347 relations: Abducens nerve, Abstraction, Acalculia, Accessory nerve, Acquired brain injury, Active zone, Actor–observer asymmetry, Affective neuroscience, Ahad Israfil, Alcohol dependence, Alcoholic hallucinosis, Alcoholic polyneuropathy, Alzheimer's disease, Ampullae of Lorenzini, Amusement, Amygdala, Aneurysm, Animal cognition, Antisocial personality disorder, Antonio Damasio, Aphasia, Arcuate fasciculus, Area postrema, Art, Artificial general intelligence, Artificial intelligence, Artificial neural network, Asphyxia, Attachment theory, Balance (ability), Baroreceptor, Basal ganglia, Behavioral neuroscience, Bio-inspired computing, Blood, Blood–brain barrier, Bloom's taxonomy, Blushing, Body integrity identity disorder, Border cells (Drosophila), Brain, Brain activity and meditation, Brain damage, Brain death, Brain Mapping Foundation, Brain metastasis, Brain size, Brain tumor, Brainstem, Broca's area, ..., Brodmann area 45, Caudate nucleus, CCK-4, Central nervous system, Central nucleus of the amygdala, Cerebellum, Cerebral cortex, Cerebral infarction, Cerebral shunt, Cerebrospinal fluid, Chemical synapse, Chemoreceptor, Chemoreceptor trigger zone, Chemotherapy, Choice-supportive bias, Chunking (psychology), Cognitive genomics, Cognitive neuropsychology, Cognitive neuroscience of visual object recognition, Cognitive rehabilitation therapy, Cognitive remediation therapy, Coma, Coma scale, Computational neuroscience, Computational theory of mind, Computer-assisted surgery, Confabulation, Cortical stimulation mapping, Coup contrecoup injury, Cranial nerves, Cranioplasty, Craniotomy, Craterization, Culture in music cognition, Curiosity, Cutaneous receptor, Cytochrome c oxidase, Dance, Data fusion, Decompressive craniectomy, Deductive reasoning, Default mode network, Delirium tremens, Dementia, Dementia with Lewy bodies, Development of the nervous system in humans, Devin Galligan, Disease model of addiction, Disease theory of alcoholism, Drug, Education, Electric field, Electrical synapse, Electroconvulsive therapy, Electromagnetic theories of consciousness, Emotion recognition, Empathy, Entertainment, Epilepsy, Epileptic seizure, Esophagus, Eureka effect, Evolution of the brain, Exceptional memory, Executive functions, Facial nerve, Frontal lobe injury, Frontotemporal dementia, Function space, Functional integration, Functional integration (neurobiology), Fundamental attribution error, Gambler's fallacy, Gary Dockery, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Gastrointestinal tract, Glossopharyngeal nerve, Grading of the tumors of the central nervous system, Granule cell, Grid cell, Head direction cells, Heat flux, Heat transfer, Helen Fisher (anthropologist), Henry Molaison, History of neuroimaging, History of neurology and neurosurgery, History of neuroscience, History of psychiatry, History of psychology, Hormone, Human bonding, Human brain, Huntington's disease, Hydrocephalus, Hypoglossal nerve, Hypothalamus, Imagination, Individualized Education Program, Inductive reasoning, Infidelity, Information integration, Infratentorial region, Interest (emotion), Interpersonal attraction, Interpersonal relationship, Interpersonal ties, Intracerebral hemorrhage, Intracranial pressure monitoring, Janakananda Saraswati, Kent Cochrane, Kundalini yoga, Lateralization of brain function, Learning, Lev Zasetsky, Lie detection, Limbic system, Linguistics, List of common misconceptions, List of memory biases, List of people with brain tumors, List of regions in the human brain, Lists of mathematics topics, Lobes of the brain, Lobotomy, Logic, Long-term effects of cannabis, Long-term impact of alcohol on the brain, Maharishi University of Management, Mathematics, Mechanoreceptor, Medulla oblongata, Memory and aging, Memory disorder, Meningioma, Mentalism, Mentalism (philosophy), Mentalism (psychology), Metastability in the brain, Methods used to study memory, Microsleep, Midbrain, Mind uploading, Mirror neuron, Mobile phone radiation and health, Motor neuron, Motor skill, Multiple sclerosis, Multisensory integration, Muscle memory, Music, Natural computing, Nervous system, Nervous tissue, Neural basis of self, Neural network, Neural oscillation, Neuroanatomy, Neuroanthropology, Neurobiological effects of physical exercise, Neurochemistry, Neurocomputational speech processing, Neurodegeneration, Neuroeconomics, Neuroinformatics, Neuron, Neuropathology, Neurophilosophy, Neuroplasticity, Neuroscience and intelligence, Neuroscience and sexual orientation, Neuroscience of free will, Neuroscience of sleep, Neurosurgery, Neurotransmitter, Nociception, Nociceptor, Nonsynaptic plasticity, Nucleus accumbens, Object permanence, Oculomotor nerve, Olfaction, Olfactory nerve, Olfactory receptor neuron, Optic nerve, Organization for Human Brain Mapping, Orgasm, Osmoreceptor, Osmotic concentration, Outline (list), Outline of brain mapping, Outline of human anatomy, Outline of neuroscience, Pain, Parental brain, Parkinson's disease, Peripheral chemoreceptors, Peripheral nervous system, Persistent vegetative state, Personal identification number, Phantom limb, Pharyngeal reflex, Pharynx, Philosophy of mind, Phineas Gage, Photoreceptor cell, Pineal gland, Pituitary adenoma, Place cell, Play (activity), Pons, Post-chemotherapy cognitive impairment, Postpartum depression, Pre-attentive processing, Preconscious, Priming (psychology), Proprioception, Psychosurgery, Pulmonary stretch receptors, Pyramidal cell, Radiation therapy, Radiosurgery, Reading (process), Reading comprehension, Reconstructive memory, Recreation, Rectum, Reflex arc, Rehabilitation (neuropsychology), Research on meditation, Respiratory rate, Resting state fMRI, Retinal ganglion cell, Right to silence, Robert Lawrence (British Army officer), Robot-assisted surgery, Science, Semantic dementia, Semiotics, Sensation (psychology), Sense, Sense of balance, Sensor fusion, Sensory nervous system, Sensory neuron, Sex differences in humans, Sex differences in psychology, Short-term effects of alcohol consumption, Skin, Skull, Skull fracture, Sleep and memory, Somatic marker hypothesis, Spatial view cells, Spinal canal, Spinal cord, Sport, Stereotactic surgery, Stress (mechanics), Stroke, Stroke recovery, Subdural hematoma, Supernumerary phantom limb, Supervisory attentional system, Supratentorial region, Swallowing, Symbol, Symbolic, Symbolism, Synapse, Synaptic vesicle, Ten percent of the brain myth, Terminal nerve, Terry Wallis, Thalamocortical radiations, Thermoception, Thermoreceptor, Topological space, Transsphenoidal surgery, Traumatic brain injury, Treatment of mental disorders, Trepanning, Trigeminal nerve, Trochlear nerve, Tuberous sclerosis, Urinary bladder, Vagus nerve, Vascular dementia, Ventricular system, Vertebral column, Vestibular nerve, Vestibulocochlear nerve, Virtual microscopy, Vomiting, Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome, Writing, Yoga nidra. 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The abducens nerve is a nerve that controls the movement of the lateral rectus muscle in humans, responsible for outward gaze.
Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concepts are derived from the usage and classification of specific examples, literal ("real" or "concrete") signifiers, first principles, or other methods.
Acalculia is an acquired impairment in which patients have difficulty performing simple mathematical tasks, such as adding, subtracting, multiplying and even simply stating which of two numbers is larger.
The accessory nerve is a spinal nerve that supplies the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles.
Acquired brain injury (ABI) is brain damage caused by events after birth, rather than as part of a genetic or congenital disorder such as fetal alcohol syndrome, perinatal illness or perinatal hypoxia.
The active zone or synaptic active zone is a term first used by Couteaux and Pecot-Dechavassinein in 1970 to define the site of neurotransmitter release.
Actor–observer asymmetry (also actor–observer bias) explains the errors that one makes when forming attributions about the behavior of others.
Affective neuroscience is the study of the neural mechanisms of emotion.
Ahad Israfil (born 1973) is a man from Dayton, Ohio, known for his remarkable recovery from a gunshot injury that destroyed most of one of his cerebral hemispheres.
Alcohol dependence is a previous psychiatric diagnosis in which an individual is physically or psychologically dependent upon alcohol (also known formally as ethanol).
Alcoholic hallucinosis (or alcohol-related psychosis or alcohol-induced psychotic disorder) is a complication of alcohol abuse in alcoholics.
Alcoholic polyneuropathy (A.K.A alcohol leg) is a neurological disorder in which peripheral nerves throughout the body malfunction simultaneously.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
The ampullae of Lorenzini are special sensing organs called electroreceptors, forming a network of jelly-filled pores.
Amusement, from the old French à muser – to put into a stupid stare, is the state of experiencing humorous and entertaining events or situations while the person or animal actively maintains the experience, and is associated with enjoyment, happiness, laughter and pleasure.
The amygdala (plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'Almond', 'tonsil') is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.
An aneurysm is a localized, abnormal, weak spot on a blood vessel wall that causes an outward bulging, likened to a bubble or balloon.
Animal cognition describes the mental capacities of non-human animals and the study of those capacities.
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD or APD) is a personality disorder characterized by a long term pattern of disregard for, or violation of, the rights of others.
Antonio Damasio (António Damásio) is a Portuguese-American neuroscientist.
Aphasia is an inability to comprehend and formulate language because of damage to specific brain regions.
The arcuate fasciculus (curved bundle) is a bundle of axons that forms part of the superior longitudinal fasciculus, an association fiber tract.
The area postrema is a medullary structure in the brain that controls vomiting.
Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.
Artificial general intelligence (AGI) is the intelligence of a machine that could successfully perform any intellectual task that a human being can.
Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) or connectionist systems are computing systems vaguely inspired by the biological neural networks that constitute animal brains.
Asphyxia or asphyxiation is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from abnormal breathing.
Attachment theory is a psychological model that attempts to describe the dynamics of long-term and short-term interpersonal relationships between humans.
In biomechanics, balance is an ability to maintain the line of gravity (vertical line from centre of mass) of a body within the base of support with minimal postural sway.
Baroreceptors (or archaically, pressoreceptors) are sensors located in the blood vessels of all vertebrate animals.
The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) is a group of subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates including humans, which are situated at the base of the forebrain.
Behavioral neuroscience, also known as biological psychology, biopsychology, or psychobiology, Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary is the application of the principles of biology to the study of physiological, genetic, and developmental mechanisms of behavior in humans and other animals.
Bio-inspired computing, short for biologically inspired computing, is a field of study that loosely knits together subfields related to the topics of connectionism, social behaviour and emergence.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Bloom's taxonomy is a set of three hierarchical models used to classify educational learning objectives into levels of complexity and specificity.
Blushing is the reddening of a person's face due to psychological reasons.
Body integrity identity disorder (BIID, also referred to as Body integrity dysphoria, amputee identity disorder and xenomelia, formerly called apotemnophilia) is a proposed disorder in which otherwise healthy individuals perceive one or more of their limbs or organs as alien to the rest of their body and wish to have it amputated.
The border cells of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are a cluster of 6–8 migratory cells found in the fly's ovary and derived from the follicular epithelium.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Meditation and its effect on brain activity and the central nervous system became a focus of collaborative research in neuroscience, psychology and neurobiology during the latter half of the 20th century.
Brain damage or brain injury (BI) is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells.
Brain death is the complete loss of brain function (including involuntary activity necessary to sustain life).
The Brain Mapping Foundation was established in 2004 by neuroscientist Babak Kateb, in order to advance cross pollination of ideas across physical sciences into biological sciences/neuroscience.
A brain metastasis is a cancer that has metastasized (spread) to the brain from another location in the body and is therefore considered a secondary brain tumor.
The size of the brain is a frequent topic of study within the fields of anatomy and evolution.
A brain tumor occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.
The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.
Broca's area or the Broca area or is a region in the frontal lobe of the dominant hemisphere, usually the left, of the hominid brain with functions linked to speech production.
Brodmann area 45 (BA45), is part of the frontal cortex in the human brain.
The caudate nucleus is one of the structures that make up the dorsal striatum, which is a component of the basal ganglia.
Cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4, Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2) is a peptide fragment derived from the larger peptide hormone cholecystokinin.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA or aCeN) is a nucleus within the amygdala.
The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
A cerebral infarction is an area of necrotic tissue in the brain resulting from a blockage or narrowing in the arteries supplying blood and oxygen to the brain.
Cerebral shunts are commonly used to treat hydrocephalus, the swelling of the brain due to excess buildup of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.
Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
A chemoreceptor, also known as chemosensor, is a specialized sensory receptor cell which transduces (responds to) a chemical substance (endogenous or induced) and generates a biological signal.
The chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) is an area of the medulla oblongata that receives inputs from blood-borne drugs or hormones, and communicates with other structures in the vomiting center to initiate vomiting.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
In cognitive science, choice-supportive bias or post-purchase rationalization is the tendency to retroactively ascribe positive attributes to an option one has selected.
In cognitive psychology, chunking is a process by which individual pieces of information are bound together into a meaningful whole (Neath & Surprenant, 2003).
Cognitive genomics (or neurative genomics) is the sub-field of genomics pertaining to cognitive function in which the genes and non-coding sequences of an organism's genome related to the health and activity of the brain are studied.
Cognitive neuropsychology is a branch of cognitive psychology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to specific psychological processes.
Object recognition is the ability to perceive an object's physical properties (such as shape, colour and texture) and apply semantic attributes to it (such as identifying the object as an apple).
Cognitive rehabilitation is a program to help brain-injured or otherwise cognitively impaired individuals to restore normal functioning, or to compensate for cognitive deficits.
Cognitive remediation is designed to improve neurocognitive abilities such as attention, working memory, cognitive flexibility and planning, and executive functioning which leads to improved psychosocial functioning.
Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.
A coma scale is a system to assess the severity of coma.
Computational neuroscience (also known as theoretical neuroscience or mathematical neuroscience) is a branch of neuroscience which employs mathematical models, theoretical analysis and abstractions of the brain to understand the principles that govern the development, structure, physiology and cognitive abilities of the nervous system.
In philosophy, the computational theory of mind (CTM) refers to a family of views that hold that the human mind is an information processing system and that cognition and consciousness together are a form of computation.
Computer-assisted surgery (CAS) represents a surgical concept and set of methods, that use computer technology for surgical planning, and for guiding or performing surgical interventions.
In psychiatry, confabulation (verb: confabulate) is a disturbance of memory, defined as the production of fabricated, distorted, or misinterpreted memories about oneself or the world, without the conscious intention to deceive.
Cortical stimulation mapping (CSM) is a type of electrocorticography that involves a physically invasive procedure and aims to localize the function of specific brain regions through direct electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex.
In head injury, a coup injury occurs under the site of impact with an object, and a contrecoup injury occurs on the side opposite the area that was hit.
Cranial nerves are the nerves that emerge directly from the brain (including the brainstem), in contrast to spinal nerves (which emerge from segments of the spinal cord).
Cranioplasty is a surgical repair of a defect or deformity of a skull.
A craniotomy is a surgical operation in which a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to access the brain.
Craterization is an old medical procedure in which doctors would drill holes into people's heads to remove a foreign mass (i.e., a tumor).
Culture in music cognition refers to the impact that a person's culture has on their music cognition, including their preferences, emotion recognition, and musical memory.
Curiosity (from Latin cūriōsitās, from cūriōsus "careful, diligent, curious", akin to cura "care") is a quality related to inquisitive thinking such as exploration, investigation, and learning, evident by observation in humans and other animals.
The cutaneous receptors are the types of sensory receptor found in the dermis or epidermis.
The enzyme cytochrome c oxidase or Complex IV, is a large transmembrane protein complex found in bacteria, archaea, and in eukaryotes in their mitochondria.
Dance is a performing art form consisting of purposefully selected sequences of human movement.
Data fusion is the process of integrating multiple data sources to produce more consistent, accurate, and useful information than that provided by any individual data source.
Decompressive craniectomy (crani- + -ectomy) is a neurosurgical procedure in which part of the skull is removed to allow a swelling brain room to expand without being squeezed.
Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, logical deduction is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logically certain conclusion.
In neuroscience, the default mode network (DMN), also default network, or default state network, is a large scale brain network of interacting brain regions known to have activity highly correlated with each other and distinct from other networks in the brain.
Delirium tremens (DTs) is a rapid onset of confusion usually caused by withdrawal from alcohol.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a type of dementia accompanied by changes in behavior, cognition and movement.
The study of neural development in humans draws on both neuroscience and developmental biology to describe the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which complex nervous systems emerge during embryonic development and throughout life.
The disease model of addiction describes an addiction as a disease with biological, neurological, genetic, and environmental sources of origin.
The modern disease theory of alcoholism states that problem drinking is sometimes caused by a disease of the brain, characterized by altered brain structure and function.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.
An electrical synapse is a mechanical and electrically conductive link between two neighboring neurons that is formed at a narrow gap between the pre- and postsynaptic neurons known as a gap junction.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), formerly known as electroshock therapy, and often referred to as shock treatment, is a psychiatric treatment in which seizures are electrically induced in patients to provide relief from mental disorders.
The electromagnetic theories of consciousness propose that consciousness can be understood as an electromagnetic phenomenon.
Emotion recognition is the process of identifying human emotion, most typically from facial expressions as well as from verbal expressions.
Empathy is the capacity to understand or feel what another person is experiencing from within their frame of reference, i.e., the capacity to place oneself in another's position.
Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest of an audience, or gives pleasure and delight.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.
The eureka effect (also known as the Aha! moment or eureka moment) refers to the common human experience of suddenly understanding a previously incomprehensible problem or concept.
The principles that govern the evolution of brain structure are not well understood.
The capacity for exceptional memory can take several forms.
Executive functions (collectively referred to as executive function and cognitive control) are a set of cognitive processes that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior: selecting and successfully monitoring behaviors that facilitate the attainment of chosen goals.
The facial nerve is the seventh cranial nerve, or simply cranial nerve VII.
The frontal lobe of the human brain is both relatively large in mass and less restricted in movement than the posterior portion of the brain.
The frontotemporal dementias (FTD) encompass six types of dementia involving the frontal or temporal lobes.
In mathematics, a function space is a set of functions between two fixed sets.
Functional integration is a collection of results in mathematics and physics where the domain of an integral is no longer a region of space, but a space of functions.
Functional integration is the study of how brain regions work together to process information and effect responses.
In social psychology, the fundamental attribution error (FAE), also known as the correspondence bias or attribution effect, is the claim that in contrast to interpretations of their own behavior, people place undue emphasis on internal characteristics of the agent (character or intention), rather than external factors, in explaining other people's behavior.
The gambler's fallacy, also known as the Monte Carlo fallacy or the fallacy of the maturity of chances, is the mistaken belief that, if something happens more frequently than normal during a given period, it will happen less frequently in the future.
Gary French Dockery (1954 – April 15, 1997) was an American police officer in Walden, Tennessee.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), also known as acid reflux, is a long-term condition where stomach contents come back up into the esophagus resulting in either symptoms or complications.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
The glossopharyngeal nerve, known as the ninth cranial nerve (CN IX), is a mixed nerve that carries afferent sensory and efferent motor information.
The concept of grading of the tumors of the central nervous system, agreeing for such the regulation of the "progressiveness" of these neoplasias (from benign and localized tumors to malignant and infiltrating tumors), dates back to 1926 and was introduced by P. Bailey and H. Cushing, in the elaboration of what turned out the first systematic classification of gliomas.
The name granule cell has been used by anatomists for a number of different types of neuron whose only common feature is that they all have very small cell bodies.
A grid cell is a type of neuron in the brains of many species that allows them to understand their position in space.
Head direction (HD) cells are neurons found in a number of brain regions that increase their firing rates above baseline levels only when the animal's head points in a specific direction.
Heat flux or thermal flux, sometimes also referred to as heat flux density or heat flow rate intensity is a flow of energy per unit of area per unit of time.
Heat transfer is a discipline of thermal engineering that concerns the generation, use, conversion, and exchange of thermal energy (heat) between physical systems.
Helen E. Fisher is an American anthropologist, human behavior researcher, and self-help author.
Henry Gustav Molaison (February 26, 1926 – December 2, 2008), known widely as H.M., was an American memory disorder patient who had a bilateral medial temporal lobectomy to surgically resect the anterior two thirds of his hippocampi, parahippocampal cortices, entorhinal cortices, piriform cortices, and amygdalae in an attempt to cure his epilepsy.
The first neuroimaging technique ever is the so-called ‘human circulation balance’ invented by Angelo Mosso in the 1880s and able to non-invasively measure the redistribution of blood during emotional and intellectual activity.
The study of neurology and neurosurgery dates back to prehistoric times, but the academic disciplines did not begin until the 16th century.
From the ancient Egyptian mummifications to 18th century scientific research on "globules" and neurons, there is evidence of neuroscience practice throughout the early periods of history.
Specialty in psychiatry can be traced in Ancient India.
Today, psychology is defined as "the scientific study of behavior and mental processes." Philosophical interest in the mind and behavior dates back to the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Persia, Greece, China, and India.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Human bonding is the process of development of a close, interpersonal relationship between two or more people.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
Huntington's disease (HD), also known as Huntington's chorea, is an inherited disorder that results in death of brain cells.
Hydrocephalus is a condition in which there is an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain.
The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve, and innervates all the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of the tongue, except for the palatoglossus which is innervated by the vagus nerve.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
Imagination is the capacity to produce images, ideas and sensations in the mind without any immediate input of the senses (such as seeing or hearing).
The Individualized Education Program, also called the IEP, is a document that is developed for each public school child who needs special education.
Inductive reasoning (as opposed to ''deductive'' reasoning or ''abductive'' reasoning) is a method of reasoning in which the premises are viewed as supplying some evidence for the truth of the conclusion.
Infidelity (synonyms include: cheating, adultery (when married), netorare (NTR), being unfaithful, or having an affair) is a violation of a couple's assumed or stated contract regarding emotional and/or sexual exclusivity.
Information integration (II) is the merging of information from heterogeneous sources with differing conceptual, contextual and typographical representations.
In anatomy, the infratentorial region of the brain is the area located below the tentorium cerebelli.
Interest is a feeling or emotion that causes attention to focus on an object, event, or process.
Interpersonal attraction is the attraction between people which leads to an relationships both platonic or romantic.
An interpersonal relationship is a strong, deep, or close association or acquaintance between two or more people that may range in duration from brief to enduring.
In mathematical sociology, interpersonal ties are defined as information-carrying connections between people.
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), also known as cerebral bleed, is a type of intracranial bleed that occurs within the brain tissue or ventricles.
The monitoring of intracranial pressure is used in treating severe traumatic brain injury patients.
Swami Janakananda Saraswati is a tantric yoga and meditation teacher and a writer, who has had a significant influence in the dissemination of yoga and meditation in Scandinavia and Northern Europe.
Kent Cochrane (August 5, 1951 – March 27, 2014), also known as Patient K.C., was a widely studied Canadian memory disorder patient who has been used as a case study in over 20 neuropsychology papers over the span of the past 25 years.
Kundalini Yoga, also known as laya yoga, is a school of yoga that is influenced by Shaktism and Tantra schools of Hinduism.
The lateralization of brain function is the tendency for some neural functions or cognitive processes to be specialized to one side of the brain or the other.
Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.
Lev Zasetsky (9 August 1920 – 9 September 1993) was a patient who was treated by Russian neuropsychologist Alexander Luria.
Lie detection is an assessment of a verbal statement with the goal to reveal a possible intentional deceit.
The limbic system is a set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus, immediately beneath the cerebrum.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
This list of common misconceptions corrects erroneous beliefs that are currently widely held about notable topics.
In psychology and cognitive science, a memory bias is a cognitive bias that either enhances or impairs the recall of a memory (either the chances that the memory will be recalled at all, or the amount of time it takes for it to be recalled, or both), or that alters the content of a reported memory.
A brain tumor is an abnormal growth of cells within the brain or inside the skull, and can be cancerous (malignant) or non-cancerous (benign).
The human brain anatomical regions are ordered following standard neuroanatomy hierarchies.
This article itemizes the various lists of mathematics topics.
The lobes of the brain were originally a purely anatomical classification, but have been shown also to be related to different brain functions.
Lobotomy, also known as leucotomy, is a neurosurgical and form of psychosurgery. Operation that involves severing connections in the brain's prefrontal lobe.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
The long-term effects of cannabis have been the subject of ongoing debate.
While researchers have found that moderate alcohol consumption in older adults is associated with better cognition and well-being than abstinence, excessive alcohol consumption is associated with widespread and significant brain lesions.
Maharishi University of Management (MUM), formerly Maharishi International University, is an American non-profit university located in Fairfield, Iowa.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
A mechanoreceptor is a sensory receptor that responds to mechanical pressure or distortion.
The medulla oblongata (or medulla) is located in the brainstem, anterior and partially inferior to the cerebellum.
Age-related memory loss, sometimes described as "normal aging", is qualitatively different from memory loss associated with dementias such as Alzheimer's disease, and is believed to have a different brain mechanism.
Memory disorders are the result of damage to neuroanatomical structures that hinders the storage, retention and recollection of memories.
Meningioma, also known as meningeal tumor, is typically a slow-growing tumor that forms from the meninges, the membranous layers surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
Mentalism is a performing art in which its practitioners, known as mentalists, appear to demonstrate highly developed mental or intuitive abilities.
In philosophy of mind, mentalism is the view that the mind and mental states exist as causally efficacious inner states of persons.
In psychology, mentalism is an umbrella term that refers to those branches of study that concentrate on perception and thought processes: for example, mental imagery, consciousness and cognition, as in cognitive psychology.
In the field of computational neuroscience, the theory of metastability refers to the human brain’s ability to integrate several functional parts and to produce neural oscillations in a cooperative and coordinated manner, providing the basis for conscious activity.
The study of memory incorporates research methodologies from neuropsychology, human development and animal testing using a wide range of species.
A micro-sleep (MS) is a temporary episode of sleep or drowsiness which may last for a fraction of a second or up to 30 seconds where an individual fails to respond to some arbitrary sensory input and becomes unconscious.
The midbrain or mesencephalon (from Greek mesos 'middle', and enkephalos 'brain') is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation.
Whole brain emulation (WBE), mind upload or brain upload (sometimes called "mind copying" or "mind transfer") is the hypothetical futuristic process of scanning the mental state (including long-term memory and "self") of a particular brain substrate and copying it to a computer.
A mirror neuron is a neuron that fires both when an animal acts and when the animal observes the same action performed by another.
The effect of mobile phone radiation on human health is a subject of interest and study worldwide, as a result of the enormous increase in mobile phone usage throughout the world.
A motor neuron (or motoneuron) is a neuron whose cell body is located in the motor cortex, brainstem or the spinal cord, and whose axon (fiber) projects to the spinal cord or outside of the spinal cord to directly or indirectly control effector organs, mainly muscles and glands.
A motor skill is a learned ability to cause a predetermined movement outcome with maximum certainty.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
Multisensory integration, also known as multimodal integration, is the study of how information from the different sensory modalities, such as sight, sound, touch, smell, self-motion and taste, may be integrated by the nervous system.
Muscle memory has been used synonymously with motor learning, which is a form of procedural memory that involves consolidating a specific motor task into memory through repetition.
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.
Natural computing,G.Rozenberg, T.Back, J.Kok, Editors, Handbook of Natural Computing, Springer Verlag, 2012A.Brabazon, M.O'Neill, S.McGarraghy.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Nervous tissue or nerve tissue is the main tissue component of the two parts of the nervous system; the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system (CNS), and the branching peripheral nerves of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which regulates and controls bodily functions and activity.
The neural basis of self is the idea of using modern concepts of neuroscience to describe and understand the biological processes that underlie human's perception of self-understanding.
The term neural network was traditionally used to refer to a network or circuit of neurons.
Neural oscillations, or brainwaves, are rhythmic or repetitive patterns of neural activity in the central nervous system.
Neuroanatomy is the study of the structure and organization of the nervous system.
Neuroanthropology is the study of the relationship between culture and the brain.
The are numerous and involve a wide range of interrelated effects on brain structure, brain function, and cognition.
Neurochemistry is the study of neurochemicals, including neurotransmitters and other molecules such as psychopharmaceuticals and neuropeptides, that influence the function of neurons.
Neurocomputational speech processing is computer-simulation of speech production and speech perception by referring to the natural neuronal processes of speech production and speech perception, as they occur in the human nervous system (central nervous system and peripheral nervous system).
Neurodegeneration is the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, including death of neurons.
Neuroeconomics and Economic Psychology is an interdisciplinary field that seeks to explain human decision making, the ability to process multiple alternatives and to follow a course of action.
Neuroinformatics is a research field concerned with the organization of neuroscience data by the application of computational models and analytical tools.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neuropathology is the study of disease of nervous system tissue, usually in the form of either small surgical biopsies or whole-body autopsies.
Neurophilosophy or philosophy of neuroscience is the interdisciplinary study of neuroscience and philosophy that explores the relevance of neuroscientific studies to the arguments traditionally categorized as philosophy of mind.
Neuroplasticity, also known as brain plasticity and neural plasticity, is the ability of the brain to change throughout an individual's life, e.g., brain activity associated with a given function can be transferred to a different location, the proportion of grey matter can change, and synapses may strengthen or weaken over time.
Neuroscience and intelligence refers to the various neurological factors that are partly responsible for the variation of intelligence within a species or between different species.
Sexual orientation is an enduring pattern of romantic or sexual attraction (or a combination of these) to persons of the opposite sex or gender, the same sex or gender, or to both sexes or more than one gender.
Neuroscience of free will, a part of neurophilosophy, is the study of the interconnections between free will and neuroscience.
The neuroscience of sleep is the study of the neuroscientific and physiological basis of the nature of sleep and its functions.
Neurosurgery, or neurological surgery, is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nociception (also nocioception or nociperception, from Latin nocere 'to harm or hurt') is the sensory nervous system's response to certain harmful or potentially harmful stimuli.
A nociceptor is a sensory neuron that responds to damaging or potentially damaging stimuli by sending “possible threat” signals to the spinal cord and the brain.
Nonsynaptic plasticity is a form of neuroplasticity that involves modification of ion channel function in the axon, dendrites, and cell body that results in specific changes in the integration of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs).
The nucleus accumbens (NAc or NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus, or formerly as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus adjacent to the septum) is a region in the basal forebrain rostral to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus.
Object permanence is the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be perceived (seen, heard, touched, smelled or sensed in any way).
The oculomotor nerve is the third cranial nerve.
Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.
The olfactory nerve is typically considered the first cranial nerve, or simply CN I, that contains sensory nerve fibers relating to smell.
An olfactory receptor neuron (ORN), also called an olfactory sensory neuron (OSN), is a transduction cell within the olfactory system.
The optic nerve, also known as cranial nerve II, is a paired nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain.
The Organization for Human Brain Mapping (OHBM) is an organization of scientists with the main aim of organizing an annual meeting ("Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping").
Orgasm (from Greek ὀργασμός orgasmos "excitement, swelling"; also sexual climax) is the sudden discharge of accumulated sexual excitement during the sexual response cycle, resulting in rhythmic muscular contractions in the pelvic region characterized by sexual pleasure.
An osmoreceptor is a sensory receptor primarily found in the hypothalamus of most homeothermic organisms that detects changes in osmotic pressure.
Osmotic concentration, formerly known as osmolarity, is the measure of solute concentration, defined as the number of osmoles (Osm) of solute per litre (L) of solution (osmol/L or Osm/L).
An outline, also called a hierarchical outline, is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships and is a type of tree structure.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to brain mapping: Brain mapping – set of neuroscience techniques predicated on the mapping of (biological) quantities or properties onto spatial representations of the (human or non-human) brain resulting in maps.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to human anatomy: Human anatomy – scientific study of the morphology of the adult human.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to neuroscience: Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system.
Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.
Parental experience, as well as changing hormone levels during pregnancy and postpartum, cause changes in the parental brain.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Peripheral chemoreceptors (of the carotid and aortic bodies) are so named because they are sensory extensions of the peripheral nervous system into blood vessels where they detect changes in chemical concentrations.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
A persistent vegetative state (PVS) is a disorder of consciousness in which patients with severe brain damage are in a state of partial arousal rather than true awareness.
A personal identification number (PIN, pronounced "pin"; is often spoken out loud "PIN number" by mistake) is a numeric or alpha-numeric password or code used in the process of authenticating or identifying a user to a system and system to a user.
A phantom limb is the sensation that an amputated or missing limb is still attached.
The pharyngeal reflex or gag reflex (also known as a laryngeal spasm) is a reflex contraction of the back of the throat, evoked by touching the roof of the mouth, the back of the tongue, the area around the tonsils, the uvula, and the back of the throat.
The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.
Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind.
Phineas P. Gage (18231860) was an American railroad construction foreman remembered for his improbable survival of an accident in which a large iron rod was driven completely through his head, destroying much of his brain's left frontal lobe, and for that injury's reported effects on his personality and behavior over the remaining 12 years of his lifeeffects sufficiently profound (for a time at least) that friends saw him as "no longer Gage".
A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuroepithelial cell found in the retina that is capable of visual phototransduction.
The pineal gland, also known as the conarium, kônarion or epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain.
Pituitary adenomas are tumors that occur in the pituitary gland.
A place cell is a type of pyramidal neuron within the hippocampus that becomes active when an animal enters a particular place in its environment; this place is known as the place field.
In psychology and ethology, play is a range of voluntary, intrinsically motivated activities normally associated with recreational pleasure and enjoyment.
The pons (Latin for "bridge") is part of the brainstem, and in humans and other bipeds lies inferior to the midbrain, superior to the medulla oblongata and anterior to the cerebellum.
Post-chemotherapy cognitive impairment (PCCI) (also known in the scientific community as "CRCIs or Chemotherapy-Related Cognitive Impairments" and in lay terms as chemotherapy-induced cognitive dysfunction or impairment, chemo brain, or chemo fog) describes the cognitive impairment that can result from chemotherapy treatment.
Postpartum depression (PPD), also called postnatal depression, is a type of mood disorder associated with childbirth, which can affect both sexes.
Pre-attentive processing is the subconscious accumulation of information from the environment.
In psychoanalysis, preconscious are the thoughts which are unconscious at the particular moment in question, but which are not repressed and are therefore available for recall and easily 'capable of becoming conscious'—a phrase attributed by Sigmund Freud to Joseph Breuer.
Priming is a technique whereby exposure to one stimulus influences a response to a subsequent stimulus, without conscious guidance or intention.
Proprioception, from Latin proprius, meaning "one's own", "individual", and capio, capere, to take or grasp, is the sense of the relative position of one's own parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement.
Psychosurgery, also called neurosurgery for mental disorder (NMD), is the neurosurgical treatment of mental disorder.
Pulmonary stretch receptors are mechanoreceptors found in the lungs.
Pyramidal cells, or (pyramidal neurons), are a type of multipolar neuron found in areas of the brain including the cerebral cortex, the hippocampus, and the amygdala.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
Radiosurgery is surgery using radiation, that is, the destruction of precisely selected areas of tissue using ionizing radiation rather than excision with a blade.
Reading is a complex "cognitive process" of decoding symbols in order to construct or derive meaning (reading comprehension).
Reading comprehension is the ability to process text, understand its meaning, and to integrate it with what the reader already knows.
Reconstructive memory is a theory of elaborate memory recall proposed within the field of cognitive psychology, in which the act of remembering is influenced by various other cognitive processes including perception, imagination, semantic memory and beliefs, amongst others.
Recreation is an activity of leisure, leisure being discretionary time.
The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others.
A reflex arc is a neural pathway that controls a reflex.
Rehabilitation of sensory and cognitive function typically involves methods for retraining neural pathways or training new neural pathways to regain or improve neurocognitive functioning that has been diminished by disease or trauma.
For the purpose of this article, research on meditation concerns research into the psychological and physiological effects of meditation using the scientific method.
The respiratory rate is the rate at which breathing occurs.
Resting state fMRI (rsfMRI or R-fMRI) is a method of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) that is used in brain mapping to evaluate regional interactions that occur in a resting or task-negative state, when an explicit task is not being performed.
A retinal ganglion cell (RGC) is a type of neuron located near the inner surface (the ganglion cell layer) of the retina of the eye.
The right to silence is a legal principle which guarantees any individual the right to refuse to answer questions from law enforcement officers or court officials.
Robert Alasdair Davidson Lawrence MC (born 3 July 1960) is a former British Army officer who fought and was severely wounded in the Falklands War.
Robotic surgery, computer-assisted surgery, and robotically-assisted surgery are terms for technological developments that use robotic systems to aid in surgical procedures.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Semantic dementia (SD), also known as semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of semantic memory in both the verbal and non-verbal domains.
Semiotics (also called semiotic studies) is the study of meaning-making, the study of sign process (semiosis) and meaningful communication.
Sensation is the body's detection of external or internal stimulation (e.g., eyes detecting light waves, ears detecting sound waves).
A sense is a physiological capacity of organisms that provides data for perception.
The sense of balance or equilibrioception is one of the physiological senses related to balance.
Sensor fusion is combining of sensory data or data derived from disparate sources such that the resulting information has less uncertainty than would be possible when these sources were used individually.
The sensory nervous system is a part of the nervous system responsible for processing sensory information.
Sensory neurons also known as afferent neurons are neurons that convert a specific type of stimulus, via their receptors, into action potentials or graded potentials.
Sex differences in humans have been studied in a variety of fields.
Sex differences in psychology are differences in the mental functions and behaviors of the sexes, and are due to a complex interplay of biological, developmental, and cultural factors.
The short-term effects of alcohol (also known formally as ethanol) consumption – due to drinking beer, wine, distilled spirits or other alcoholic beverages – range from a decrease in anxiety and motor skills and euphoria at lower doses to intoxication (drunkenness), stupor, unconsciousness, anterograde amnesia (memory "blackouts"), and central nervous system depression at higher doses.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in vertebrates.
A skull fracture is a break in one or more of the eight bones that form the cranial portion of the skull, usually occurring as a result of blunt force trauma.
The relationship between sleep and memory has been postulated and studied since at least the early 19th century.
The somatic marker hypothesis, formulated by Antonio Damasio, proposes that emotional processes guide (or bias) behavior, particularly decision-making.
Spatial view cells are neurons in primates' hippocampus; they respond when a certain part of the environment is in the animal's field of view.
The spinal canal (or vertebral canal or spinal cavity) is the space in the vertebral column formed by the vertebrae through which the spinal cord passes.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
Sport (British English) or sports (American English) includes all forms of competitive physical activity or games which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants, and in some cases, entertainment for spectators.
Stereotactic surgery or stereotaxy is a minimally invasive form of surgical intervention which makes use of a three-dimensional coordinate system to locate small targets inside the body and to perform on them some action such as ablation, biopsy, lesion, injection, stimulation, implantation, radiosurgery (SRS), etc.
In continuum mechanics, stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other, while strain is the measure of the deformation of the material.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
The primary goals of stroke management are to reduce brain injury and promote maximum patient recovery.
A subdural hematoma (SDH), is a type of hematoma, usually associated with traumatic brain injury.
Supernumerary phantom limb is a condition where the affected individual believes and receives sensory information from limbs of the body that do not actually exist, and never have existed, in contradistinction to phantom limbs, which appear after an individual has had a limb removed from the body and still receives input from it.
Executive functions are a cognitive apparatus that controls and manages cognitive processes.
In anatomy, the supratentorial region of the brain is the area located above the tentorium cerebelli.
Swallowing, sometimes called deglutition in scientific contexts, is the process in the human or animal body that allows for a substance to pass from the mouth, to the pharynx, and into the esophagus, while shutting the epiglottis.
A symbol is a mark, sign or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship.
Symbolic may refer to.
Symbolism or symbolist may refer to.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
In a neuron, synaptic vesicles (or neurotransmitter vesicles) store various neurotransmitters that are released at the synapse.
The 10 percent of the brain myth is a widely perpetuated urban legend that most or all humans only use 10 percent (or some other small percentage) of their brains.
The terminal nerve, or cranial nerve zero, was discovered by German scientist Gustav Fritsch in 1878 in the brains of sharks.
Terry Wallis (born April 7, 1964) is an American man living in the Ozark Mountains of Arkansas who on June 11, 2003, regained awareness after spending 19 years in a minimally conscious state.
Thalamocortical radiations are the fibers between the thalamus and the cerebral cortex.
Thermoception or thermoreception is the sense by which an organism perceives temperature, or more accurately, temperature differences inferred from heat flux.
A thermoreceptor is a non-specialised sense receptor, or more accurately the receptive portion of a sensory neuron, that codes absolute and relative changes in temperature, primarily within the innocuous range.
In topology and related branches of mathematics, a topological space may be defined as a set of points, along with a set of neighbourhoods for each point, satisfying a set of axioms relating points and neighbourhoods.
Transsphenoidal surgery is a type of surgery in which an endoscope and/or surgical instruments are inserted into part of the brain by going through the nose and the sphenoid bone (a butterfly-shaped bone forming the anterior inferior portion of the brain case) into the sphenoidal sinus cavity.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force injures the brain.
Mental disorders are classified as a psychological condition marked primarily by sufficient disorganization of personality, mind, and emotions to seriously impair the normal psychological and often social functioning of the individual. Individuals diagnosed with certain mental disorders can be unable to function normally in society.
Trepanning, also known as trepanation, trephination, trephining or making a burr hole (the verb trepan derives from Old French from Medieval Latin trepanum from Greek trypanon, literally "borer, auger") is a surgical intervention in which a hole is drilled or scraped into the human skull, exposing the dura mater to treat health problems related to intracranial diseases or release pressured blood buildup from an injury.
The trigeminal nerve (the fifth cranial nerve, or simply CN V) is a nerve responsible for sensation in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing; it is the largest of the cranial nerves.
The trochlear nerve, also called the fourth cranial nerve or cranial nerve IV, is a motor nerve (a somatic efferent nerve) that innervates only a single muscle: the superior oblique muscle of the eye, which operates through the pulley-like trochlea.
Tuberous sclerosis, or tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), or epiloia (acronym of "epilepsy, low intelligence, adenoma sebaceum"), is a rare multisystem genetic disease that causes benign tumors to grow in the brain and on other vital organs such as the kidneys, heart, liver, eyes, lungs, and skin.
The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in humans and some other animals that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination.
The vagus nerve, historically cited as the pneumogastric nerve, is the tenth cranial nerve or CN X, and interfaces with parasympathetic control of the heart, lungs, and digestive tract.
Vascular dementia, also known as multi-infarct dementia (MID) and vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), is dementia caused by problems in the supply of blood to the brain, typically a series of minor strokes, leading to worsening cognitive decline that occurs step by step.
The ventricular system is a set of four interconnected cavities (ventricles) in the brain, where the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced.
The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton.
The vestibular nerve is one of the two branches of the vestibulocochlear nerve (the cochlear nerve being the other).
The vestibulocochlear nerve (auditory vestibular nerve), known as the eighth cranial nerve, transmits sound and equilibrium (balance) information from the inner ear to the brain.
Virtual microscopy is a method of posting microscope images on, and transmitting them over, computer networks.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) is the combined presence of Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) and alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome.
Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion with signs and symbols.
Yoga nidra (योग निद्रा) or yogic sleep) is a state of consciousness between waking and sleeping, like the "going-to-sleep" stage. It is a state in which the body is completely relaxed, and the practitioner becomes systematically and increasingly aware of the inner world by following a set of verbal instructions. This state of consciousness (yoga nidra) is different from meditation in which concentration on a single focus is required. In yoga nidra the practitioner remains in a state of light withdrawal of the 5 senses (pratyahara) with four of his or her senses internalised, that is, withdrawn, and only the hearing still connects to the instructions. The yogic goal of both paths, deep relaxation (yoga nidra) and meditation are the same, a state of meditative consciousness called samadhi. Yoga nidra is among the deepest possible states of relaxation while still maintaining full consciousness. In lucid dreaming, one is only, or mainly, cognizant of the dream environment, and has little or no awareness of one's actual environment. The practice of yoga relaxation has been found to reduce tension and anxiety. The autonomic symptoms of high anxiety such as headache, giddiness, chest pain, palpitations, sweating and abdominal pain respond well. It has been used to help soldiers from war cope with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Yoga nidra refers to the conscious awareness of the deep sleep state, referred to as prajna in Mandukya Upanishad.