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Ozone depletion

Index Ozone depletion

Ozone depletion describes two related events observed since the late 1970s: a steady lowering of about four percent in the total amount of ozone in Earth's atmosphere(the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth's polar regions. [1]

146 relations: Aerosol spray, Air conditioning, Allotropy, Anne Gorsuch Burford, Antarctic, Antarctica, Arctic, Argentina, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric Environment, Aura (satellite), Australia, Basal-cell carcinoma, Blowing agent, Brian G. Gardiner, British Antarctic Survey, Bromine, Bromomethane, CALIPSO, Catalysis, Cataract, Chile, Chlorine, Chlorine nitrate, Chlorofluorocarbon, CLaMS, Climate change, Combustion, Contemporary Economic Policy, Cyanobacteria, David L. Downie, Der Spiegel, Dichlorodifluoromethane, Dimer (chemistry), Dobson unit, DuPont, Earth, Ecuadorian Civilian Space Agency, Electromagnetic radiation, Equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine, Exponential decay, F. Sherwood Rowland, Fertilizer, G. M. B. Dobson, Gavin Schmidt, Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Global warming, Greenhouse gas, Halley Research Station, Haloalkane, ..., Halocarbon, Harvard University, Health effects of sunlight exposure, Hindu Kush, Hydrofluoric acid, Hydrofluorocarbon, Hydrogen chloride, Hydroxyl radical, HYSPLIT, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer, International Maritime Organization, IPCC Summary for Policymakers, James Lovelock, Joe Farman, Jon Shanklin, Mario J. Molina, MARPOL 73/78, Melanoma, Metered-dose inhaler, Michael McElroy (scientist), Montreal Protocol, Mount Erebus, NASA, National Academy of Sciences, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Nature (journal), NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis, New Zealand, Nitric oxide, Nitrogen, Nitrous oxide, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Null cycle, Organic compound, Oxygen, Ozone, Ozone depletion and climate change, Ozone layer, Ozone–oxygen cycle, Paul J. Crutzen, Photochemistry, Photodissociation, Polar stratospheric cloud, Polar vortex, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Propellant, Punta Arenas, Qinghai, Quito, Radical (chemistry), Ralph Cicerone, Redox, Refrigerant, Reiner Grundmann, Rice, Robert Abplanalp, Robert Watson (scientist), Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, Sea spray, Skin cancer, Software, Solvent, South Africa, South Pole, Space Shuttle, Squamous cell carcinoma, Square kilometre, Steven Wofsy, Stratosphere, Sunburn, Supersonic transport, Susan Solomon, Sydney Chapman (mathematician), Thomas Midgley Jr., Tibet, TOMCAT/SLIMCAT, Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, Troposphere, Tropospheric ozone depletion events, Turbopause, Ultraviolet, Ultraviolet index, United Nations Environment Programme, United Nations General Assembly, United States Environmental Protection Agency, University of California, Irvine, Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, Vitamin D, Volkseigener Betrieb, Watt, William Ruckelshaus, World Health Organization, Xinjiang, 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, 1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane. Expand index (96 more) »

Aerosol spray

Aerosol spray is a type of dispensing system which creates an aerosol mist of liquid particles.

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Air conditioning

Air conditioning (often referred to as AC, A/C, or air con) is the process of removing heat and moisture from the interior of an occupied space, to improve the comfort of occupants.

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Allotropy or allotropism is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, in the same physical state, known as allotropes of these elements.

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Anne Gorsuch Burford

Anne Irene McGill Gorsuch Burford (April 21, 1942 – July 18, 2004), also known as Anne M. Gorsuch (/ˈɡɔːrsətʃ/), was an American attorney and politician.

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The Antarctic (US English, UK English or and or) is a polar region around the Earth's South Pole, opposite the Arctic region around the North Pole.

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Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.

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The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.

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Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.

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Atmospheric Environment

Atmospheric Environment is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research pertaining to air pollution and other ways humans and natural forces affect the Earth's atmosphere.

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Aura (satellite)

Aura (EOS CH-1) is a NASA scientific research satellite in orbit around the Earth, studying the Earth's ozone layer, air quality and climate.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Basal-cell carcinoma

Basal-cell carcinoma (BCC), also known as basal-cell cancer, is the most common type of skin cancer.

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Blowing agent

A blowing agent is a substance which is capable of producing a cellular structure via a foaming process in a variety of materials that undergo hardening or phase transition, such as polymers, plastics, and metals.

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Brian G. Gardiner

Brian Gerard Gardiner is a retired British meteorologist, formerly working for the British Antarctic Survey.

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British Antarctic Survey

The British Antarctic Survey (BAS) is the United Kingdom's national Antarctic operation and has an active role in Antarctic affairs.

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Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.

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Bromomethane, commonly known as methyl bromide, is an organobromine compound with formula CH3Br.

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CALIPSO is a joint NASA (USA) and CNES (France) environmental satellite, built in the Cannes Mandelieu Space Center, which was launched atop a Delta II rocket on April 28, 2006.

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Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.

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A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye which leads to a decrease in vision.

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Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

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Chlorine nitrate

Chlorine nitrate, with chemical formula ClNO3 is an important atmospheric gas present in the stratosphere.

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Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are fully halogenated paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only carbon (С), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane.

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CLaMS (Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere) is a modular chemistry transport model (CTM) system developed at Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany.

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Climate change

Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).

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Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.

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Contemporary Economic Policy

Contemporary Economic Policy is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Western Economic Association International, along with Economic Inquiry.

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Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.

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David L. Downie

David Leonard Downie (born 1961) is an American scholar focusing on international environmental politics and policy.

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Der Spiegel

Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.

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Dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12) is a colorless gas usually sold under the brand name Freon-12, and a chlorofluorocarbon halomethane (CFC) used as a refrigerant and aerosol spray propellant.

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Dimer (chemistry)

A dimer (di-, "two" + -mer, "parts") is an oligomer consisting of two monomers joined by bonds that can be either strong or weak, covalent or intermolecular.

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Dobson unit

The Dobson unit (DU) is a unit of measurement of the amount of a trace gas in a vertical column through the Earth's atmosphere.

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Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Ecuadorian Civilian Space Agency

The Ecuadorian Civilian Space Agency (EXA; Agencia Espacial Civil Ecuatoriana) is a private Ecuadorian organization founded in 2007 that conducts research on space and planetary sciences.

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Electromagnetic radiation

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

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Equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine

Equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC) provides an estimate of the total effective amount of halogens (chlorine and bromine) in the stratosphere.

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Exponential decay

A quantity is subject to exponential decay if it decreases at a rate proportional to its current value.

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F. Sherwood Rowland

Frank Sherwood "Sherry" Rowland (June 28, 1927 – March 10, 2012) was an American Nobel laureate and a professor of chemistry at the University of California, Irvine.

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A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.

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G. M. B. Dobson

Gordon Miller Bourne Dobson FRS (25 February 1889 – 11 March 1975) was a British physicist and meteorologist who did important work on ozone.

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Gavin Schmidt

Gavin A. Schmidt is a climatologist, climate modeler and Director of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) in New York, and co-founder of the award-winning climate science blog RealClimate.

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Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory

The Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) is a laboratory in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR).

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Global warming

Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.

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Greenhouse gas

A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.

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Halley Research Station

Halley Research Station, run by the British Antarctic Survey (BAS), is a scientific research station on the Brunt Ice Shelf floating on the Weddell Sea in Antarctica.

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The haloalkanes (also known as halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides) are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens.

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Halocarbon compounds are chemicals in which one or more carbon atoms are linked by covalent bonds with one or more halogen atoms (fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine –) resulting in the formation of organofluorine compounds, organochlorine compounds, organobromine compounds, and organoiodine compounds.

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Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Health effects of sunlight exposure

The ultraviolet radiation in sunlight has both positive and negative health effects, as it is both a principal source of vitamin D3 and a mutagen.

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Hindu Kush

The Hindu Kush, also known in Ancient Greek as the Caucasus Indicus (Καύκασος Ινδικός) or Paropamisadae (Παροπαμισάδαι), in Pashto and Persian as, Hindu Kush is an mountain range that stretches near the Afghan-Pakistan border,, Quote: "The Hindu Kush mountains run along the Afghan border with the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan".

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Hydrofluoric acid

Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in water.

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Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), organic compounds that contain fluorine and hydrogen atoms, are the most common type of organofluorine compounds.

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Hydrogen chloride

The compound hydrogen chloride has the chemical formula and as such is a hydrogen halide.

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Hydroxyl radical

The hydroxyl radical, •OH, is the neutral form of the hydroxide ion (OH−).

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The Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) is a computer model that is used to compute air parcel trajectories and dispersion or deposition of atmospheric pollutants.

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Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific and intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations, set up at the request of member governments, dedicated to the task of providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change and its political and economic impacts.

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International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer

September 16 was designated by the United Nations General Assembly as the International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer.

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International Maritime Organization

The International Maritime Organization (IMO), known as the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) until 1982, is a specialised agency of the United Nations responsible for regulating shipping.

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IPCC Summary for Policymakers

The Summary for policymakers (SPM) is a summary of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports intended to aid policymakers.

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James Lovelock

James Ephraim Lovelock, (born 26 July 1919) is an independent scientist, environmentalist, and futurist who lives in Dorset, England.

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Joe Farman

Joseph Charles Farman CBE (7 August 193011 May 2013) was a British geophysicist who worked for the British Antarctic Survey.

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Jon Shanklin

Jonathan Shanklin is a meteorologist who has worked at the British Antarctic Survey since 1977.

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Mario J. Molina

Mario José Molina-Pasquel Henríquez (born March 19, 1943) is a Mexican chemist reputed for his pivotal role in the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole.

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MARPOL 73/78

The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973 as modified by the Protocol of 1978 (MARPOL 73/78, MARPOL is short for marine pollution and 73/78 short for the years 1973 and 1978) is one of the most important international marine environmental conventions.

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Melanoma, also known as malignant melanoma, is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes.

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Metered-dose inhaler

A metered-dose inhaler (MDI) is a device that delivers a specific amount of medication to the lungs, in the form of a short burst of aerosolized medicine that is usually self-administered by the patient via inhalation.

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Michael McElroy (scientist)

Michael B. McElroy (born May 18, 1939) is Gilbert Butler Professor of Environmental Studies at Harvard University.

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Montreal Protocol

The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (a protocol to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer) is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone depletion.

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Mount Erebus

Mount Erebus is the second-highest volcano in Antarctica (after Mount Sidley) and the southernmost active volcano on Earth.

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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National Academy of Sciences

The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.

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National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis

The NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data set is a continually updated (1948–present) globally gridded data set that represents the state of the Earth's atmosphere, incorporating observations and numerical weather prediction (NWP) model output from 1948 to present.

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New Zealand

New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

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Nitric oxide

Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.

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Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Nitrous oxide

Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas or nitrous, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula.

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Nobel Prize in Chemistry

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.

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Null cycle

In atmospheric chemistry, a null cycle is a catalytic cycle that simply interconverts chemical species without leading to net production or removal of any component.

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Organic compound

In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.

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Ozone depletion and climate change

Ozone depletion and climate change, or Ozone hole and global warming in more popular terms, are environmental challenges whose connections have been explored and which have been compared and contrasted, for example in terms of global regulation, in various studies and books.

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Ozone layer

The ozone layer or ozone shield is a region of Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation.

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Ozone–oxygen cycle

The ozone–oxygen cycle is the process by which ozone is continually regenerated in Earth's stratosphere, converting ultraviolet radiation (UV) into heat.

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Paul J. Crutzen

Paul Jozef Crutzen (born 3 December 1933) is a Dutch, Nobel Prize-winning, atmospheric chemist.

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Photochemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the chemical effects of light.

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Photodissociation, photolysis, or photodecomposition is a chemical reaction in which a chemical compound is broken down by photons.

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Polar stratospheric cloud

Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), also known as nacreous clouds (from nacre, or mother of pearl, due to its iridescence), are clouds in the winter polar stratosphere at altitudes of.

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Polar vortex

A polar vortex is an upper level low-pressure area lying near the Earth's poles.

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.

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A propellant or propellent is a chemical substance used in the production of energy or pressurized gas that is subsequently used to create movement of a fluid or to generate propulsion of a vehicle, projectile, or other object.

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Punta Arenas

Punta Arenas (historically Sandy Point in English) is the capital city of Chile's southernmost region, Magallanes and Antartica Chilena.

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Qinghai, formerly known in English as Kokonur, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest of the country.

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Quito (Kitu; Kitu), formally San Francisco de Quito, is the capital city of Ecuador, and at an elevation of above sea level, it is the second-highest official capital city in the world, after La Paz, and the one which is closest to the equator.

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Radical (chemistry)

In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.

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Ralph Cicerone

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Footnotes for an explanation of how to generate footnotes using the tags, and the template below.

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Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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A refrigerant is a substance or mixture, usually a fluid, used in a heat pump and refrigeration cycle.

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Reiner Grundmann

Reiner Grundmann, (born 29 September 1955 near Freudenstadt) is Professor of Science and Technology Studies (STS) at the University of Nottingham and Director of its interdisciplinary STS Research Priority Group.

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Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).

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Robert Abplanalp

Robert Henry "Bob" Abplanalp, KHS (April 4, 1922 – August 30, 2003) was an American inventor and engineer who invented the modern form of the aerosol valve, the founder of Precision Valve Corporation and a political activist.

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Robert Watson (scientist)

Sir Robert Tony Watson CMG FRS (born 21 March 1948) is a British chemist who has worked on atmospheric science issues including ozone depletion, global warming and paleoclimatology since the 1980s.

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Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion

The Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion is a sequence of reports sponsored by WMO/UNEP.

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Sea spray

Sea spray refers to aerosol particles that are formed directly from the ocean, mostly by ejection into the atmosphere by bursting bubbles at the air-sea interface.

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Skin cancer

Skin cancers are cancers that arise from the skin.

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Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.

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A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

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South Pole

The South Pole, also known as the Geographic South Pole or Terrestrial South Pole, is one of the two points where the Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface.

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Space Shuttle

The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.

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Squamous cell carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinomas, also known as epidermoid carcinoma are a number of different types of cancer that result from squamous cells.

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Square kilometre

Square kilometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures) or square kilometer (American spelling), symbol km2, is a multiple of the square metre, the SI unit of area or surface area.

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Steven Wofsy

Steven C. Wofsy is an American atmosphere and hydrospheric scientist currently Abbott Lawrence Rotch Professor of Atmospheric and Environmental Science at Harvard University and an Elected Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

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The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere.

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Sunburn is a form of radiation burn that affects living tissue, such as skin, that results from an overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, commonly from the sun.

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Supersonic transport

A supersonic transport (SST) is a civilian supersonic aircraft designed to transport passengers at speeds greater than the speed of sound.

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Susan Solomon

Susan Solomon (born 1956 in Chicago) is an atmospheric chemist, working for most of her career at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

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Sydney Chapman (mathematician)

Sydney Chapman FRS (29 January 1888 – 16 June 1970) was a British mathematician and geophysicist.

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Thomas Midgley Jr.

Thomas Midgley Jr. (May 18, 1889 – November 2, 1944) was an American mechanical and chemical engineer.

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Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.

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TOMCAT/SLIMCAT is an off-line chemical transport model (CTM), which models the time-dependent distribution of chemical species in the troposphere and stratosphere.

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Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer

The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) is a NASA satellite instrument for measuring ozone values.

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The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere, and is also where nearly all weather conditions take place.

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Tropospheric ozone depletion events

During springtime in the polar regions, unique photochemistry converts inert halide salt ions (e.g. Br−) into reactive halogen species (e.g. Br atoms and BrO) that episodically deplete ozone in the atmospheric boundary layer to near zero levels.

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The turbopause marks the altitude in the Earth's atmosphere below which turbulent mixing dominates.

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Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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Ultraviolet index

The ultraviolet index or UV Index is an international standard measurement of the strength of sunburn-producing ultraviolet (UV) radiation at a particular place and time.

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United Nations Environment Programme

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency of United Nations and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.

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United Nations General Assembly

The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.

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United States Environmental Protection Agency

The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.

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University of California, Irvine

The University of California, Irvine (UCI, UC Irvine, or Irvine), is a public research university located in Irvine, Orange County, California, United States, and one of the 10 campuses in the University of California (UC) system.

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Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer

The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer is a Multilateral Environmental Agreement.

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Vitamin D

Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.

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Volkseigener Betrieb

The Publicly Owned Operation (Volkseigener Betrieb; abbreviated VEB) was the main legal form of industrial enterprise in East Germany.

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The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.

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William Ruckelshaus

William Doyle Ruckelshaus (born July 24, 1932) is an American attorney and former U.S. government official.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.

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1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane (also known as norflurane (INN), R-134a, Freon 134a, Forane 134a, Genetron 134a, Florasol 134a, Suva 134a, or HFC-134a) is a haloalkane refrigerant with thermodynamic properties similar to R-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane) but with insignificant ozone depletion potential and a somewhat lower global warming potential (1,430, compared to R-12's GWP of 10,900).

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Trichlorotrifluoroethane, also called 1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane or CFC-113a is a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC).

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ozone_depletion

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