340 relations: Acesulfame potassium, Acetic acid, Adaptogen, Adenosine monophosphate, Adenosine triphosphate, Adrenal fatigue, Advanced glycation end-product, Alanine, Alcohol, Alitame, Alpha-Carotene, Amino acid, Appetite, Arachidic acid, Arginine, Asparagine, Aspartame, Aspartic acid, B vitamins, Behenic acid, Beta-Carotene, Binge eating, Biosafety, Biotin, Blood sugar level, Body fat percentage, Body mass index, Bodybuilding supplement, Boron, Branched-chain amino acid, Brazzein, Bread, Breakfast, Bulimia nervosa, Butyric acid, Calcium, Calorie, Calorie restriction, Caprylic acid, Carbohydrate, Carcinogen, Carotenoid, Chloride, Cholesterol, Choline, Chromium, Chronic toxicity, Citric acid, Codex Alimentarius, Complete protein, ..., Copper, Cryptoxanthin, Curculin, Cystine, Dairy product, Danger zone (food safety), Decanoic acid, Deep frying, Detoxification, Diabetes mellitus, Diet (nutrition), Diet food, Dietary fiber, Dietary supplement, Dieting, Dietitian, Digestion, Dinner, Disaccharide, Disease, Docosahexaenoic acid, Docosapentaenoic acid, Dose (biochemistry), Drug, Dulcin, Durk Pearson, Eating, Eating disorder, ECA stack, Eicosapentaenoic acid, Empty calorie, Energy drink, Enzyme, Erucic acid, Erythritol, Essential amino acid, Essential fatty acid, Exercise, Fad diet, Famine, Fast food, Fat, Fat tax, Fatty acid, Flavonoid, Flavor, Fluoride, Folate, Food, Food addiction, Food additive, Food allergy, Food and Agriculture Organization, Food and drink prohibitions, Food and Drug Administration, Food and Drugs Act, Food and Nutrition Service, Food bank, Food craving, Food energy, Food group, Food intolerance, Food politics, Food preservation, Food processing, Food processor, Food pyramid (nutrition), Food quality, Food rescue, Food safety, Food Safety and Inspection Service, Food science, Food security, Food Standards Agency, Food storage, Food technology, Foodborne illness, Freezer burn, French paradox, Frozen food, Fructose, Fruit, Fruitarianism, Functional food, Galactose, Gastrointestinal tract, General fitness training, Genetically modified food, George W. Hart, Glucose, Glucose meter, Glutamic acid, Glutamine, Glycemic index, Glycemic load, Glycerol, Glycine, Glycogen, Glycyrrhizin, Growth hormone, Growth hormone–releasing hormone, Health, Health claim, Healthy diet, Herb, Hexanoic acid, High-density lipoprotein, Histidine, Hormone, Human body weight, Human digestive system, Human nutrition, Hydrogenated starch hydrolysates, Hypoglycemia, Impaired glucose tolerance, Inflammation, Inositol, Insulin, Iodine, Iron, Irradiation, Isoflavones, Isoleucine, Isomalt, Joule, Junk food, Lactic acid, Lactitol, Lactoferrin, Lactose, Lauric acid, Leucine, Life extension, Linoleic acid, Linolenic acid, Lipotropic, List of antioxidants in food, List of culinary fruits, List of culinary herbs and spices, List of diets, List of domesticated meat animals, List of edible seeds, List of food additives, List of foods by protein content, List of foods named after people, List of macronutrients, List of micronutrients, List of phytochemicals in food, List of vegetables, Local food, Low-carbohydrate diet, Lutein, Lycopene, Lysine, Mabinlin, Magnesium, Malic acid, Malnutrition, Maltitol, Maltose, Manganese, Mannitol, Meat, Megavitamin therapy, Methionine, Micronutrient, Milk, Mineral (nutrient), Miraculin, Molybdenum, Monellin, Monosaccharide, Monounsaturated fat, Multivitamin, Mutagen, Myristic acid, Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, Neotame, Nervonic acid, Nootropic, Nutraceutical, Nutrient, Nutrient density, Nutrigenomics, Nutrition, Nutrition and pregnancy, Nutrition facts label, Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990, Nutrition transition, Nutritional genomics, Obesity, Oleic acid, Omega-3 fatty acid, Omega-6 fatty acid, Organic acid, Organic food, Orthomolecular medicine, Outline (list), Outline of exercise, Outline of food preparation, Overeating, Overweight, Palmitic acid, Pantothenic acid, Pasteurization, Pentadecanoic acid, Pentadin, Performance-enhancing substance, Phenylalanine, Phosphorus, Phytochemical, Polyunsaturated fat, Potassium, Preventive healthcare, Proline, Prostaglandin, Protein, Protein (nutrient), Protein combining, Pyridoxal, Pyridoxamine, Pyridoxine, Radical (chemistry), Raw foodism, Reference Daily Intake, Riboflavin, Saccharin, Salad bar, Sandy Shaw, Saturated fat, Seed, Selenium, Serine, Simplesse, Slow Food, Snap freezing, Sodium, Sodium cyclamate, Sorbitol, Spice, Sports nutrition, Starch, Stearic acid, Stevia, Sucralose, Sucrose, Sugar, Sugar substitute, Sulfate, Sulfite, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, Tagatose, Taurine, Teratology, Thaumatin, Theanine, Thermogenics, Thiamine, Threonine, Toxicity, Toxicology, Toxin, Trans fat, Triglyceride, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, United Kingdom food labelling regulations, United States Department of Agriculture, Vacuum evaporation, Valine, Vegetable, Vegetarianism, Vitamin, Vitamin A, Vitamin B12, Vitamin B3, Vitamin B6, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vitamin deficiency, Vitamin E, Vitamin K, Water, Weight loss, World Health Organization, Xylitol, Yo-yo effect, Zeaxanthin, Zinc, 5-Nitro-2-propoxyaniline. Expand index (290 more) » « Shrink index
Acesulfame potassium, also known as acesulfame K (K is the symbol for potassium) or Ace K, is a calorie-free sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) often marketed under the trade names Sunett and Sweet One.
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
Adaptogens or adaptogenic substances are used in herbal medicine for the claimed stabilization of physiological processes and promotion of homeostasis.
Adenosine monophosphate (AMP), also known as 5'-adenylic acid, is a nucleotide.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Adrenal fatigue or hypoadrenia is a pseudoscientific diagnosis believed in alternative medicine to be the state when adrenal glands are exhausted and unable to produce adequate quantities of hormones, primarily the glucocorticoid cortisol, due to chronic stress or infections.
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are proteins or lipids that become glycated as a result of exposure to sugars.
Alanine (symbol Ala or A) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
Alitame is an aspartic acid-containing dipeptide sweetener.
α-Carotene is a form of carotene with a β-ionone ring at one end and an α-ionone ring at the opposite end.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Appetite is the desire to eat food, sometimes due to hunger.
Arachidic acid, also known as eicosanoic acid, is a saturated fatty acid with a 20-carbon chain.
Arginine (symbol Arg or R) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Asparagine (symbol Asn or N), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Aspartame (APM) is an artificial non-saccharide sweetener used as a sugar substitute in some foods and beverages.
Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D; salts known as aspartates), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism.
Behenic acid (also docosanoic acid) is a carboxylic acid, the saturated fatty acid with formula C21H43COOH.
β-Carotene is an organic, strongly colored red-orange pigment abundant in plants and fruits.
Binge eating is a pattern of disordered eating which consists of episodes of uncontrollable eating.
Biosafety is the prevention of large-scale loss of biological integrity, focusing both on ecology and human health.
Biotin is a water-soluble B vitamin, also called vitamin B7 and formerly known as vitamin H or coenzyme R. Biotin is composed of a ureido ring fused with a tetrahydrothiophene ring.
The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.
The body fat percentage (BFP) of a human or other living being is the total mass of fat divided by total body mass, times 100; body fat includes essential body fat and storage body fat.
The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of an individual.
s are s commonly used by those involved in bodybuilding, weightlifting, mixed martial arts, and athletics for the purpose of facilitating an increase in lean body mass.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
A branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) is an amino acid having aliphatic side-chains with a branch (a central carbon atom bound to three or more carbon atoms).
Brazzein is a sweet-tasting protein extracted from the West African fruit of the climbing plant Oubli (Pentadiplandra brazzeana Baillon).
Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking.
Breakfast is the first meal of a day, most often eaten in the early morning before undertaking the day's work.
Bulimia nervosa, also known as simply bulimia, is an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging.
Butyric acid (from βούτῡρον, meaning "butter"), also known under the systematic name butanoic acid, abbreviated BTA, is a carboxylic acid with the structural formula CH3CH2CH2-COOH.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
A calorie is a unit of energy.
Calorie restriction, or caloric restriction, or energy restriction, is a dietary regimen that reduces calorie intake without incurring malnutrition or a reduction in essential nutrients.
Caprylic acid is the common name for the eight-carbon saturated fatty acid known by the systematic name octanoic acid.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
Carotenoids, also called tetraterpenoids, are organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria and fungi.
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
Choline is a water-soluble vitamin-like essential nutrient.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
Chronic toxicity, the development of adverse effects as a result of long term exposure to a contaminant or other stressor, is an important aspect of aquatic toxicology.
Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula.
The Codex Alimentarius is a collection of internationally recognized standards, codes of practice, guidelines, and other recommendations relating to foods, food production, and food safety.
A complete protein (or whole protein) is a source of protein that contains an adequate proportion of all nine of the essential amino acids necessary for the dietary needs of an organism.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Cryptoxanthin is a natural carotenoid pigment.
Curculin is a sweet protein that was discovered and isolated in 1990 from the fruit of Curculigo latifolia (Hypoxidaceae), a plant from Malaysia.
Cystine is the oxidized dimer form of the amino acid cysteine and has the formula (SCH2CH(NH2)CO2H)2.
Dairy products, milk products or lacticinia are a type of food produced from or containing the milk of mammals, primarily cattle, water buffaloes, goats, sheep, camels, and humans.
The temperature range in which food-borne bacteria can grow is known as the danger zone.
Decanoic acid (capric acid) is a saturated fatty acid.
Deep frying (also referred to as deep fat frying) is a cooking method in which food is submerged in hot fat, most commonly oil, rather than the shallow oil used in conventional frying, done in a frying pan.
Detoxification or detoxication (detox for short) is the physiological or medicinal removal of toxic substances from a living organism, including the human body, which is mainly carried out by the liver.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.
Diet food (or dietetic food) refers to any food or beverage whose recipe is altered to reduce fat, carbohydrates, and/or sugar in order to make it part of a weight loss program or diet. Such foods are usually intended to assist in weight loss or a change in body type, although bodybuilding supplements are designed to aid in gaining weight or muscle.
Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.
A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.
Dieting is the practice of eating food in a regulated and supervised fashion to decrease, maintain, or increase body weight, or to prevent and treat diseases, such as diabetes.
A dietitian (or dietician) is an expert in dietetics; that is, human nutrition and the regulation of diet.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
Dinner usually refers to the most significant meal of the day, which can be at noon or in the evening.
A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or bivose) is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides (simple sugars) are joined by glycosidic linkage.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 fatty acid that is a primary structural component of the human brain, cerebral cortex, skin, and retina.
Docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) designates any straight chain 22:5 fatty acid, that is a straight chain open chain type of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) which contains 22 carbons and 5 double bonds.
A dose is a measured quantity of a medicine, nutrient, or pathogen which is delivered as a unit.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
Dulcin is an artificial sweetener about 250 times sweeter than sugar, discovered in 1883 by the Polish chemist Józef (Joseph) Berlinerblau (27 August 1859 – 1935).
Durk Pearson (born 1943 in Illinois) is a research scientist best known for coauthoring a series of books on longevity, beginning with Life Extension: A Practical Scientific Approach.
Eating (also known as consuming) is the ingestion of food, typically to provide a heterotrophic organism with energy and to allow for growth.
An eating disorder is a mental disorder defined by abnormal eating habits that negatively affect a person's physical or mental health.
The ECA stack is a drug combination used in weight loss and as a stimulant.
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; also icosapentaenoic acid) is an omega-3 fatty acid.
In human nutrition, the term empty calories applies to foods and beverages composed primarily or solely of sugar, fats or oils, or alcohol-containing beverages.
An energy drink is a type of beverage containing stimulant drugs, usually including caffeine, which is marketed as providing mental and physical stimulation (marketed as "energy", but distinct from food energy).
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Erucic acid is a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid, denoted 22:1ω9.
Erythritol ((2R,3S)-butane-1,2,3,4-tetrol) is a sugar alcohol (or polyol) that has been approved for use as a food additive in the United States and throughout much of the world.
An essential amino acid, or indispensable amino acid, is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized ''de novo'' (from scratch) by the organism, and thus must be supplied in its diet.
Essential fatty acids, or EFAs, are fatty acids that humans and other animals must ingest because the body requires them for good health but cannot synthesize them.
Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.
A fad diet or diet cult is a diet that makes promises of weight loss or other health advantages such as longer life without backing by solid science, and in many cases are characterized by highly restrictive or unusual food choices.
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.
Fast food is a mass-produced food that is typically prepared and served quicker than traditional foods.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
A fat tax is a tax or surcharge that is placed upon fattening food, beverages or on overweight individuals.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
Flavonoids (or bioflavonoids) (from the Latin word flavus meaning yellow, their color in nature) are a class of plant and fungus secondary metabolites.
Flavor (American English) or flavour (British English; see spelling differences) is the sensory impression of food or other substance, and is determined primarily by the chemical senses of taste and smell.
Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.
A food addiction or eating addiction is a behavioral addiction that is characterized by the compulsive consumption of palatable (e.g., high fat and high sugar) foods – the types of food which markedly activate the reward system in humans and other animals – despite adverse consequences.
Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste, appearance, or other qualities.
A food allergy is an abnormal immune response to food.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
Some people abstain from consuming various foods and beverages in conformity with various religious, cultural, legal or other societal prohibitions.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
The Food and Drugs Act (the Act) (formal title "An Act respecting food, drugs, cosmetics and therapeutic devices") is an act of the Parliament of Canada regarding the production, import, export, transport across provinces and sale of food, drugs, contraceptive devices and cosmetics (including personal cleaning products such as soap and toothpaste).
The Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) is an agency of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).
A food bank or foodbank is a non-profit, charitable organization that distributes food to those who have difficulty purchasing enough to avoid hunger.
A food craving (also called selective hunger) is an intense desire to consume a specific food, and is different from normal hunger.
Food energy is chemical energy that animals (including humans) derive from food through the process of cellular respiration.
A food group is a collection of foods that share similar nutritional properties or biological classifications.
Food intolerance is a detrimental reaction, often delayed, to a food, beverage, food additive, or compound found in foods that produces symptoms in one or more body organs and systems, but generally refers to reactions other than food allergy.
Food politics are the political aspects of the production, control, regulation, inspection, distribution and consumption of food.
Food preservation prevents the growth of microorganisms (such as yeasts), or other microorganisms (although some methods work by introducing benign bacteria or fungi to the food), as well as slowing the oxidation of fats that cause rancidity.
Food processing is the transformation of cooked ingredients, by physical or chemical means into food, or of food into other forms.
A food processor is a kitchen appliance used to facilitate repetitive tasks in the preparation of food.
A food pyramid or diet pyramid is a triangular diagram representing the optimal number of servings to be eaten each day from each of the basic food groups.
Food quality is the quality characteristics of food that is acceptable to consumers.
Food rescue, also called food recovery or food salvage, is the practice of gleaning edible food that would otherwise go to waste from places such as restaurants, grocery stores, produce markets, or dining facilities and distributing it to local emergency food programs.
Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent food-borne illness.
The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), an agency of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), is the public health regulatory agency responsible for ensuring that United States' commercial supply of meat, poultry, and egg products is safe, wholesome, and correctly labeled and packaged.
Food science is the applied science devoted to the study of food.
Food security is a condition related to the availability of food supply, group of people such as (ethnicities, racial, cultural and religious groups) as well as individuals' access to it.
The Food Standards Agency is a non-ministerial government department of the Government of the United Kingdom.
Food storage allows food to be eaten for some time (typically weeks to months) after harvest rather than solely immediately.
Food technology is a branch of food science that deals with the production processes that make foods.
Foodborne illness (also foodborne disease and colloquially referred to as food poisoning) is any illness resulting from the food spoilage of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food, as well as toxins such as poisonous mushrooms and various species of beans that have not been boiled for at least 10 minutes.
Freezer burn is a condition that occurs when frozen food has been damaged by dehydration and oxidation, due to air reaching the food.
The French paradox is a catchphrase, first used in the late 1980s, that summarizes the apparently paradoxical epidemiological observation that French people have a relatively low incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD), while having a diet relatively rich in saturated fats, in apparent contradiction to the widely held belief that the high consumption of such fats is a risk factor for CHD.
Freezing food preserves it from the time it is prepared to the time it is eaten.
Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
Fruitarianism is a diet that consists entirely or primarily of fruits in the botanical sense, and possibly nuts and seeds, without animal products.
A functional food is a food given an additional function (often one related to health-promotion or disease prevention) by adding new ingredients or more of existing ingredients.
Galactose (galacto- + -ose, "milk sugar"), sometimes abbreviated Gal, is a monosaccharide sugar that is about as sweet as glucose, and about 30% as sweet as sucrose.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
General fitness training works towards broad goals of overall health and well-being, rather than narrow goals of sport competition, larger muscles or concerns over appearance.
Genetically modified foods or GM foods, also known as genetically engineered foods, bioengineered foods, genetically modified organisms, or GMOs, are foods produced from organisms that have had changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering.
George William Hart (born 1955) is an American geometer who expresses himself both artistically and academically.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
A glucose meter is a medical device for determining the approximate concentration of glucose in the blood.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glutamine (symbol Gln or Q) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
The glycemic index or glycaemic index (GI) is a number associated with the carbohydrates in a particular type of food that indicates the effect of these carbohydrates on a person's blood glucose (also called blood sugar) level.
The glycemic load (GL) of food is a number that estimates how much the food will raise a person's blood glucose level after eating it.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.
Glycyrrhizin (or glycyrrhizic acid or glycyrrhizinic acid) is the chief sweet-tasting constituent of Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice) root.
Growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin (or as human growth hormone in its human form), is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals.
Growth hormone–releasing hormone (GHRH), also known as somatocrinin or by several other names in its endogenous forms and as somatorelin (INN) in its pharmaceutical form, is a releasing hormone of growth hormone (GH).
Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.
Health claims on food labels and in food marketing are claims by manufacturers of food products that their food will reduce the risk of developing a disease or condition.
A healthy diet is a diet that helps to maintain or improve overall health.
In general use, herbs are plants with savory or aromatic properties that are used for flavoring and garnishing food, in medicine, or as fragrances.
Hexanoic acid (caproic acid) is the carboxylic acid derived from hexane with the chemical formula.
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are one of the five major groups of lipoproteins.
Histidine (symbol His or H) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Human body weight refers to a person's mass or weight.
The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder).
Human nutrition deals with the provision of essential nutrients in food that are necessary to support human life and health.
Hydrogenated starch hydrolysates (HSHs) are mixtures of several sugar alcohols (a type of sugar substitute).
Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal levels.
Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is a pre-diabetic state of hyperglycemia that is associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of cardiovascular pathology.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Myo-inositol, or simply inositol, is a carbocyclic sugar that is abundant in brain and other mammalian tissues, mediates cell signal transduction in response to a variety of hormones, neurotransmitters and growth factors and participates in osmoregulation It is a sugar alcohol with half the sweetness of sucrose (table sugar).
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Irradiation is the process by which an object is exposed to radiation.
Isoflavones are a type of naturally occurring isoflavonoids, many of which act as phytoestrogens in mammals.
Isoleucine (symbol Ile or I) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Isomalt is a sugar substitute, a type of sugar alcohol used primarily for its sugar-like physical properties.
The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
Junk food is a pejorative term for food containing a large number of calories from sugar or fat with little fibre, protein, vitamins or minerals.
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
Lactitol is a sugar alcohol used as a replacement bulk sweetener for low calorie foods with approximately 40% of the sweetness of sugar.
Lactoferrin (LF), also known as lactotransferrin (LTF), is a multifunctional protein of the transferrin family.
Lactose is a disaccharide.
Lauric acid or systematically, dodecanoic acid, is a saturated fatty acid with a 12-carbon atom chain, thus having many properties of medium chain fatty acids, is a white, powdery solid with a faint odor of bay oil or soap.
Leucine (symbol Leu or L) is an essential amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Life extension science, also known as anti-aging medicine, indefinite life extension, experimental gerontology, and biomedical gerontology, is the study of slowing down or reversing the processes of aging to extend both the maximum and average lifespan.
Linoleic acid (LA), a carboxylic acid, is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid, an 18-carbon chain with two double bonds in cis configuration.
Linolenic acid is a type of fatty acid.
Lipotropic compounds are those that help catalyse the breakdown of fat during metabolism in the body.
This is a list of antioxidants naturally occurring in food.
This list of culinary fruits contains the names of some fruits that are considered edible in some cuisines.
This is a list of culinary herbs and spices.
An individual's diet is the sum of food and drink that he or she habitually consumes.
The following is a list of animals that are or may have been raised in captivity for consumption by people.
An edible seed is a seed that is suitable for human or animal consumption.
;Acids: Food acids are added to make flavors "sharper", and also act as preservatives and antioxidants.
Below is a list of protein content in foods, organised by food group and given in measurements of grams of protein per 100 grams of food portion.
This is a list of foods and dishes named after people.
This list is a categorization of the most common food components based on their macronutrients.
The following is a list of micronutrients.
While there is ample evidence to indicate the health benefits of diets rich in fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains and nuts, no specific food has been acknowledged by scientists and government regulatory authorities as providing a health benefit.
This is a list of plants that have a culinary role as vegetables.
Local food (local food movement or locavore) is a movement of people who prefer to eat foods which are grown or farmed relatively close to the places of sale and preparation.
Low-carbohydrate diets or low-carb diets are dietary programs that restrict carbohydrate consumption.
Lutein (Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. from Latin luteus meaning "yellow") is a xanthophyll and one of 600 known naturally occurring carotenoids.
Lycopene (from the neo-Latin Lycopersicum, the tomato species) is a bright red carotene and carotenoid pigment and phytochemical found in tomatoes and other red fruits and vegetables, such as red carrots, watermelons, gac, and papayas, but it is not in strawberries or cherries.
Lysine (symbol Lys or K) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Mabinlins are sweet-tasting proteins extracted from the seed of mabinlang (Capparis masaikai Levl.), a Chinese plant growing in Yunnan province.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Malic acid is an organic compound with the molecular formula C4H6O5.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
Maltitol is a sugar alcohol (a polyol) used as a sugar substitute.
Maltose, also known as maltobiose or malt sugar, is a disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined with an α(1→4) bond. In the isomer isomaltose, the two glucose molecules are joined with an α(1→6) bond. Maltose is the two-unit member of the amylose homologous series, the key structural motif of starch. When beta-amylase breaks down starch, it removes two glucose units at a time, producing maltose. An example of this reaction is found in germinating seeds, which is why it was named after malt. Unlike sucrose, it is a reducing sugar.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
Mannitol is a type of sugar alcohol which is also used as a medication.
Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food.
Megavitamin therapy is the use of large doses of vitamins, often many times greater than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) in the attempt to prevent or treat diseases.
Methionine (symbol Met or M) is an essential amino acid in humans.
Micronutrients are essential elements required by organisms in small quantities throughout life to orchestrate a range of physiological functions to maintain health.
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.
In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.
Miraculin is a taste modifier, a glycoprotein extracted from the fruit of Synsepalum dulcificum.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
Monellin, a sweet protein, was discovered in 1969 in the fruit of the West African shrub known as serendipity berry (Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii); it was first reported as a carbohydrate.
Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the most basic units of carbohydrates.
In biochemistry and nutrition, monounsaturated fatty acids (abbreviated MUFAs, or more plainly monounsaturated fats) are fatty acids that have one double bond in the fatty acid chain with all of the remainder carbon atoms being single-bonded.
A multivitamin is a preparation intended to serve as a dietary supplement - with vitamins, dietary minerals, and other nutritional elements.
In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level.
Myristic acid (IUPAC systematic name: 1-tetradecanoic acid) is a common saturated fatty acid with the molecular formula CH3(CH2)12COOH.
Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, sometimes abbreviated to neohesperidin DC or simply NHDC, is an artificial sweetener derived from citrus.
Neotame is an artificial sweetener made by NutraSweet that is between 7,000 and 13,000 times sweeter than sucrose (table sugar).
Nervonic acid (24:1, n-9) is a fatty acid.
Nootropics, also known as smart drugs and cognitive enhancers, are drugs, supplements, and other substances that purport to improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals.
A Nutraceutical is a pharmaceutical-grade and standardized nutrient.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
Nutrient density identifies the proportion of nutrients in foods, with terms such as nutrient rich and micronutrient dense referring to similar properties.
Nutrigenomics is a branch of nutritional genomics and is the study of the effects of foods and food constituents on gene expression.
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.
Nutrition and pregnancy refers to the nutrient intake, and dietary planning that is undertaken before, during and after pregnancy.
The nutrition facts label (also known as the nutrition information panel, and other slight variations) is a label required on most packaged food in many countries.
The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA) (Public Law 101-535) is a 1990 United States Federal law.
Nutrition transition is the shift in dietary consumption and energy expenditure that coincides with economic, demographic, and epidemiological changes.
Nutritional genomics is a science studying the relationship between human genome, nutrition and health.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Oleic acid is a fatty acid that occurs naturally in various animal and vegetable fats and oils.
Omega−3 fatty acids, also called ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids, are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).
Omega-6 fatty acids (also referred to as ω-6 fatty acids or n-6 fatty acids) are a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids that have in common a final carbon-carbon double bond in the ''n''-6 position, that is, the sixth bond, counting from the methyl end.
An organic acid is an organic compound with acidic properties.
Organic food is food produced by methods that comply with the standards of organic farming.
Orthomolecular medicine, a form of alternative medicine, aims to maintain human health through nutritional supplementation.
An outline, also called a hierarchical outline, is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships and is a type of tree structure.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to exercise: Exercise – any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to food preparation: Food preparation – art form and applied science that includes but is not limited to cooking.
Overeating is the excess food in relation to the energy that an organism expends (or expels via excretion), leading to weight gaining and often obesity.
Being overweight or fat is having more body fat than is optimally healthy.
Palmitic acid, or hexadecanoic acid in IUPAC nomenclature, is the most common saturated fatty acid found in animals, plants and microorganisms.
Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 (a B vitamin), is a water-soluble vitamin.
Pasteurization or pasteurisation is a process in which packaged and non-packaged foods (such as milk and fruit juice) are treated with mild heat (Today, pasteurization is used widely in the dairy industry and other food processing industries to achieve food preservation and food safety. This process was named after the French scientist Louis Pasteur, whose research in the 1880s demonstrated that thermal processing would inactivate unwanted microorganisms in wine. Spoilage enzymes are also inactivated during pasteurization. Most liquid products are heat treated in a continuous system where heat can be applied using plate heat exchanger and/or direct or indirect use of steam and hot water. Due to the mild heat there are minor changes to the nutritional quality of foods as well as the sensory characteristics. Pascalization or high pressure processing (HPP) and Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) are non-thermal processes that are also used to pasteurize foods.
Pentadecanoic acid is a saturated fatty acid.
Pentadin, a sweet-tasting protein, was discovered and isolated in 1989, in the fruit of Oubli (Pentadiplandra brazzeana Baillon), a climbing shrub growing in some tropical countries of Africa.
Performance-enhancing substances, also known as performance-enhancing drugs (PED), are substances that are used to improve any form of activity performance in humans.
Phenylalanine (symbol Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Phytochemicals are chemical compounds produced by plants, generally to help them thrive or thwart competitors, predators, or pathogens.
Polyunsaturated fats are fats in which the constituent hydrocarbon chain possesses two or more carbon–carbon double bonds.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.
Proline (symbol Pro or P) is a proteinogenic amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
The prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in animals.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Proteins are essential nutrients for the human body.
Protein combining (or protein complementing) is a dietary theory for protein nutrition that purports to optimize the biological value of protein intake.
Pyridoxal is one form of vitamin B6.
Pyridoxamine is one form of vitamin B6.
Pyridoxine, also known as vitamin B6, is a form of vitamin B6 found commonly in food and used as dietary supplement.
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
Raw foodism, also known as following a raw food diet, is the dietary practice of eating only (or mostly) food that is uncooked and unprocessed.
The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily intake level of a nutrient that is considered to be sufficient to meet the requirements of 97–98% of healthy individuals in every demographic in the United States.
Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Sodium saccharin (benzoic sulfimide) is an artificial sweetener with effectively no food energy that is about 300–400 times as sweet as sucrose but has a bitter or metallic aftertaste, especially at high concentrations.
A salad bar is a buffet-style table or counter at a restaurant or food market on which salad components are provided for customers to assemble their own salad plates.
Sandy Shaw (formerly Sandy Shakocius) (born 1943) is an American writer on health.
A saturated fat is a type of fat in which the fatty acid chains have all or predominantly single bonds.
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.
Serine (symbol Ser or S) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Simplesse is a multi-functional dairy ingredient made from whey protein concentrate used as a fat substitute in low-calorie foods.
Slow Food is an organization that promotes local food and traditional cooking.
Snap freezing (or cook-chill or blast freezing) is the process of rapid cooling of a substance for the purpose of preservation.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium cyclamate (sweetener code 952) is an artificial sweetener.
Sorbitol, less commonly known as glucitol, is a sugar alcohol with a sweet taste which the human body metabolizes slowly.
A spice is a seed, fruit, root, bark, or other plant substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food.
Sports nutrition is the study and practice of nutrition and diet with regards to improving anyone's athletic performance.
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
Stearic acid is a saturated fatty acid with an 18-carbon chain and has the IUPAC name octadecanoic acid.
Stevia is a sweetener and sugar substitute extracted from the leaves of the plant species Stevia rebaudiana.
Sucralose is an artificial sweetener and sugar substitute.
Sucrose is common table sugar.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
A sugar substitute is a food additive that provides a sweet taste like that of sugar while containing significantly less food energy.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
Sulfites or sulphites are compounds that contain the sulfite ion (or the sulfate(IV) ion, from its correct systematic name),.
The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), formerly known as the Food Stamp Program, provides food-purchasing assistance for low- and no-income people living in the United States.
Tagatose is a sweetener based on its properties as a monosaccharide, specifically a hexose.
Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.
Thaumatin is a low-calorie sweetener and flavour modifier.
Theanine, also known as L-γ-glutamylethylamide and N5-ethyl-L-glutamine, is an amino acid analogue of the proteinogenic amino acids L-glutamate and L-glutamine and is found primarily in particular plant and fungal species.
Thermogenic means tending to produce heat, and the term is commonly applied to drugs which increase heat through metabolic stimulation, or to microorganisms which create heat within organic waste.
Thiamine, also known as thiamin or vitamin B1, is a vitamin found in food, and manufactured as a dietary supplement and medication.
Threonine (symbol Thr or T) is an amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Toxicology is a discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants.
A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.
Trans fat, also called trans-unsaturated fatty acids or trans fatty acids, are a type of unsaturated fat that occur in small amounts in nature but became widely produced industrially from vegetable fats starting in the 1950s for use in margarine, snack food, and packaged baked goods and for frying fast food.
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).
Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.
The law in the UK on food labelling is multifaceted and is spread over many reforms and parliamentary acts, making the subject complex.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.
Vacuum evaporation is the process of causing the pressure in a liquid-filled container to be reduced below the vapor pressure of the liquid, causing the liquid to evaporate at a lower temperature than normal.
Valine (symbol Val or V) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans as food as part of a meal.
Vegetarianism is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat (red meat, poultry, seafood, and the flesh of any other animal), and may also include abstention from by-products of animal slaughter.
A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.
Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids (most notably beta-carotene).
Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body: it is a cofactor in DNA synthesis, and in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.
Vitamin B3, also known as vitamin B3 complex, is vitamin that includes three forms: nicotinamide (niacinamide), niacin (nicotinic acid), and nicotinamide riboside.
Vitamin B6 refers to a group of chemically similar compounds which can be interconverted in biological systems.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
A vitamin deficiency can cause a disease or syndrome known as an avitaminosis or hypovitaminosis.
Vitamin E is a group of eight compounds that include four tocopherols and four tocotrienols.
Vitamin K is a group of structurally similar, fat-soluble vitamins that the human body requires for complete synthesis of certain proteins that are prerequisites for blood coagulation (K from Koagulation, Danish for "coagulation") and which the body also needs for controlling binding of calcium in bones and other tissues.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Xylitol is a sugar alcohol used as a sweetener.
Yo-yo dieting or yo-yo effect, also known as weight cycling, is a term coined by Kelly D. Brownell at Yale University, in reference to the cyclical loss and gain of weight, resembling the up-down motion of a yo-yo.
Zeaxanthin is one of the most common carotenoid alcohols found in nature.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
5-Nitro-2-propoxyaniline, also known as P-4000 and Ultrasüss, is one of the strongest sweet-tasting substances known, about 4,000 times the intensity of sucrose (hence its alternate name, P-4000).