128 relations: Advanced planning and scheduling, Agriculture, American system of manufacturing, Animal husbandry, Aquaculture, Assembly line, Batch production, Benchmarking, Changeover, Chemical process modeling, Computer-aided design, Computer-aided manufacturing, Computer-integrated manufacturing, Computerized maintenance management system, Construction, Conveyor belt, Cost accounting, Craft production, Deming Prize, Distributed control system, Division of labour, Dynamic lot-size model, Economic lot scheduling problem, Economic order quantity, Economic production quantity, Economics, Economy, Education, English units, Eric von Hippel, Experience curve effects, Extraction of petroleum, Factors of production, Factory, Fieldbus, Financial plan, Fishing, Fordism, Forest, Forestry, Goods, Industrial engineering, Industrial Revolution, Industrial robot, Industry, Information industry, Information technology, Inventory, ISO 9000, Job production, ..., Job shop scheduling, Just-in-time manufacturing, Lean manufacturing, Logging, Logistics, Machine (mechanical), Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, Manufacturing, Mass customization, Mass production, Means of production, Mining, Mode of production, Modernity, New product development, Numerical control, Operations research, Outline (list), Outline of agriculture, Outline of forestry, Outline of industrial organization, Outline of mining, Overall equipment effectiveness, Packaging and labeling, Primary sector of the economy, Process optimization, Product (business), Product engineering, Production (economics), Production equipment control, Production function, Production line, Production–possibility frontier, Productive and unproductive labour, Productive forces, Productivity, Productivity improving technologies, Productivity model, Programmable logic controller, Programmable logic device, Purchasing, Quality (business), Quality control, Quaternary sector of the economy, Queueing theory, Rapid prototyping, Reorder point, Research and development, Reverse engineering, SCADA, Scheduling (production processes), Scientific management, Second Industrial Revolution, Secondary sector of the economy, Service (economics), Service design, Service economy, Service system, Single-minute exchange of die, Six Sigma, Stock management, Supply chain, Supply chain management, Systems analysis, Tertiary sector of the economy, Textile manufacturing, Theory of constraints, Throughput accounting, Time and motion study, Total quality management, Toyota Production System, United States Department of Labor, Utility, Value (economics), Value engineering, Vocational education, Water industry, Woodworking machine. Expand index (78 more) » « Shrink index
Advanced planning and scheduling (APS, also known as advanced manufacturing) refers to a manufacturing management process by which raw materials and production capacity are optimally allocated to meet demand.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
The American system of manufacturing was a set of manufacturing methods that evolved in the 19th century.
Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products.
Aquaculture (less commonly spelled aquiculture), also known as aquafarming, is the farming of fish, crustaceans, molluscs, aquatic plants, algae, and other organisms.
An assembly line is a manufacturing process (often called a progressive assembly) in which parts (usually interchangeable parts) are added as the semi-finished assembly moves from workstation to workstation where the parts are added in sequence until the final assembly is produced.
Batch production is a technique used in manufacturing, in which the object in question is created stage by stage over a series of workstations, and different batches of products are made.
Benchmarking is comparing ones business processes and performance metrics to industry bests and best practices from other companies.
In manufacturing, changeover is the process of converting a line or machine from running one product to another.
Chemical process modeling is a computer modeling technique used in chemical engineering process design.
Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computer systems to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design.
Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) is the use of software to control machine tools and related ones in the manufacturing of workpieces.
Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) is the manufacturing approach of using computers to control the entire production process.
Computerized maintenance management system (CMMS), also known as computerized maintenance management information system (CMMIS), is a software package that maintains a computer database of information about an organization's maintenance operations.
Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure.
A conveyor belt is the carrying medium of a belt conveyor system (often shortened to belt conveyor).
Cost accounting is the process of recording, classifying, analyzing, summarizing, and allocating costs associated with a process, and then developing various courses of action to control the costs.
Craft production is the process of manufacturing by hand with or without the aid of tools.
The Deming Prize is one of the highest awards on TQM (Total Quality Management) in the world that recognizes both individuals for their contributions to the field of Total Quality Management (TQM) and businesses that have successfully implemented TQM.
A distributed control system (DCS) is a computerised control system for a process or plant usually with a large number of control loops, in which autonomous controllers are distributed throughout the system, but there is central operator supervisory control.
The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any system so that participants may specialize.
The dynamic lot-size model in inventory theory, is a generalization of the economic order quantity model that takes into account that demand for the product varies over time.
The economic lot scheduling problem (ELSP) is a problem in operations management and inventory theory that has been studied by a large number of researchers for more than 50 years.
In inventory management, economic order quantity (EOQ) is the order quantity that minimizes the total holding costs and ordering costs.
The economic production quantity model (also known as the EPQ model) determines the quantity a company or retailer should order to minimize the total inventory costs by balancing the inventory holding cost and average fixed ordering cost.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
English units are the historical units of measurement used in England up to 1826 (when they were replaced by Imperial units), which evolved as a combination of the Anglo-Saxon and Roman systems of units.
Eric von Hippel (born August 27, 1941) is an American economist and a professor at the MIT Sloan School of Management, specializing in the nature and economics of distributed and open innovation.
In management, models of the learning curve effect and the closely related experience curve effect express the relationship between equation and efficiency or between efficiency gains and investment in the effort.
The extraction of petroleum is the process by which usable petroleum is drawn out from beneath the earth's surface location.
In economics, factors of production, resources, or inputs are which is used in the production process to produce output—that is, finished goods and services.
A factory or manufacturing plant is an industrial site, usually consisting of buildings and machinery, or more commonly a complex having several buildings, where workers manufacture goods or operate machines processing one product into another.
Fieldbus is the name of a family of industrial computer network protocols used for real-time distributed control, standardized as IEC 61158.
In general usage, a financial plan is a comprehensive evaluation of an individual's current pay and future financial state by using current known variables to predict future income, asset values and withdrawal plans.
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish.
Fordism is the basis of modern economic and social systems in industrialized, standardized mass production and mass consumption.
A forest is a large area dominated by trees.
Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests, woodlands, and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human and environment benefits.
In economics, goods are materials that satisfy human wants and provide utility, for example, to a consumer making a purchase of a satisfying product.
Industrial engineering is a branch of engineering which deals with the optimization of complex processes, systems, or organizations.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
An industrial robot is a robot system used for manufacturing.
Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.
The information industry or information industries are industries that are information intensive in one way or the other.
Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
Inventory (American English) or stock (British English) is the goods and materials that a business holds for the ultimate goal of resale (or repair).
The ISO 9000 family of quality management systems standards is designed to help organizations ensure that they meet the needs of customers and other stakeholders while meeting statutory and regulatory requirements related to a product or service.
Job production, sometimes called jobbing or one-off production, involves producing custom work, such as a one-off product for a specific customer or a small batch of work in quantities usually less than those of mass-market products.
Job shop scheduling or the job-shop problem (JSP) is an optimization problem in computer science and operations research in which jobs are assigned to resources at particular times.
Just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing, also known as just-in-time production or the Toyota Production System (TPS), is a methodology aimed primarily at reducing flow times within production system as well as response times from suppliers and to customers.
Lean manufacturing or lean production, often simply "lean", is a systematic method for waste minimization ("Muda") within a manufacturing system without sacrificing productivity.
Logging is the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or logs onto trucks or skeleton cars.
Logistics is generally the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation.
Machines employ power to achieve desired forces and movement (motion).
The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award recognizes U.S. organizations in the business, health care, education, and nonprofit sectors for performance excellence.
Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation.
Mass customization, in marketing, manufacturing, call centres and management, is the use of flexible computer-aided manufacturing systems to produce custom output.
Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines.
In economics and sociology, the means of production (also called capital goods) are physical non-human and non-financial inputs used in the production of economic value.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
In the writings of Karl Marx and the Marxist theory of historical materialism, a mode of production (in German: Produktionsweise, meaning 'the way of producing') is a specific combination of.
Modernity, a topic in the humanities and social sciences, is both a historical period (the modern era), as well as the ensemble of particular socio-cultural norms, attitudes and practices that arose in the wake of Renaissance, in the "Age of Reason" of 17th-century thought and the 18th-century "Enlightenment".
In business and engineering, new product development (NPD) covers the complete process of bringing a new product to market.
Computer numerical control (CNC) is the automation of machine tools by means of computers executing pre-programmed sequences of machine control commands.
Operations research, or operational research in British usage, is a discipline that deals with the application of advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions.
An outline, also called a hierarchical outline, is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships and is a type of tree structure.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to agriculture: Agriculture – cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and guide to forestry: Forestry – science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human and environment benefits.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to industrial organization: Industrial organization – describes the behavior of firms in the marketplace with regard to production, pricing, employment and other decisions.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to mining: Mining – extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually (but not always) from an ore body, vein or (coal) seam.
Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) is a term coined by Seiichi Nakajima in the 1960s to evaluate how effectively a manufacturing operation is utilized.
Packaging is the science, art and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use.
An industry involved in the extraction and collection of natural resources, such as copper and timber, as well as by activities such as farming and fishing.
Process optimization is the discipline of adjusting a process so as to optimize some specified set of parameters without violating some constraint.
In marketing, a product is anything that can be offered to a market that might satisfy a want or need.
Product engineering refers to the process of designing and developing a device, assembly, or system such that it be produced as an item for sale through some production manufacturing process.
Production is a process of combining various material inputs and immaterial inputs (plans, know-how) in order to make something for consumption (the output).
Production equipment control involves production equipment that resides in the shop floor of a manufacturing company and its purpose is to produce goods of a wanted quality when provided with production resources of a required quality.
In economics, a production function relates quantities of physical output of a production process to quantities of physical inputs or production function refers as the expression of the technological relation between physical inputs and outputs of the goods.
A production line is a set of sequential operations established in a factory where materials are put through a refining process to produce an end-product that is suitable for onward consumption; or components are assembled to make a finished article.
A production–possibility frontier (PPF) or production possibility curve (PPC) is the possible tradeoff of producing combinations of goods with constant technology and resources per unit time.
Productive and unproductive labour are concepts that were used in classical political economy mainly in the 18th and 19th centuries, which survive today to some extent in modern management discussions, economic sociology and Marxist or Marxian economic analysis.
"Productive forces", "productive powers", or "forces of production" (in German, Produktivkräfte), is a central idea in Marxism and historical materialism.
Productivity describes various measures of the efficiency of production.
This article is about the important technologies that have historically increased productivity and is intended to serve as the History section of Productivity from which it was moved.
Productivity in economics is the ratio of what is produced to what is used in producing it.
A programmable logic controller (PLC), or programmable controller is an industrial digital computer which has been ruggedized and adapted for the control of manufacturing processes, such as assembly lines, or robotic devices, or any activity that requires high reliability control and ease of programming and process fault diagnosis.
A programmable logic device (PLD) is an electronic component used to build reconfigurable digital circuits.
Purchasing refers to a business or organization attempting to acquire goods or services to accomplish its goals.
In business, engineering, and manufacturing, quality has a pragmatic interpretation as the non-inferiority or superiority of something; it's also defined as being suitable for its intended purpose (fitness for purpose) while satisfying customer expectations.
Quality control, or QC for short, is a process by which entities review the quality of all factors involved in production.
The quaternary sector of the economy is a way to describe a knowledge-based part of the economy, which typically includes services such as information technology, information-generation and -sharing, media, and research and development, as well as knowledge-based services like consultation, education, financial planning, blogging, and designing.
Queueing theory is the mathematical study of waiting lines, or queues.
Rapid prototyping is a group of techniques used to quickly fabricate a scale model of a physical part or assembly using three-dimensional computer aided design (CAD) data.
The reorder point (ROP) is the level of inventory which triggers an action to replenish that particular inventory stock.
Research and development (R&D, R+D, or R'n'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products.
Reverse engineering, also called back engineering, is the process by which a man-made object is deconstructed to reveal its designs, architecture, or to extract knowledge from the object; similar to scientific research, the only difference being that scientific research is about a natural phenomenon.
Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) is a control system architecture that uses computers, networked data communications and graphical user interfaces for high-level process supervisory management, but uses other peripheral devices such as programmable logic controllers and discrete PID controllers to interface with the process plant or machinery.
Scheduling is the process of arranging, controlling and optimizing work and workloads in a production process or manufacturing process.
Scientific management is a theory of management that analyzes and synthesizes workflows.
The Second Industrial Revolution, also known as the Technological Revolution, was a phase of rapid industrialization in the final third of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th.
The secondary sector of the economy includes industries that produce a finished, usable product or are involved in construction.
In economics, a service is a transaction in which no physical goods are transferred from the seller to the buyer.
Service design is the activity of planning and organizing people, infrastructure, communication and material components of a service in order to improve its quality and the interaction between the service provider and its customers.
Service economy can refer to one or both of two recent economic developments.
A service system (or customer service system, CSS) is a configuration of technology and organizational networks designed to deliver services that satisfy the needs, wants, or aspirations of customers.
Single-minute exchange of die (SMED) is one of the many lean production methods for reducing waste in a manufacturing process.
Six Sigma (6σ) is a set of techniques and tools for process improvement.
Stock management is the function of understanding the stock mix of a company and the different demands on that stock.
A supply chain is a system of organizations, people, activities, information, and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer.
In commerce, supply chain management (SCM), the management of the flow of goods and services, involves the movement and storage of raw materials, of work-in-process inventory, and of finished goods from point of origin to point of consumption.
The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines system analysis as "the process of studying a procedure or business in order to identify its goals and purposes and create systems and procedures that will achieve them in an efficient way".
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory.
Textile manufacturing is a major industry.
The theory of constraints (TOC) is a management paradigm that views any manageable system as being limited in achieving more of its goals by a very small number of constraints.
Throughput accounting (TA) is a principle-based and simplified management accounting approach that provides managers with decision support information for enterprise profitability improvement.
A time and motion study (or time-motion study) is a business efficiency technique combining the Time Study work of Frederick Winslow Taylor with the Motion Study work of Frank and Lillian Gilbreth (the same couple as is best known through the biographical 1950 film and book Cheaper by the Dozen).
Total quality management (TQM) consists of organization-wide efforts to install and make a permanent climate in which an organization continuously improves its ability to deliver high-quality products and services to customers.
The Toyota Production System (TPS) is an integrated socio-technical system, developed by Toyota, that comprises its management philosophy and practices.
The United States Department of Labor (DOL) is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government responsible for occupational safety, wage and hour standards, unemployment insurance benefits, reemployment services, and some economic statistics; many U.S. states also have such departments.
Within economics the concept of utility is used to model worth or value, but its usage has evolved significantly over time.
Economic value is a measure of the benefit provided by a good or service to an economic agent.
Value engineering (VE) is a systematic method to improve the "value" of goods or products and services by using an examination of function.
Vocational education is education that prepares people to work in various jobs, such as a trade, a craft, or as a technician.
The water industry provides drinking water and wastewater services (including sewage treatment) to residential, commercial, and industrial sectors of the economy.
A Woodworking machine is a wood machine that is intended to process wood.