes described as "normal aging", is qualitatively different from memory loss associated with dementias such as Alzheimer's disease, and is believed to have a different brain mechanism.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
Molecular neuroscience is a branch of neuroscience that observes concepts in molecular biology applied to the nervous systems of animals.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
The term narcotic (from ancient Greek ναρκῶ narkō, "to make numb") originally referred medically to any psychoactive compound with sleep-inducing properties.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
A neural circuit, is a population of neurons interconnected by synapses to carry out a specific function when activated.
The term neural network was traditionally used to refer to a network or circuit of neurons.
Neural oscillations, or brainwaves, are rhythmic or repetitive patterns of neural activity in the central nervous system.
A neurite or neuronal process refers to any projection from the cell body of a neuron.
Neuroanatomy is the study of the structure and organization of the nervous system.
The are numerous and involve a wide range of interrelated effects on brain structure, brain function, and cognition.
Neurochemistry is the study of neurochemicals, including neurotransmitters and other molecules such as psychopharmaceuticals and neuropeptides, that influence the function of neurons.
Neuroethics refers to two related fields of study: what the philosopher Adina Roskies has called the ethics of neuroscience, and the neuroscience of ethics.
Neuroethology is the evolutionary and comparative approach to the study of animal behavior and its underlying mechanistic control by the nervous system.
Neuroevolution, or neuro-evolution, is a form of artificial intelligence that uses evolutionary algorithms to generate artificial neural networks (ANN), parameters, topology and rules.
Neuroglia, also called glial cells or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system.
Neuroimaging or brain imaging is the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function/pharmacology of the nervous system.
Neuroinformatics is a research field concerned with the organization of neuroscience data by the application of computational models and analytical tools.
Neurolinguistics is the study of the neural mechanisms in the human brain that control the comprehension, production, and acquisition of language.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
The neuron doctrine is the concept that the nervous system is made up of discrete individual cells, a discovery due to decisive neuro-anatomical work of Santiago Ramón y Cajal and later presented by, among others, H. Waldeyer-Hartz.
Neuropharmacology is the study of how drugs affect cellular function in the nervous system, and the neural mechanisms through which they influence behavior.
Neurophilosophy or philosophy of neuroscience is the interdisciplinary study of neuroscience and philosophy that explores the relevance of neuroscientific studies to the arguments traditionally categorized as philosophy of mind.
Neurophysiology (from Greek νεῦρον, neuron, "nerve"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia, "knowledge") is a branch of physiology and neuroscience that is concerned with the study of the functioning of the nervous system.
Neuroplasticity, also known as brain plasticity and neural plasticity, is the ability of the brain to change throughout an individual's life, e.g., brain activity associated with a given function can be transferred to a different location, the proportion of grey matter can change, and synapses may strengthen or weaken over time.
Neuropsychology is the study of the structure and function of the brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviours.
Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.
Neuroscience of free will, a part of neurophilosophy, is the study of the interconnections between free will and neuroscience.
Neurosurgery, or neurological surgery, is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Noogenesis (Ancient Greek: νοῦς.
Nutritional neuroscience is the scientific discipline that studies the effects various components of the diet such as minerals, vitamins, protein, carbohydrates, fats, dietary supplements, synthetic hormones, and food additives have on neurochemistry, neurobiology, behavior, and cognition.
An outline, also called a hierarchical outline, is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships and is a type of tree structure.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to brain mapping: Brain mapping – set of neuroscience techniques predicated on the mapping of (biological) quantities or properties onto spatial representations of the (human or non-human) brain resulting in maps.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the human nervous system: Human nervous system – the part of the human body that coordinates a person's voluntary and involuntary actions and transmits signals between different parts of the body.
Paralysis is a loss of muscle function for one or more muscles.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Rabies is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the brain in humans and other mammals.
ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
In neuroscience, synaptic plasticity is the ability of synapses to strengthen or weaken over time, in response to increases or decreases in their activity.
Systems neuroscience is a subdiscipline of neuroscience and systems biology that studies the function of neural circuits and systems.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force injures the brain.