339 relations: Acceleration, Accelerator physics, Acoustics, Aerodynamics, Agroecosystem, Agrophysics, American Institute of Physics, American Physical Society, Angular momentum, Antimatter, Astrometry, Astroparticle physics, Astrophysics, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric physics, Atom, Atomic and molecular astrophysics, Atomic physics, Atomic theory, Atomic, molecular, and optical physics, Basic research, BCS theory, Big Bang, Biology, Biomechanics, Biophysics, Black hole, Bloch wave, Boltzmann constant, Born–Oppenheimer approximation, Bose–Einstein condensate, Branch, Brane, Canadian Association of Physicists, Capacitance, Casimir effect, Chaos theory, Chemical physics, Classical electromagnetism, Classical mechanics, Classical physics, Computational physics, Condensed matter physics, Conjugate variables (thermodynamics), Conservation law, Conservation of energy, Continuum mechanics, Convection, Correspondence principle, Cosmic background radiation, ..., Cosmic string, Cosmology, Cosmos, Cryogenics, Dark energy, Dark matter, Density, Diffraction, Dimension, Dirac equation, Discipline (academia), Dynamics (mechanics), Econophysics, Effective field theory, Einstein field equations, Einstein manifold, Electric charge, Electric current, Electric field, Electrical resistance and conductance, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electricity, Electromagnetic field, Electromagnetic induction, Electromagnetic radiation, Electromagnetism, Electrostatics, Electroweak interaction, Elementary particle, Empirical research, Energy, Energy development, Energy transformation, Enthalpy, Entropy, Equation of state, Equipartition theorem, Equivalence principle, European Physical Society, Experiment, Extragalactic astronomy, Fermi gas, Fermi liquid theory, Field (physics), First law of thermodynamics, Fluid dynamics, Fluid kinematics, Fluid mechanics, Force, Four-momentum, Four-vector, Frame of reference, Free particle, Fundamental interaction, Galactic astronomy, Galaxy, Gas, Gauge theory, Gaussian surface, General relativity, Geodesics in general relativity, Geophysics, Gerard 't Hooft, Glossary of classical physics, Grand Unified Theory, Gravitational singularity, Gravitational wave, Gravitoelectromagnetism, Gravity, Hamiltonian (quantum mechanics), Hamiltonian mechanics, Harmonic oscillator, Heat, Heat engine, High pressure, High-energy astronomy, Hilbert space, History of astronomy, History of classical mechanics, History of electromagnetic theory, History of fluid mechanics, History of general relativity, History of geophysics, History of optics, History of physics, History of quantum mechanics, History of special relativity, History of subatomic physics, History of thermodynamics, Homeokinetics, Hydrostatics, Ideal gas law, Identical particles, Index of optics articles, Index of physics articles, Index of wave articles, Inertial frame of reference, Inflation (cosmology), Institute of Physics, Internal energy, Invariant (physics), Invariant mass, John Wiley & Sons, Kinematics, Kinetic theory of gases, Lagrangian mechanics, Lambda-CDM model, Laser, Lattice field theory, Lattice gauge theory, Laws of science, Laws of thermodynamics, Length, Length contraction, Light, Liquid, List of common physics notations, List of equations in classical mechanics, List of important publications in physics, List of letters used in mathematics and science, List of noise topics, List of physicists, List of physics concepts in primary and secondary education curricula, List of physics journals, List of scientific units named after people, Lists of physics equations, Lorentz covariance, Lorentz transformation, M-theory, Magnetic field, Magnetic flux, Magnetic monopole, Magnetism, Many-body theory, Mass, Mass–energy equivalence, Materials physics, Mathematical physics, Matrix mechanics, Matter, Maxwell's equations, Mechanics, Medical physics, Metric (mathematics), Minkowski diagram, Minkowski space, Molecular physics, Molecule, Momentum, Motion (physics), Nanotechnology, Natural science, Nature, Neurophysics, Newton's law of universal gravitation, Newton's laws of motion, Non-equilibrium thermodynamics, Nuclear astrophysics, Nuclear physics, Observation, Operator (mathematics), Optics, Orbital mechanics, Outline (list), Outline of astronomy, Outline of biophysics, Outline of physical science, Particle accelerator, Particle physics, Partition function (statistical mechanics), Path integral formulation, Pauli exclusion principle, Permeability (electromagnetism), Permittivity, Phase (matter), Phase transition, Phenomenology (particle physics), Photonics, Physical constant, Physical cosmology, Physical law, Physical quantity, Physical system, Physics, Planck constant, Planet, Planetary science, Plasma (physics), Polarization (waves), Polymer physics, Potential energy, Power (physics), Pressure, Principle of relativity, Proper length, Proper time, Pseudo-Riemannian manifold, Psychophysics, Quantization (physics), Quantum, Quantum chemistry, Quantum chromodynamics, Quantum entanglement, Quantum field theory, Quantum gravity, Quantum harmonic oscillator, Quantum information science, Quantum mechanics, Quantum number, Quantum optics, Quantum statistical mechanics, Quantum tunnelling, Relativity of simultaneity, Reversible process (thermodynamics), Richard Feynman, Scattering theory, Schrödinger equation, Schrödinger's cat, Science, Scientific method, Second law of thermodynamics, Self-organization, Society of Physics Students, Soil physics, Solar System, Solid, Solid-state physics, Sound, Space, Space physics, Spacetime, Special relativity, Spectral line, Speed of light, Spin (physics), Spontaneous process, Spontaneous symmetry breaking, Stack Exchange, Standard Model, Star, State function, State of matter, Statics, Statistical ensemble (mathematical physics), Statistical mechanics, Stress–energy tensor, String (physics), Strong interaction, Superconductivity, Superfluidity, Supernova, Superstring theory, Supersymmetry, Temperature, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Theoretical physics, Theory of everything, Theory of relativity, Thermal conduction, Thermal radiation, Thermodynamic equilibrium, Thermodynamic free energy, Thermodynamic potential, Thermodynamic process, Thermodynamic state, Thermodynamic system, Thermodynamics, Thermometer, Third law of thermodynamics, Time, Time dilation, Torque, Twin paradox, Uncertainty principle, Unit of measurement, Universe, Vacuum energy, Vehicle dynamics, Velocity, Viscosity, Wave, Wave function, Wave–particle duality, Weak interaction, Work (physics), World, World line, Zero-point energy, Zeroth law of thermodynamics. Expand index (289 more) »

## Acceleration

In physics, acceleration is the rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time.

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## Accelerator physics

Accelerator physics is a branch of applied physics, concerned with designing, building and operating particle accelerators.

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## Acoustics

Acoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound.

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## Aerodynamics

Aerodynamics, from Greek ἀήρ aer (air) + δυναμική (dynamics), is the study of the motion of air, particularly its interaction with a solid object, such as an airplane wing.

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## Agroecosystem

An agroecosystem is the basic unit of study in agroecology, and is somewhat arbitrarily defined as a spatially and functionally coherent unit of agricultural activity, and includes the living and nonliving components involved in that unit as well as their interactions.

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## Agrophysics

Agrophysics is a branch of science bordering on agronomy and physics, whose objects of study are the agroecosystem - the biological objects, biotope and biocoenosis affected by human activity, studied and described using the methods of physical sciences.

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## American Institute of Physics

The American Institute of Physics (AIP) promotes science, the profession of physics, publishes physics journals, and produces publications for scientific and engineering societies.

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## American Physical Society

The American Physical Society (APS) is the world's second largest organization of physicists.

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## Angular momentum

In physics, angular momentum (rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational equivalent of linear momentum.

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## Antimatter

In modern physics, antimatter is defined as a material composed of the antiparticle (or "partners") to the corresponding particles of ordinary matter.

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## Astrometry

Astrometry is the branch of astronomy that involves precise measurements of the positions and movements of stars and other celestial bodies.

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## Astroparticle physics

Astroparticle physics, also called particle astrophysics, is a branch of particle physics that studies elementary particles of astronomical origin and their relation to astrophysics and cosmology.

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## Astrophysics

Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space".

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## Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.

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## Atmospheric physics

Atmospheric physics is the application of physics to the study of the atmosphere.

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## Atom

An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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## Atomic and molecular astrophysics

Atomic astrophysics is concerned with performing atomic physics calculations that will be useful to astronomers and using atomic data to interpret astronomical observations.

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## Atomic physics

Atomic physics is the field of physics that studies atoms as an isolated system of electrons and an atomic nucleus.

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## Atomic theory

In chemistry and physics, atomic theory is a scientific theory of the nature of matter, which states that matter is composed of discrete units called atoms.

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## Atomic, molecular, and optical physics

Atomic, molecular, and optical physics (AMO) is the study of matter-matter and light-matter interactions; at the scale of one or a few atoms and energy scales around several electron volts.

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## Basic research

Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, has the scientific research aim to improve scientific theories for improved understanding or prediction of natural or other phenomena.

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## BCS theory

BCS theory or Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer theory (named after John Bardeen, Leon Cooper, and John Robert Schrieffer) is the first microscopic theory of superconductivity since Heike Kamerlingh Onnes's 1911 discovery.

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## Big Bang

The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.

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## Biology

Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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## Biomechanics

Biomechanics is the study of the structure and function of the mechanical aspects of biological systems, at any level from whole organisms to organs, cells and cell organelles, using the methods of mechanics.

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## Biophysics

Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies the approaches and methods of physics to study biological systems.

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## Black hole

A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.

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## Bloch wave

A Bloch wave (also called Bloch state or Bloch function or Bloch wavefunction), named after Swiss physicist Felix Bloch, is a type of wavefunction for a particle in a periodically-repeating environment, most commonly an electron in a crystal.

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## Boltzmann constant

The Boltzmann constant, which is named after Ludwig Boltzmann, is a physical constant relating the average kinetic energy of particles in a gas with the temperature of the gas.

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## Born–Oppenheimer approximation

In quantum chemistry and molecular physics, the Born–Oppenheimer (BO) approximation is the assumption that the motion of atomic nuclei and electrons in a molecule can be separated.

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## Bose–Einstein condensate

A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter of a dilute gas of bosons cooled to temperatures very close to absolute zero.

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## Branch

A branch or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany as a ramus) is a woody structural member connected to but not part of the central trunk of a tree (or sometimes a shrub).

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## Brane

In string theory and related theories such as supergravity theories, a brane is a physical object that generalizes the notion of a point particle to higher dimensions.

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## Canadian Association of Physicists

The Canadian Association of Physicists (CAP), or in French Association canadienne des physiciens et physiciennes (ACP) is a Canadian professional society that focuses on creating awareness amongst Canadians and Canadian legislators of physics issues, sponsoring physics related events, physics outreach, and publishes Physics in Canada.

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## Capacitance

Capacitance is the ratio of the change in an electric charge in a system to the corresponding change in its electric potential.

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## Casimir effect

In quantum field theory, the Casimir effect and the Casimir–Polder force are physical forces arising from a quantized field.

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## Chaos theory

Chaos theory is a branch of mathematics focusing on the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions.

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## Chemical physics

Chemical physics is a subdiscipline of chemistry and physics that investigates physicochemical phenomena using techniques from atomic and molecular physics and condensed matter physics; it is the branch of physics that studies chemical processes from the point of view of physics.

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## Classical electromagnetism

Classical electromagnetism or classical electrodynamics is a branch of theoretical physics that studies the interactions between electric charges and currents using an extension of the classical Newtonian model.

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## Classical mechanics

Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies.

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## Classical physics

Classical physics refers to theories of physics that predate modern, more complete, or more widely applicable theories.

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## Computational physics

Computational physics is the study and implementation of numerical analysis to solve problems in physics for which a quantitative theory already exists.

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## Condensed matter physics

Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic and microscopic physical properties of matter.

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## Conjugate variables (thermodynamics)

In thermodynamics, the internal energy of a system is expressed in terms of pairs of conjugate variables such as temperature and entropy or pressure and volume.

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## Conservation law

In physics, a conservation law states that a particular measurable property of an isolated physical system does not change as the system evolves over time.

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## Conservation of energy

In physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant, it is said to be ''conserved'' over time.

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## Continuum mechanics

Continuum mechanics is a branch of mechanics that deals with the analysis of the kinematics and the mechanical behavior of materials modeled as a continuous mass rather than as discrete particles.

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## Convection

Convection is the heat transfer due to bulk movement of molecules within fluids such as gases and liquids, including molten rock (rheid).

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## Correspondence principle

In physics, the correspondence principle states that the behavior of systems described by the theory of quantum mechanics (or by the old quantum theory) reproduces classical physics in the limit of large quantum numbers.

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## Cosmic background radiation

Cosmic background radiation is electromagnetic radiation from the big bang.

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## Cosmic string

Cosmic strings are hypothetical 1-dimensional topological defects which may have formed during a symmetry breaking phase transition in the early universe when the topology of the vacuum manifold associated to this symmetry breaking was not simply connected.

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## Cosmology

Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.

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## Cosmos

The cosmos is the universe.

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## Cryogenics

In physics, cryogenics is the production and behaviour of materials at very low temperatures.

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## Dark energy

In physical cosmology and astronomy, dark energy is an unknown form of energy which is hypothesized to permeate all of space, tending to accelerate the expansion of the universe.

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## Dark matter

Dark matter is a theorized form of matter that is thought to account for approximately 80% of the matter in the universe, and about a quarter of its total energy density.

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## Density

The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.

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## Diffraction

--> Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit.

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## Dimension

In physics and mathematics, the dimension of a mathematical space (or object) is informally defined as the minimum number of coordinates needed to specify any point within it.

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## Dirac equation

In particle physics, the Dirac equation is a relativistic wave equation derived by British physicist Paul Dirac in 1928.

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## Discipline (academia)

An academic discipline or academic field is a branch of knowledge.

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## Dynamics (mechanics)

Dynamics is the branch of applied mathematics (specifically classical mechanics) concerned with the study of forces and torques and their effect on motion, as opposed to kinematics, which studies the motion of objects without reference to these forces.

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## Econophysics

Econophysics is an interdisciplinary research field, applying theories and methods originally developed by physicists in order to solve problems in economics, usually those including uncertainty or stochastic processes and nonlinear dynamics.

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## Effective field theory

In physics, an effective field theory is a type of approximation, or effective theory, for an underlying physical theory, such as a quantum field theory or a statistical mechanics model.

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## Einstein field equations

The Einstein field equations (EFE; also known as Einstein's equations) comprise the set of 10 equations in Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity that describe the fundamental interaction of gravitation as a result of spacetime being curved by mass and energy.

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## Einstein manifold

In differential geometry and mathematical physics, an Einstein manifold is a Riemannian or pseudo-Riemannian differentiable manifold whose Ricci tensor is proportional to the metric.

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## Electric charge

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.

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## Electric current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge.

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## Electric field

An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.

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## Electrical resistance and conductance

The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor.

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## Electrical resistivity and conductivity

Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.

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## Electricity

Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.

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## Electromagnetic field

An electromagnetic field (also EMF or EM field) is a physical field produced by electrically charged objects.

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## Electromagnetic induction

Electromagnetic or magnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force (i.e., voltage) across an electrical conductor in a changing magnetic field.

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## Electromagnetic radiation

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

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## Electromagnetism

Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

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## Electrostatics

Electrostatics is a branch of physics that studies electric charges at rest.

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## Electroweak interaction

In particle physics, the electroweak interaction is the unified description of two of the four known fundamental interactions of nature: electromagnetism and the weak interaction.

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## Elementary particle

In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle with no substructure, thus not composed of other particles.

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## Empirical research

Empirical research is research using empirical evidence.

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## Energy

In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.

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## Energy development

Energy development is the field of activities focused on obtaining sources of energy from natural resources.

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## Energy transformation

Energy transformation, also termed as energy conversion, is the process of changing energy from one of its forms into another.

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## Enthalpy

Enthalpy is a property of a thermodynamic system.

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## Entropy

In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.

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## Equation of state

In physics and thermodynamics, an equation of state is a thermodynamic equation relating state variables which describe the state of matter under a given set of physical conditions, such as pressure, volume, temperature (PVT), or internal energy.

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## Equipartition theorem

In classical statistical mechanics, the equipartition theorem relates the temperature of a system to its average energies.

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## Equivalence principle

In the theory of general relativity, the equivalence principle is any of several related concepts dealing with the equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass, and to Albert Einstein's observation that the gravitational "force" as experienced locally while standing on a massive body (such as the Earth) is the same as the pseudo-force experienced by an observer in a non-inertial (accelerated) frame of reference.

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## European Physical Society

The European Physical Society (EPS) is a non-profit organization whose purpose is to promote physics and physicists in Europe through methods such as physics outreach.

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## Experiment

An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.

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## Extragalactic astronomy

Extragalactic astronomy is the branch of astronomy concerned with objects outside the Milky Way galaxy.

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## Fermi gas

A Fermi gas is a phase of matter which is an ensemble of a large number of non-interacting fermions.

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## Fermi liquid theory

Fermi liquid theory (also known as Landau–Fermi liquid theory) is a theoretical model of interacting fermions that describes the normal state of most metals at sufficiently low temperatures.

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## Field (physics)

In physics, a field is a physical quantity, represented by a number or tensor, that has a value for each point in space and time.

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## First law of thermodynamics

The first law of thermodynamics is a version of the law of conservation of energy, adapted for thermodynamic systems.

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## Fluid dynamics

In physics and engineering, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids - liquids and gases.

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## Fluid kinematics

Fluid kinematics is a field of physics and mechanics concerned with the movement of fluids.

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## Fluid mechanics

Fluid mechanics is a branch of physics concerned with the mechanics of fluids (liquids, gases, and plasmas) and the forces on them.

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## Force

In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.

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## Four-momentum

In special relativity, four-momentum is the generalization of the classical three-dimensional momentum to four-dimensional spacetime.

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## Four-vector

In special relativity, a four-vector (also known as a 4-vector) is an object with four components, which transform in a specific way under Lorentz transformation.

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## Frame of reference

In physics, a frame of reference (or reference frame) consists of an abstract coordinate system and the set of physical reference points that uniquely fix (locate and orient) the coordinate system and standardize measurements.

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## Free particle

In physics, a free particle is a particle that, in some sense, is not bound by an external force, or equivalently not in a region where its potential energy varies.

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## Fundamental interaction

In physics, the fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces, are the interactions that do not appear to be reducible to more basic interactions.

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## Galactic astronomy

Galactic astronomy is the study of the Milky Way galaxy and all its contents.

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## Galaxy

A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter.

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## Gas

Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).

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## Gauge theory

In physics, a gauge theory is a type of field theory in which the Lagrangian is invariant under certain Lie groups of local transformations.

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## Gaussian surface

A Gaussian surface (sometimes abbreviated as G.S.) is a closed surface in three-dimensional space through which the flux of a vector field is calculated; usually the gravitational field, the electric field, or magnetic field.

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## General relativity

General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.

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## Geodesics in general relativity

In general relativity, a geodesic generalizes the notion of a "straight line" to curved spacetime.

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## Geophysics

Geophysics is a subject of natural science concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and its surrounding space environment, and the use of quantitative methods for their analysis.

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## Gerard 't Hooft

Gerardus (Gerard) 't Hooft (born July 5, 1946) is a Dutch theoretical physicist and professor at Utrecht University, the Netherlands.

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## Glossary of classical physics

This article is a glossary of classical physics.

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## Grand Unified Theory

A Grand Unified Theory (GUT) is a model in particle physics in which, at high energy, the three gauge interactions of the Standard Model which define the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, or forces, are merged into one single force.

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## Gravitational singularity

A gravitational singularity or spacetime singularity is a location in spacetime where the gravitational field of a celestial body becomes infinite in a way that does not depend on the coordinate system.

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## Gravitational wave

Gravitational waves are the disturbance in the fabric ("curvature") of spacetime generated by accelerated masses and propagate as waves outward from their source at the speed of light.

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## Gravitoelectromagnetism

Gravitoelectromagnetism, abbreviated GEM, refers to a set of formal analogies between the equations for electromagnetism and relativistic gravitation; specifically: between Maxwell's field equations and an approximation, valid under certain conditions, to the Einstein field equations for general relativity.

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## Gravity

Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

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## Hamiltonian (quantum mechanics)

In quantum mechanics, a Hamiltonian is an operator corresponding to the total energy of the system in most of the cases.

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## Hamiltonian mechanics

Hamiltonian mechanics is a theory developed as a reformulation of classical mechanics and predicts the same outcomes as non-Hamiltonian classical mechanics.

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## Harmonic oscillator

In classical mechanics, a harmonic oscillator is a system that, when displaced from its equilibrium position, experiences a restoring force, F, proportional to the displacement, x: where k is a positive constant.

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## Heat

In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.

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## Heat engine

In thermodynamics, a heat engine is a system that converts heat or thermal energy—and chemical energy—to mechanical energy, which can then be used to do mechanical work.

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## High pressure

In science and engineering the study of high pressure examines its effects on materials and the design and construction of devices, such as a diamond anvil cell, which can create high pressure.

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## High-energy astronomy

High energy astronomy is the study of astronomical objects that release electromagnetic radiation of highly energetic wavelengths.

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## Hilbert space

The mathematical concept of a Hilbert space, named after David Hilbert, generalizes the notion of Euclidean space.

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## History of astronomy

Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences, dating back to antiquity, with its origins in the religious, mythological, cosmological, calendrical, and astrological beliefs and practices of prehistory: vestiges of these are still found in astrology, a discipline long interwoven with public and governmental astronomy, and not completely disentangled from it until a few centuries ago in the Western World (see astrology and astronomy).

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## History of classical mechanics

This article deals with the history of classical mechanics.

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## History of electromagnetic theory

The history of electromagnetic theory begins with ancient measures to understand atmospheric electricity, in particular lightning.

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## History of fluid mechanics

The history of fluid mechanics, the study of how fluids move and the forces on them, dates back to the Ancient Greeks.

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## History of general relativity

General relativity (GR) is a theory of gravitation that was developed by Albert Einstein between 1907 and 1915, with contributions by many others after 1915.

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## History of geophysics

The historical development of geophysics has been motivated by two factors.

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## History of optics

Optics began with the development of lenses by the ancient Egyptians and Mesopotamians, followed by theories on light and vision developed by ancient Greek philosophers, and the development of geometrical optics in the Greco-Roman world.

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## History of physics

Physics (from the Ancient Greek φύσις physis meaning "nature") is the fundamental branch of science.

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## History of quantum mechanics

The history of quantum mechanics is a fundamental part of the history of modern physics.

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## History of special relativity

The history of special relativity consists of many theoretical results and empirical findings obtained by Albert A. Michelson, Hendrik Lorentz, Henri Poincaré and others.

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## History of subatomic physics

The idea that matter consists of smaller particles and that there exists a limited number of sorts of primary, smallest particles in nature has existed in natural philosophy at least since the 6th century BC.

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## History of thermodynamics

The history of thermodynamics is a fundamental strand in the history of physics, the history of chemistry, and the history of science in general.

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## Homeokinetics

Homeokinetics is the study of self-organizing, complex systems.

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## Hydrostatics

Fluid statics or hydrostatics is the branch of fluid mechanics that studies fluids at rest.

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## Ideal gas law

The ideal gas law, also called the general gas equation, is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas.

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## Identical particles

Identical particles, also called indistinguishable or indiscernible particles, are particles that cannot be distinguished from one another, even in principle.

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## Index of optics articles

Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behavior and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.

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## Index of physics articles

Physics (Greek: physis–φύσις meaning "nature") is the natural science which examines basic concepts such as mass, charge, matterR. P. Feynman, R. B. Leighton, M. Sands (1963), The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Hard-cover.

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## Index of wave articles

This is a list of Wave topics.

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## Inertial frame of reference

An inertial frame of reference in classical physics and special relativity is a frame of reference in which a body with zero net force acting upon it is not accelerating; that is, such a body is at rest or it is moving at a constant speed in a straight line.

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## Inflation (cosmology)

In physical cosmology, cosmic inflation, cosmological inflation, or just inflation, is a theory of exponential expansion of space in the early universe.

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## Institute of Physics

The Institute of Physics (IOP) is a scientific charity that works to advance physics education, research and application.

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## Internal energy

In thermodynamics, the internal energy of a system is the energy contained within the system, excluding the kinetic energy of motion of the system as a whole and the potential energy of the system as a whole due to external force fields.

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## Invariant (physics)

In mathematics and theoretical physics, an invariant is a property of a system which remains unchanged under some transformation.

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## Invariant mass

The invariant mass, rest mass, intrinsic mass, proper mass, or in the case of bound systems simply mass, is the portion of the total mass of an object or system of objects that is independent of the overall motion of the system.

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## John Wiley & Sons

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.

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## Kinematics

Kinematics is a branch of classical mechanics that describes the motion of points, bodies (objects), and systems of bodies (groups of objects) without considering the mass of each or the forces that caused the motion.

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## Kinetic theory of gases

The kinetic theory describes a gas as a large number of submicroscopic particles (atoms or molecules), all of which are in constant rapid motion that has randomness arising from their many collisions with each other and with the walls of the container.

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## Lagrangian mechanics

Lagrangian mechanics is a reformulation of classical mechanics, introduced by the Italian-French mathematician and astronomer Joseph-Louis Lagrange in 1788.

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## Lambda-CDM model

The ΛCDM (Lambda cold dark matter) or Lambda-CDM model is a parametrization of the Big Bang cosmological model in which the universe contains a cosmological constant, denoted by Lambda (Greek Λ), associated with dark energy, and cold dark matter (abbreviated CDM).

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## Laser

A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.

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## Lattice field theory

In physics, lattice field theory is the study of lattice models of quantum field theory, that is, of field theory on a spacetime that has been discretized onto a lattice.

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## Lattice gauge theory

In physics, lattice gauge theory is the study of gauge theories on a spacetime that has been discretized into a lattice.

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## Laws of science

The laws of science, scientific laws, or scientific principles are statements that describe or predict a range of phenomena as they appear in nature.

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## Laws of thermodynamics

The four laws of thermodynamics define fundamental physical quantities (temperature, energy, and entropy) that characterize thermodynamic systems at thermal equilibrium.

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## Length

In geometric measurements, length is the most extended dimension of an object.

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## Length contraction

Length contraction is the phenomenon that a moving object's length is measured to be shorter than its proper length, which is the length as measured in the object's own rest frame.

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## Light

Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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## Liquid

A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.

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## List of common physics notations

This is a list of common physical constants and variables, and their notations.

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## List of equations in classical mechanics

Classical mechanics is the branch of physics used to describe the motion of macroscopic objects.

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## List of important publications in physics

This is a list of important publications in physics, organized by field.

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## List of letters used in mathematics and science

Latin and Greek letters are used in mathematics, science, engineering, and other areas where mathematical notation is used as symbols for constants, special functions, and also conventionally for variables representing certain quantities.

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## List of noise topics

This is a list of noise topics.

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## List of physicists

Following is a list of physicists who are notable for their achievements.

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## List of physics concepts in primary and secondary education curricula

This is a list of topics that are included in high school physics curricula or textbooks.

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## List of physics journals

This is a list of physics journals with existing articles on Wikipedia.

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## List of scientific units named after people

This is a list of scientific units named after people.

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## Lists of physics equations

In physics, there are equations in every field to relate physical quantities to each other and perform calculations.

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## Lorentz covariance

In relativistic physics, Lorentz symmetry, named for Hendrik Lorentz, is an equivalence of observation or observational symmetry due to special relativity implying that the laws of physics stay the same for all observers that are moving with respect to one another within an inertial frame.

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## Lorentz transformation

In physics, the Lorentz transformations (or transformation) are coordinate transformations between two coordinate frames that move at constant velocity relative to each other.

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## M-theory

M-theory is a theory in physics that unifies all consistent versions of superstring theory.

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## Magnetic field

A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.

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## Magnetic flux

In physics, specifically electromagnetism, the magnetic flux (often denoted or) through a surface is the surface integral of the normal component of the magnetic field B passing through that surface.

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## Magnetic monopole

A magnetic monopole is a hypothetical elementary particle in particle physics that is an isolated magnet with only one magnetic pole (a north pole without a south pole or vice versa).

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## Magnetism

Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields.

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## Many-body theory

Many-body theory (or many-body physics) is an area of physics which provides the framework for understanding the collective behavior of large numbers of interacting particles, often on the order of Avogadro's number.

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## Mass

Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.

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## Mass–energy equivalence

In physics, mass–energy equivalence states that anything having mass has an equivalent amount of energy and vice versa, with these fundamental quantities directly relating to one another by Albert Einstein's famous formula: E.

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## Materials physics

Material physics is the use of physics to describe the physical properties of materials.

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## Mathematical physics

Mathematical physics refers to the development of mathematical methods for application to problems in physics.

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## Matrix mechanics

Matrix mechanics is a formulation of quantum mechanics created by Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, and Pascual Jordan in 1925.

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## Matter

In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.

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## Maxwell's equations

Maxwell's equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetism, classical optics, and electric circuits.

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## Mechanics

Mechanics (Greek μηχανική) is that area of science concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.

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## Medical physics

Medical physics (also called biomedical physics, medical biophysics or applied physics in medicine) is, generally speaking, the application of physics concepts, theories and methods to medicine or healthcare.

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## Metric (mathematics)

In mathematics, a metric or distance function is a function that defines a distance between each pair of elements of a set.

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## Minkowski diagram

The Minkowski diagram, also known as a spacetime diagram, was developed in 1908 by Hermann Minkowski and provides an illustration of the properties of space and time in the special theory of relativity.

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## Minkowski space

In mathematical physics, Minkowski space (or Minkowski spacetime) is a combining of three-dimensional Euclidean space and time into a four-dimensional manifold where the spacetime interval between any two events is independent of the inertial frame of reference in which they are recorded.

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## Molecular physics

Molecular physics is the study of the physical properties of molecules, the chemical bonds between atoms as well as the molecular dynamics.

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## Molecule

A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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## Momentum

In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.

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## Motion (physics)

In physics, motion is a change in position of an object over time.

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## Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.

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## Natural science

Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.

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## Nature

Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe.

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## Neurophysics

Neurophysics (or neurobiophysics) is the branch of biophysics dealing with the development and use of physical techniques to gain information about the nervous system on a molecular level.

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## Newton's law of universal gravitation

Newton's law of universal gravitation states that a particle attracts every other particle in the universe with a force which is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers.

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## Newton's laws of motion

Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics.

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## Non-equilibrium thermodynamics

Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is a branch of thermodynamics that deals with physical systems that are not in thermodynamic equilibrium but can be described in terms of variables (non-equilibrium state variables) that represent an extrapolation of the variables used to specify the system in thermodynamic equilibrium.

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## Nuclear astrophysics

Nuclear astrophysics is an interdisciplinary branch of physics involving close collaboration among researchers in various subfields of nuclear physics and astrophysics, with significant emphasis in areas such as stellar modeling, measurement and theoretical estimation of nuclear reaction rates, cosmology, cosmochemistry, gamma ray, optical and X-ray astronomy, and extending our knowledge about nuclear lifetimes and masses.

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## Nuclear physics

Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.

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## Observation

Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source.

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## Operator (mathematics)

In mathematics, an operator is generally a mapping that acts on the elements of a space to produce other elements of the same space.

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## Optics

Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.

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## Orbital mechanics

Orbital mechanics or astrodynamics is the application of ballistics and celestial mechanics to the practical problems concerning the motion of rockets and other spacecraft.

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## Outline (list)

An outline, also called a hierarchical outline, is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships and is a type of tree structure.

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## Outline of astronomy

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to astronomy: Astronomy – studies the universe beyond Earth, including its formation and development, and the evolution, physics, chemistry, meteorology, and motion of celestial objects (such as galaxies, planets, etc.) and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth (such as the cosmic background radiation).

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## Outline of biophysics

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to biophysics: Biophysics – interdisciplinary science that uses the methods of physics to study biological systems.

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## Outline of physical science

Physical science is a branch of natural science that studies non-living systems, in contrast to life science.

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## Particle accelerator

A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.

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## Particle physics

Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.

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## Partition function (statistical mechanics)

In physics, a partition function describes the statistical properties of a system in thermodynamic equilibrium.

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## Path integral formulation

The path integral formulation of quantum mechanics is a description of quantum theory that generalizes the action principle of classical mechanics.

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## Pauli exclusion principle

The Pauli exclusion principle is the quantum mechanical principle which states that two or more identical fermions (particles with half-integer spin) cannot occupy the same quantum state within a quantum system simultaneously.

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## Permeability (electromagnetism)

In electromagnetism, permeability is the measure of the ability of a material to support the formation of a magnetic field within itself.

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## Permittivity

In electromagnetism, absolute permittivity, often simply called permittivity, usually denoted by the Greek letter ε (epsilon), is the measure of resistance that is encountered when forming an electric field in a particular medium.

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## Phase (matter)

In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.

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## Phase transition

The term phase transition (or phase change) is most commonly used to describe transitions between solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter, and, in rare cases, plasma.

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## Phenomenology (particle physics)

Particle physics phenomenology is the part of theoretical particle physics that deals with the application of theoretical physics to high-energy experiments.

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## Photonics

Photonics is the physical science of light (photon) generation, detection, and manipulation through emission, transmission, modulation, signal processing, switching, amplification, and detection/sensing.

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## Physical constant

A physical constant, sometimes fundamental physical constant or universal constant, is a physical quantity that is generally believed to be both universal in nature and have constant value in time.

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## Physical cosmology

Physical cosmology is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the Universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its origin, structure, evolution, and ultimate fate.

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## Physical law

A physical law or scientific law is a theoretical statement "inferred from particular facts, applicable to a defined group or class of phenomena, and expressible by the statement that a particular phenomenon always occurs if certain conditions be present." Physical laws are typically conclusions based on repeated scientific experiments and observations over many years and which have become accepted universally within the scientific community.

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## Physical quantity

A physical quantity is a physical property of a phenomenon, body, or substance, that can be quantified by measurement.or we can say that quantities which we come across during our scientific studies are called as the physical quantities...

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## Physical system

In physics, a physical system is a portion of the physical universe chosen for analysis.

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## Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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## Planck constant

The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action, central in quantum mechanics.

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## Planet

A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.

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## Planetary science

Planetary science or, more rarely, planetology, is the scientific study of planets (including Earth), moons, and planetary systems (in particular those of the Solar System) and the processes that form them.

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## Plasma (physics)

Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.

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## Polarization (waves)

Polarization (also polarisation) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations.

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## Polymer physics

Polymer physics is the field of physics that studies polymers, their fluctuations, mechanical properties, as well as the kinetics of reactions involving degradation and polymerisation of polymers and monomers respectively.

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## Potential energy

In physics, potential energy is the energy possessed by an object because of its position relative to other objects, stresses within itself, its electric charge, or other factors.

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## Power (physics)

In physics, power is the rate of doing work, the amount of energy transferred per unit time.

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## Pressure

Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.

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## Principle of relativity

In physics, the principle of relativity is the requirement that the equations describing the laws of physics have the same form in all admissible frames of reference.

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## Proper length

Proper length or rest length refers to the length of an object in the object's rest frame.

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## Proper time

In relativity, proper time along a timelike world line is defined as the time as measured by a clock following that line.

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## Pseudo-Riemannian manifold

In differential geometry, a pseudo-Riemannian manifold (also called a semi-Riemannian manifold) is a generalization of a Riemannian manifold in which the metric tensor need not be positive-definite, but need only be a non-degenerate bilinear form, which is a weaker condition.

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## Psychophysics

Psychophysics quantitatively investigates the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they produce.

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## Quantization (physics)

In physics, quantization is the process of transition from a classical understanding of physical phenomena to a newer understanding known as quantum mechanics.

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## Quantum

In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity (physical property) involved in an interaction.

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## Quantum chemistry

Quantum chemistry is a branch of chemistry whose primary focus is the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.

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## Quantum chromodynamics

In theoretical physics, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction between quarks and gluons, the fundamental particles that make up composite hadrons such as the proton, neutron and pion.

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## Quantum entanglement

Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon which occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated, interact, or share spatial proximity in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently of the state of the other(s), even when the particles are separated by a large distance—instead, a quantum state must be described for the system as a whole.

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## Quantum field theory

In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is the theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics.

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## Quantum gravity

Quantum gravity (QG) is a field of theoretical physics that seeks to describe gravity according to the principles of quantum mechanics, and where quantum effects cannot be ignored, such as near compact astrophysical objects where the effects of gravity are strong.

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## Quantum harmonic oscillator

The quantum harmonic oscillator is the quantum-mechanical analog of the classical harmonic oscillator.

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## Quantum information science

Quantum information science is an area of study based on the idea that information science depends on quantum effects in physics.

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## Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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## Quantum number

Quantum numbers describe values of conserved quantities in the dynamics of a quantum system.

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## Quantum optics

Quantum optics (QO) is a field of research that uses semi-classical and quantum-mechanical physics to investigate phenomena involving light and its interactions with matter at submicroscopic levels.

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## Quantum statistical mechanics

Quantum statistical mechanics is statistical mechanics applied to quantum mechanical systems.

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## Quantum tunnelling

Quantum tunnelling or tunneling (see spelling differences) is the quantum mechanical phenomenon where a particle tunnels through a barrier that it classically cannot surmount.

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## Relativity of simultaneity

In physics, the relativity of simultaneity is the concept that distant simultaneity – whether two spatially separated events occur at the same time – is not absolute, but depends on the observer's reference frame.

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## Reversible process (thermodynamics)

In thermodynamics, a reversible process is a process whose direction can be "reversed" by inducing infinitesimal changes to some property of the system via its surroundings, with no increase in entropy.

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## Richard Feynman

Richard Phillips Feynman (May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) was an American theoretical physicist, known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model.

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## Scattering theory

In mathematics and physics, scattering theory is a framework for studying and understanding the scattering of waves and particles.

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## Schrödinger equation

In quantum mechanics, the Schrödinger equation is a mathematical equation that describes the changes over time of a physical system in which quantum effects, such as wave–particle duality, are significant.

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## Schrödinger's cat

Schrödinger's cat is a thought experiment, sometimes described as a paradox, devised by Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger in 1935.

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## Science

R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.

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## Scientific method

Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.

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## Second law of thermodynamics

The second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time.

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## Self-organization

Self-organization, also called (in the social sciences) spontaneous order, is a process where some form of overall order arises from local interactions between parts of an initially disordered system.

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## Society of Physics Students

The Society of Physics Students (SPS) is a professional association with international participation, granting membership through college chapters with the only requirement that the student member be interested in physics.

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## Soil physics

Soil physics is the study of soil physical properties and processes.

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## Solar System

The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.

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## Solid

Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).

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## Solid-state physics

Solid-state physics is the study of rigid matter, or solids, through methods such as quantum mechanics, crystallography, electromagnetism, and metallurgy.

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## Sound

In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.

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## Space

Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction.

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## Space physics

Space physics is the study of plasmas as they occur naturally in the Earth's upper atmosphere (aeronomy) and within the Solar System.

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## Spacetime

In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum.

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## Special relativity

In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.

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## Spectral line

A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.

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## Speed of light

The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.

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## Spin (physics)

In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.

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## Spontaneous process

A spontaneous process is the time-evolution of a system in which it releases free energy and it moves to a lower, more thermodynamically stable energy state.

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## Spontaneous symmetry breaking

Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a spontaneous process of symmetry breaking, by which a physical system in a symmetric state ends up in an asymmetric state.

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## Stack Exchange

Stack Exchange is a network of question-and-answer (Q&A) websites on topics in varied fields, each site covering a specific topic, where questions, answers, and users are subject to a reputation award process.

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## Standard Model

The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.

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## Star

A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.

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## State function

In thermodynamics, a state function or function of state is a function defined for a system relating several state variables or state quantities that depends only on the current equilibrium state of the system, for example a gas, a liquid, a solid, crystal, or emulsion.

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## State of matter

In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist.

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## Statics

Statics is the branch of mechanics that is concerned with the analysis of loads (force and torque, or "moment") acting on physical systems that do not experience an acceleration (a.

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## Statistical ensemble (mathematical physics)

In mathematical physics, especially as introduced into statistical mechanics and thermodynamics by J. Willard Gibbs in 1902, an ensemble (also statistical ensemble) is an idealization consisting of a large number of virtual copies (sometimes infinitely many) of a system, considered all at once, each of which represents a possible state that the real system might be in.

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## Statistical mechanics

Statistical mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics.

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## Stress–energy tensor

The stress–energy tensor (sometimes stress–energy–momentum tensor or energy–momentum tensor) is a tensor quantity in physics that describes the density and flux of energy and momentum in spacetime, generalizing the stress tensor of Newtonian physics.

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## String (physics)

In physics, a string is a physical phenomenon that appears in string theory and related subjects.

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## Strong interaction

In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force or nuclear strong force), and is one of the four known fundamental interactions, with the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction, and gravitation.

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## Superconductivity

Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.

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## Superfluidity

Superfluidity is the characteristic property of a fluid with zero viscosity which therefore flows without loss of kinetic energy.

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## Supernova

A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.

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## Superstring theory

Superstring theory is an attempt to explain all of the particles and fundamental forces of nature in one theory by modeling them as vibrations of tiny supersymmetric strings.

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## Supersymmetry

In particle physics, supersymmetry (SUSY) is a theory that proposes a relationship between two basic classes of elementary particles: bosons, which have an integer-valued spin, and fermions, which have a half-integer spin.

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## Temperature

Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

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## The Feynman Lectures on Physics

The Feynman Lectures on Physics is a physics textbook based on some lectures by Richard P. Feynman, a Nobel laureate who has sometimes been called "The Great Explainer".

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## Theoretical physics

Theoretical physics is a branch of physics that employs mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena.

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## Theory of everything

A theory of everything (ToE), final theory, ultimate theory, or master theory is a hypothetical single, all-encompassing, coherent theoretical framework of physics that fully explains and links together all physical aspects of the universe.

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## Theory of relativity

The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.

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## Thermal conduction

Thermal conduction is the transfer of heat (internal energy) by microscopic collisions of particles and movement of electrons within a body.

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## Thermal radiation

Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of charged particles in matter.

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## Thermodynamic equilibrium

Thermodynamic equilibrium is an axiomatic concept of thermodynamics.

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## Thermodynamic free energy

The thermodynamic free energy is the amount of work that a thermodynamic system can perform.

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## Thermodynamic potential

A thermodynamic potential (in fact, rather energyISO/IEC 80000-5, Quantities an units, Part 5 - Thermodynamics, item 5-20.4 Helmholtz energy, Helmholtz function, ISO/IEC 80000-5, Quantities an units, Part 5 - Thermodynamics, item 5-20.5, Gibbs energy, Gibbs function than potential) is a scalar quantity used to represent the thermodynamic state of a system.

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## Thermodynamic process

Classical thermodynamics considers three main kinds of thermodynamic process: change in a system, cycles in a system, and flow processes.

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## Thermodynamic state

For thermodynamics, a thermodynamic state of a system is its condition at a specific time, that is fully identified by values of a suitable set of parameters known as state variables, state parameters or thermodynamic variables.

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## Thermodynamic system

A thermodynamic system is the material and radiative content of a macroscopic volume in space, that can be adequately described by thermodynamic state variables such as temperature, entropy, internal energy, and pressure.

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## Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.

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## Thermometer

A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or a temperature gradient.

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## Third law of thermodynamics

The third law of thermodynamics is sometimes stated as follows, regarding the properties of systems in thermodynamic equilibrium: At absolute zero (zero kelvin) the system must be in a state with the minimum possible energy.

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## Time

Time is the indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future.

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## Time dilation

According to the theory of relativity, time dilation is a difference in the elapsed time measured by two observers, either due to a velocity difference relative to each other, or by being differently situated relative to a gravitational field.

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## Torque

Torque, moment, or moment of force is rotational force.

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## Twin paradox

In physics, the twin paradox is a thought experiment in special relativity involving identical twins, one of whom makes a journey into space in a high-speed rocket and returns home to find that the twin who remained on Earth has aged more.

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## Uncertainty principle

In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle (also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle) is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known.

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## Unit of measurement

A unit of measurement is a definite magnitude of a quantity, defined and adopted by convention or by law, that is used as a standard for measurement of the same kind of quantity.

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## Universe

The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.

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## Vacuum energy

Vacuum energy is an underlying background energy that exists in space throughout the entire Universe.

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## Vehicle dynamics

For vehicles such as cars, vehicle dynamics is the study of how the vehicle will react to driver inputs on a given road.

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## Velocity

The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference, and is a function of time.

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## Viscosity

The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.

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## Wave

In physics, a wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space, with little or no associated mass transport.

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## Wave function

A wave function in quantum physics is a mathematical description of the quantum state of an isolated quantum system.

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## Wave–particle duality

Wave–particle duality is the concept in quantum mechanics that every particle or quantic entity may be partly described in terms not only of particles, but also of waves.

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## Weak interaction

In particle physics, the weak interaction (the weak force or weak nuclear force) is the mechanism of interaction between sub-atomic particles that causes radioactive decay and thus plays an essential role in nuclear fission.

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## Work (physics)

In physics, a force is said to do work if, when acting, there is a displacement of the point of application in the direction of the force.

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## World

The world is the planet Earth and all life upon it, including human civilization.

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## World line

The world line (or worldline) of an object is the path that object traces in -dimensional spacetime.

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## Zero-point energy

Zero-point energy (ZPE) or ground state energy is the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical system may have.

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## Zeroth law of thermodynamics

The zeroth law of thermodynamics states that if two thermodynamic systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third, then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other.

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## Redirects here:

Fundamental physics, Introductory physics, List of basic physics topics, List of physics topics, Physics basic topics, Topic outline of physics, Topical outline of physics.

## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outline_of_physics