315 relations: Acid, Acid rain, Aerosol spray, Air pollution, Aluminium, Aluminium foil, Aluminium oxide, Aluminium(II) oxide, Amphoterism, Anesthetic, Anodizing, Antibiotic, Antimony, Antimony pentoxide, Antimony tetroxide, Antimony trioxide, Arsenic, Arsenic pentoxide, Arsenic trioxide, Atmosphere of Earth, Bacteria, Banded iron formation, Barium, Barium oxide, Base (chemistry), Beryllium, Beryllium oxide, Bismuth, Bismuth(III) oxide, Boron, Boron oxide, Breathing, Cadmium, Cadmium oxide, Calcination, Calcium, Calcium hydroxide, Calcium oxide, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carbon trioxide, Carbon-based life, Carbonate, Carbonyl group, Celsius, Cerium, Cerium(IV) oxide, Chalcogen, Chemical bond, ..., Chemical compound, Chemical decomposition, Chemical element, Chemical formula, Chlorine, Chlorine dioxide, Chromium, Chromium trioxide, Chromium(III) oxide, Chromium(IV) oxide, Cobalt, Cobalt(II) oxide, Cobalt(II,III) oxide, Coke (fuel), Combustion, Complex oxide, Concrete, Conjugate acid, Construction, Copper, Copper(I) oxide, Copper(II) oxide, Corrosion, Corundum, Cracking (chemistry), Crust (geology), Cytochrome P450, Diatomic molecule, Dicarbon monoxide, Dichlorine heptoxide, Dichlorine monoxide, Dinitrogen pentoxide, Dinitrogen tetroxide, Dinitrogen trioxide, Dioxygenyl, Electrolysis, Electronegativity, Erbium, Erbium(III) oxide, Ethylene oxide, Exothermic reaction, Fluoride, Fluorine, Food additive, Fungicide, Gadolinium, Gadolinium(III) oxide, Gallium, Gallium(III) oxide, Gas, Geochemistry, Germanium, Germanium dioxide, Getter, Gold, Gold(III) oxide, Greek fire, Greek language, Greenhouse gas, Hafnium, Hafnium dioxide, Halite, Hematite, Holmium, Holmium(III) oxide, Hydrocarbon, Hydrogen, Hydrometallurgy, Hydroxide, Impurity, Indium, Indium(III) oxide, Ion, Ionic compound, Iron, Iron cycle, Iron ore, Iron(II) oxide, Iron(II,III) oxide, Iron(III) oxide, Iron(III) oxide-hydroxide, Ketone, Lanthanum, Lanthanum oxide, Lead, Lead dioxide, Lead(II) oxide, Lead(II,IV) oxide, Limelight, Lithium, Lithium oxide, Lutetium, Lutetium(III) oxide, Magnesium, Magnesium oxide, Manganese, Manganese dioxide, Manganese heptoxide, Manganese(II,III) oxide, Mercury(II) oxide, Metal, Metalloid, Molybdenum, Molybdenum trioxide, Mortar (masonry), Natural rubber, Nickel, Nickel(II) oxide, Nickel(III) oxide, Niobium pentoxide, Nitric acid, Nitrogen, Nitrogen dioxide, Nitrogen fixation, Nitrogen oxide, Nitrosonium, Nitrous oxide, Nitrous oxide (medication), Nitrous oxide engine, Noble metal, Non-stoichiometric compound, Numeral prefix, Ore, Organic chemistry, Osmium, Osmium tetroxide, Oxidation state, Oxidizing agent, Oxohalide, Oxyacid, Oxyanion, Oxygen, Oxygen difluoride, Ozonide, Palladium, Palladium(II) oxide, Passivation (chemistry), Perchloric acid, Peroxide, Phosphorus, Phosphorus pentoxide, Phosphorus trioxide, Photosynthesis, Pigment, Plant, Platinum, Plutonium, Plutonium(IV) oxide, Polyoxometalate, Polyphosphate, Potassium, Potassium oxide, Precipitation (chemistry), Promethium, Promethium(III) oxide, Properties of water, Proton, Quartz, Reactivity series, Recreational drug use, Redox, Rhenium, Rhenium trioxide, Rhenium(VII) oxide, Rhodium, Rhodium(III) oxide, Rhodium(IV) oxide, Rocket, Rubidium, Rubidium oxide, Ruby, Rust, Ruthenium, Ruthenium tetroxide, Ruthenium(IV) oxide, Salt (chemistry), Samarium, Samarium(III) oxide, Sand, Scandium, Scandium oxide, Selenium, Selenium dioxide, Selenium trioxide, Self-heating can, Silicon, Silicon carbide, Silicon dioxide, Silver, Silver oxide, Silver(I,III) oxide, Skin care, Sodium, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium oxide, Sodium-potassium alloy, Solid-propellant rocket, Solution, Solvent, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Strontium, Strontium oxide, Suboxide, Sugar, Sulfur, Sulfur dioxide, Sulfur monoxide, Sulfur trioxide, Sunscreen, Superoxide, Tantalum, Tantalum pentoxide, Technetium(VII) oxide, Tellurium, Tellurium dioxide, Tellurium trioxide, Terbium, Terbium(III) oxide, Tetraoxygen, Thallium, Thallium oxide, Thallium(III) oxide, Thorium dioxide, Thulium, Thulium(III) oxide, Tin, Tin(II) oxide, Tin(IV) Oxide, Titanium, Titanium dioxide, Titanium(II) oxide, Titanium(III) oxide, Toxicity, Transition metal, Transition metal oxo complex, Tungsten, Tungsten trioxide, Tungsten(III) oxide, Tungsten(IV) oxide, Uranium, Uranium dioxide, Uranium trioxide, Uranyl, Vacuum tube, Valence electron, Vanadium, Vanadium(II) oxide, Vanadium(III) oxide, Vanadium(IV) oxide, Vanadium(V) oxide, Vanadyl ion, Vulcanization, Water, White, Xenon, Xenon tetroxide, Xenon trioxide, Ytterbium, Ytterbium(III) oxide, Yttrium, Yttrium(III) oxide, Zinc, Zinc oxide, Zirconium, Zirconium dioxide. Expand index (265 more) » « Shrink index
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it has elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH).
Aerosol spray is a type of dispensing system which creates an aerosol mist of liquid particles.
Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Aluminium foil (or aluminum foil), often referred to with the misnomer tin foil, is aluminium prepared in thin metal leaves with a thickness less than; thinner gauges down to are also commonly used.
Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.
Aluminium(II) oxide or aluminium monoxide is a compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula AlO.
In chemistry, an amphoteric compound is a molecule or ion that can react both as an acid as well as a base.
An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery, completely blocking any feeling as opposed to an analgesic.
Anodizing (spelled anodising in British English) is an electrolytic passivation process used to increase the thickness of the natural oxide layer on the surface of metal parts.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.
Antimony pentoxide (Sb2O5) is a chemical compound of antimony and oxygen.
Antimony tetroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula Sb2O4.
Antimony(III) oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Sb2O3.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
Arsenic pentoxide is the inorganic compound with the formula As2O5.
Arsenic trioxide is an inorganic compound with the formula.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Banded iron formations (also known as banded ironstone formations or BIFs) are distinctive units of sedimentary rock that are almost always of Precambrian age.
Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.
Barium oxide, BaO, is a white hygroscopic non-flammable compound.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
Beryllium oxide (BeO), also known as beryllia, is an inorganic compound with the formula BeO.
Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.
Bismuth(III) oxide is perhaps the most industrially important compound of bismuth.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
Boron oxide may refer to.
Breathing (or respiration, or ventilation) is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs to facilitate gas exchange with the internal environment, mostly by bringing in oxygen and flushing out carbon dioxide.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
Cadmium oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula CdO.
The IUPAC defines calcination as "heating to high temperatures in air or oxygen".
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Calcium hydroxide (traditionally called slaked lime) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2.
Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Carbon trioxide (CO3) is an unstable oxide of carbon (an oxocarbon).
Carbon is a key component of all known life on Earth, representing approximately 45-50% of all dry biomass.
In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of.
In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.
The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).
Cerium is a chemical element with symbol Ce and atomic number 58.
Cerium(IV) oxide, also known as ceric oxide, ceric dioxide, ceria, cerium oxide or cerium dioxide, is an oxide of the rare-earth metal cerium.
The chalcogens are the chemical elements in group 16 of the periodic table.
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
Chemical decomposition, analysis or breakdown is the separation of a single chemical compound into its two or more elemental parts or to simpler compounds.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chlorine dioxide is a chemical compound with the formula ClO2.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
Chromium trioxide is an inorganic compound with the formula CrO3.
Chromium(III) oxide (or chromia) is the inorganic compound of the formula.
Chromium dioxide or chromium(IV) oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula CrO2.
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
Cobalt(II) oxide or cobalt monoxide is an inorganic compound that appears as olive-green to red crystals, or as a greyish or black powder.
Cobalt(II,III) oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula Co3O4.
Coke is a fuel with a high carbon content and few impurities, usually made from coal.
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
A complex oxide is a chemical compound that contains oxygen and at least two other elements (or oxygen and just one other element that's in at least two oxidation states).
Concrete, usually Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens over time—most frequently a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement.
A conjugate acid, within the Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, is a species formed by the reception of a proton (H+) by a base—in other words, it is a base with a hydrogen ion added to it.
Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Copper(I) oxide or cuprous oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Cu2O.
Copper(II) oxide or cupric oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula CuO.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide typically containing traces of iron, titanium, vanadium and chromium.
In petrochemistry, petroleum geology and organic chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules such as kerogens or long-chain hydrocarbons are broken down into simpler molecules such as light hydrocarbons, by the breaking of carbon-carbon bonds in the precursors.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
Diatomic molecules are molecules composed of only two atoms, of the same or different chemical elements.
Dicarbon monoxide (C2O) is molecule that contains two carbon atoms and one oxygen atom.
Dichlorine heptoxide is the chemical compound with the formula Cl2O7.
Dichlorine monoxide, is an inorganic compound with the molecular formula Cl2O.
Dinitrogen pentoxide is the chemical compound with the formula N2O5.
Dinitrogen tetroxide, commonly referred to as nitrogen tetroxide, is the chemical compound N2O4.
Dinitrogen trioxide is the chemical compound with the formula N2O3.
The dioxygenyl ion,, is a rarely-encountered oxycation in which both oxygen atoms have a formal oxidation state of +. It is formally derived from oxygen by the removal of an electron: The energy change for this process is called the ionization energy of the oxygen molecule.
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
Erbium is a chemical element with symbol Er and atomic number 68.
Erbium(III) oxide, is synthesized from the lanthanide metal erbium.
Ethylene oxide, called oxirane by IUPAC, is an organic compound with the formula. It is a cyclic ether and the simplest epoxide: a three-membered ring consisting of one oxygen atom and two carbon atoms. Ethylene oxide is a colorless and flammable gas with a faintly sweet odor. Because it is a strained ring, ethylene oxide easily participates in a number of addition reactions that result in ring-opening. Ethylene oxide is isomeric with acetaldehyde and with vinyl alcohol. Ethylene oxide is industrially produced by oxidation of ethylene in the presence of silver catalyst. The reactivity that is responsible for many of ethylene oxide's hazards also make it useful. Although too dangerous for direct household use and generally unfamiliar to consumers, ethylene oxide is used for making many consumer products as well as non-consumer chemicals and intermediates. These products include detergents, thickeners, solvents, plastics, and various organic chemicals such as ethylene glycol, ethanolamines, simple and complex glycols, polyglycol ethers, and other compounds. Although it is a vital raw material with diverse applications, including the manufacture of products like polysorbate 20 and polyethylene glycol (PEG) that are often more effective and less toxic than alternative materials, ethylene oxide itself is a very hazardous substance. At room temperature it is a flammable, carcinogenic, mutagenic, irritating, and anaesthetic gas. As a toxic gas that leaves no residue on items it contacts, ethylene oxide is a surface disinfectant that is widely used in hospitals and the medical equipment industry to replace steam in the sterilization of heat-sensitive tools and equipment, such as disposable plastic syringes. It is so flammable and extremely explosive that it is used as a main component of thermobaric weapons; therefore, it is commonly handled and shipped as a refrigerated liquid to control its hazardous nature.Rebsdat, Siegfried and Mayer, Dieter (2005) "Ethylene Oxide" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim..
An exothermic reaction is a chemical reaction that releases energy by light or heat.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste, appearance, or other qualities.
Fungicides are biocidal chemical compounds or biological organisms used to kill parasitic fungi or their spores.
Gadolinium is a chemical element with symbol Gd and atomic number 64.
Gadolinium(III) oxide (archaically gadolinia) is an inorganic compound with the formula Gd2O3.
Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31.
Gallium(III) oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula Ga2O3.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
Geochemistry is the science that uses the tools and principles of chemistry to explain the mechanisms behind major geological systems such as the Earth's crust and its oceans.
Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.
Germanium dioxide, also called germanium oxide and germania, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula GeO2.
A getter is a deposit of reactive material that is placed inside a vacuum system, for the purpose of completing and maintaining the vacuum.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Gold(III) oxide (Au2O3) is the most stable oxide of gold.
Greek fire was an incendiary weapon used by the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire that was first developed.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
Hafnium is a chemical element with symbol Hf and atomic number 72.
Hafnium(IV) oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula HfO2.
Halite, commonly known as rock salt, is a type of salt, the mineral (natural) form of sodium chloride (NaCl).
Hematite, also spelled as haematite, is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides.
Holmium is a chemical element with symbol Ho and atomic number 67.
Holmium(III) oxide, or holmium oxide is a chemical compound of a rare-earth element holmium and oxygen with the formula Ho2O3.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrometallurgy is a method for obtaining metals from their ores.
Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.
Impurities are either naturally occurring or added during synthesis of a chemical or commercial product.
Indium is a chemical element with symbol In and atomic number 49.
Indium(III) oxide (In2O3) is a chemical compound, an amphoteric oxide of indium.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
In chemistry, an ionic compound is a chemical compound composed of ions held together by electrostatic forces termed ionic bonding.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
In ecology or geoscience, the iron cycle (Fe) is the biogeochemical cycle of iron through landforms, the atmosphere, and oceans.
Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.
Iron(II) oxide or ferrous oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula FeO.
iron(II,III) oxide is the chemical compound with formula Fe3O4.
Iron(III) oxide or ferric oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Fe2O3.
A number of chemicals are dubbed iron(III) oxide-hydroxide.
In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.
Lanthanum is a chemical element with symbol La and atomic number 57.
Lanthanum oxide is La2O3, an inorganic compound containing the rare earth element lanthanum and oxygen.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Lead(IV) oxide, commonly called lead dioxide or plumbic oxide or anhydrous plumbic acid (sometimes wrongly called lead peroxide) is a chemical compound with the formula PbO2.
Lead(II) oxide, also called lead monoxide, is the inorganic compound with the molecular formula PbO.
Lead(II,IV) oxide, also called minium, red lead or triplumbic tetroxide, is a bright red or orange crystalline or amorphous pigment.
Limelight (also known as Drummond light or calcium light)James R. Smith (2004) San Francisco's Lost Landmarks, Quill Driver Books.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
Lithium oxide (2O) or lithia is an inorganic chemical compound.
Lutetium is a chemical element with symbol Lu and atomic number 71.
Lutetium(III) oxide, a white solid, is a cubic compound of lutetium sometimes used in the preparation of specialty glasses.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Magnesium oxide (MgO), or magnesia, is a white hygroscopic solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium (see also oxide).
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
Manganese(IV) oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula.
Manganese(VII) oxide (manganese heptoxide) is an inorganic compound with the formula Mn2O7.
Manganese(II,III) oxide is the chemical compound with formula Mn3O4.
Mercury(II) oxide, also called mercuric oxide or simply mercury oxide, has a formula of HgO.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
A metalloid is any chemical element which has properties in between those of metals and nonmetals, or that has a mixture of them.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
Molybdenum trioxide is chemical compound with the formula MoO3.
Mortar is a workable paste used to bind building blocks such as stones, bricks, and concrete masonry units together, fill and seal the irregular gaps between them, and sometimes add decorative colors or patterns in masonry walls.
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nickel(II) oxide is the chemical compound with the formula.
Nickel(III) oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Ni2O3.
Niobium pentoxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Nb2O5.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula.
Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other molecules available to living organisms.
Nitrogen oxide may refer to a binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or a mixture of such compounds.
The nitrosonium ion is NO+, in which the nitrogen atom is bonded to an oxygen atom with a bond order of 3, and the overall diatomic species bears a positive charge.
Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas or nitrous, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula.
Nitrous oxide, sold under the brand name Entonox among others, is an inhaled gas used as a pain medication and together with other medications for anesthesia.
A nitrous oxide engine is an engine in which the oxygen required for burning the fuel to create power mainly stems from the decomposition of nitrous oxide (N2O) rather than air.
In chemistry, the noble metals are metals that are resistant to corrosion and oxidation in moist air (unlike most base metals).
Non-stoichiometric compounds are chemical compounds, almost always solid inorganic compounds, having elemental composition whose proportions cannot be represented by integers; most often, in such materials, some small percentage of atoms are missing or too many atoms are packed into an otherwise perfect lattice work.
Numeral or number prefixes are prefixes derived from numerals or occasionally other numbers.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
Osmium (from Greek ὀσμή osme, "smell") is a chemical element with symbol Os and atomic number 76.
Osmium tetroxide (also osmium(VIII) oxide) is the chemical compound with the formula OsO4.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.
Molecular oxohalides (oxyhalides) are a group of chemical compounds in which both oxygen and halogen atoms are attached to another chemical element A in a single molecule.
An oxyacid, or oxoacid, is an acid that contains oxygen.
An oxyanion, or oxoanion, is an ion with the generic formula (where A represents a chemical element and O represents an oxygen atom).
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Oxygen difluoride is the chemical compound with the formula OF2.
Ozonide is the unstable, reactive polyatomic anion analog of ozone or any of several classes of organic organic peroxide compounds similar formed by the reaction of ozone with an unsaturated compound.
Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46.
Palladium(II) oxide is the inorganic compound of formula PdO.
Passivation, in physical chemistry and engineering, refers to a material becoming "passive," that is, less affected or corroded by the environment of future use.
Perchloric acid is a mineral acid with the formula HClO4.
Peroxide is a compound with the structure R-O-O-R. The O−O group in a peroxide is called the peroxide group or peroxo group.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Phosphorus pentoxide is a chemical compound with molecular formula P4O10 (with its common name derived from its empirical formula, P2O5).
Phosphorus trioxide is the chemical compound with the molecular formula P4O6.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
Plutonium(IV) oxide is the chemical compound with the formula PuO2.
In chemistry, a polyoxometalate (abbreviated POM) is a polyatomic ion, usually an anion, that consists of three or more transition metal oxyanions linked together by shared oxygen atoms to form closed 3-dimensional frameworks.
Polyphosphates are salts or esters of polymeric oxyanions formed from tetrahedral PO4 (phosphate) structural units linked together by sharing oxygen atoms.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Potassium oxide (2O) is an ionic compound of potassium and oxygen.
Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.
Promethium is a chemical element with symbol Pm and atomic number 61.
Promethium(III) oxide is a compound with the formula Pm2O3.
Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. Water is amphoteric, meaning that it is both an acid and a base—it produces + and - ions by self-ionization.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
In chemistry, a reactivity series (or activity series) is an empirical, calculated, and structurally analytical progression of a series of metals, arranged by their "reactivity" from highest to lowest.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Rhenium is a chemical element with symbol Re and atomic number 75.
Rhenium trioxide or rhenium(VI) oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula ReO3.
Rhenium(VII) oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Re2O7.
Rhodium is a chemical element with symbol Rh and atomic number 45.
Rhodium(III) oxide (or Rhodium sesquioxide) is the inorganic compound with the formula Rh2O3.
Rhodium(IV) oxide (or rhodium dioxide) is the chemical compound with the formula RhO2.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
Rubidium is a chemical element with symbol Rb and atomic number 37.
Rubidium oxide is the chemical compound with the formula Rb2O.
A ruby is a pink to blood-red colored gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum (aluminium oxide).
Rust is an iron oxide, a usually red oxide formed by the redox reaction of iron and oxygen in the presence of water or air moisture.
Ruthenium is a chemical element with symbol Ru and atomic number 44.
Ruthenium tetroxide (Ruthenium(VIII) oxide) is the inorganic compound with the formula RuO4.
Ruthenium(IV) oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula RuO2.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
Samarium is a chemical element with symbol Sm and atomic number 62.
Samarium(III) oxide (Sm2O3) is a chemical compound.
Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.
Scandium is a chemical element with symbol Sc and atomic number 21.
Scandium(III) oxide, Sc2O3, or scandia, is a high melting rare earth oxide.
Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.
Selenium dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula SeO2.
Selenium trioxide is the inorganic compound with the formula SeO3.
A Self-heating can is an enhancement of the common food can.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Silicon carbide (SiC), also known as carborundum, is a semiconductor containing silicon and carbon.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Silver(I) oxide is the chemical compound with the formula Ag2O.
Silver(I,III) oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Ag4O4.
Skin care is the range of practices that support skin integrity, enhance its appearance and relieve skin conditions.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
Sodium oxide is a chemical compound with the formula Na2O.
Sodium-potassium alloy, colloquially called NaK (commonly pronounced), is an alloy of two alkali metals sodium (Na, atomic number 11) and potassium (K, atomic number 19) and which is usually liquid at room temperature.
A solid-propellant rocket or solid rocket is a rocket with a rocket engine that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer).
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
Strontium is the chemical element with symbol Sr and atomic number 38.
Strontium oxide or strontia, SrO, is formed when strontium reacts with oxygen.
Suboxides are a class of oxides wherein the electropositive element is in excess relative to the “normal” oxides.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
Sulfur monoxide is an inorganic compound with formula.
Sulfur trioxide (alternative spelling sulphur trioxide) is the chemical compound with the formula SO3.
Sunscreen, also known as sunblock, sun cream or suntan lotion, is a lotion, spray, gel or other topical product that absorbs or reflects some of the sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation and thus helps protect against sunburn.
A superoxide is a compound that contains the superoxide anion, which has the chemical formula.
Tantalum is a chemical element with symbol Ta and atomic number 73.
Tantalum pentoxide, also known as tantalum(V) oxide, is the inorganic compound with the formula.
Technetium(VII) oxide is the chemical compound with the formula Tc2O7.
Tellurium is a chemical element with symbol Te and atomic number 52.
Tellurium dioxide (TeO2) is a solid oxide of tellurium.
Tellurium trioxide (TeO3) is an inorganic chemical compound of tellurium and oxygen.
Terbium is a chemical element with symbol Tb and atomic number 65.
Terbium(III) oxide, also known as terbium sesquioxide, is a sesquioxide of the rare earth metal terbium, having chemical formula.
The tetraoxygen molecule (O4), also called oxozone, was first predicted in 1924 by Gilbert N. Lewis, who proposed it as an explanation for the failure of liquid oxygen to obey Curie's law.
Thallium is a chemical element with symbol Tl and atomic number 81.
Thallium has several oxides.
Thallium(III) oxide is a chemical compound of thallium and oxygen.
Thorium dioxide (ThO2), also called thorium(IV) oxide, is a crystalline solid, often white or yellow in color.
Thulium is a chemical element with symbol Tm and atomic number 69.
Thulium(III) oxide is a pale green solid compound, with the formula Tm2O3.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Tin(II) oxide (stannous oxide) is a compound with the formula SnO.
Tin(IV) Oxide, also known as stannic oxide, is the inorganic compound with the formula SnO2.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula.
Titanium(II) oxide (TiO) is an inorganic chemical compound of titanium and oxygen.
Titanium(III) oxide (Ti2O3) is a chemical compound of titanium and oxygen.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
A transition metal oxo complex is a coordination complex containing an oxo ligand.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
Tungsten(VI) oxide, also known as tungsten trioxide or tungstic anhydride, WO3, is a chemical compound containing oxygen and the transition metal tungsten.
Tungsten(III) oxide (W2O3) is a compound of tungsten and oxygen.
Tungsten dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula WO2.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Uranium dioxide or uranium(IV) oxide (2), also known as urania or uranous oxide, is an oxide of uranium, and is a black, radioactive, crystalline powder that naturally occurs in the mineral uraninite.
Uranium trioxide (UO3), also called uranyl oxide, uranium(VI) oxide, and uranic oxide, is the hexavalent oxide of uranium.
The uranyl ion is an oxycation of uranium in the oxidation state +6, with the chemical formula.
In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.
In chemistry, a valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.
Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23.
Vanadium(II) oxide, VO, is one of the many oxides of vanadium.
Vanadium(III) oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula V2O3.
Vanadium(IV) oxide (also called vanadium dioxide) is an inorganic compound with the formula VO2. It is a dark blue solid. Vanadium(IV) dioxide is amphoteric, dissolving in non-oxidising acids to give the blue vanadyl ion, 2+ and in alkali to give the brown 2− ion, or at high pH 4−. VO2 has a phase transition very close to room temperature(~66 °C). Electrical resistivity, opacity, etc, can change up several orders. Due to these properties, it has been widely used in surface coating, sensors, and imaging. Potential applications include use in memory devices, phase-change switches, aerospace communication systems and neuromorphic computing.
Vanadium(V) oxide (vanadia) is the inorganic compound with the formula V2O5.
The vanadyl or oxovanadium(IV) cation, VO2+, is a blue-coloured vanadium oxocation at an oxidation state of +4.
Vulcanization or vulcanisation is a chemical process for converting natural rubber or related polymers into more durable materials by heating them with sulfur or other equivalent curatives or accelerators.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
White is the lightest color and is achromatic (having no hue), because it fully reflects and scatters all the visible wavelengths of light.
Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.
Xenon tetroxide is a chemical compound of xenon and oxygen with molecular formula XeO4, remarkable for being a relatively stable compound of a noble gas.
Xenon trioxide is an unstable compound of xenon in its +6 oxidation state.
Ytterbium is a chemical element with symbol Yb and atomic number 70.
Ytterbium(III) oxide is the chemical compound with the formula Yb2O3.
Yttrium is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39.
Yttrium oxide, also known as yttria, is Y2O3.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zinc oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula ZnO.
Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.
Zirconium dioxide, sometimes known as zirconia (not to be confused with zircon), is a white crystalline oxide of zirconium.