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P-value

Index P-value

In statistical hypothesis testing, the p-value or probability value or asymptotic significance is the probability for a given statistical model that, when the null hypothesis is true, the statistical summary (such as the sample mean difference between two compared groups) would be the same as or of greater magnitude than the actual observed results. [1]

79 relations: AMA Manual of Style, American Statistical Association, Annals of Internal Medicine, APA style, Bayes factor, Binomial coefficient, Binomial distribution, Biology, Bonferroni correction, Central limit theorem, Chi-squared distribution, Coin flipping, Conditional expectation, Conditional probability, Confidence interval, Counternull, Criminal justice, Criminology, Cumulative distribution function, Data dredging, Design of experiments, Dice, Economics, F-distribution, F-test, Fair coin, False discovery rate, Finance, Fisher's exact test, Fisher's method, Generalized p-value, Holm–Bonferroni method, Human sex ratio, John Arbuthnot, Karl Pearson, Lady tasting tea, Misunderstandings of p-values, Multiple comparisons problem, Muriel Bristol, No Starch Press, Nonparametric statistics, Normal distribution, Null hypothesis, One- and two-tailed tests, P-factor, P-rep, P-value, Pearson's chi-squared test, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Physics, ..., Pierre-Simon Laplace, Political science, Power (statistics), Probability distribution, Psychology, Publication bias, Quantile function, Random variable, Realization (probability), Reductio ad absurdum, Ronald Fisher, Scalar (mathematics), Sign test, Sociology, Statistical hypothesis testing, Statistical inference, Statistical Methods for Research Workers, Statistical model, Statistical significance, Student's t-distribution, Student's t-test, Summary statistics, Test statistic, The Design of Experiments, Type I and type II errors, Uniform distribution (continuous), Variance, Z-test, 68–95–99.7 rule. Expand index (29 more) »

AMA Manual of Style

AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors is the style guide of the American Medical Association.

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American Statistical Association

The American Statistical Association (ASA) is the main professional organization for statisticians and related professionals in the United States.

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Annals of Internal Medicine

Annals of Internal Medicine is an academic medical journal published by the American College of Physicians (ACP).

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APA style

APA style is a writing style and format for academic documents such as scholarly journal articles and books, and is commonly used for citing sources within the field of social sciences.

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Bayes factor

In statistics, the use of Bayes factors is a Bayesian alternative to classical hypothesis testing.

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Binomial coefficient

In mathematics, any of the positive integers that occurs as a coefficient in the binomial theorem is a binomial coefficient.

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Binomial distribution

In probability theory and statistics, the binomial distribution with parameters n and p is the discrete probability distribution of the number of successes in a sequence of n independent experiments, each asking a yes–no question, and each with its own boolean-valued outcome: a random variable containing a single bit of information: success/yes/true/one (with probability p) or failure/no/false/zero (with probability q.

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Biology

Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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Bonferroni correction

In statistics, the Bonferroni correction is one of several methods used to counteract the problem of multiple comparisons.

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Central limit theorem

In probability theory, the central limit theorem (CLT) establishes that, in some situations, when independent random variables are added, their properly normalized sum tends toward a normal distribution (informally a "bell curve") even if the original variables themselves are not normally distributed.

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Chi-squared distribution

No description.

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Coin flipping

Coin flipping, coin tossing, or heads or tails is the practice of throwing a coin in the air and checking which side is showing when it lands to choose between two alternatives, sometimes to resolve a dispute between two parties.

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Conditional expectation

In probability theory, the conditional expectation, conditional expected value, or conditional mean of a random variable is its expected value – the value it would take “on average” over an arbitrarily large number of occurrences – given that a certain set of "conditions" is known to occur.

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Conditional probability

In probability theory, conditional probability is a measure of the probability of an event (some particular situation occurring) given that (by assumption, presumption, assertion or evidence) another event has occurred.

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Confidence interval

In statistics, a confidence interval (CI) is a type of interval estimate, computed from the statistics of the observed data, that might contain the true value of an unknown population parameter.

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Counternull

In statistics, and especially in the statistical analysis of psychological data, the counternull is a statistic used to aid the understanding and presentation of research results.

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Criminal justice

Criminal justice is the delivery of justice to those who have committed crimes.

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Criminology

Criminology (from Latin crīmen, "accusation" originally derived from the Ancient Greek verb "krino" "κρίνω", and Ancient Greek -λογία, -logy|-logia, from "logos" meaning: “word,” “reason,” or “plan”) is the scientific study of the nature, extent, management, causes, control, consequences, and prevention of criminal behavior, both on the individual and social levels.

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Cumulative distribution function

In probability theory and statistics, the cumulative distribution function (CDF, also cumulative density function) of a real-valued random variable X, or just distribution function of X, evaluated at x, is the probability that X will take a value less than or equal to x. In the case of a continuous distribution, it gives the area under the probability density function from minus infinity to x. Cumulative distribution functions are also used to specify the distribution of multivariate random variables.

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Data dredging

Data dredging (also data fishing, data snooping, and '''''p'''''-hacking) is the use of data mining to uncover patterns in data that can be presented as statistically significant, without first devising a specific hypothesis as to the underlying causality.

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Design of experiments

The design of experiments (DOE, DOX, or experimental design) is the design of any task that aims to describe or explain the variation of information under conditions that are hypothesized to reflect the variation.

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Dice

Dice (singular die or dice; from Old French dé; from Latin datum "something which is given or played") are small throwable objects with multiple resting positions, used for generating random numbers.

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Economics

Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

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F-distribution

No description.

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F-test

An F-test is any statistical test in which the test statistic has an ''F''-distribution under the null hypothesis.

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Fair coin

In probability theory and statistics, a sequence of independent Bernoulli trials with probability 1/2 of success on each trial is metaphorically called a fair coin.

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False discovery rate

The false discovery rate (FDR) is a method of conceptualizing the rate of type I errors in null hypothesis testing when conducting multiple comparisons.

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Finance

Finance is a field that is concerned with the allocation (investment) of assets and liabilities (known as elements of the balance statement) over space and time, often under conditions of risk or uncertainty.

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Fisher's exact test

Fisher's exact test is a statistical significance test used in the analysis of contingency tables.

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Fisher's method

In statistics, Fisher's method, also known as Fisher's combined probability test, is a technique for data fusion or "meta-analysis" (analysis of analyses).

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Generalized p-value

In statistics, a generalized p-value is an extended version of the classical ''p''-value, which except in a limited number of applications, provides only approximate solutions.

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Holm–Bonferroni method

In statistics, the Holm–Bonferroni method (also called the Holm method or Bonferroni-Holm method) is used to counteract the problem of multiple comparisons.

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Human sex ratio

In anthropology and demography, the human sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population.

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John Arbuthnot

John Arbuthnot (baptised 29 April 1667 – 27 February 1735), often known simply as Dr Arbuthnot, was a Scottish physician, satirist and polymath in London.

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Karl Pearson

Karl Pearson HFRSE LLD (originally named Carl; 27 March 1857 – 27 April 1936) was an English mathematician and biostatistician. He has been credited with establishing the discipline of mathematical statistics. He founded the world's first university statistics department at University College London in 1911, and contributed significantly to the field of biometrics, meteorology, theories of social Darwinism and eugenics. Pearson was also a protégé and biographer of Sir Francis Galton.

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Lady tasting tea

In the design of experiments in statistics, the lady tasting tea is a randomized experiment devised by Ronald Fisher and reported in his book The Design of Experiments (1935).

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Misunderstandings of p-values

Misunderstandings of ''p''-values are common in scientific research and scientific education.

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Multiple comparisons problem

In statistics, the multiple comparisons, multiplicity or multiple testing problem occurs when one considers a set of statistical inferences simultaneously or infers a subset of parameters selected based on the observed values.

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Muriel Bristol

Muriel Bristol (21 April 1888 – 15 March 1950), Ph.D., was a phycologist who worked at the Rothamsted Experimental Station in 1919.

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No Starch Press

No Starch Press is an American publishing company, specializing in technical literature often geared towards the geek, hacker, and DIY subcultures.

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Nonparametric statistics

Nonparametric statistics is the branch of statistics that is not based solely on parameterized families of probability distributions (common examples of parameters are the mean and variance).

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Normal distribution

In probability theory, the normal (or Gaussian or Gauss or Laplace–Gauss) distribution is a very common continuous probability distribution.

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Null hypothesis

In inferential statistics, the term "null hypothesis" is a general statement or default position that there is no relationship between two measured phenomena, or no association among groups.

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One- and two-tailed tests

In statistical significance testing, a one-tailed test and a two-tailed test are alternative ways of computing the statistical significance of a parameter inferred from a data set, in terms of a test statistic.

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P-factor

P-factor, also known as asymmetric blade effect and asymmetric disc effect, is an aerodynamic phenomenon experienced by a moving propeller,(Willits 3-49) that is responsible for the asymmetrical relocation of the propeller's center of thrust when an aircraft is at a high angle of attack.

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P-rep

In statistical hypothesis testing, p-rep or prep has been proposed as a statistical to the classic p-value.

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P-value

In statistical hypothesis testing, the p-value or probability value or asymptotic significance is the probability for a given statistical model that, when the null hypothesis is true, the statistical summary (such as the sample mean difference between two compared groups) would be the same as or of greater magnitude than the actual observed results.

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Pearson's chi-squared test

Pearson's chi-squared test (χ) is a statistical test applied to sets of categorical data to evaluate how likely it is that any observed difference between the sets arose by chance.

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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society

Philosophical Transactions, titled Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (often abbreviated as Phil. Trans.) from 1776, is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society.

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Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Pierre-Simon Laplace

Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace (23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827) was a French scholar whose work was important to the development of mathematics, statistics, physics and astronomy.

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Political science

Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.

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Power (statistics)

The power of a binary hypothesis test is the probability that the test correctly rejects the null hypothesis (H0) when a specific alternative hypothesis (H1) is true.

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Probability distribution

In probability theory and statistics, a probability distribution is a mathematical function that provides the probabilities of occurrence of different possible outcomes in an experiment.

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Psychology

Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.

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Publication bias

Publication bias is a type of bias that occurs in published academic research.

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Quantile function

In probability and statistics, the quantile function specifies, for a given probability in the probability distribution of a random variable, the value at which the probability of the random variable is less than or equal to the given probability.

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Random variable

In probability and statistics, a random variable, random quantity, aleatory variable, or stochastic variable is a variable whose possible values are outcomes of a random phenomenon.

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Realization (probability)

In probability and statistics, a realization, observation, or observed value, of a random variable is the value that is actually observed (what actually happened).

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Reductio ad absurdum

In logic, reductio ad absurdum ("reduction to absurdity"; also argumentum ad absurdum, "argument to absurdity") is a form of argument which attempts either to disprove a statement by showing it inevitably leads to a ridiculous, absurd, or impractical conclusion, or to prove one by showing that if it were not true, the result would be absurd or impossible.

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Ronald Fisher

Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher (17 February 1890 – 29 July 1962), who published as R. A. Fisher, was a British statistician and geneticist.

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Scalar (mathematics)

A scalar is an element of a field which is used to define a vector space.

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Sign test

The sign test is a statistical method to test for consistent differences between pairs of observations, such as the weight of subjects before and after treatment.

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Sociology

Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.

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Statistical hypothesis testing

A statistical hypothesis, sometimes called confirmatory data analysis, is a hypothesis that is testable on the basis of observing a process that is modeled via a set of random variables.

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Statistical inference

Statistical inference is the process of using data analysis to deduce properties of an underlying probability distribution.

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Statistical Methods for Research Workers

Statistical Methods for Research Workers is a classic book on statistics, written by the statistician R. A. Fisher.

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Statistical model

A statistical model is a mathematical model that embodies a set of statistical assumptions concerning the generation of some sample data and similar data from a larger population.

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Statistical significance

In statistical hypothesis testing, a result has statistical significance when it is very unlikely to have occurred given the null hypothesis.

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Student's t-distribution

In probability and statistics, Student's t-distribution (or simply the t-distribution) is any member of a family of continuous probability distributions that arises when estimating the mean of a normally distributed population in situations where the sample size is small and population standard deviation is unknown.

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Student's t-test

The t-test is any statistical hypothesis test in which the test statistic follows a Student's ''t''-distribution under the null hypothesis.

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Summary statistics

In descriptive statistics, summary statistics are used to summarize a set of observations, in order to communicate the largest amount of information as simply as possible.

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Test statistic

A test statistic is a statistic (a quantity derived from the sample) used in statistical hypothesis testing.

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The Design of Experiments

The Design of Experiments is a 1935 book by the English statistician Ronald Fisher about the design of experiments and is considered a foundational work in experimental design.

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Type I and type II errors

In statistical hypothesis testing, a type I error is the rejection of a true null hypothesis (also known as a "false positive" finding), while a type II error is failing to reject a false null hypothesis (also known as a "false negative" finding).

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Uniform distribution (continuous)

In probability theory and statistics, the continuous uniform distribution or rectangular distribution is a family of symmetric probability distributions such that for each member of the family, all intervals of the same length on the distribution's support are equally probable.

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Variance

In probability theory and statistics, variance is the expectation of the squared deviation of a random variable from its mean.

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Z-test

A Z-test is any statistical test for which the distribution of the test statistic under the null hypothesis can be approximated by a normal distribution.

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68–95–99.7 rule

In statistics, the 68–95–99.7 rule is a shorthand used to remember the percentage of values that lie within a band around the mean in a normal distribution with a width of two, four and six standard deviations, respectively; more accurately, 68.27%, 95.45% and 99.73% of the values lie within one, two and three standard deviations of the mean, respectively.

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E-value, Marginal significance level, One-sided P value, One-sided P-value, P curve, P value, P-Value, P-curve, P-values, Pvalue, Single-sided P-value, Two-sided P value.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P-value

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