226 relations: Acoustics, Agroecosystem, Agrophysics, Air mass, Alloy, Analytical chemistry, Asteroid, Astrology, Astrometry, Astrophysics, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric chemistry, Atmospheric pressure, Atmospheric sciences, Atom, Atomic nucleus, Atomic theory, Atomic, molecular, and optical physics, Basic research, Big Bang, Biogeography, Bioinorganic chemistry, Biology, Biomechanics, Biophysics, Cave, Chemical bond, Chemical compound, Chemical kinetics, Chemical thermodynamics, Cheminformatics, Chemistry, Climate, Climatology, Cloud, Comet, Computational chemistry, Condensation, Condensed matter physics, Conservation of energy, Convection, Coordination complex, Cosmochemistry, Cosmology, Cosmos, Crystal structure, Earth, Econophysics, Electricity, Electroanalytical methods, ..., Electrochemistry, Electromagnetism, Electron, Electron configuration, Empirical evidence, Energy, Energy development, Energy transformation, Erosion, Evaporation, Fog, Force, Fossil, Fresh water, Functional group, Galaxy, Geochemistry, Geomorphology, Heat, Heliocentrism, History of astronomy, History of biochemistry, History of cartography, History of chemical engineering, History of chemistry, History of classical mechanics, History of ecology, History of electrochemistry, History of electromagnetic theory, History of fluid mechanics, History of geodesy, History of geography, History of geology, History of geophysics, History of marine biology, History of materials science, History of mineralogy, History of nanotechnology, History of optics, History of paleontology, History of pharmacy, History of physics, History of quantum mechanics, History of soil science, History of spectroscopy, History of subatomic physics, History of thermodynamics, Humidity, Hydrology, Hypothesis, Inorganic chemistry, Inorganic compound, Instrumental chemistry, John L. Heilbron, John Wiley & Sons, Kinetic theory of gases, Laws of thermodynamics, Light, Limnology, List of astronomers, List of chemists, List of life sciences, List of physicists, List of Russian earth scientists, Magnetism, Materials science, Mathematical chemistry, Mathematics, Matter, Mechanics, Mechanistic organic photochemistry, Medication, Merriam-Webster, Meteoroid, Meteorology, Molecular dynamics, Molecular modelling, Molecule, Moon, Motion (physics), Mountain, Natural science, Neurochemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus, Nuclear chemistry, Nuclear physics, Nuclear reaction, Oceanography, Orbital mechanics, Organic chemistry, Organic compound, Organic reaction, Organic synthesis, Organometallic chemistry, Outline of applied science, Outline of astronomy, Outline of biochemistry, Outline of chemistry, Outline of Earth sciences, Outline of geophysics, Outline of knowledge, Outline of meteorology, Outline of natural science, Outline of organic chemistry, Outline of physical science, Outline of physics, Outline of science, Outline of social science, Paleoclimatology, Parasitology, Pearson Education, Pedogenesis, Petrology, Phase (matter), Phase transition, Photochemistry, Physical chemistry, Physical cosmology, Physical geography, Planet, Planetary habitability, Planetary science, Polymer, Polymer chemistry, Population dynamics, Precipitation, Principle, Psychophysics, Quantum chemistry, Radioactive decay, Redox, Richard Feynman, Rock (geology), Science, Scientific method, Seismology, Separation process, Soil fertility, Soil science, Solar System, Solid-state chemistry, Sound, Spacetime, Spectroscopy, Speleology, Spherical Earth, Star, Statistical mechanics, Supramolecular chemistry, Surface science, Tectonics, Temperature, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Theoretical chemistry, Theory of relativity, Thermal conduction, Thermal radiation, Thermochemistry, Thermometer, Thunderstorm, Tornado, Toxicology, Transpiration, Tropical cyclone, Universe, University Physics, Volcano, Volcanology, Water cycle, Wave, Weather, Weather front, Weathering, Wet chemistry, Wind, World. Expand index (176 more) » « Shrink index
Acoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound.
An agroecosystem is the basic unit of study in agroecology, and is somewhat arbitrarily defined as a spatially and functionally coherent unit of agricultural activity, and includes the living and nonliving components involved in that unit as well as their interactions.
Agrophysics is a branch of science bordering on agronomy and physics, whose objects of study are the agroecosystem - the biological objects, biotope and biocoenosis affected by human activity, studied and described using the methods of physical sciences.
In meteorology, an air mass is a volume of air defined by its temperature and water vapor content.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter.
Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.
Astrometry is the branch of astronomy that involves precise measurements of the positions and movements of stars and other celestial bodies.
Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space".
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Atmospheric chemistry is a branch of atmospheric science in which the chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere and that of other planets is studied.
Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).
Atmospheric science is the study of the Earth's atmosphere, its processes, the effects other systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
In chemistry and physics, atomic theory is a scientific theory of the nature of matter, which states that matter is composed of discrete units called atoms.
Atomic, molecular, and optical physics (AMO) is the study of matter-matter and light-matter interactions; at the scale of one or a few atoms and energy scales around several electron volts.
Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, has the scientific research aim to improve scientific theories for improved understanding or prediction of natural or other phenomena.
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time.
Bioinorganic chemistry is a field that examines the role of metals in biology.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Biomechanics is the study of the structure and function of the mechanical aspects of biological systems, at any level from whole organisms to organs, cells and cell organelles, using the methods of mechanics.
Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies the approaches and methods of physics to study biological systems.
A cave is a hollow place in the ground, specifically a natural space large enough for a human to enter.
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
Chemical kinetics, also known as reaction kinetics, is the study of rates of chemical processes.
Chemical thermodynamics is the study of the interrelation of heat and work with chemical reactions or with physical changes of state within the confines of the laws of thermodynamics.
Cheminformatics (also known as chemoinformatics, chemioinformatics and chemical informatics) is the use of computer and informational techniques applied to a range of problems in the field of chemistry.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
Climatology (from Greek κλίμα, klima, "place, zone"; and -λογία, -logia) or climate science is the scientific study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time.
In meteorology, a cloud is an aerosol consisting of a visible mass of minute liquid droplets, frozen crystals, or other particles suspended in the atmosphere of a planetary body.
A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.
Computational chemistry is a branch of chemistry that uses computer simulation to assist in solving chemical problems.
Condensation is the change of the physical state of matter from gas phase into liquid phase, and is the reverse of vapourisation.
Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic and microscopic physical properties of matter.
In physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant, it is said to be ''conserved'' over time.
Convection is the heat transfer due to bulk movement of molecules within fluids such as gases and liquids, including molten rock (rheid).
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
Cosmochemistry (from Greek κόσμος kósmos, "universe" and χημεία khemeía) or chemical cosmology is the study of the chemical composition of matter in the universe and the processes that led to those compositions.
Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.
The cosmos is the universe.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Econophysics is an interdisciplinary research field, applying theories and methods originally developed by physicists in order to solve problems in economics, usually those including uncertainty or stochastic processes and nonlinear dynamics.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
Electroanalytical methods are a class of techniques in analytical chemistry which study an analyte by measuring the potential (volts) and/or current (amperes) in an electrochemical cell containing the analyte.
Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.
Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Energy development is the field of activities focused on obtaining sources of energy from natural resources.
Energy transformation, also termed as energy conversion, is the process of changing energy from one of its forms into another.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.
Fog is a visible aerosol consisting of minute water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the air at or near the Earth's surface.
In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter.
Geochemistry is the science that uses the tools and principles of chemistry to explain the mechanisms behind major geological systems such as the Earth's crust and its oceans.
Geomorphology (from Ancient Greek: γῆ, gê, "earth"; μορφή, morphḗ, "form"; and λόγος, lógos, "study") is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface.
In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.
Heliocentrism is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System.
Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences, dating back to antiquity, with its origins in the religious, mythological, cosmological, calendrical, and astrological beliefs and practices of prehistory: vestiges of these are still found in astrology, a discipline long interwoven with public and governmental astronomy, and not completely disentangled from it until a few centuries ago in the Western World (see astrology and astronomy).
The history of biochemistry can be said to have started with the ancient Greeks who were interested in the composition and processes of life, although biochemistry as a specific scientific discipline has its beginning around the early 19th century.
Cartography, or mapmaking, has been an integral part of the human history for thousands of years.
Chemical engineering as a discipline that was developed out of those practising "industrial chemistry" in the late 19th century.
The history of chemistry represents a time span from ancient history to the present.
This article deals with the history of classical mechanics.
Ecology is a new science and considered as an important branch of biological science, having only become prominent during the second half of the 20th century.
Electrochemistry, a branch of chemistry, went through several changes during its evolution from early principles related to magnets in the early 16th and 17th centuries, to complex theories involving conductivity, electric charge and mathematical methods.
The history of electromagnetic theory begins with ancient measures to understand atmospheric electricity, in particular lightning.
The history of fluid mechanics, the study of how fluids move and the forces on them, dates back to the Ancient Greeks.
Geodesy (/dʒiːˈɒdɨsi/), also named geodetics, is the scientific discipline that deals with the measurement and representation of the Earth.
The history of geography includes many histories of geography which have differed over time and between different cultural and political groups.
The history of geology is concerned with the development of the natural science of geology.
The historical development of geophysics has been motivated by two factors.
Marine biology is a hybrid subject that combines aspects of organismal function, ecological interaction and the study of marine biodiversity.
Materials science has shaped the development of civilizations since the dawn of mankind.
Early writing on mineralogy, especially on gemstones, comes from ancient Babylonia, the ancient Greco-Roman world, ancient and medieval China, and Sanskrit texts from ancient India.
The history of nanotechnology traces the development of the concepts and experimental work falling under the broad category of nanotechnology.
Optics began with the development of lenses by the ancient Egyptians and Mesopotamians, followed by theories on light and vision developed by ancient Greek philosophers, and the development of geometrical optics in the Greco-Roman world.
The history of paleontology traces the history of the effort to understand the history of life on Earth by studying the fossil record left behind by living organisms.
The history of pharmacy as an independent science dates back to the first third of the 19th century.
Physics (from the Ancient Greek φύσις physis meaning "nature") is the fundamental branch of science.
The history of quantum mechanics is a fundamental part of the history of modern physics.
The early concepts of soil were based on ideas developed by a German chemist, Justus von Liebig (1803–1873), and modified and refined by agricultural scientists who worked on samples of soil in laboratories, greenhouses, and on small field plots.
The history of spectroscopy began in the 17th century.
The idea that matter consists of smaller particles and that there exists a limited number of sorts of primary, smallest particles in nature has existed in natural philosophy at least since the 6th century BC.
The history of thermodynamics is a fundamental strand in the history of physics, the history of chemistry, and the history of science in general.
Humidity is the amount of water vapor present in the air.
Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.
A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.
Inorganic chemistry deals with the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds.
An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.
Instrumental analysis is a field of analytical chemistry that investigates analytes using scientific instruments.
John Lewis Heilbron (born 17 March 1934, San Francisco) is an American historian of science best known for his work in the history of physics and the history of astronomy.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
The kinetic theory describes a gas as a large number of submicroscopic particles (atoms or molecules), all of which are in constant rapid motion that has randomness arising from their many collisions with each other and with the walls of the container.
The four laws of thermodynamics define fundamental physical quantities (temperature, energy, and entropy) that characterize thermodynamic systems at thermal equilibrium.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Limnology (from Greek λίμνη, limne, "lake" and λόγος, logos, "knowledge"), is the study of inland aquatic ecosystems.
The following are list of astronomers, astrophysicists and other notable people who have made contributions to the field of astronomy.
This is a list of chemists.
The life sciences or biological sciences comprise the branches of science that involve the scientific study of life and organisms – such as microorganisms, plants, and animals including human beings – as well as related considerations like bioethics.
Following is a list of physicists who are notable for their achievements.
This list of Russian Earth scientists includes the notable geographers, geologists, oceanographers, meteorologists, ecologists and other representatives of Earth sciences from the Russian Federation, the Soviet Union, the Russian Empire and other predecessor states of Russia.
Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields.
The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.
Mathematical chemistry is the area of research engaged in novel applications of mathematics to chemistry; it concerns itself principally with the mathematical modeling of chemical phenomena.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.
Mechanics (Greek μηχανική) is that area of science concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.
Mechanistic organic photochemistry is that aspect of organic photochemistry which seeks to explain the mechanisms of organic photochemical reactions.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.
A meteoroid is a small rocky or metallic body in outer space.
Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.
Molecular dynamics (MD) is a computer simulation method for studying the physical movements of atoms and molecules.
Molecular modelling encompasses all methods, theoretical and computational, used to model or mimic the behaviour of molecules.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
In physics, motion is a change in position of an object over time.
A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
Neurochemistry is the study of neurochemicals, including neurotransmitters and other molecules such as psychopharmaceuticals and neuropeptides, that influence the function of neurons.
Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.
Nuclear chemistry is the subfield of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes, such as nuclear transmutation, and nuclear properties.
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process.
Oceanography (compound of the Greek words ὠκεανός meaning "ocean" and γράφω meaning "write"), also known as oceanology, is the study of the physical and biological aspects of the ocean.
Orbital mechanics or astrodynamics is the application of ballistics and celestial mechanics to the practical problems concerning the motion of rockets and other spacecraft.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds.
Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds.
Organometallic chemistry is the study of organometallic compounds, chemical compounds containing at least one chemical bond between a carbon atom of an organic molecule and a metal, including alkaline, alkaline earth, and transition metals, and sometimes broadened to include metalloids like boron, silicon, and tin, as well.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to applied science, which is the branch of science that applies existing scientific knowledge to develop more practical applications, including inventions and other technological advancements.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to astronomy: Astronomy – studies the universe beyond Earth, including its formation and development, and the evolution, physics, chemistry, meteorology, and motion of celestial objects (such as galaxies, planets, etc.) and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth (such as the cosmic background radiation).
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to biochemistry: Biochemistry – study of chemical processes in living organisms, including living matter.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to chemistry: Chemistry – science of atomic matter (matter that is composed of chemical elements), especially its chemical reactions, but also including its properties, structure, composition, behavior, and changes as they relate the chemical reactions.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Earth science: Earth science – all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to geophysics: Geophysics – the physics of the Earth and its environment in space; also the study of the Earth using quantitative physical methods.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to knowledge: Knowledge – familiarity with someone or something, which can include facts, information, descriptions, and/or skills acquired through experience or education.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to meteorology: Meteorology – interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere which explains and forecasts weather events.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to natural science: Natural science – a major branch of science that tries to explain, and predict, nature's phenomena based on empirical evidence.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to organic chemistry: Organic chemistry – scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of carbon-based compounds, hydrocarbons, and their derivatives.
Physical science is a branch of natural science that studies non-living systems, in contrast to life science.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to physics: Physics – natural science that involves the study of matterRichard Feynman begins his ''Lectures'' with the atomic hypothesis, as his most compact statement of all scientific knowledge: "If, in some cataclysm, all of scientific knowledge were to be destroyed, and only one sentence passed on to the next generations..., what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is...
The following outline is provided as a topical overview of science: Science – the systematic effort of acquiring knowledge—through observation and experimentation coupled with logic and reasoning to find out what can be proved or not proved—and the knowledge thus acquired.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to social science: Social science – branch of science concerned with society and human behaviors.
Paleoclimatology (in British spelling, palaeoclimatology) is the study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth.
Parasitology is the study of parasites, their hosts, and the relationship between them.
Pearson Education (see also Pearson PLC) is a British-owned education publishing and assessment service to schools and corporations, as well as directly to students.
Pedogenesis (from the Greek pedo-, or pedon, meaning 'soil, earth,' and genesis, meaning 'origin, birth') (also termed soil development, soil evolution, soil formation, and soil genesis) is the process of soil formation as regulated by the effects of place, environment, and history.
Petrology (from the Greek πέτρος, pétros, "rock" and λόγος, lógos, "subject matter", see -logy) is the branch of geology that studies rocks and the conditions under which they form.
In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.
The term phase transition (or phase change) is most commonly used to describe transitions between solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter, and, in rare cases, plasma.
Photochemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the chemical effects of light.
Physical Chemistry is the study of macroscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of the principles, practices, and concepts of physics such as motion, energy, force, time, thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics, analytical dynamics and chemical equilibrium.
Physical cosmology is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the Universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its origin, structure, evolution, and ultimate fate.
Physical geography (also known as geosystems or physiography) is one of the two major sub-fields of geography.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
Planetary habitability is the measure of a planet's or a natural satellite's potential to have habitable environments hospitable to life, or its ability to generate life endogenously.
Planetary science or, more rarely, planetology, is the scientific study of planets (including Earth), moons, and planetary systems (in particular those of the Solar System) and the processes that form them.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Polymer chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline that deals with the structures, chemical synthesis and properties of polymers, primarily synthetic polymers such as plastics and elastomers.
Population dynamics is the branch of life sciences that studies the size and age composition of populations as dynamical systems, and the biological and environmental processes driving them (such as birth and death rates, and by immigration and emigration).
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
A principle is a concept or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation.
Psychophysics quantitatively investigates the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they produce.
Quantum chemistry is a branch of chemistry whose primary focus is the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Richard Phillips Feynman (May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) was an American theoretical physicist, known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
Seismology (from Ancient Greek σεισμός (seismós) meaning "earthquake" and -λογία (-logía) meaning "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies.
A separation process is a method that converts a mixture or solution of chemical substances into two or more distinct product mixtures.
Soil fertility refers to the ability of a soil to sustain agricultural plant growth, i.e. to provide plant habitat and result in sustained and consistent yields of high quality.
Soil science is the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the Earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
Solid-state chemistry, also sometimes referred to as materials chemistry, is the study of the synthesis, structure, and properties of solid phase materials, particularly, but not necessarily exclusively of, non-molecular solids.
In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.
In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
Speleology is the scientific study of caves and other karst features, their make-up, structure, physical properties, history, life forms, and the processes by which they form (speleogenesis) and change over time (speleomorphology).
The earliest reliably documented mention of the spherical Earth concept dates from around the 6th century BC when it appeared in ancient Greek philosophy but remained a matter of speculation until the 3rd century BC, when Hellenistic astronomy established the spherical shape of the Earth as a physical given.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
Statistical mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics.
file:Supramolecular Assembly Lehn.jpg |Self-Assembly of a Circular Double Helicate Cucurbituril gyroscope AngewChemIntEd 2002 v41 p275 hires.png|Host-guest complex within another host (cucurbit10uril) Rotaxane Crystal Structure EurJOrgChem page2565 year1998.png| Category:Chemistry.
Surface science is the study of physical and chemical phenomena that occur at the interface of two phases, including solid–liquid interfaces, solid–gas interfaces, solid–vacuum interfaces, and liquid–gas interfaces.
Tectonics is the process that controls the structure and properties of the Earth's crust and its evolution through time.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
The Feynman Lectures on Physics is a physics textbook based on some lectures by Richard P. Feynman, a Nobel laureate who has sometimes been called "The Great Explainer".
Theoretical chemistry is a branch of chemistry, which develops theoretical generalizations that are part of the theoretical arsenal of modern chemistry, for example, the concept of chemical bonding, chemical reaction, valence, the surface of potential energy, molecular orbitals, orbital interactions, molecule activation etc.
The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.
Thermal conduction is the transfer of heat (internal energy) by microscopic collisions of particles and movement of electrons within a body.
Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of charged particles in matter.
Thermochemistry is the study of the heat energy associated with chemical reactions and/or physical transformations.
A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or a temperature gradient.
A thunderstorm, also known as an electrical storm, lightning storm, or thundershower, is a storm characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustic effect on the Earth's atmosphere, known as thunder.
A tornado is a rapidly rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the Earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud.
Toxicology is a discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants.
Transpiration is the process of water movement through a plant and its evaporation from aerial parts, such as leaves, stems and flowers.
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
University Physics is the name of a two-volume physics textbook written by Hugh Young and Roger Freedman.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
Volcanology (also spelled vulcanology) is the study of volcanoes, lava, magma, and related geological, geophysical and geochemical phenomena.
The water cycle, also known as the hydrological cycle or the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth.
In physics, a wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space, with little or no associated mass transport.
Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degree to which it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy.
A weather front is a boundary separating two masses of air of different densities, and is the principal cause of meteorological phenomena outside the tropics.
Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms.
Wet chemistry is a form of analytical chemistry that uses classical methods such as observation to analyze materials.
Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale.
The world is the planet Earth and all life upon it, including human civilization.
History of physical science, Introductory Physical Science, List of basic physical science topics, List of physical science topics, List of physical sciences, Outline of physical sciences, Outline of the history of physical science, Physical Science, Physical Sciences, Physical science, Physical sciences, Physical scientist, PhysicalScience, Physichem, Principles of Physical Science, Principles of physical science, Topic outline of physical science, Topical outline of physical science.