63 relations: Alternation of generations, Apoplast, Archegonium, Asexual reproduction, Asteraceae, Brassica, Caytonia, Caytoniales, Chalaza, Citrus, Conifer cone, Dianthus, DNA repair, Egg cell, Egg white, Embryo, Endosperm, Fertilisation, Flower, Flowering plant, Fruit, Gametophyte, Gene, Germination, Glossopteris, Gymnosperm, Gynoecium, Helianthus, Hibiscus, Homologous recombination, Integument, Locule, Megaspore, Megaspore mother cell, Meiosis, Mitosis, Nucellar embryony, Nymphaea, Oil, Oogenesis, Ovary (botany), Phloem, Pisum, Placentation, Ploidy, Protein, Pteridospermatophyta, Radicle, Receptacle (botany), Seedling, ..., Solanum, Sonchus, Sperm, Spermatophyte, Sporangium, Sporogenesis, Sporophyte, Starch, Stellaria, Strobilus, Symplast, Yolk, Zygote. Expand index (13 more) » « Shrink index
Alternation of generations (also known as metagenesis) is the type of life cycle that occurs in those plants and algae in the Archaeplastida and the Heterokontophyta that have distinct sexual haploid and asexual diploid stages.
Inside a plant, the apoplast is the space outside the plasma membrane within which material can diffuse freely.
An archegonium (pl: archegonia), from the ancient Greek ἀρχή ("beginning") and γόνος ("offspring"), is a multicellular structure or organ of the gametophyte phase of certain plants, producing and containing the ovum or female gamete.
Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.
Asteraceae or Compositae (commonly referred to as the aster, daisy, composite,Great Basin Wildflowers, Laird R. Blackwell, 2006, p. 275 or sunflower family) is a very large and widespread family of flowering plants (Angiospermae).
Brassica is a genus of plants in the mustard family (Brassicaceae).
Caytonia is an extinct genus of seed ferns.
The Caytoniales (Figs. 1-2) are an extinct order of seed plants known from fossils collected throughout the Mesozoic Era, specifically in the late Triassic to Maastrichtian period, around.
The chalaza (from Greek χάλαζα "hailstone"; plural chalazas or chalazae) is a structure inside bird and reptile eggs and plant ovules.
Citrus is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae.
A cone (in formal botanical usage: strobilus, plural strobili) is an organ on plants in the division Pinophyta (conifers) that contains the reproductive structures.
Dianthus is a genus of about 300 species of flowering plants in the family Caryophyllaceae, native mainly to Europe and Asia, with a few species extending south to north Africa, and one species (D. repens) in arctic North America.
DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.
The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.
Egg white is the clear liquid (also called the albumen or the glair/glaire) contained within an egg.
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.
The endosperm is the tissue produced inside the seeds of most of the flowering plants following fertilization.
Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms).
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
A gametophyte is one of the two alternating phases in the life cycle of plants and algae.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Germination is the process by which an organism grows from a seed or similar structure.
Glossopteris (γλώσσα glossa, meaning "tongue", because the leaves were tongue-shaped, and pteris, Greek for fern or feathery) is the largest and best-known genus of the extinct order of seed ferns known as Glossopteridales (also known as Arberiales or Ottokariales).
The gymnosperms are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes.
Gynoecium (from Ancient Greek γυνή, gyne, meaning woman, and οἶκος, oikos, meaning house) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a flower that produce ovules and ultimately develop into the fruit and seeds.
Helianthus or sunflower is a genus of plants comprising about 70 species Flora of North America.
Hibiscus is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family, Malvaceae.
Homologous recombination is a type of genetic recombination in which nucleotide sequences are exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA.
In biology, integument is the natural covering of an organism or an organ, such as its skin, husk, shell, or rind.
A locule (plural locules) or loculus (plural loculi) (meaning "little place" in Latin) is a small cavity or compartment within an organ or part of an organism (animal, plant, or fungus).
Megaspores, also called macrospores, are a type of spore that is present in heterosporous plants.
A megaspore mother cell, or megasporocyte, is a diploid cell in plants in which meiosis will occur, resulting in the production of four haploid megaspores.
Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.
Nucellar embryony (notated Nu+) is a form of seed reproduction that occurs in certain plant species, including many citrus varieties.
Nymphaea is a genus of hardy and tender aquatic plants in the family Nymphaeaceae.
An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance that is a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic (does not mix with water, literally "water fearing") and lipophilic (mixes with other oils, literally "fat loving").
Oogenesis, ovogenesis, or oögenesis is the differentiation of the ovum (egg cell) into a cell competent to further development when fertilized.
In the flowering plants, an ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or gynoecium.
In vascular plants, phloem is the living tissue that transports the soluble organic compounds made during photosynthesis and known as photosynthates, in particular the sugar sucrose, to parts of the plant where needed.
Pisum is a genus of the family Fabaceae, native to southwest Asia and northeast Africa.
In biology, placentation refers to the formation, type and structure, or arrangement of the placenta.
Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
The term Pteridospermatophyta (or "seed ferns" or "Pteridospermatopsida") refers to several distinct groups of extinct seed-bearing plants (spermatophytes).
In botany, the radicle is the first part of a seedling (a growing plant embryo) to emerge from the seed during the process of germination.
In botany, the receptacle or torus (an older term is thalamus, as in Thalamiflorae) is the thickened part of a stem (pedicel) from which the flower organs grow.
A seedling is a young plant sporophyte developing out of a plant embryo from a seed.
Solanum is a large and diverse genus of flowering plants, which include two food crops of high economic importance, the potato and the tomato.
Sonchus is a genus of flowering plants in the dandelion tribe within the sunflower family.
Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").
The spermatophytes, also known as phanerogams or phenogamae, comprise those plants that produce seeds, hence the alternative name seed plants.
A sporangium (pl., sporangia) (modern Latin, from Greek σπόρος (sporos) ‘spore’ + αγγείον (angeion) ‘vessel’) is an enclosure in which spores are formed.
Sporogenesis is the production of spores in biology.
A sporophyte is the diploid multicellular stage in the life cycle of a plant or alga.
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
Stellaria is a genus of about 90-120 species flowering plants in the family Caryophyllaceae, with a cosmopolitan distribution.
A strobilus (plural: strobili) is a structure present on many land plant species consisting of sporangia-bearing structures densely aggregated along a stem.
The symplast of a plant is the inner side of the plasma membrane in which water and low-molecular-weight solutes can freely diffuse.
Among animals which produce one, the yolk (also known as the vitellus) is the nutrient-bearing portion of the egg whose primary function is to supply food for the development of the embryo.
A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke") is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes.