153 relations: AMBIO, Apex predator, Aquifer, Aristotle, Arizona Daily Star, Asian black bear, Atlantic cod, Biodiversity, Biodiversity loss, Biomass (ecology), Bioprospecting, Bird, Bushmeat, Carolina parakeet, Carrying capacity, Cascade effect, Chimpanzee, Chinchilla, CITES, Common land, Common-pool resource, Conservation biology, Deep ecology, Defaunation, Deforestation, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Depensation, Diminishing returns, Dodo, Earth, Ecological release, Ecology, Economic growth, Ecosystem, Ecosystem management, Enclosure, Endangered species, Endemism, European hedgehog, Exploitation of natural resources, Extinction, Fauna, Fish stock, Fisheries management, Fishery, Flora, Food and Agriculture Organization, Forest, Forest management, Fossil water, ..., Fur trade, Game (hunting), Garrett Hardin, Giant otter, Global warming, Gorilla, Great auk, Habitat destruction, Habitat fragmentation, Hubbert curve, Hubbert peak theory, Huffaker's mite experiment, Human migration, Human overpopulation, Hunting, Hybrid (biology), Hydrology, Individual fishing quota, Introduced species, Invasive species, Island ecology, Jevons paradox, Kelp, Kelp forest, Keystone species, Killer whale, Lake, Land tenure, Leviathan (Hobbes book), Local extinction, Logging, Madagascar, Mamo, Mauritius, Maximum sustainable yield, Māori people, Medicinal plants, Megafauna, Moa, Mollusca, Myth of superabundance, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National park, Natural product, Natural resource, Natural resource management, New Zealand, Nitrate, Occupancy–abundance relationship, Ocean acidification, Oʻahu tree snail, Ogallala Aquifer, Our Plundered Planet, Overconsumption, Overdrafting, Overfishing, Overgrazing, Overlogging, Overpopulation, Pacific Institute, Paper, Partula (gastropod), Pasture, Peak oil, Peak water, Planetary boundaries, Pollution, Predation, Quaternary extinction event, Reforestation, Renewable resource, Resource depletion, Rwanda, Saiga antelope, Saribus rotundifolius, Science (journal), Sea otter, Sea urchin, Social dilemma, Social trap, Southeast Asia, Species richness, Stock management, Sustainability, Sustainable development, Sustainable yield, The BMJ, Thomas Hobbes, Traditional Chinese medicine, Tragedy of the anticommons, Tragedy of the commons, Trophic cascade, Tropical fish, Tyranny of small decisions, Uist, Ungulate, Vertebrate, Vicuña, West Africa, Wild fisheries, Wildlife trade, William Forster Lloyd, World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Expand index (103 more) » « Shrink index
AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published eight times a year by Springer Science+Business Media on behalf of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
An apex predator, also known as an alpha predator or top predator, is a predator at the top of a food chain, with no natural predators.
An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt).
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
The Arizona Daily Star is the major morning daily newspaper that serves Tucson and surrounding districts of southern Arizona in the United States.
The Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus, previously known as Selenarctos thibetanus), also known as the moon bear and the white-chested bear, is a medium-sized bear species native to Asia and largely adapted to arboreal life.
The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is a benthopelagic fish of the family Gadidae, widely consumed by humans.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
Loss of biodiversity or biodiversity loss is the extinction of species (human, plant or animal) worldwide, and also the local reduction or loss of species in a certain habitat.
Biomass is the mass of living biological organisms in a given area or ecosystem at a given time.
Bioprospecting is the process of discovery and commercialization of new products based on biological resources.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
Bushmeat, wildmeat, or game meat is meat from non-domesticated mammals, reptiles, amphibians and birds hunted for food in tropical forests.
The Carolina parakeet (Conuropsis carolinensis) or Carolina conure was a small green neotropical parrot with a bright yellow head, reddish orange face and pale beak native to the eastern, midwest and plains states of the United States and was the only indigenous parrot within its range, as well as one of only two parrots native to the United States (the other being the thick-billed parrot).
The carrying capacity of a biological species in an environment is the maximum population size of the species that the environment can sustain indefinitely, given the food, habitat, water, and other necessities available in the environment.
A cascade effect is an inevitable and sometimes unforeseen chain of events due to an act affecting a. If there is a possibility that the cascade effect will have a negative impact on the system, it is possible to analyze the effects with a consequence/impact analysis.
The taxonomical genus Pan (often referred to as chimpanzees or chimps) consists of two extant species: the common chimpanzee and the bonobo.
Chinchillas are either of two species of crepuscular rodents of the parvorder Caviomorpha.
CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, also known as the Washington Convention) is a multilateral treaty to protect endangered plants and animals.
Common land is land owned collectively by a number of persons, or by one person, but over which other people have certain traditional rights, such as to allow their livestock to graze upon it, to collect wood, or to cut turf for fuel.
In economics, a common-pool resource (CPR) is a type of good consisting of a natural or human-made resource system (e.g. an irrigation system or fishing grounds), whose size or characteristics makes it costly, but not impossible, to exclude potential beneficiaries from obtaining benefits from its use.
Conservation biology is the management of nature and of Earth's biodiversity with the aim of protecting species, their habitats, and ecosystems from excessive rates of extinction and the erosion of biotic interactions.
Deep ecology is an ecological and environmental philosophy promoting the inherent worth of living beings regardless of their instrumental utility to human needs, plus a radical restructuring of modern human societies in accordance with such ideas.
Defaunation is the loss of animals from ecological communities.
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.
In population dynamics, depensation is the effect on a population (such as a fish stock) whereby, due to certain causes, a decrease in the breeding population (mature individuals) leads to reduced production and survival of eggs or offspring.
In economics, diminishing returns is the decrease in the marginal (incremental) output of a production process as the amount of a single factor of production is incrementally increased, while the amounts of all other factors of production stay constant.
The dodo (Raphus cucullatus) is an extinct flightless bird that was endemic to the island of Mauritius, east of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Ecological release refers to a population increase or population explosion that occurs when a species is freed from limiting factors in its environment.
Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.
Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Ecosystem management is a process that aims to conserve major ecological services and restore natural resources while meeting the socioeconomic, political and cultural needs of current and future generations.
Enclosure (sometimes inclosure) was the legal process in England of consolidating (enclosing) small landholdings into larger farms.
An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
The European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), also known as the West European hedgehog or common hedgehog, is a hedgehog species found in Europe, from Iberia and Italy northwards into Scandinavia.
The exploitation of natural resources is the use of natural resources for economic growth, sometimes with a negative connotation of accompanying environmental degradation.
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
Fauna is all of the animal life of any particular region or time.
Fish stocks are subpopulations of a particular species of fish, for which intrinsic parameters (growth, recruitment, mortality and fishing mortality) are traditionally regarded as the significant factors determining the stock's population dynamics, while extrinsic factors (immigration and emigration) are traditionally ignored.
Fisheries management is the activity of protecting fishery resources so sustainable exploitation is possible, drawing on fisheries science, and including the precautionary principle.
Generally, a fishery is an entity engaged in raising or harvesting fish which is determined by some authority to be a fishery.
Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
A forest is a large area dominated by trees.
Forest management is a branch of forestry concerned with overall administrative, economic, legal, and social aspects, as well as scientific and technical aspects, such as silviculture, protection, and forest regulation.
Fossil water or paleowater is an ancient body of water that has been contained in some undisturbed space, typically groundwater in an aquifer, for millennia.
The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur.
Game or quarry is any animal hunted for sport or for food.
Garrett James Hardin (April 21, 1915 – September 14, 2003) was an American ecologist and philosopher who warned of the dangers of overpopulation.
The giant otter or giant river otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) is a South American carnivorous mammal.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
Gorillas are ground-dwelling, predominantly herbivorous apes that inhabit the forests of central Sub-Saharan Africa.
The great auk (Pinguinus impennis) is a species of flightless alcid that became extinct in the mid-19th century.
Habitat destruction is the process in which natural habitat is rendered unable to support the species present.
Habitat fragmentation describes the emergence of discontinuities (fragmentation) in an organism's preferred environment (habitat), causing population fragmentation and ecosystem decay.
The Hubbert curve is an approximation of the production rate of a resource over time.
The Hubbert peak theory says that for any given geographical area, from an individual oil-producing region to the planet as a whole, the rate of petroleum production tends to follow a bell-shaped curve.
In 1958, Carl B. Huffaker, an ecologist and agricultural entomologist at the University of California, Berkeley, did a series of experiments with predatory and herbivorous mite species to investigate predator–prey population dynamics.
Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily in a new location.
Human overpopulation (or population overshoot) occurs when the ecological footprint of a human population in a specific geographical location exceeds the carrying capacity of the place occupied by that group.
Hunting is the practice of killing or trapping animals, or pursuing or tracking them with the intent of doing so.
In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.
Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.
Individual fishing quotas (IFQs) also known as "individual transferable quotas" (ITQs) are one kind of catch share, a means by which many governments regulate fishing.
An introduced species (alien species, exotic species, non-indigenous species, or non-native species) is a species living outside its native distributional range, which has arrived there by human activity, either deliberate or accidental.
An invasive species is a species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.
Island ecology is the study of island organisms and their interactions with each other and the environment.
In economics, the Jevons paradox (sometimes Jevons effect) occurs when technological progress increases the efficiency with which a resource is used (reducing the amount necessary for any one use), but the rate of consumption of that resource rises because of increasing demand.
Kelps are large brown algae seaweeds that make up the order Laminariales.
Kelp forests are underwater areas with a high density of kelp.
A keystone species is a species that has a disproportionately large effect on its environment relative to its abundance.
A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.
In common law systems, land tenure is the legal regime in which land is owned by an individual, who is said to "hold" the land.
Leviathan or The Matter, Forme and Power of a Common-Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil—commonly referred to as Leviathan—is a book written by Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679) and published in 1651 (revised Latin edition 1668). Its name derives from the biblical Leviathan. The work concerns the structure of society and legitimate government, and is regarded as one of the earliest and most influential examples of social contract theory. Leviathan ranks as a classic western work on statecraft comparable to Machiavelli's The Prince. Written during the English Civil War (1642–1651), Leviathan argues for a social contract and rule by an absolute sovereign. Hobbes wrote that civil war and the brute situation of a state of nature ("the war of all against all") could only be avoided by strong, undivided government.
Local extinction or extirpation is the condition of a species (or other taxon) that ceases to exist in the chosen geographic area of study, though it still exists elsewhere.
Logging is the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or logs onto trucks or skeleton cars.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
Mamo or hoohoo is a common name for two species of extinct birds.
Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.
In population ecology and economics, maximum sustainable yield or MSY is theoretically, the largest yield (or catch) that can be taken from a species' stock over an indefinite period.
The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand.
Medicinal plants, also called medicinal herbs, have been discovered and used in traditional medicine practices since prehistoric times.
In terrestrial zoology, megafauna (from Greek μέγας megas "large" and New Latin fauna "animal life") are large or giant animals.
The moa were nine species (in six genera) of flightless birds endemic to New Zealand.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
The myth of superabundance is the belief that earth has more than sufficient natural resources to satisfy humanity's needs, and that no matter how much of these resources humanity uses, the planet will continuously replenish the supply.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes.
A natural product is a chemical compound or substance produced by a living organism—that is, found in nature.
Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind.
Natural resource management refers to the management of natural resources such as land, water, soil, plants and animals, with a particular focus on how management affects the quality of life for both present and future generations (stewardship).
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
In ecology, the occupancy–abundance (O–A) relationship is the relationship between the abundance of species and the size of their ranges within a region.
Ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
Oahu tree snails, genus Achatinella, form a large genus of colorful, tropical, tree-living, air-breathing, land snails, arboreal pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the family Achatinellidae.
The Ogallala Aquifer is a shallow water table aquifer surrounded by sand, silt, clay and gravel located beneath the Great Plains in the United States.
Our Plundered Planet is a book published in 1948 that was written by Fairfield Osborn about environmental destruction by humankind.
Overconsumption is a situation where resource use has outpaced the sustainable capacity of the ecosystem.
Overdrafting is the process of extracting groundwater beyond the equilibrium yield of the aquifer.
Overfishing is the removal of a species of fish from a body of water at a rate that the species cannot replenish in time, resulting in those species either becoming depleted or very underpopulated in that given area.
Overgrazing occurs when plants are exposed to intensive grazing for extended periods of time, or without sufficient recovery periods.
Overlogging is a kind of overexploitation caused by legal or illegal logging activities that lead to unsustainable or irrecoverable deforestation and permanent habitat destruction for forest wildlife.
Overpopulation occurs when a species' population exceeds the carrying capacity of its ecological niche.
The Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security is an American non-profit research institute created in 1987 to provide independent research and policy analysis on issues of development, environment, and security, with a particular focus on global and regional freshwater issues.
Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.
Partula is a genus of air-breathing tropical land snails, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the family Partulidae.
Pasture (from the Latin pastus, past participle of pascere, "to feed") is land used for grazing.
Peak oil is the theorized point in time when the maximum rate of extraction of petroleum is reached, after which it is expected to enter terminal decline.
Peak water is a concept that underlines the growing constraints on the availability, quality, and use of freshwater resources.
Planetary boundaries is a concept of nine Earth system processes which have boundaries proposed in 2009 by a group of Earth system and environmental scientists led by Johan Rockström from the Stockholm Resilience Centre and Will Steffen from the Australian National University.
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.
Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).
The Quaternary period saw the extinctions of numerous predominantly megafaunal species, which resulted in a collapse in faunal density and diversity, and the extinction of key ecological strata across the globe.
Reforestation is the natural or intentional restocking of existing forests and woodlands (forestation) that have been depleted, usually through deforestation.
A renewable resource is a natural resource which replenishes to overcome resource depletion caused by usage and consumption, either through biological reproduction or other naturally recurring processes in a finite amount of time in a human time scale.
Resource depletion is the consumption of a resource faster than it can be replenished.
Rwanda (U Rwanda), officially the Republic of Rwanda (Repubulika y'u Rwanda; République du Rwanda), is a sovereign state in Central and East Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland.
The saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica) is a critically endangered antelope that originally inhabited a vast area of the Eurasian steppe zone from the foothills of the Carpathian Mountains and Caucasus into Dzungaria and Mongolia.
Saribus rotundifolius, round-leaf fountain palm, is a palm found in Southeast Asia.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a marine mammal native to the coasts of the northern and eastern North Pacific Ocean.
Sea urchins or urchins are typically spiny, globular animals, echinoderms in the class Echinoidea.
A social dilemma is a situation in which an individual profits from selfishness unless everyone chooses the selfish alternative, in which case the whole group loses.
In psychology, a social trap is a situation in which a group of people act to obtain short-term individual gains, which in the long run leads to a loss for the group as a whole.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Species richness is the number of different species represented in an ecological community, landscape or region.
Stock management is the function of understanding the stock mix of a company and the different demands on that stock.
Sustainability is the process of change, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations.
Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while at the same time sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services upon which the economy and society depend.
The sustainable yield of natural capital is the ecological yield that can be extracted without reducing the base of capital itself, i.e. the surplus required to maintain ecosystem services at the same or increasing level over time.
The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.
Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine.
The tragedy of the anticommons is a type of coordination breakdown, in which a single resource has numerous rightsholders who prevent others from using it, frustrating what would be a socially desirable outcome.
The tragedy of the commons is a term used in social science to describe a situation in a shared-resource system where individual users acting independently according to their own self-interest behave contrary to the common good of all users by depleting or spoiling that resource through their collective action.
Trophic cascades are powerful indirect interactions that can control entire ecosystems, occurring when predators in a food web suppress the abundance or alter the behavior of their prey, thereby releasing the next lower trophic level from predation (or herbivory if the intermediate trophic level is a herbivore).
Tropical fish are generally those fish found in aquatic tropical environments around the world, including both freshwater and saltwater species.
The tyranny of small decisions is a phenomenon explored in an essay of the same name, published in 1966 by the American economist Alfred E. Kahn.
Uist or The Uists (Uibhist) are two islands and part of the Outer Hebrides of Scotland.
Ungulates (pronounced) are any members of a diverse group of primarily large mammals that includes odd-toed ungulates such as horses and rhinoceroses, and even-toed ungulates such as cattle, pigs, giraffes, camels, deer, and hippopotami.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
The vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) or vicuna (both, very rarely spelled vicugna) is one of the two wild South American camelids which live in the high alpine areas of the Andes, the other being the guanaco.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
A fishery is an area with an associated fish or aquatic population which is harvested for its commercial value.
Wildlife trade refers to the commerce of products that are derived from non-domesticated animals or plants usually extracted from their natural environment or raised under controlled conditions.
William Forster Lloyd FRS (1794 – 2 June 1852) was a British writer on economics.
The UN Environment World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC) is an executive agency of the United Nations Environment Programme, based in Cambridge in the United Kingdom.
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