213 relations: Abdominal pain, Addiction, Adolf Hitler, Agonist, Alberta, Alkaloid, Analgesic, Anorexia (symptom), Anxiety, Anxiolytic, Apnea, Area under the curve (pharmacokinetics), Aspirin, Atlantic Canada, Bayer, Binding selectivity, Bioavailability, Biological half-life, Biological target, Biotransformation, Blood Indian Reserve No. 148, Blood–brain barrier, Bradycardia, Calcium channel, Cancer pain, Caning in Singapore, Carbonyl group, Central nervous system, Central Powers, Circulatory collapse, Clearance (pharmacology), Cmax (pharmacology), Codeine, Combination drug, Constipation, Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, Convention for Limiting the Manufacture and Regulating the Distribution of Narcotic Drugs, CTV News, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, CYP2D6, CYP3A, CYP3A4, Cytochrome P450, Death, Demethylation, Diarrhea, Diprenorphine, Dizziness, Doctor shopping, Dose (biochemistry), ..., Double bond, Downregulation and upregulation, Drug interaction, Drug overdose, Drug tolerance, Drug withdrawal, Elimination (pharmacology), Endogeny (biology), Enzyme, Enzyme inducer, Enzyme inhibitor, Ephedrine, Epidural administration, Epipactis helleborine, Equianalgesic, Euphoria, Europe, Excretion, Fentanyl, Fever, Food and Drug Administration, FOSB, Fosphenytoin, Free base, G protein, Genetic variation, Genotype, Germany, Glucuronic acid, Glucuronidation, Goethe University Frankfurt, GTPgammaS, Half-life, Heroin, Hiccup, Hydrocodone, Hydromorphone, Hydroxy group, Hyoscine, Hypogonadism, Hypotension, Hypoventilation, Ibuprofen, Immunosuppression, In vitro, Influenza-like illness, Insomnia, Insufflation (medicine), Interleukin 2, International Narcotics Control Board, Intramuscular injection, Intravenous therapy, Intrinsic activity, Itch, Ketone, Kidney, League of Nations, Lethbridge, Ligand (biochemistry), List of Schedule II drugs (US), Liver, Liver disease, Liver function tests, Lopinavir/ritonavir, Maclean's, Mandatory sentencing, Mesolimbic pathway, Metabolic pathway, Metabolism, Metabolite, Methamphetamine, Midbrain, Miosis, Misuse of Drugs Act (Singapore), Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, Modified-release dosage, Morphine, Muscle weakness, Myalgia, Naloxone, Naltrexone, Nasal administration, Nausea, Netherlands, Neuropeptide, Neuroplasticity, Neurotransmitter, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Noroxycodone, Noroxymorphone, Nucleus accumbens, Onset of action, Ontario, Opioid, Opioid epidemic, Opioid-induced hyperalgesia, Oral administration, Oxandrolone, Oxazepam, Oxybutynin, Oxycodone/naloxone, Oxymorphol, Oxymorphone, Oxytocin, Pain, Palliative care, Panic attack, Papaver bracteatum, Papaver somniferum, Paracetamol, Periaqueductal gray, Perspiration, Pfizer, Pharmacogenomics, Polymorphism (biology), Potassium channel, Potency (pharmacology), Prolactin, Purdue Pharma, Quality of life, Rectal administration, Redox, Relaxation (psychology), Respiratory arrest, Richard Nixon, Rifampicin, Ritonavir, Rostral ventromedial medulla, Route of administration, San Francisco Chronicle, Semisynthesis, Sex steroid, Shallow breathing, Shortness of breath, Side effect, Singapore, Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, Somnolence, Spain, Subcutaneous injection, Sublingual administration, Substance abuse, Substance dependence, Suppository, Testosterone, Thebaine, Theodor Morell, Transdermal, Treaty, Twilight sleep, UGT2B7, UNESCO, United Kingdom, United Nations, United States Department of Health and Human Services, Urinary retention, Urine, Ventral pallidum, Ventral tegmental area, Vomiting, Western Canada, World War I, Xerostomia. Expand index (163 more) » « Shrink index
Abdominal pain, also known as a stomach ache, is a symptom associated with both non-serious and serious medical issues.
Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Alberta is a western province of Canada.
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
Anorexia (from Ancient Greek ανορεξία: 'ἀν-' "without" + 'όρεξις', spelled 'órexis' meaning "appetite") is the decreased sensation of appetite.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.
Apnea or apnoea is suspension of breathing.
In the field of pharmacokinetics, the area under the curve (AUC) is the definite integral in a plot of drug concentration in blood plasma vs.
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
Atlantic Canada is the region of Canada comprising the four provinces located on the Atlantic coast, excluding Quebec: the three Maritime provinces – New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and Nova Scotia – and the easternmost province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
Bayer AG is a German multinational, pharmaceutical and life sciences company.
Binding selectivity is defined with respect to the binding of ligands to a substrate forming a complex.
In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA or F) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.
The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.
A biological target is anything within a living organism to which some other entity (like an endogenous ligand or a drug) is directed and/or binds, resulting in a change in its behavior or function.
Biotransformation is the chemical modification (or modifications) made by an organism on a chemical compound.
Blood 148 is a First Nations reserve in Alberta, Canada.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Bradycardia is a condition wherein an individual has a very slow heart rate, typically defined as a resting heart rate of under 60 beats per minute (BPM) in adults.
A calcium channel is an ion channel which shows selective permeability to calcium ions.
Pain in cancer may arise from a tumor compressing or infiltrating nearby body parts; from treatments and diagnostic procedures; or from skin, nerve and other changes caused by a hormone imbalance or immune response.
Caning is a widely used form of legal corporal punishment in Singapore.
In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
A circulatory collapse is defined as a general or specific failure of the circulation, either cardiac or peripheral in nature.
In pharmacology, the clearance is a pharmacokinetic measurement of the volume of plasma from which a substance is completely removed per unit time; the usual units are mL/min.
Cmax is the maximum (or peak) serum concentration that a drug achieves in a specified compartment or test area of the body after the drug has been administrated and before the administration of a second dose.
Codeine is an opiate used to treat pain, as a cough medicine, and for diarrhea. It is typically used to treat mild to moderate degrees of pain. Greater benefit may occur when combined with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as aspirin or ibuprofen. Evidence does not support its use for acute cough suppression in children or adults. In Europe it is not recommended as a cough medicine in those under twelve years of age. It is generally taken by mouth. It typically starts working after half an hour with maximum effect at two hours. The total duration of its effects last for about four to six hours. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, itchiness, lightheadedness, and drowsiness. Serious side effects may include breathing difficulties and addiction. It is unclear if its use in pregnancy is safe. Care should be used during breastfeeding as it may result in opiate toxicity in the baby. Its use as of 2016 is not recommended in children. Codeine works following being broken down by the liver into morphine. How quickly this occurs depends on a person's genetics. Codeine was discovered in 1832 by Pierre Jean Robiquet. In 2013 about 361,000 kilograms of codeine were produced while 249,000 kilograms were used. This makes it the most commonly taken opiate. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.04 and 0.29 USD per dose as of 2014. In the United States it costs about one dollar a dose. Codeine occurs naturally and makes up about 2% of opium.
A combination drug is a fixed-dose combination (FDC) that includes two or more active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) combined in a single dosage form, which is manufactured and distributed in fixed doses.
Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.
The Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (Loi réglementant certaines drogues et autres substances) (the Act) is Canada's federal drug control statute.
The Convention for Limiting the Manufacture and Regulating the Distribution of Narcotic Drugs was a drug control treaty promulgated in Geneva on 13 July 1931 that entered into force on 9 July 1933.
CTV News is the news division of the CTV Television Network in Canada.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.
Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2D6 gene.
Cytochrome P450, family 3, subfamily A, also known as CYP3A, is a human gene.
Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
Demethylation is the chemical process resulting in the removal of a methyl group (CH3) from a molecule.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
Diprenorphine (brand name Revivon; former developmental code name M5050), also known as diprenorfin, is a non-selective, high-affinity, weak partial agonist of the μ- (MOR), κ- (KOR), and δ-opioid receptor (DOR) (with equal affinity) that is employed in veterinary medicine as an opioid antagonist.
Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.
Doctor shopping is the practice of visiting multiple physicians to obtain multiple prescriptions for otherwise illegal drugs, or the medical opinion that one wants to hear.
A dose is a measured quantity of a medicine, nutrient, or pathogen which is delivered as a unit.
A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.
In the biological context of organisms' production of gene products, downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein, in response to an external stimulus.
A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance (usually another drug) affects the activity of a drug when both are administered together.
The term drug overdose (or simply overdose or OD) describes the ingestion or application of a drug or other substance in quantities greater than are recommended or generally practiced.
Drug tolerance is a pharmacological concept describing subjects' reduced reaction to a drug following its repeated use.
Drug withdrawal is the group of symptoms that occur upon the abrupt discontinuation or decrease in intake of medications or recreational drugs.
In pharmacology the elimination or excretion of a drug is understood to be any one of a number of processes by which a drug is eliminated (that is, cleared and excreted) from an organism either in an unaltered form (unbound molecules) or modified as a metabolite.
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
An enzyme inducer is a type of drug that increases the metabolic activity of an enzyme either by binding to the enzyme and activating it, or by increasing the expression of the gene coding for the enzyme.
4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.
Ephedrine is a medication and stimulant.
Epidural administration (from Ancient Greek ἐπί, "on, upon" + dura mater) is a medical route of administration in which a drug such as epidural analgesia and epidural anaesthesia or contrast agent is injected into the epidural space around the spinal cord.
Epipactis helleborine, the broad-leaved helleborine, is a terrestrial species of orchid.
An equianalgesic (or opioid) chart is a conversion chart that lists equivalent doses of analgesics (drugs used to relieve pain).
Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.
Fentanyl, also spelled fentanil, is an opioid which is used as a pain medication and together with other medications for anesthesia. Fentanyl is also made illegally and used as a recreational drug, often mixed with heroin or cocaine. It has a rapid onset and effects generally last less than an hour or two. Medically, fentanyl is used by injection, as a patch on the skin, as a nasal spray, or in the mouth. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, sedation, confusion, hallucinations, and injuries related to poor coordination. Serious side effects may include decreased breathing (respiratory depression), serotonin syndrome, low blood pressure, addiction, or coma. In 2016, more than 20,000 deaths occurred in the United States due to overdoses of fentanyl and fentanyl analogues, half of all reported opioid related deaths. Fentanyl works primarily by activating μ-opioid receptors. It is around 100 times stronger than morphine, and some analogues such as carfentanil are around 10,000 times stronger. Fentanyl was first made by Paul Janssen in 1960 and approved for medical use in the United States in 1968.In 2015, were used in healthcare globally., fentanyl was the most widely used synthetic opioid in medicine. Fentanyl patches are on the WHO List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. For a 100 microgram vial, the average wholesale cost in the developing world is 0.66 (2015). and in the USA it costs 0.49 (2017).
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B, also known as Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B, FOSB or FosB, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the FOSB gene.
Fosphenytoin (fosphenytoin sodium, trade names Cerebyx, Parke-Davis; Prodilantin, Pfizer Holding France) is a water-soluble phenytoin prodrug that is administered intravenously to deliver phenytoin, potentially more safely than intravenous phenytoin.
Free base (freebase, free-base) is the conjugate base (deprotonated) form of an amine, as opposed to its conjugate acid (protonated) form.
G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior.
Genetic variation means that biological systems – individuals and populations – are different over space.
The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines one of its characteristics (phenotype).
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Glucuronic acid (from Greek γλυκύς "sweet" and οὖρον "urine") is a uronic acid that was first isolated from urine (hence the name).
Glucuronidation is often involved in drug metabolism of substances such as drugs, pollutants, bilirubin, androgens, estrogens, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, fatty acid derivatives, retinoids, and bile acids.
Goethe University Frankfurt (Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main) is a university located in Frankfurt, Germany.
GTPgammaS (GTPγS, guanosine 5'-O-triphosphate) is a non-hydrolyzable or slowly hydrolyzable G-protein-activating analog of guanosine triphosphate (GTP).
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.
A hiccup (also spelled hiccough) is an involuntary contraction (myoclonic jerk) of the diaphragm that may repeat several times per minute.
Hydrocodone, sold under brand names such as Vicodin and Norco among many others, is a semisynthetic opioid derived from codeine, one of the opioid alkaloids found in the opium poppy.
Hydromorphone, also known as dihydromorphinone, and sold under the brand name Dilaudid, among others, is a centrally acting pain medication of the opioid class.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
Hyoscine, also known as scopolamine, is a medication used to treat motion sickness and postoperative nausea and vomiting.
Hypogonadism means diminished functional activity of the gonads—the testes or the ovaries —that may result in diminished sex hormone biosynthesis.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
Hypoventilation (also known as respiratory depression) occurs when ventilation is inadequate (hypo meaning "below") to perform needed gas exchange.
Ibuprofen is a medication in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) class that is used for treating pain, fever, and inflammation.
Immunosuppression is a reduction of the activation or efficacy of the immune system.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Influenza-like illness (ILI), also known as acute respiratory infection (ARI) and flu-like syndrome/symptoms, is a medical diagnosis of possible influenza or other illness causing a set of common symptoms.
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.
Insufflation (lit) is the act of blowing something (such as a gas, powder, or vapor) into a body cavity.
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of cytokine signaling molecule in the immune system.
The International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) is the independent and quasi-judicial control organ for the implementation of the United Nations drug conventions.
Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Intrinsic activity (IA) or efficacy refers to the relative ability of a drug-receptor complex to produce a maximum functional response.
Itch (also known as pruritus) is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch.
In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
Lethbridge is a city in the province of Alberta, Canada, and the largest city in southern Alberta.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
This is the list of Schedule II drugs as defined by the United States Controlled Substances Act.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Liver disease (also called hepatic disease) is a type of damage to or disease of the liver.
Liver function tests (LFTs or LFs) are groups of blood tests that give information about the state of a patient's liver.
Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), sold under the brand name Kaletra among others, is a fixed dose combination medication for the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS.
Maclean's is a Canadian news magazine that was founded in 1905, reporting on Canadian issues such as politics, pop culture, and current events.
Mandatory sentencing requires that offenders serve a predefined term for certain crimes, commonly serious and violent offenses.
The mesolimbic pathway, sometimes referred to as the reward pathway, is a dopaminergic pathway in the brain.
In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
Methamphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.
The midbrain or mesencephalon (from Greek mesos 'middle', and enkephalos 'brain') is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation.
Miosis is excessive constriction of the pupil.
The Misuse of Drugs Act is a drug control law in Singapore classifying substances into three categories, Classes A, B, and C. Section 44 provides that "The Minister may, by an order published in the Gazette" add, remove, or transfer drugs among the classes.
The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Modified-release dosage is a mechanism that (in contrast to immediate-release dosage) delivers a drug with a delay after its administration (delayed-release dosage) or for a prolonged period of time (extended-release dosage) or to a specific target in the body (targeted-release dosage).
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
Muscle weakness or myasthenia (my- from Greek μυο meaning "muscle" + -asthenia ἀσθένεια meaning "weakness") is a lack of muscle strength.
Myalgia, or muscle pain, is a symptom of many diseases and disorders.
Naloxone, sold under the brandname Narcan among others, is a medication used to block the effects of opioids, especially in overdose.
Naltrexone, sold under the brand names ReVia and Vivitrol among others, is a medication primarily used to manage alcohol or opioid dependence.
Nasal administration is a route of administration in which drugs are insufflated through the nose.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules (peptides) used by neurons to communicate with each other.
Neuroplasticity, also known as brain plasticity and neural plasticity, is the ability of the brain to change throughout an individual's life, e.g., brain activity associated with a given function can be transferred to a different location, the proportion of grey matter can change, and synapses may strengthen or weaken over time.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.
Noroxycodone is the major metabolite of the opioid analgesic oxycodone.
Noroxymorphone is an opioid which is both a metabolite of oxymorphone and oxycodone and is manufactured specifically as an intermediate in the production of narcotic antagonists such as naltrexone and others.
The nucleus accumbens (NAc or NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus, or formerly as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus adjacent to the septum) is a region in the basal forebrain rostral to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus.
Onset of action is the duration of time it takes for a drug's effects to come to prominence upon administration.
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
The opioid epidemic or opioid crisis is the rapid increase in the use of prescription and non-prescription opioid drugs in the United States and Canada beginning in the late 1990s and continuing throughout the next two decades.
Opioid-induced hyperalgesia or opioid-induced abnormal pain sensitivity, also called paradoxical hyperalgesia is a phenomenon associated with the long-term use of opioids such as morphine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, and methadone.
Oxandrolone, sold under the brand names Oxandrin and Anavar among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used to help promote weight gain in various situations, to help offset protein catabolism caused by long-term corticosteroid therapy, to support recovery from severe burns, to treat bone pain associated with osteoporosis, to aid in the development of girls with Turner syndrome, and for other indications.
Oxazepam is a short-to-intermediate-acting benzodiazepine.
Oxybutynin (brand names Ditropan, Lyrinel XL, Lenditro (ZA), Driptane (RU), Uripan (Middle East)) is an anticholinergic medication used to relieve urinary and bladder difficulties, including frequent urination and inability to control urination (urge incontinence), by decreasing muscle spasms of the bladder.
Oxycodone/naloxone is a combination analgesic drug available as modified-release tablets under the trade names Targin (produced by Mundipharma), Targiniq and Targinact.
Oxymorphol is oxymorphone which has been hydrogenated at the 6-position and consists of a mixture of 4,5α-Epoxy-17-methylmorphinan-3,6β,14-triol and 4,5α-Epoxy-17-methylmorphinan-3,6α,14-triol (hydromorphinol).
Oxymorphone, sold under the brand names Numorphan among others, is a powerful semi-synthetic opioid analgesic (painkiller) developed in Germany in 1914.
Oxytocin (Oxt) is a peptide hormone and neuropeptide.
Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.
Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach to specialized medical and nursing care for people with life-limiting illnesses.
Panic attacks are sudden periods of intense fear that may include palpitations, sweating, shaking, shortness of breath, numbness, or a feeling that something bad is going to happen.
Papaver bracteatum, also known as the Iranian poppy and Persian poppy and the great scarlet poppy (it is firstly discribed by Dr. N. Saharghi and l. Lalezari nature 213, 1244, 1967 doi:10.1038/2131244a0) is a sturdy hardy perennial poppy with large deep red flowers up to 8 inches (20 cm) diameter on stiff stalks up to 4 feet (1.22 metres) high with a prominent black spot near the base of the petals.
Papaver somniferum, commonly known as the opium poppy, or breadseed poppy, is a species of flowering plant in the family Papaveraceae.
--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.
The periaqueductal gray (PAG, also known as the central gray) is the primary control center for descending pain modulation.
Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
Pfizer Inc. is an American pharmaceutical conglomerate headquartered in New York City, with its research headquarters in Groton, Connecticut.
Pharmacogenomics is the study of the role of the genome in drug response.
Polymorphism in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.
Potassium channels are the most widely distributed type of ion channel and are found in virtually all living organisms.
In the field of pharmacology, potency is a measure of drug activity expressed in terms of the amount required to produce an effect of given intensity.
Prolactin (PRL), also known as luteotropic hormone or luteotropin, is a protein that is best known for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to produce milk.
Purdue Pharma L.P. is a privately held pharmaceutical company owned principally by parties and descendants of Mortimer and Raymond Sackler.
Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.
Rectal administration uses the rectum as a route of administration for medication and other fluids, which are absorbed by the rectum's blood vessels,The rectum has numerous blood vessels available to absorb drugs.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Relaxation in psychology, is the emotional state of a living being, of low tension, in which there is an absence of arousal that could come from sources such as anger, anxiety, or fear.
Respiratory arrest is caused by apnea (cessation of breathing) due to failure of the lungs to function effectively.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
Rifampicin, also known as rifampin, is an antibiotic used to treat several types of bacterial infections, including tuberculosis, leprosy, and Legionnaire's disease.
Ritonavir, sold under the trade name Norvir, is an antiretroviral medication used along with other medications to treat HIV/AIDS.
The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), or ventromedial nucleus of the spinal cord, is a group of neurons located close to the midline on the floor of the medulla oblongata (myelencephalon).
A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body.
The San Francisco Chronicle is a newspaper serving primarily the San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California.
Semisynthesis or partial chemical synthesis is a type of chemical synthesis that uses chemical compounds isolated from natural sources (e.g., microbial cell cultures or plant material) as the starting materials to produce other novel compounds with distinct chemical and medicinal properties.
Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors.
Shallow breathing, or chest breathing is the drawing of minimal breath into the lungs, usually by drawing air into the chest area using the intercostal muscles rather than throughout the lungs via the diaphragm.
Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.
In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 is an international treaty to prohibit production and supply of specific (nominally narcotic) drugs and of drugs with similar effects except under licence for specific purposes, such as medical treatment and research.
Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (compare hypersomnia).
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
A subcutaneous injection is administered as a bolus into the subcutis, the layer of skin directly below the dermis and epidermis, collectively referred to as the cutis.
Sublingual (abbreviated SL), from the Latin for "under the tongue", refers to the pharmacological route of administration by which substances diffuse into the blood through tissues under the tongue.
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.
Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.
A suppository is a solid dosage form that is inserted into the rectum (rectal suppository), vagina (vaginal suppository), or urethra (urethral suppository), where it dissolves or melts and exerts local or systemic effects.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
Thebaine (paramorphine), also known as codeine methyl enol ether, is an opiate alkaloid, its name coming from the Greek Θῆβαι, Thēbai (Thebes), an ancient city in Upper Egypt.
Theodor Gilbert Morell (22 July 1886 – 26 May 1948) was a German doctor known for acting as Adolf Hitler's personal physician.
Transdermal is a route of administration wherein active ingredients are delivered across the skin for systemic distribution.
A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.
Twilight sleep (English translation of the German word Dämmerschlaf) is an amnesic condition characterized by insensitivity to pain without loss of consciousness, induced by an injection of morphine and scopolamine, especially to relieve the pain of childbirth.
UGT2B7 (UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase-2B7) is a phase II metabolism isoenzyme found to be active in the liver, kidneys, epithelial cells of the lower gastrointestinal tract and also has been reported in the brain.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.
Urinary retention is an inability to completely empty the bladder.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
The ventral pallidum (VP) is a structure within the basal ganglia of the brain.
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) (tegmentum is Latin for covering), also known as the ventral tegmental area of Tsai, or simply ventral tegmentum, is a group of neurons located close to the midline on the floor of the midbrain.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
Western Canada, also referred to as the Western provinces and more commonly known as the West, is a region of Canada that includes the four provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba and Saskatchewan.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Xerostomia, also known as dry mouth and dry mouth syndrome, is dryness in the mouth, which may be associated with a change in the composition of saliva, or reduced salivary flow, or have no identifiable cause.
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