413 relations: Abnormal psychology, Academy of sciences, Affine geometry, Albert Einstein, Alexander von Humboldt, Algebraic geometry, Algebraic number theory, Algebraic topology, Algorithm, Analysis of variance, Analytic number theory, Analytical chemistry, Andreas Vesalius, Anthropology, Applied mathematics, Applied science, Approximation theory, Archaeology, Archimedes, Architectural technologist, Aristotle, Artificial neural network, Associative algebra, Astrobiology, Astronomy, Astrophysics, Automata theory, Automated reasoning, Basic research, Behavioral neuroscience, Biochemistry, Biocybernetics, Biologist, Biology, Biophysics, Biostatistics, Biotechnology, Block design, Bootstrapping (statistics), Botany, Branches of science, Business informatics, Category theory, Chaos theory, Charles Darwin, Chemist, Clinical psychology, Coding theory, Cognitive psychology, Cognitive science, ..., Combinatorics, Commensurability (philosophy of science), Communication studies, Comparative psychology, Compiler, Complex analysis, Complex system, Computability theory, Computational biology, Computational chemistry, Computational complexity theory, Computational economics, Computational finance, Computational fluid dynamics, Computational geometry, Computational linguistics, Computational mathematics, Computational neuroscience, Computational number theory, Computational science, Computational sociology, Computational statistics, Computer algebra, Computer architecture, Computer graphics, Computer network, Computer scientist, Computer security, Computer vision, Computer-aided engineering, Control engineering, Control system, Control theory, Convex geometry, Criminology, Cybernetics, Data mining, Data structure, Database, Decision theory, Deductive-nomological model, Demography, Design of experiments, Developmental psychology, Developmental systems theory, Differential algebra, Differential geometry, Differential topology, Digital humanities, Digital image processing, Discovery (observation), Discrete geometry, Disruptive innovation, Distributed algorithm, Distributed computing, Distributed database, Dynamical system, Dynamical systems theory, Earth science, Ecology, Econometrics, Economist, Educational psychologist, Educational technology, Empirical research, Engineering cybernetics, Engineering statistics, Engineering technologist, Entomology, Epidemiology, Ergodic theory, Ethnology, Evolutionary biology, Evolutionary psychology, Exact sciences, Experimental psychology, Expert system, Fault tolerance, Field (mathematics), Field experiment, Field research, Finite element method, Formal language, Formal methods, Formal science, Foundations of mathematics, Fractal, Frederick Sanger, Functional analysis, Functional programming, Galileo Galilei, Game theory, General topology, Geneticist, Geographer, Geometric topology, Geometry of numbers, Glaciology, Government scientist, Governmental impact on science during World War II, Graph theory, Grid computing, Group representation, Group theory, Hard and soft science, Harmonic analysis, Health informatics, Herpetology, High availability, Historiography of science, History of archaeology, History of astronomy, History of biology, History of chemistry, History of criminal justice, History of ecology, History of economic thought, History of education, History of geography, History of geology, History of linguistics, History of marketing, History of molecular biology, History of physics, History of political science, History of pseudoscience, History of psychology, History of science, History of science and technology, History of science in classical antiquity, History of science in early cultures, History of science in the Renaissance, History of scientific method, History of sociology, History of the social sciences, Homological algebra, Human–computer interaction, Hydrology, Hypermedia, Hypothesis, Hypothetico-deductive model, Ichthyology, Immunology, Independent scientist, Industrial technology, Informatics, Information retrieval, Information science, Information system, Information theory, Inorganic chemistry, Inquiry, Internet, Intuitionistic logic, Isaac Newton, James Clerk Maxwell, Johannes Kepler, John Bardeen, Kansas evolution hearings, Knowledge, Laboratory, Laity, Lattice (order), Legal history, Leonhard Euler, Lepidopterology, Library science, Lie algebra, Limnology, Linear algebra, Linear programming, Linear time-invariant theory, Linus Pauling, List of books about the politics of science, List of years in science, Logical consequence, Logical reasoning, Machine learning, Management cybernetics, Management information system, Management science, Marie Curie, Marine biology, Mathematical analysis, Mathematical logic, Mathematical optimization, Mathematical physics, Mathematical statistics, Mathematician, Measure (mathematics), Medical cybernetics, Medical research, Medical technologist, Meteorology, Microbiologist, Military science, Mineralogy, Mobile computing, Modal logic, Model theory, Multilinear algebra, Multimedia, Multivariate analysis, Mycology, Natural experiment, Natural history, Natural language processing, Natural philosophy, Natural science, Neuropsychology, Neuroscientist, Nicolaus Copernicus, Nomenclature, Non-associative algebra, Non-Euclidean geometry, Non-standard analysis, Number theory, Numerical analysis, Object database, Object-oriented programming, Objectivity (philosophy), Objectivity (science), Observational study, Oceanography, Official statistics, Operating system, Operations research, Operator theory, Order theory, Ordinary differential equation, Organic chemistry, Ornithology, Outline (list), Outline of actuarial science, Outline of algebra, Outline of applied science, Outline of artificial intelligence, Outline of Big Science, Outline of calculus, Outline of computer science, Outline of cryptography, Outline of geometry, Outline of information technology, Outline of mathematics, Outline of natural science, Outline of probability, Outline of robotics, Outline of scientific method, Outline of social science, Outline of software engineering, Outline of statistics, Outline of trigonometry, P-adic analysis, Paleontology, Parallel algorithm, Parallel computing, Parapsychology, Partial differential equation, Pathology, Pharmacology, Phenomenon, Philosophy of science, Physical chemistry, Physicist, Physiology, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Political economy, Political science, Politicization of science, Prediction, Probability theory, Programming language, Programming paradigm, Projective geometry, Proof theory, Psychologist, Quality control, Quantum computing, Quantum field theory, Radiographer, Randomized algorithm, Real analysis, Regression analysis, Relational database, Reliability engineering, René Descartes, Research, Response surface methodology, Ring theory, Sci-Mate, Science, Science and inventions of Leonardo da Vinci, Science and technology in the Ottoman Empire, Science and technology in the Soviet Union, Science and technology of the Han dynasty, Science and technology of the Song dynasty, Science and technology of the Tang dynasty, Science by press conference, Science Daily, Science education, Science.tv, Scientific community, Scientific control, Scientific literacy, Scientific method, Scientific modelling, Scientific Revolution, Scientific visualization, Second-order cybernetics, Seismology, Semantics (computer science), Set theory, Simulation, Social psychology, Social science, Social statistics, Sociology, Sociology of the history of science, Spatial analysis, Statistical mechanics, Statistical model, Statistical theory, Statistician, Statistics, Stephen Hawking, Stochastic process, Structural equation modeling, Supercomputer, Surgical technologist, Survey methodology, Survey sampling, System dynamics, Systems analysis, Systems biology, Systems ecology, Systems engineering, Systems neuroscience, Systems psychology, Systems science, Systems theory, Table of years in archaeology, Terminology, Theory of computation, Time series, Timeline of astronomy, Timeline of geology, Timeline of meteorology, Timeline of psychology, Timeline of scientific discoveries, Timeline of scientific experiments, Timeline of scientific thought, Timeline of sociology, Timeline of the history of scientific method, Topology, Type theory, Uncertainty, Universal algebra, Vector space, Very-large-scale integration, Volcanology, Wireless network, World Wide Web, Zoology. 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Abnormal psychology is the branch of psychology that studies unusual patterns of behavior, emotion and thought, which may or may not be understood as precipitating a mental disorder.
An academy of sciences is a type of learned society or academy (as special scientific institution) dedicated to sciences that may or may not be state funded.
In mathematics, affine geometry is what remains of Euclidean geometry when not using (mathematicians often say "when forgetting") the metric notions of distance and angle.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (14 September 17696 May 1859) was a Prussian polymath, geographer, naturalist, explorer, and influential proponent of Romantic philosophy and science.
Algebraic geometry is a branch of mathematics, classically studying zeros of multivariate polynomials.
Algebraic number theory is a branch of number theory that uses the techniques of abstract algebra to study the integers, rational numbers, and their generalizations.
Algebraic topology is a branch of mathematics that uses tools from abstract algebra to study topological spaces.
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a collection of statistical models and their associated estimation procedures (such as the "variation" among and between groups) used to analyze the differences among group means in a sample.
In mathematics, analytic number theory is a branch of number theory that uses methods from mathematical analysis to solve problems about the integers.
Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter.
Andreas Vesalius (31 December 1514 – 15 October 1564) was a 16th-century Flemish anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body).
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
Applied mathematics is the application of mathematical methods by different fields such as science, engineering, business, computer science, and industry.
Applied science is the application of existing scientific knowledge to practical applications, like technology or inventions.
In mathematics, approximation theory is concerned with how functions can best be approximated with simpler functions, and with quantitatively characterizing the errors introduced thereby.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
Archimedes of Syracuse (Ἀρχιμήδης) was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer.
The Architectural Technologist, also known as a Building Technologist, provides technical building design services and solutions and is trained in architectural technology, building technical design and construction.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) or connectionist systems are computing systems vaguely inspired by the biological neural networks that constitute animal brains.
In mathematics, an associative algebra is an algebraic structure with compatible operations of addition, multiplication (assumed to be associative), and a scalar multiplication by elements in some field.
Astrobiology is a branch of biology concerned with the origins, early evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space".
Automata theory is the study of abstract machines and automata, as well as the computational problems that can be solved using them.
Automated reasoning is an area of computer science and mathematical logic dedicated to understanding different aspects of reasoning.
Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, has the scientific research aim to improve scientific theories for improved understanding or prediction of natural or other phenomena.
Behavioral neuroscience, also known as biological psychology, biopsychology, or psychobiology, Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary is the application of the principles of biology to the study of physiological, genetic, and developmental mechanisms of behavior in humans and other animals.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Biocybernetics is the application of cybernetics to biological science, composed of biological disciplines that benefit from the application of cybernetics including neurology and multicellular systems.
A biologist, is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of biology, the scientific study of life.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies the approaches and methods of physics to study biological systems.
Biostatistics is the application of statistics to a wide range of topics in biology.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
In combinatorial mathematics, a block design is a set together with a family of subsets (repeated subsets are allowed at times) whose members are chosen to satisfy some set of properties that are deemed useful for a particular application.
In statistics, bootstrapping is any test or metric that relies on random sampling with replacement.
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.
The branches of science, also referred to as sciences, "scientific fields", or "scientific disciplines" are commonly divided into three major groups.
Business informatics (BI) or organizational informatics is a discipline combining information technology (IT), informatics and management concepts.
Category theory formalizes mathematical structure and its concepts in terms of a labeled directed graph called a category, whose nodes are called objects, and whose labelled directed edges are called arrows (or morphisms).
Chaos theory is a branch of mathematics focusing on the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
A chemist (from Greek chēm (ía) alchemy; replacing chymist from Medieval Latin alchimista) is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry.
Clinical psychology is an integration of science, theory and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development.
Coding theory is the study of the properties of codes and their respective fitness for specific applications.
Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking".
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.
Combinatorics is an area of mathematics primarily concerned with counting, both as a means and an end in obtaining results, and certain properties of finite structures.
Commensurability is a concept in the philosophy of science whereby scientific theories are commensurable if scientists can discuss them using a shared nomenclature that allows direct comparison of theories to determine which theory is more valid or useful.
Communication studies or communication sciences is an academic discipline that deals with processes of human communication.
Comparative psychology refers to the scientific study of the behavior and mental processes of non-human animals, especially as these relate to the phylogenetic history, adaptive significance, and development of behavior.
A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language).
Complex analysis, traditionally known as the theory of functions of a complex variable, is the branch of mathematical analysis that investigates functions of complex numbers.
A complex system is a system composed of many components which may interact with each other.
Computability theory, also known as recursion theory, is a branch of mathematical logic, of computer science, and of the theory of computation that originated in the 1930s with the study of computable functions and Turing degrees.
Computational biology involves the development and application of data-analytical and theoretical methods, mathematical modeling and computational simulation techniques to the study of biological, behavioral, and social systems.
Computational chemistry is a branch of chemistry that uses computer simulation to assist in solving chemical problems.
Computational complexity theory is a branch of the theory of computation in theoretical computer science that focuses on classifying computational problems according to their inherent difficulty, and relating those classes to each other.
Computational economics is a research discipline at the interface of computer science, economics, and management science.
Computational finance is a branch of applied computer science that deals with problems of practical interest in finance.
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical analysis and data structures to solve and analyze problems that involve fluid flows.
Computational geometry is a branch of computer science devoted to the study of algorithms which can be stated in terms of geometry.
Computational linguistics is an interdisciplinary field concerned with the statistical or rule-based modeling of natural language from a computational perspective, as well as the study of appropriate computational approaches to linguistic questions.
Computational mathematics may refer to two different aspect of the relation between computing and mathematics.
Computational neuroscience (also known as theoretical neuroscience or mathematical neuroscience) is a branch of neuroscience which employs mathematical models, theoretical analysis and abstractions of the brain to understand the principles that govern the development, structure, physiology and cognitive abilities of the nervous system.
In mathematics and computer science, computational number theory, also known as algorithmic number theory, is the study of algorithms for performing number theoretic computations.
Computational science (also scientific computing or scientific computation (SC)) is a rapidly growing multidisciplinary field that uses advanced computing capabilities to understand and solve complex problems.
Computational sociology is a branch of sociology that uses computationally intensive methods to analyze and model social phenomena.
Computational statistics, or statistical computing, is the interface between statistics and computer science.
In computational mathematics, computer algebra, also called symbolic computation or algebraic computation, is a scientific area that refers to the study and development of algorithms and software for manipulating mathematical expressions and other mathematical objects.
In computer engineering, computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems.
Computer graphics are pictures and films created using computers.
A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.
A computer scientist is a person who has acquired the knowledge of computer science, the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their application.
Cybersecurity, computer security or IT security is the protection of computer systems from theft of or damage to their hardware, software or electronic data, as well as from disruption or misdirection of the services they provide.
Computer vision is a field that deals with how computers can be made for gaining high-level understanding from digital images or videos.
Computer-aided engineering (CAE) is the broad usage of computer software to aid in engineering analysis tasks.
Control engineering or control systems engineering is an engineering discipline that applies automatic control theory to design systems with desired behaviors in control environments.
A control system manages, commands, directs, or regulates the behavior of other devices or systems using control loops.
Control theory in control systems engineering deals with the control of continuously operating dynamical systems in engineered processes and machines.
In mathematics, convex geometry is the branch of geometry studying convex sets, mainly in Euclidean space.
Criminology (from Latin crīmen, "accusation" originally derived from the Ancient Greek verb "krino" "κρίνω", and Ancient Greek -λογία, -logy|-logia, from "logos" meaning: “word,” “reason,” or “plan”) is the scientific study of the nature, extent, management, causes, control, consequences, and prevention of criminal behavior, both on the individual and social levels.
Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary approach for exploring regulatory systems—their structures, constraints, and possibilities.
Data mining is the process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of machine learning, statistics, and database systems.
In computer science, a data structure is a data organization and storage format that enables efficient access and modification.
A database is an organized collection of data, stored and accessed electronically.
Decision theory (or the theory of choice) is the study of the reasoning underlying an agent's choices.
The deductive-nomological model (DN model), also known as Hempel's model, the Hempel–Oppenheim model, the Popper–Hempel model, or the covering law model, is a formal view of scientifically answering questions asking, "Why...?".
Demography (from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, implies "writing, description or measurement") is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings.
The design of experiments (DOE, DOX, or experimental design) is the design of any task that aims to describe or explain the variation of information under conditions that are hypothesized to reflect the variation.
Developmental psychology is the scientific study of how and why human beings change over the course of their life.
Developmental systems theory (DST) is an overarching theoretical perspective on biological development, heredity, and evolution.
In mathematics, differential rings, differential fields, and differential algebras are rings, fields, and algebras equipped with finitely many derivations, which are unary functions that are linear and satisfy the Leibniz product rule.
Differential geometry is a mathematical discipline that uses the techniques of differential calculus, integral calculus, linear algebra and multilinear algebra to study problems in geometry.
In mathematics, differential topology is the field dealing with differentiable functions on differentiable manifolds.
Digital humanities (DH) is an area of scholarly activity at the intersection of computing or digital technologies and the disciplines of the humanities.
In computer science, Digital image processing is the use of computer algorithms to perform image processing on digital images.
Discovery is the act of detecting something new, or something "old" that had been unrecognized as meaningful.
Discrete geometry and combinatorial geometry are branches of geometry that study combinatorial properties and constructive methods of discrete geometric objects.
In business, a Disruptive innovation is an innovation that creates a new market and value network and eventually disrupts an existing market and value network, displacing established market-leading firms, products, and alliances.
A distributed algorithm is an algorithm designed to run on computer hardware constructed from interconnected processors.
Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems.
A distributed database is a database in which storage devices are not all attached to a common processor.
In mathematics, a dynamical system is a system in which a function describes the time dependence of a point in a geometrical space.
Dynamical systems theory is an area of mathematics used to describe the behavior of the complex dynamical systems, usually by employing differential equations or difference equations.
Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of natural science related to the planet Earth.
Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.
Econometrics is the application of statistical methods to economic data and is described as the branch of economics that aims to give empirical content to economic relations.
An economist is a practitioner in the social science discipline of economics.
An educational psychologist is a psychologist whose differentiating functions may include diagnostic and psycho-educational assessment, psychological counseling in educational communities (students, teachers, parents and academic authorities), community-type psycho-educational intervention, and mediation, coordination, and referral to other professionals, at all levels of the educational system.
Educational technology is "the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources".
Empirical research is research using empirical evidence.
Engineering cybernetics or technical cybernetics, established by H.S. Tsien, is a field of cybernetics, which deals with the question of control engineering of mechatronic systems as well as chemical or biological systems.
Engineering statistics combines engineering and statistics using scientific methods for analyzing data.
An engineering technologist is a professional trained in certain aspects of development and implementation of a respective area of technology.
Entomology is the scientific study of insects, a branch of zoology.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
Ergodic theory (Greek: έργον ergon "work", όδος hodos "way") is a branch of mathematics that studies dynamical systems with an invariant measure and related problems.
Ethnology (from the Greek ἔθνος, ethnos meaning "nation") is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyzes the characteristics of different peoples and the relationship between them (cf. cultural, social, or sociocultural anthropology).
Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.
Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective.
The exact sciences, sometimes called the exact mathematical sciences are those sciences "which admit of absolute precision in their results"; especially the mathematical sciences.
Experimental psychology refers to work done by those who apply experimental methods to psychological study and the processes that underlie it.
In artificial intelligence, an expert system is a computer system that emulates the decision-making ability of a human expert.
Fault tolerance is the property that enables a system to continue operating properly in the event of the failure (or one or more faults within) some of its components.
In mathematics, a field is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined, and behave as when they are applied to rational and real numbers.
A field experiment applies the scientific method to experimentally examine an intervention in the real world (or as many experimentalists like to say, naturally occurring environments) rather than in the laboratory.
Field research or fieldwork is the collection of information outside a laboratory, library or workplace setting.
The finite element method (FEM), is a numerical method for solving problems of engineering and mathematical physics.
In mathematics, computer science, and linguistics, a formal language is a set of strings of symbols together with a set of rules that are specific to it.
In computer science, specifically software engineering and hardware engineering, formal methods are a particular kind of mathematically based techniques for the specification, development and verification of software and hardware systems.
Formal sciences are formal language disciplines concerned with formal systems, such as logic, mathematics, statistics, theoretical computer science, robotics, information theory, game theory, systems theory, decision theory, and theoretical linguistics.
Foundations of mathematics is the study of the philosophical and logical and/or algorithmic basis of mathematics, or, in a broader sense, the mathematical investigation of what underlies the philosophical theories concerning the nature of mathematics.
In mathematics, a fractal is an abstract object used to describe and simulate naturally occurring objects.
Frederick Sanger (13 August 1918 – 19 November 2013) was a British biochemist who twice won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, one of only two people to have done so in the same category (the other is John Bardeen in physics), the fourth person overall with two Nobel Prizes, and the third person overall with two Nobel Prizes in the sciences.
Functional analysis is a branch of mathematical analysis, the core of which is formed by the study of vector spaces endowed with some kind of limit-related structure (e.g. inner product, norm, topology, etc.) and the linear functions defined on these spaces and respecting these structures in a suitable sense.
In computer science, functional programming is a programming paradigm—a style of building the structure and elements of computer programs—that treats computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions and avoids changing-state and mutable data.
Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.
Game theory is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers".
In mathematics, general topology is the branch of topology that deals with the basic set-theoretic definitions and constructions used in topology.
A geneticist is a biologist who studies genetics, the science of genes, heredity, and variation of organisms.
A geographer is a scholar whose area of study is geography, the study of Earth's natural environment and human society.
In mathematics, geometric topology is the study of manifolds and maps between them, particularly embeddings of one manifold into another.
In number theory, the geometry of numbers studies convex bodies and integer vectors in n-dimensional space.
Glaciology (from Latin: glacies, "frost, ice", and Ancient Greek: λόγος, logos, "subject matter"; literally "study of ice") is the scientific study of glaciers, or more generally ice and natural phenomena that involve ice.
A government scientist is a scientist employed by a country's government, either in a research-driven job (for example J. Robert Oppenheimer on the Manhattan Project), or for another role that requires scientific training and methods.
Governmental impact on science during World War II represents the effect of public administration on technological development that provided many advantages to the armed forces, economies and societies in their strategies during the war.
In mathematics, graph theory is the study of graphs, which are mathematical structures used to model pairwise relations between objects.
Grid computing is the collection of computer resources from multiple locations to reach a common goal.
In the mathematical field of representation theory, group representations describe abstract groups in terms of linear transformations of vector spaces; in particular, they can be used to represent group elements as matrices so that the group operation can be represented by matrix multiplication.
In mathematics and abstract algebra, group theory studies the algebraic structures known as groups.
Hard science and soft science are colloquial terms used to compare scientific fields on the basis of perceived methodological rigor, exactitude, and objectivity.
Harmonic analysis is a branch of mathematics concerned with the representation of functions or signals as the superposition of basic waves, and the study of and generalization of the notions of Fourier series and Fourier transforms (i.e. an extended form of Fourier analysis).
Health informatics (also called health care informatics, healthcare informatics, medical informatics, nursing informatics, clinical informatics, or biomedical informatics) is information engineering applied to the field of health care, essentially the management and use of patient healthcare information.
Herpetology (from Greek "herpein" meaning "to creep") is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of amphibians (including frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, and caecilians (gymnophiona)) and reptiles (including snakes, lizards, amphisbaenids, turtles, terrapins, tortoises, crocodilians, and the tuataras).
High availability is a characteristic of a system, which aims to ensure an agreed level of operational performance, usually uptime, for a higher than normal period.
The historiography of science is the study of the history and methodology of the sub-discipline of history, known as the history of science, including its disciplinary aspects and practices (methods, theories, schools) and to the study of its own historical development ("History of History of Science", i.e., the history of the discipline called History of Science).
Archaeology is the study of human activity in the past, primarily through the recovery and analysis of the material culture and environmental data that they have left behind, which includes artifacts, architecture, biofacts (also known as eco-facts) and cultural landscapes (the archaeological record).
Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences, dating back to antiquity, with its origins in the religious, mythological, cosmological, calendrical, and astrological beliefs and practices of prehistory: vestiges of these are still found in astrology, a discipline long interwoven with public and governmental astronomy, and not completely disentangled from it until a few centuries ago in the Western World (see astrology and astronomy).
The history of biology traces the study of the living world from ancient to modern times.
The history of chemistry represents a time span from ancient history to the present.
Throughout the history of criminal justice, evolving forms of punishment, added rights for offenders and victims, and policing reforms have reflected changing customs, political ideals, and economic conditions.
Ecology is a new science and considered as an important branch of biological science, having only become prominent during the second half of the 20th century.
The history of economic thought deals with different thinkers and theories in the subject that became political economy and economics, from the ancient world to the present day in the 21st Century.
The systematic provision of learning techniques to most children, such as literacy, has been a development of the last 150 or 200 years, or even last 50 years in some countries.
The history of geography includes many histories of geography which have differed over time and between different cultural and political groups.
The history of geology is concerned with the development of the natural science of geology.
Linguistics, as a study, endeavors to describe and explain the human faculty of language.
The study of the history of marketing, as a discipline, is meaningful because it helps to define the baselines upon which change can be recognised and understand how the discipline evolves in response to those changes.
The history of molecular biology begins in the 1930s with the convergence of various, previously distinct biological and physical disciplines: biochemistry, genetics, microbiology, virology and physics.
Physics (from the Ancient Greek φύσις physis meaning "nature") is the fundamental branch of science.
Political science as a separate field is a rather late arrival in terms of social sciences.
The history of pseudoscience is the study of pseudoscientific theories over time.
Today, psychology is defined as "the scientific study of behavior and mental processes." Philosophical interest in the mind and behavior dates back to the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Persia, Greece, China, and India.
The history of science is the study of the development of science and scientific knowledge, including both the natural and social sciences.
The history of science and technology (HST) is a field of history which examines how humanity's understanding of the natural world (science) and ability to manipulate it (technology) have changed over the centuries.
The history of science in classical antiquity encompasses both those inquiries into the workings of the universe aimed at such practical goals as establishing a reliable calendar or determining how to cure a variety of illnesses and those abstract investigations known as natural philosophy.
The history of science in early cultures refers to the study of protoscience in ancient history, prior to the development of science in the Middle Ages.
During the Renaissance, great advances occurred in geography, astronomy, chemistry, physics, mathematics, manufacturing, anatomy and engineering.
The history of scientific method considers changes in the methodology of scientific inquiry, as distinct from the history of science itself.
Sociology as a scholarly discipline emerged primarily out of enlightenment thought, shortly after the French Revolution, as a positivist science of society.
The history of the social sciences has origin in the common stock of Western philosophy and shares various precursors, but began most intentionally in the early 19th century with the positivist philosophy of science.
Homological algebra is the branch of mathematics that studies homology in a general algebraic setting.
Human–computer interaction (HCI) researches the design and use of computer technology, focused on the interfaces between people (users) and computers.
Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.
Hypermedia, an extension of the term hypertext, is a nonlinear medium of information that includes graphics, audio, video, plain text and hyperlinks.
A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.
The hypothetico-deductive model or method is a proposed description of scientific method.
Ichthyology (from Greek: ἰχθύς, ikhthys, "fish"; and λόγος, logos, "study"), also known as fish science, is the branch of zoology devoted to the study of fish.
Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.
An independent scientist (historically also known as gentleman scientist) is a financially independent scientist who pursues scientific study without direct affiliation to a public institution such as a university or government-run research and development body.
Industrial technology is the use of engineering and manufacturing technology to make production faster, simpler and more efficient.The industrial technology field employs creative and technically proficient individuals who can help a company achieve efficient and profitable productivity.
Informatics is a branch of information engineering.
Information retrieval (IR) is the activity of obtaining information system resources relevant to an information need from a collection of information resources.
Information science is a field primarily concerned with the analysis, collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval, movement, dissemination, and protection of information.
An information system (IS) is an organized system for the collection, organization, storage and communication of information.
Information theory studies the quantification, storage, and communication of information.
Inorganic chemistry deals with the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds.
An inquiry is any process that has the aim of augmenting knowledge, resolving doubt, or solving a problem.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
Intuitionistic logic, sometimes more generally called constructive logic, refers to systems of symbolic logic that differ from the systems used for classical logic by more closely mirroring the notion of constructive proof.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.
Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer.
John Bardeen (May 23, 1908 – January 30, 1991) was an American physicist and electrical engineer.
The Kansas evolution hearings were a series of hearings held in Topeka, Kansas, United States from May 5 to 12, 2005 by the Kansas State Board of Education and its State Board Science Hearing Committee to change how evolution and the origin of life would be taught in the state's public high school science classes.
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.
A layperson (also layman or laywoman) is a person who is not qualified in a given profession and/or does not have specific knowledge of a certain subject.
A lattice is an abstract structure studied in the mathematical subdisciplines of order theory and abstract algebra.
Legal history or the history of law is the study of how law has evolved and why it changed.
Leonhard Euler (Swiss Standard German:; German Standard German:; 15 April 170718 September 1783) was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, logician and engineer, who made important and influential discoveries in many branches of mathematics, such as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory, while also making pioneering contributions to several branches such as topology and analytic number theory.
Lepidopterology (from Ancient Greek λεπίδος (scale) and πτερόν (wing); and -λογία -logia.), is a branch of entomology concerning the scientific study of moths and the three superfamilies of butterflies.
Library science (often termed library studies, library and information science, bibliothecography, library economy) is an interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary field that applies the practices, perspectives, and tools of management, information technology, education, and other areas to libraries; the collection, organization, preservation, and dissemination of information resources; and the political economy of information.
In mathematics, a Lie algebra (pronounced "Lee") is a vector space \mathfrak g together with a non-associative, alternating bilinear map \mathfrak g \times \mathfrak g \rightarrow \mathfrak g; (x, y) \mapsto, called the Lie bracket, satisfying the Jacobi identity.
Limnology (from Greek λίμνη, limne, "lake" and λόγος, logos, "knowledge"), is the study of inland aquatic ecosystems.
Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning linear equations such as linear functions such as and their representations through matrices and vector spaces.
Linear programming (LP, also called linear optimization) is a method to achieve the best outcome (such as maximum profit or lowest cost) in a mathematical model whose requirements are represented by linear relationships.
Linear time-invariant theory, commonly known as LTI system theory, comes from applied mathematics and has direct applications in NMR spectroscopy, seismology, circuits, signal processing, control theory, and other technical areas.
Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, educator, and husband of American human rights activist Ava Helen Pauling.
This is a list of notable books about the politics of science that have their own articles on Wikipedia.
The following entries cover events related to science or technology which occurred in the listed year.
Logical consequence (also entailment) is a fundamental concept in logic, which describes the relationship between statements that hold true when one statement logically follows from one or more statements.
Informally, two kinds of logical reasoning can be distinguished in addition to formal deduction: induction and abduction.
Machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence in the field of computer science that often uses statistical techniques to give computers the ability to "learn" (i.e., progressively improve performance on a specific task) with data, without being explicitly programmed.
Management cybernetics is the application of cybernetics to management and organizations.
Management information system or management information systems (MIS) refers to the complementary networks of hardware and software cooperating to collect, process, store, and disseminate information in order to support the managerial role of leveraging information technology to increase business value and profits.
Management science (MS), is the broad interdisciplinary study of problem solving and decision making in human organizations, with strong links to management, economics, business, engineering, management consulting, and other sciences.
Marie Skłodowska Curie (born Maria Salomea Skłodowska; 7 November 18674 July 1934) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity.
Marine biology is the scientific study of marine life, organisms in the sea.
Mathematical analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with limits and related theories, such as differentiation, integration, measure, infinite series, and analytic functions.
Mathematical logic is a subfield of mathematics exploring the applications of formal logic to mathematics.
In mathematics, computer science and operations research, mathematical optimization or mathematical programming, alternatively spelled optimisation, is the selection of a best element (with regard to some criterion) from some set of available alternatives.
Mathematical physics refers to the development of mathematical methods for application to problems in physics.
Mathematical statistics is the application of mathematics to statistics, as opposed to techniques for collecting statistical data.
A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems.
In mathematical analysis, a measure on a set is a systematic way to assign a number to each suitable subset of that set, intuitively interpreted as its size.
Medical cybernetics is a branch of cybernetics which has been heavily affected by the development of the computer, which applies the concepts of cybernetics to medical research and practice.
Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research), – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a ''preclinical'' understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials.
A Medical Technologist (also known as Medical laboratory scientist, Clinical Laboratory Scientist, Medical Laboratory Technologist) is an allied health professional that analyzes and tests body fluids and tissues.
Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.
A microbiologist (from Greek μῑκρος) is a scientist who studies microscopic life forms and processes.
Military science is the study of military processes, institutions, and behavior, along with the study of warfare, and the theory and application of organized coercive force.
Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts.
Mobile computing is human–computer interaction by which a computer is expected to be transported during normal usage, which allows for transmission of data, voice and video.
Modal logic is a type of formal logic primarily developed in the 1960s that extends classical propositional and predicate logic to include operators expressing modality.
In mathematics, model theory is the study of classes of mathematical structures (e.g. groups, fields, graphs, universes of set theory) from the perspective of mathematical logic.
In mathematics, multilinear algebra extends the methods of linear algebra.
Multimedia is content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, video and interactive content.
Multivariate analysis (MVA) is based on the statistical principle of multivariate statistics, which involves observation and analysis of more than one statistical outcome variable at a time.
Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi, including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and their use to humans as a source for tinder, medicine, food, and entheogens, as well as their dangers, such as toxicity or infection.
A natural experiment is an empirical study in which individuals (or clusters of individuals) exposed to the experimental and control conditions are determined by nature or by other factors outside the control of the investigators, but the process governing the exposures arguably resembles random assignment.
Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals, fungi and plants in their environment; leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study.
Natural language processing (NLP) is an area of computer science and artificial intelligence concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural) languages, in particular how to program computers to process and analyze large amounts of natural language data.
Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
Neuropsychology is the study of the structure and function of the brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviours.
A neuroscientist (or neurobiologist) is a scientist who has specialised knowledge in the field of neuroscience, the branch of biology that deals with the physiology, biochemistry, anatomy and molecular biology of neurons and neural circuits and especially their association with behaviour and learning.
Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.
Nomenclature is a system of names or terms, or the rules for forming these terms in a particular field of arts or sciences.
A non-associative algebra (or distributive algebra) is an algebra over a field where the binary multiplication operation is not assumed to be associative.
In mathematics, non-Euclidean geometry consists of two geometries based on axioms closely related to those specifying Euclidean geometry.
The history of calculus is fraught with philosophical debates about the meaning and logical validity of fluxions or infinitesimal numbers.
Number theory, or in older usage arithmetic, is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers.
Numerical analysis is the study of algorithms that use numerical approximation (as opposed to general symbolic manipulations) for the problems of mathematical analysis (as distinguished from discrete mathematics).
An object database is a database management system in which information is represented in the form of objects as used in object-oriented programming.
Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects", which may contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods. A feature of objects is that an object's procedures can access and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are associated (objects have a notion of "this" or "self").
Objectivity is a central philosophical concept, objective means being independent of the perceptions thus objectivity means the property of being independent from the perceptions, which has been variously defined by sources.
Objectivity in science is a value that informs how science is practiced and how scientific truths are discovered.
In fields such as epidemiology, social sciences, psychology and statistics, an observational study draws inferences from a sample to a population where the independent variable is not under the control of the researcher because of ethical concerns or logistical constraints.
Oceanography (compound of the Greek words ὠκεανός meaning "ocean" and γράφω meaning "write"), also known as oceanology, is the study of the physical and biological aspects of the ocean.
Official statistics are statistics published by government agencies or other public bodies such as international organizations as a public good.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
Operations research, or operational research in British usage, is a discipline that deals with the application of advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions.
In mathematics, operator theory is the study of linear operators on function spaces, beginning with differential operators and integral operators.
Order theory is a branch of mathematics which investigates the intuitive notion of order using binary relations.
In mathematics, an ordinary differential equation (ODE) is a differential equation containing one or more functions of one independent variable and its derivatives.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
Ornithology is a branch of zoology that concerns the study of birds.
An outline, also called a hierarchical outline, is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships and is a type of tree structure.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to actuarial science: Actuarial science – discipline that applies mathematical and statistical methods to assess risk in the insurance and finance industries.
Algebra is one of the main branches of mathematics, covering the study of structure, relation and quantity.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to applied science, which is the branch of science that applies existing scientific knowledge to develop more practical applications, including inventions and other technological advancements.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to artificial intelligence: Artificial intelligence (AI) – intelligence exhibited by machines or software.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Big Science.
Calculus is a branch of mathematics focused on limits, functions, derivatives, integrals, and infinite series.
Computer science (also called computing science) is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to cryptography: Cryptography (or cryptology) – practice and study of hiding information.
Geometry is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to information technology: Information technology (IT) – microelectronics based combination of computing and telecommunications technology to treat information, including in the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information.
Mathematics is a field of study that investigates topics including number, space, structure, and change.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to natural science: Natural science – a major branch of science that tries to explain, and predict, nature's phenomena based on empirical evidence.
Probability is a measure of the likeliness that an event will occur.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to robotics: Robotics is a branch of mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and computer science that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to scientific method: Scientific method – body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to social science: Social science – branch of science concerned with society and human behaviors.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to software engineering: Software engineering – application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software; that is the application of engineering to software.
Statistics is a field of inquiry that studies the collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data.
Trigonometry is a branch of mathematics that studies the relationships between the sides and the angles in triangles.
In mathematics, p-adic analysis is a branch of number theory that deals with the mathematical analysis of functions of ''p''-adic numbers.
Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).
In computer science, a parallel algorithm, as opposed to a traditional serial algorithm, is an algorithm which can be executed a piece at a time on many different processing devices, and then combined together again at the end to get the correct result.
Parallel computing is a type of computation in which many calculations or the execution of processes are carried out concurrently.
Parapsychology is the study of paranormal and psychic phenomena which include telepathy, precognition, clairvoyance, psychokinesis, near-death experiences, reincarnation, apparitional experiences, and other paranormal claims.
In mathematics, a partial differential equation (PDE) is a differential equation that contains unknown multivariable functions and their partial derivatives.
Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
A phenomenon (Greek: φαινόμενον, phainómenon, from the verb phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural phenomena) is any thing which manifests itself.
Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.
Physical Chemistry is the study of macroscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of the principles, practices, and concepts of physics such as motion, energy, force, time, thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics, analytical dynamics and chemical equilibrium.
A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace (23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827) was a French scholar whose work was important to the development of mathematics, statistics, physics and astronomy.
Political economy is the study of production and trade and their relations with law, custom and government; and with the distribution of national income and wealth.
Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.
The politicization of science is the manipulation of science for political gain.
A prediction (Latin præ-, "before," and dicere, "to say"), or forecast, is a statement about a future event.
Probability theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with probability.
A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.
Programming paradigms are a way to classify programming languages based on their features.
Projective geometry is a topic in mathematics.
Proof theory is a major branchAccording to Wang (1981), pp.
A psychologist studies normal and abnormal mental states from cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by observing, interpreting, and recording how individuals relate to one another and to their environments.
Quality control, or QC for short, is a process by which entities review the quality of all factors involved in production.
Quantum computing is computing using quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement.
In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is the theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics.
Radiographers, also known as radiologic technologists, diagnostic radiographers and medical radiation technologists are healthcare professionals who specialise in the imaging of human anatomy for the diagnosis and treatment of pathology.
A randomized algorithm is an algorithm that employs a degree of randomness as part of its logic.
In mathematics, real analysis is the branch of mathematical analysis that studies the behavior of real numbers, sequences and series of real numbers, and real-valued functions.
In statistical modeling, regression analysis is a set of statistical processes for estimating the relationships among variables.
A relational database is a digital database based on the relational model of data, as proposed by E. F. Codd in 1970.
Reliability engineering is a sub-discipline of systems engineering that emphasizes dependability in the lifecycle management of a product.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.
In statistics, response surface methodology (RSM) explores the relationships between several explanatory variables and one or more response variables.
In algebra, ring theory is the study of rings—algebraic structures in which addition and multiplication are defined and have similar properties to those operations defined for the integers.
Sci-Mate is an open collaboration of scientists using Web 2.0 software to address well known challenges in academic publishing and technology transfer.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) was an Italian polymath, regarded as the epitome of the "Renaissance Man", displaying skills in numerous diverse areas of study.
During its 600-year reign, the Ottoman Empire made significant advances in science and technology, in a wide range of fields including mathematics, astronomy and medicine.
In the Soviet Union, science and technology served as an important part of national politics, practices, and identity.
The Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE) of ancient China, divided between the eras of Western Han (206 BCE – 9 CE, when the capital was at Chang'an), Xin dynasty of Wang Mang (r. AD 9–23), and Eastern Han (25–220 CE, when the capital was at Luoyang, and after 196 CE at Xuchang), witnessed some of the most significant advancements in premodern Chinese science and technology.
The Song dynasty (960–1279 CE) provided some of the most significant technological advances in Chinese history, many of which came from talented statesmen drafted by the government through imperial examinations.
The Tang dynasty (618–907) of ancient China witnessed many advancements in Chinese science and technology, with various developments in woodblock printing, timekeeping, mechanical engineering, medicine, structural engineering, cartography, and alchemy.
Science by press conference (or science by press release) is the practice by which scientists put an unusual focus on publicizing results of research in the media.
Science Daily is an American website that aggregates press releases and publishes lightly edited press releases (a practice called churnalism) about science, similar to Phys.org and EurekAlert!.
Science education is the field concerned with sharing science content and process with individuals not traditionally considered part of the scientific community.
Science.tv is a virtual community for people interested in science.
The scientific community is a diverse network of interacting scientists.
A scientific control is an experiment or observation designed to minimize the effects of variables other than the independent variable.
Scientific literacy or Science literacy encompasses written, numerical, and digital literacy as they pertain to understanding science, its methodology, observations, and theories.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
Scientific modelling is a scientific activity, the aim of which is to make a particular part or feature of the world easier to understand, define, quantify, visualize, or simulate by referencing it to existing and usually commonly accepted knowledge.
The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature.
Scientific visualization (also spelled scientific visualisation) is an interdisciplinary branch of science.
Second-order cybernetics, also known as the cybernetics of cybernetics, is the recursive application of cybernetics to itself.
Seismology (from Ancient Greek σεισμός (seismós) meaning "earthquake" and -λογία (-logía) meaning "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies.
In programming language theory, semantics is the field concerned with the rigorous mathematical study of the meaning of programming languages.
Set theory is a branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which informally are collections of objects.
Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system.
Social psychology is the study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
Social statistics is the use of statistical measurement systems to study human behavior in a social environment.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
The sociology and philosophy of science, as well as the entire field of science studies, have in the 20th century been occupied with the question of large-scale patterns and trends in the development of science, and asking questions about how science "works" both in a philosophical and practical sense.
Spatial analysis or spatial statistics includes any of the formal techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties.
Statistical mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics.
A statistical model is a mathematical model that embodies a set of statistical assumptions concerning the generation of some sample data and similar data from a larger population.
The theory of statistics provides a basis for the whole range of techniques, in both study design and data analysis, that are used within applications of statistics.
A statistician is a person who works with theoretical or applied statistics.
Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.
Stephen William Hawking (8 January 1942 – 14 March 2018) was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author, who was director of research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge at the time of his death.
--> In probability theory and related fields, a stochastic or random process is a mathematical object usually defined as a collection of random variables.
Structural equation modeling (SEM) includes a diverse set of mathematical models, computer algorithms, and statistical methods that fit networks of constructs to data.
A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer.
A Surgical Technologist, also called a scrub, scrub tech, surgical technician, or operating room technician, is an allied health professional working as a part of the team delivering surgical care.
A field of applied statistics of human research surveys, survey methodology studies the sampling of individual units from a population and associated techniques of survey data collection, such as questionnaire construction and methods for improving the number and accuracy of responses to surveys.
In statistics, survey sampling describes the process of selecting a sample of elements from a target population to conduct a survey.
System dynamics (SD) is an approach to understanding the nonlinear behaviour of complex systems over time using stocks, flows, internal feedback loops, table functions and time delays.
The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines system analysis as "the process of studying a procedure or business in order to identify its goals and purposes and create systems and procedures that will achieve them in an efficient way".
Systems biology is the computational and mathematical modeling of complex biological systems.
Systems ecology is an interdisciplinary field of ecology, a subset of Earth system science, that takes a holistic approach to the study of ecological systems, especially ecosystems.
Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary field of engineering and engineering management that focuses on how to design and manage complex systems over their life cycles.
Systems neuroscience is a subdiscipline of neuroscience and systems biology that studies the function of neural circuits and systems.
Systems psychology is a branch of both theoretical psychology and applied psychology that studies human behaviour and experience in complex systems.
Systems science is an interdisciplinary field that studies the nature of systems—from simple to complex—in nature, society, cognition, and science itself.
Systems theory is the interdisciplinary study of systems.
The following entries cover events related to the study of archaeology which occurred in the listed year.
Terminology is the study of terms and their use.
In theoretical computer science and mathematics, the theory of computation is the branch that deals with how efficiently problems can be solved on a model of computation, using an algorithm.
A time series is a series of data points indexed (or listed or graphed) in time order.
Babylonian astronomers discover an 18.6-year cycle in the rising and setting of the Moon.
Timeline of geology.
The timeline of meteorology contains events of scientific and technological advancements in the area of atmospheric sciences.
This article is a general timeline of psychology.
The timeline below shows the date of publication of possible major scientific theories and discoveries, along with the discoverer.
The timeline below shows the date of publication of major scientific experiments.
This is a list of important landmarks in the history of systematic philosophical inquiry and scientific analysis of phenomena.
This is a timeline of sociology.
This timeline of the history of scientific method shows an overview of the cultural inventions that have contributed to the development of the scientific method.
In mathematics, topology (from the Greek τόπος, place, and λόγος, study) is concerned with the properties of space that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, crumpling and bending, but not tearing or gluing.
In mathematics, logic, and computer science, a type theory is any of a class of formal systems, some of which can serve as alternatives to set theory as a foundation for all mathematics.
Uncertainty has been called "an unintelligible expression without a straightforward description".
Universal algebra (sometimes called general algebra) is the field of mathematics that studies algebraic structures themselves, not examples ("models") of algebraic structures.
A vector space (also called a linear space) is a collection of objects called vectors, which may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers, called scalars.
Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) is the process of creating an integrated circuit (IC) by combining hundreds of thousands of transistors or devices into a single chip.
Volcanology (also spelled vulcanology) is the study of volcanoes, lava, magma, and related geological, geophysical and geochemical phenomena.
A wireless network is a computer network that uses wireless data connections between network nodes.
The World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or the Web) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and accessible via the Internet.
Zoology or animal biology is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems.
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