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Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam (15 October 1931 – 27 July 2015) was an Indian scientist who served as the 11th President of India from 2002 to 2007. He was born and raised in Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu and studied physics and aerospace engineering. He spent the next four decades as a scientist and science administrator, mainly at the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and was intimately involved in India's civilian space programme and military missile development efforts. He thus came to be known as the Missile Man of India for his work on the development of ballistic missile and launch vehicle technology. He also played a pivotal organisational, technical, and political role in India's Pokhran-II nuclear tests in 1998, the first since the original nuclear test by India in 1974. Kalam was elected as the 11th President of India in 2002 with the support of both the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party and the then-opposition Indian National Congress. Widely referred to as the "People's President," he returned to his civilian life of education, writing and public service after a single term. He was a recipient of several prestigious awards, including the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honour. While delivering a lecture at the Indian Institute of Management Shillong, Kalam collapsed and died from an apparent cardiac arrest on 27 July 2015, aged 83. Thousands including national-level dignitaries attended the funeral ceremony held in his hometown of Rameshwaram, where he was buried with full state honours.
Ahmedabad, also known as Amdavad is the largest city and former capital of the Indian state of Gujarat.
Aircraft hijacking (also air piracy or aircraft piracy, especially within the special aircraft jurisdiction of the United States and in the US state of Mississippi, and as skyjacking in some nations) is the unlawful seizure of an aircraft by an individual or a group.
The All India Congress Committee (AICC) is the Presidium or the central decision-making assembly of the Indian National Congress.
The All India Institutes of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) are a group of autonomous public medical colleges of higher education.
Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India.
Anita Pratap is an expatriate Indian writer and journalist.
Asiaweek was an English-language news magazine focusing on Asia, published weekly by Asiaweek Limited, a subsidiary of Time Inc. Based in Hong Kong, it was established in 1975, and ceased publication with its 7 December 2001 issue due to a "downturn in the advertising market," according to Norman Pearlstine, editor in chief of Time Inc.
The assassination of Rajiv Gandhi, former Prime Minister of India, occurred as a result of a suicide bombing in Sriperumbudur, near Chennai, in Tamil Nadu, India on Tuesday, 21 May 1991.
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional intergovernmental organization comprising ten Southeast Asian countries that promotes intergovernmental cooperation and facilitates economic, political, security, military, educational, and sociocultural integration amongst its members, other Asian countries, and globally.
Atal Bihari Vajpayee (pronunciation; born 25 December 1924) is an Indian politician who was the 10th Prime Minister of India, first term for 13 days in 1996 and then from 1998 to 2004.
Ayodhya (IAST Ayodhyā), also known as Saketa, is an ancient city of India, believed to be the birthplace of Rama and setting of the epic Ramayana.
Ayodhya 6 December 1992 is a book written by P. V. Narasimha Rao, the tenth Prime Minister of India, and published by Penguin Books on 1 August 2006.
The Ayodhya dispute is a political, historical and socio-religious debate in India, centred on a plot of land in the city of Ayodhya, located in Faizabad district, Uttar Pradesh.
The Babri Masjid (translation: Mosque of Babur) was a mosque in Ayodhya, India.
A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin baccalaureus) or baccalaureate (from Modern Latin baccalaureatus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to seven years (depending on institution and academic discipline).
Banjara Hills(బంజారా హిల్స్) is an urban commercial centre in Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Benazir Bhutto (بينظير ڀُٽو; 21 June 1953 – 27 December 2007) was a Pakistani politician who served as Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1988 to 1990 and again from 1993 to 1996.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
Berhampur is a Lok Sabha parliamentary constituency in Odisha.
The Bharat Ratna (Jewel of India) is the highest civilian award of the Republic of India.
The Bharatiya Janata Party (translation: Indian People's Party; BJP) is one of the two major political parties in India, along with the Indian National Congress.
Bhopal is the capital city of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh and the administrative headquarters of Bhopal district and Bhopal division.
Buta Singh (born 21 March 1934) is an Indian politician and a senior leader of the Indian National Congress.
By-elections, also spelled bye-elections (known as special elections in the United States, and bypolls in India), are used to fill elected offices that have become vacant between general elections.
A capital market is a financial market in which long-term debt (over a year) or equity-backed securities are bought and sold.
The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) is the premier investigating agency of India.
Chanakya (IAST:,; fl. c. 4th century BCE) was an Indian teacher, philosopher, economist, jurist and royal advisor.
Chandra Shekhar (1 July 1927 – 8 July 2007) was an Indian politician who, served as the 8th Prime Minister of India, between 10 November 1990 and 21 June 1991.
Chandraswami (1948 – 23 May 2017) (Real name: Nemi Chand) was a controversial Indian tantrik (practitioner of Tantra).
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Computer programming is the process of building and designing an executable computer program for accomplishing a specific computing task.
Daily News and Analysis (DNA) is an Indian broadsheet newspaper launched in 2005 and published in English from Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Pune, Jaipur, Bengaluru and Indore in India. It is the first English broadsheet daily in India to introduce an all-colour page format. It targets a young readership and is owned and managed by Diligent Media Corporation.
Dalai Lama (Standard Tibetan: ཏཱ་ལའི་བླ་མ་, Tā la'i bla ma) is a title given to spiritual leaders of the Tibetan people.
The High Court of Delhi (IAST: dillī uchcha nyāyālaya) was established on 31 October 1966.
Deregulation is the process of removing or reducing state regulations, typically in the economic sphere.
Dinesh Singh (19 July 1925 – 30 November 1995) was an Indian politician.
The economic liberalisation in India refers to the economic liberalisation, initiated in 1991, of the country's economic policies, with the goal of making the economy more market and service-oriented and expanding the role of private and foreign investment.
Economic reconstruction refers to a process for creating a proactive vision of economic change.
The Embassy of India in Washington, D.C. is the diplomatic mission of the Republic of India to the United States.
An emperor (through Old French empereor from Latin imperator) is a monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm.
Fergusson College (FC) is an autonomous public educational institution offering courses in the streams of Arts and Science in the city of Pune.
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.
A global depository receipt (GDR and sometimes spelled depository) is a general name for a depository receipt where a certificate issued by a depository bank, which purchases shares of foreign companies, creates a security on a local exchange backed by those shares.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
A government budget is a financial statement presenting the government's proposed revenues and spending for a financial year.
The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.
Guinness World Records, known from its inception in 1955 until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records and in previous United States editions as The Guinness Book of World Records, is a reference book published annually, listing world records both of human achievements and the extremes of the natural world.
Hanamkonda is a neighbourhood of the city of Warangal in the Indian state of Telangana.
Hanamkonda Lok Sabha constituency was a Lok Sabha (parliamentary) constituency in Telangana state in southern India until 2008.
Hazratbal is the notified area situated about 10 km from city center of Srinagar.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Hislop College, Nagpur is one of the first colleges in the city of Nagpur.
The history of the Republic of India begins on 26 January 1950.
Hyderabad is the capital of the Indian state of Telangana and de jure capital of Andhra Pradesh.
Hyderabad State was an Indian princely state located in the south-central region of India with its capital at the city of Hyderabad.
Indraprasad Gordhanbhai Patel (11 November 1924 – 17 July 2005) popularly known as I. G. Patel, was the fourteenth Governor of the Reserve Bank of India from 1 December 1977 to 15 September 1982.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Republic of India has developed and possesses weapons of mass destruction in the form of nuclear weapons.
The Indian Administrative Service (IAST), often abbreviated to I.A.S., or simply IAS, is the administrative arm of the All India Services.
The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces.
General elections were held in India in 1996 to elect the members of the 11th Lok Sabha contested by the Congress Party and Bharatiya Janata Party.
The Indian independence movement encompassed activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company rule (1757–1857) and the British Indian Empire (1857–1947) in the Indian subcontinent.
The Indian National Congress (INC, often called Congress Party) is a broadly based political party in India.
Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL), commonly known as IndianOil is an Indian state owned oil and gas company with registered office at Mumbai and primarily headquartered in New Delhi.
Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (née Nehru; 19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was an Indian politician, stateswoman and a central figure of the Indian National Congress.
The Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP) was an Indian Ministry of Defence programme for the research and development of the comprehensive range of missiles.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Jalagam Vengal Rao or Jalagam Vengala Rao (May 1921 – 12 June 1999) was for much of his life a member of the Indian National Congress and was the Chief Minister of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh which is now divided into two states Telangana and Andhra Pradesh.
Jammu and Kashmir (ænd) is a state in northern India, often denoted by its acronym, J&K.
Janata Dal was an Indian political party which was formed through the merger of Janata Party factions, the Lok Dal, Indian National Congress (Jagjivan), and the Jan Morcha united on 11 October 1988 on the birth anniversary of Jayaprakash Narayan under the leadership of V. P. Singh.
Jawaharlal Nehru (14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence.
Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (JMM) (translation: Jharkhand Liberation Front) is a state political party in the Indian state of Jharkhand.
Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao (born 17 February 1954) better known and abbreviated as K.C.R., is an Indian politician who is 1st and the current Chief Minister of Telangana, after the Telangana state got separated from Andhra Pradesh.
Karimnagar is a Municipal Corporation and district headquarters of Karimnagar district of Telangana state.
The Kashmiris (کٲشُر لُکھ / कॉशुर लुख) are an ethnic group native to the Kashmir Valley, in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, who speak Kashmiri, an Indo-Aryan Dardic language.
Kasu Brahmananda Reddy (28 July 1909 – 20 May 1994) was the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, India from 29 February 1964 to 30 September 1971.
Begum Khaleda Zia (IPA: kʰaled̪a dʒia; Majumder, born 1945) is a Bangladeshi politician who served as the Prime Minister of Bangladesh from 1991 to 1996, and again from 2001 to 2006.
Khandubhai Kasanji Desai is the Governor of Andhra Pradesh between 11 April 1968 - 5 January 1975.
Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.
Kotla Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy (16 August 1920 – 27 September 2001) was the chief minister of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh on two occasions, in 1983 and then from 1992 to 1994.
Lal Krishna Advani (born 8 November 1927) known as L. K. Advani is an Indian politician who served as the 7th Deputy Prime Minister of India from 2002 to 2004 under Atal Bihari Vajpayee.
Laknepalli is a village panchayat in Narsampet mandal in Warangal district in the state of Telangana in India.
A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney, attorney at law, barrister, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, counsel, counselor, counsellor, counselor at law, or solicitor, but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary.
Liberalization (or liberalisation) is a general term for any process whereby a state lifts restrictions on some private individual activities.
The Liberhan Commission (Liberhan Ayodhya Commission of Inquiry) was a long-running inquiry commissioned by the Government of India to investigate the destruction of the disputed structure Babri Masjid in Ayodhya in 1992.
The Licence Raj or Permit Raj (rāj, meaning "rule" in Hindi) was the elaborate system of licences, regulations and accompanying red tape that were required to set up and run businesses in India between 1947 and 1990.
A license (American English) or licence (British English) is an official permission or permit to do, use, or own something (as well as the document of that permission or permit).
The Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh is the chief executive of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
The President of India is the head of state of India and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces.
The Prime Minister of India is the chief executive of the Government of India.
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.
The London School of Economics (officially The London School of Economics and Political Science, often referred to as LSE) is a public research university located in London, England and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
India's Look East policy is an effort to cultivate extensive economic and strategic relations with the nations of Southeast Asia in order to bolster its standing as a regional power and a counterweight to the strategic influence of the People's Republic of China.
Madhav Singh Solanki is a leader of Indian National Congress party and a former External Affairs minister of India.
Maharashtra (abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India and is India's second-most populous state and third-largest state by area.
Manmohan Singh (born 26 September 1932) is an Indian economist and politician who served as the Prime Minister of India from 2004 to 2014.
Manthani is an assembly constituency of Telangana Legislative Assembly, India.
Marathi (मराठी Marāṭhī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by the Marathi people of Maharashtra, India.
A master's degree (from Latin magister) is an academic degree awarded by universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice.
Maumoon Abdul Gayoom (މައުމޫން އަބްދުލް ގައްޔޫމް; born December 29, 1937), is a Maldivian Statesmen and an Islamic scholar who ruled the country as the President of Maldives from 1978 to 2008.
A Member of Parliament of Lok Sabha (सांसद, लोक सभा) (abbreviated: MP) is the representative of the Indian people in the Lok Sabha; the lower house of the Parliament of India.
A Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA), or a Member of the Legislature (ML), is a representative elected by the voters of a constituency to the legislature or legislative assembly of a sub-national jurisdiction.
A Member of Legislative Assembly (MLA) is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district (constituency) to the legislature of the State government in the Indian system of government.
The Minister of Defence is the head of the Ministry of Defence of the Government of India.
The Minister of External Affairs (or simply Foreign Minister) is the head of the Ministry of External Affairs of the Government of India.
The Minister of Finance (or simply, Finance Minister) is the head of the Ministry of Finance of the Government of India.
The Minister of Home Affairs (or simply, the Home Minister) is the head of the Ministry of Home Affairs of the Government of India.
The Ministry of Commerce and Industry administers two departments, the Department of Commerce and the Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion.
The Ministry of Defence (IAST) (abbreviated as MoD) is charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the Indian armed forces.
A minority government, or minority cabinet or minority parliament, is a cabinet formed in a parliamentary system when a political party or coalition of parties does not have a majority of overall seats in the parliament.
A motion of no confidence (alternatively vote of no confidence, no-confidence motion, or (unsuccessful) confidence motion) is a statement or vote which states that a person(s) in a position of responsibility (government, managerial, etc.) is no longer deemed fit to hold that position, perhaps because they are inadequate in some respect, are failing to carry out obligations, or are making decisions that other members feel are detrimental.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
Nandyal Lok Sabha constituency is one of the 25 Lok Sabha (Lower House of the Parliament) constituencies in Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh state in southern India.
Narsampet is a town in Warangal (rural) district of the Indian state of Telangana.
The National Democratic Alliance (NDA) is a centre-right coalition of political parties in India.
The National Stock Exchange of India Limited (NSE) is the leading stock exchange of India, located in Mumbai.
Kunwar Natwar Singh (born 16 May 1931) is an Indian politician, a former senior bureaucrat, a former Union cabinet minister, and a writer.
The Nehru–Gandhi family is an Indian political dynasty that has occupied a prominent place in the politics of India.
New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of Government of India.
Odisha (formerly Orissa) is one of the 29 states of India, located in eastern India.
Osmania University is a public state university located in Hyderabad, India, founded in 1918 with the help of chief architect of Mahbub Ali Khan – Nawab Sarwar Jung.
Palaniappan Chidambaram (born 16 September 1945) is an Indian politician and attorney who currently serves as Member of Parliament, Rajya Sabha and formerly served as the Union Minister of Finance of India.
Pamulaparti Venkata Narasimha Rao (28 June 1921 – 23 December 2004) was an Indian lawyer and politician who served as the 9th Prime Minister of India (1991–1996).
Pamulaparti Venkata Ranga Rao (1940 – 1 August 2013) was an Indian politician who belonged to the Indian National Congress.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Pamulaparthi Sadasiva Rao (17 July 1921 – 26 August 1996) was a thinker, philosopher, and free lance journalist.
The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.
Pokhran-II was the series of five nuclear bomb test explosions conducted by India at the Indian Army's Pokhran Test Range in May 1998.
A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government.
Prakash Chandra Sethi (1920–1996) an Indian National Congress politician was a Minister of Home Affairs and Chief Minister of Madhya Pradesh.
Pramod Vyankatesh Mahajan (30 October 1949 – 3 May 2006) was an Indian politician from Maharashtra.
Pranab Kumar Mukherjee (born 11 December 1935) is an Indian politician who served as the 13th President of India from 2012 until 2017.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
The President of the Republic of India is the head of state of India and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces.
In India, President's rule refers to suspension of state government and imposition of direct Central Government rule in a state.
The Prime Minister of India is the leader of the executive of the Government of India.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
Pune, formerly spelled Poona (1857–1978), is the second largest city in the Indian state of Maharashtra, after Mumbai.
Punjab is a state in northern India.
Ramaswamy Venkataraman (4 December 191027 January 2009) was an Indian lawyer, Indian independence activist and politician who served as a Union Minister and as the eighth President of India.
Rajiv Ratna Gandhi (20 August 1944 – 21 May 1991) was an Indian politician who served as the 6th Prime Minister of India from 1984 to 1989.
Ram Janmabhoomi (literally, "Rama's birthplace") is the name given to the site that many Hindus believe to be the birthplace of Rama, the 7th avatar of the Hindu deity Vishnu.
Rama or Ram (Sanskrit: राम, IAST: Rāma), also known as Ramachandra, is a major deity of Hinduism.
Ramtek Lok Sabha constituency is one of the 48 Lok Sabha (parliamentary) constituencies in the state of Maharashtra in western India.
Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University (RTMNU), formerly Nagpur University, is a public university in the city of Nagpur in the central Indian state of Maharashtra.
Rediff.com is an Indian news, information, entertainment and shopping web portal, founded in 1996 as "Rediff On The NeT".
Rejaul Karim Laskar is an Indian politician from the Indian state of Assam belonging to Indian National Congress.
The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is India's central banking institution, which controls the monetary policy of the Indian rupee.
Saint Kitts, also known more formally as Saint Christopher Island, is an island in the West Indies.
Sanjaya Baru is a political commentator and policy analyst, currently serving as Secretary General of the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI).
Savitribai Phule Pune University, formerly University of Pune and University of Poona, is a university in Pune in western India, founded in 1949.
Secunderabad Lok Sabha constituency (సికింద్రాబాదు లోక సభ నియోజకవర్గం) is one of the 17 Lok Sabha (Lower House of the Parliament) constituencies in Telangana state in southern India.
The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) is the regulator for the securities market in India.
Shailendra Mahato (also spelled Sailendra Mahato and Shailendra Mahto) is an Indian politician.
Shankarrao Bhavrao Chavan (14 July 1920 – 26 February 2004) was an Indian politician who served twice as Chief Minister of Maharashtra from 1975 until 1977 and from 13 March 1986 until 24 June 1988.
Sharad Govindrao Pawar (born 12 December 1940) is an Indian politician who serves as the president of the Nationalist Congress Party which he founded in 1999, after separating from the Indian National Congress.
Shekhar Gupta (born 26 August 1957) is an Indian journalist who is currently the Editor-in-Chief of The Print.
Shivraj Vishwanath Patil (born 12 October 1935) is an Indian politician who was the Governor of the state of Punjab and Administrator of the Union Territory of Chandigarh from 2010 to 2015.
Shyam Nandan Mishra (20 October 1920 – 25 October 2004) was an Indian politician.
Sitaram Kesri (15 November 1919 – 24 October 2000) was an Indian politician and parliamentarian.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.
The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is the regional intergovernmental organization and geopolitical union of nations in South Asia.
South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area.
State terrorism refers to acts of terrorism conducted by a state against foreign targets or against its own people.
A stock market, equity market or share market is the aggregation of buyers and sellers (a loose network of economic transactions, not a physical facility or discrete entity) of stocks (also called shares), which represent ownership claims on businesses; these may include securities listed on a public stock exchange as well as those only traded privately.
Subramanian Swamy (born 15 September 1939) is an Indian economist, statistician and politician who serves as a Member of Parliament in Rajya Sabha, the upper house of the Indian Parliament.
Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
Telangana is a state in the south of India.
Telugu (తెలుగు) is a South-central Dravidian language native to India.
Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act, commonly known as TADA, was an Indian anti-terrorism law which was in force between 1985 and 1995 (modified in 1987) under the background of the Punjab insurgency and was applied to whole of India.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Hindu is an Indian daily newspaper, headquartered at Chennai.
The prefix The Honourable or The Honorable (abbreviated to The Hon., Hon. or formerly The Hon'ble—the latter term is still used in South Asia) is a style that is used before the names of certain classes of people.
The Insider is a roman à clef by P. V. Narasimha Rao, former Prime Minister of India, that was first published in 1998.
The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group.
The Tribune is an Indian English-language daily newspaper published from Chandigarh, New Delhi, Jalandhar, Dehradun and Bathinda.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
A criminal turns state's evidence by admitting guilt and testifying as a witness for the state against his associate(s) or accomplice(s), often in exchange for leniency in sentencing or immunity from prosecution.
The United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) was a functional commission within the overall framework of the United Nations from 1946 until it was replaced by the United Nations Human Rights Council in 2006.
The University of Mumbai, informally known as Mumbai University (MU), is one of the earliest state universities in India and the oldest in Maharashtra.
Uttar Pradesh (IAST: Uttar Pradeś) is a state in northern India.
Vishwanath Pratap Singh (25 June 1931 – 27 November 2008), was an Indian politician and government official, the 7th Prime Minister of India from 1989 to 1990.
Vangara is a village in Bheemadevarpalle mandal in Warangal (Urban) district of Telangana, India.
Veyipadagalau (pronunciation: veɪjɪpədəgɑlʊ) is an epic Telugu novel written by "Kavi Saamraat" Viswanatha Satyanarayana.
The Vishva Hindu Parishad (IAST: Viśva Hindū Pariṣada, pronunciation:, translation: World Hindu Council), abbreviated VHP, is an Indian right-wing Hindu nationalist organisation based on the ideology of Hindutva.
Viswanatha Satyanarayana (10 September 1895 – 18 October 1976) (Telugu: విశ్వనాథ సత్యనారాయణ) was born to Sobhanadri and Parvathi in the year 1895 at Vijayawada, Krishna District, Andhra Pradesh.
Voice of America (VOA) is a U.S. government-funded international radio broadcast source that serves as the United States federal government's official institution for non-military, external broadcasting.
Warangal is a city and district headquarters of Warangal Urban District and Warangal Rural District's in the Indian state of Telangana.
Warangal Urban District is located in the northern region of the Indian state of Telangana.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
Gyani Zail Singh (born Jarnail Singh, 5 May 1916 – 25 December 1994) was the seventh President of India serving from 1982 to 1987.
General elections were held in India in April–May 1996 to elect the members of the 11th Lok Sabha.
Jai Andhra movement is a 1972 political movement in support for the creation of Andhra state in the light of injustices felt by the people of the Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema Regions.
The 1991 Indian economic crisis had its roots in 1985 when India began having balance of payments problems as imports swelled, leaving the country in a twin deficit: the Indian trade balance was in deficit at a time when the government was running a large fiscal deficit.
The 1993 Bombay bombings were a series of 12 bomb explosions that took place in Mumbai, India, then known as Bombay, on 12 March 1993.
The 1993 Latur earthquake struck India at 3:56 am local time (UTC+05:30) on 30 September.
Narsimha Rao, P V Narasimha Rao, P. V. N. Rao, P. V. Narasimharao, P.V. Narasimha Rao, P.V.Narasimha Rao, P.V.RAJESHWAR RAO, PV Narasimha Rao, PVNR, Pamulaparthi Venkata Narasimha, Pamulaparthi Venkata Narasimha Rao, Pamulaparti Vemkata Narasimharavu, Pamulaparti Venkata Narasimha Rao, Pamulaparti Venkatanarasimharao, Pāmulaparti Veṁkaṭa Narasiṁhārāvu, Sri P V Narasimha Rao, పాములపర్తి వెంకట నరసింహారావు.