A.nnotate is a web service for storing and annotating documents.
Adobe Acrobat is a family of application software and Web services developed by Adobe Systems to view, create, manipulate, print and manage files in Portable Document Format (PDF).
Adobe FrameMaker is a document processor designed for writing and editing large or complex documents, including structured documents.
Adobe Illustrator is a vector graphics editor developed and marketed by Adobe Systems.
Adobe InDesign is a desktop publishing software application produced by Adobe Systems.
Adobe Photoshop is a raster graphics editor developed and published by Adobe Systems for macOS and Windows.
Adobe Systems Incorporated, commonly known as Adobe, is an American multinational computer software company.
Agfa-Gevaert N.V. (Agfa) is a Belgian-German multinational corporation that develops, manufactures, and distributes analogue and digital imaging products and systems, as well as IT solutions.
In computer graphics, alpha compositing is the process of combining an image with a background to create the appearance of partial or full transparency.
The Apache License is a permissive free software license written by the Apache Software Foundation (ASF).
Apache OpenOffice (AOO) is an open-source office productivity software suite.
Apache PDFBox is an open source pure-Java library that can be used to create, render, print, split, merge, alter, verify and extract text and meta-data of PDF files.
The Apache Software Foundation (ASF) is an American non-profit corporation (classified as 501(c)(3) in the United States) to support Apache software projects, including the Apache HTTP Server.
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.
An application software (app or application for short) is a computer software designed to perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks, or activities for the benefit of the user.
Language support for array types may include certain built-in array data types, some syntactic constructions (array type constructors) that the programmer may use to define such types and declare array variables, and special notation for indexing array elements.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
In computer science, an associative array, map, symbol table, or dictionary is an abstract data type composed of a collection of (key, value) pairs, such that each possible key appears at most once in the collection.
A Bézier curve (pronounced in French) is a parametric curve frequently used in computer graphics and related fields.
BibDesk is an open-source reference management software package for macOS, used to manage bibliographies and references when writing essays and articles.
A binary image is a digital image that has only two possible values for each pixel.
In computer science, the Boolean data type is a data type that has one of two possible values (usually denoted true and false), intended to represent the two truth values of logic and Boolean algebra.
A Cartesian coordinate system is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances to the point from two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length.
Classic Mac OS is a colloquial term used to describe a series of operating systems developed for the Macintosh family of personal computers by Apple Inc. from 1984 until 2001.
A clipping path (or "deep etch") is a closed vector path, or shape, used to cut out a 2D image in image editing software.
A color space is a specific organization of colors.
In computing, a comma-separated values (CSV) file is a delimited text file that uses a comma to separate values.
This is a comparison of the OpenXPS document file format with the PDF file format.
Computer hardware includes the physical parts or components of a computer, such as the central processing unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphic card, sound card and motherboard.
Courier is a monospaced slab serif typeface designed to resemble the output from a strike-on typewriter.
CUPS (formerly an acronym for Common UNIX Printing System) is a modular printing system for Unix-like computer operating systems which allows a computer to act as a print server.
In signal processing, data compression, source coding, or bit-rate reduction involves encoding information using fewer bits than the original representation.
In computing, Deflate is a lossless data compression algorithm and associated file format that uses a combination of the LZ77 algorithm and Huffman coding.
Formats that use delimiter-separated values (also DSV)DSV stands for Delimiter Separated Values store two-dimensional arrays of data by separating the values in each row with specific delimiter characters.
Desktop publishing (abbreviated DTP) is the creation of documents using page layout skills on a personal computer primarily for print.
Device independence is the process of making a software application able to function on a wide variety of devices regardless of the local hardware on which the software is used.
Digital rights management (DRM) is a set of access control technologies for restricting the use of proprietary hardware and copyrighted works.
A digital signature is a mathematical scheme for presenting the authenticity of digital messages or documents.
Display PostScript (or DPS) is a 2D graphics engine system for computers which uses the PostScript (PS) imaging model and language (originally developed for computer printing) to generate on-screen graphics.
DjVu (like English "déjà vu") is a computer file format designed primarily to store scanned documents, especially those containing a combination of text, line drawings, indexed color images, and photographs.
DocBook is a semantic markup language for technical documentation.
DocHub is an online PDF editor and document signing platform.
A document is a written, drawn, presented, or memorialized representation of thought.
Document Structuring Conventions, or DSC, is a set of standards for PostScript, based on the use of comments, which primarily specifies a way to structure a PostScript file and a way to expose that structure in a machine-readable way.
In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot.
In computing, end-of-file (commonly abbreviated EOF) is a condition in a computer operating system where no more data can be read from a data source.
Enfocus is a software company.
In computing, Envoy was a proprietary portable document file format marketed by WordPerfect Corporation, created as a competitor for Acrobat Pro.
Evince is a document viewer for PDF, PostScript, DjVu, TIFF, XPS and DVI formats.
The Extensible Metadata Platform (XMP) is an ISO standard, originally created by Adobe Systems Inc., for the creation, processing and interchange of standardized and custom metadata for digital documents and data sets.
Fax (short for facsimile), sometimes called telecopying or telefax (the latter short for telefacsimile), is the telephonic transmission of scanned printed material (both text and images), normally to a telephone number connected to a printer or other output device.
A file format is a standard way that information is encoded for storage in a computer file.
Most file systems have methods to assign permissions or access rights to specific users and groups of users.
Mozilla Firefox (or simply Firefox) is a free and open-source web browser developed by Mozilla Foundation and its subsidiary, Mozilla Corporation.
In metal typesetting, a font was a particular size, weight and style of a typeface.
Font embedding is the inclusion of font files inside an electronic document.
Foxit Reader is a multilingual freemium PDF tool that can create, view, edit, digitally sign, and print PDF files. Foxit Reader is developed by Fremont, California-based Foxit Software. Early versions of Foxit Reader were notable for startup performance and small file size. Foxit v3.0 was found to be comparable to Adobe Reader. The Windows version allows annotating and saving unfinished PDF forms, FDF import/export, converting to text, highlighting and drawing.
Free software or libre software is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted versions.
The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization founded by Richard Stallman on 4 October 1985 to support the free software movement, which promotes the universal freedom to study, distribute, create, and modify computer software, with the organization's preference for software being distributed under copyleft ("share alike") terms, such as with its own GNU General Public License.
Freeware is software that is available for use at no monetary cost.
Ghostscript is a suite of software based on an interpreter for Adobe Systems' PostScript and Portable Document Format (PDF) page description languages.
Global Graphics PLC is known for its digital printing and document technology including the Harlequin and Jaws RIPs and the gDoc digital document software The Company supplies its software under license to Original Equipment Manufacturers and software vendors who build products around it.
GNOME is a desktop environment composed of free and open-source software that runs on Linux and most BSD derivatives.
The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or GPL) is a widely used free software license, which guarantees end users the freedom to run, study, share and modify the software.
Good faith (bona fides), in human interactions, is a sincere intention to be fair, open, and honest, regardless of the outcome of the interaction.
GoodReader is an iOS application used to view documents in different formats, including.doc,.pdf, and.xls.
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.
Google Docs, Google Sheets, and Google Slides are a word processor, a spreadsheet and a presentation program respectively, all part of a free, web-based software office suite offered by Google within its Google Drive service.
Graphics (from Greek γραφικός graphikos, "belonging to drawing") are visual images or designs on some surface, such as a wall, canvas, screen, paper, or stone to inform, illustrate, or entertain.
CCITT Group 4 compression, also referred to as G4 or Modified Modified READ (MMR), is a lossless method of image compression used in Group 4 fax machines defined in the ITU-T T.6 fax standard.
gzip is a file format and a software application used for file compression and decompression.
The Harlequin RIP is a raster image processor first released in 1990 under the name "ScriptWorks" running as a command-line application to render PostScript language files under Unix.
Helvetica or Neue Haas Grotesk is a widely used sans-serif typeface developed in 1957 by Swiss typeface designer Max Miedinger with input from Eduard Hoffmann.
Information rights management (IRM) is a subset of digital rights management (DRM), technologies that protect sensitive information from unauthorized access.
Inkscape is a free and open-source vector graphics editor; it can be used to create or edit vector graphics such as illustrations, diagrams, line arts, charts, logos and complex paintings.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
An interpreted language is a type of programming language for which most of its implementations execute instructions directly and freely, without previously compiling a program into machine-language instructions.
In computer science, an interpreter is a computer program that directly executes, i.e. performs, instructions written in a programming or scripting language, without requiring them previously to have been compiled into a machine language program.
iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware.
The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) is one of the three sectors (divisions or units) of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU); it coordinates standards for telecommunications.
JAWS ("Job Access With Speech") is a computer screen reader program for Microsoft Windows that allows blind and visually impaired users to read the screen either with a text-to-speech output or by a refreshable Braille display.
JBIG2 is an image compression standard for bi-level images, developed by the Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group.
JPEG is a commonly used method of lossy compression for digital images, particularly for those images produced by digital photography.
JPEG 2000 (JP2) is an image compression standard and coding system.
KDE is an international free software community that develops Free and Open Source based software.
Kurzweil Education is an American-based company that provides educational technology.
LaTeX (or; a shortening of Lamport TeX) is a document preparation system.
Lempel–Ziv–Welch (LZW) is a universal lossless data compression algorithm created by Abraham Lempel, Jacob Ziv, and Terry Welch.
In computer science, lexical analysis, lexing or tokenization is the process of converting a sequence of characters (such as in a computer program or web page) into a sequence of tokens (strings with an assigned and thus identified meaning).
LibreOffice is a free and open source office suite, a project of The Document Foundation.
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
The Linux Foundation (LF) is dedicated to building sustainable ecosystems around open source projects to accelerate technology development and commercial adoption.
This is a list of links to articles on software used to manage Portable Document Format (PDF) documents.
Lossless compression is a class of data compression algorithms that allows the original data to be perfectly reconstructed from the compressed data.
In information technology, lossy compression or irreversible compression is the class of data encoding methods that uses inexact approximations and partial data discarding to represent the content.
The Macintosh (pronounced as; branded as Mac since 1998) is a family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984.
macOS (previously and later) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.
In mathematics, a matrix (plural: matrices) is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns.
Metafile is a generic term for a file format that can store multiple types of data.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
Microsoft Office 2007 (codenamed Office 12) is a version of Microsoft Office, a family of office suites and productivity software for Windows, developed and published by Microsoft.
Microsoft Outlook is a personal information manager from Microsoft, available as a part of the Microsoft Office suite.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
Mozilla Thunderbird is a free and open-source cross-platform email client, news client, RSS and chat client developed by the Mozilla Foundation.
Normative generally means relating to an evaluative standard.
An open format is a file format for storing digital data, defined by a published specification usually maintained by a standards organization, and which can be used and implemented by anyone.
Open Source Development Labs (OSDL) was a non-profit organization supported by a global consortium tasked to "accelerate the deployment of Linux for enterprise computing." Founded in 2000, its goals included "to be the recognized center-of-gravity for the Linux industry." OSDL positioned itself as the "industry's first independent, non-profit lab for developers who are adding enterprise capabilities to Linux." The headquarters was first incorporated in San Francisco but later relocated to Beaverton in Oregon with second facility in Yokohama, Japan.
An open standard is a standard that is publicly available and has various rights to use associated with it, and may also have various properties of how it was designed (e.g. open process).
Open XML Paper Specification (also referred to as OpenXPS) is an open specification for a page description language and a fixed-document format.
OpenOffice.org (OOo), commonly known as OpenOffice, is a discontinued open-source office suite.
OpenType is a format for scalable computer fonts.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
PAdES (PDF Advanced Electronic Signatures) is a set of restrictions and extensions to PDF and ISO 32000-1 making it suitable for Advanced Electronic Signature.
In digital printing, a page description language (PDL) is a computer language that describes the appearance of a printed page in a higher level than an actual output bitmap.
PagePlus is a desktop publishing (page layout) program developed by Serif for Microsoft Windows.
PDF-XChange Viewer is a proprietary PDF reader for Microsoft Windows available for free.
PDF/A is an ISO-standardized version of the Portable Document Format (PDF) specialized for use in the archiving and long-term preservation of electronic documents.
ISO 24517-1:2008 is an ISO Standard published in 2008.
PDF/UA (PDF/Universal Accessibility) is the informal name for ISO 14289, the International Standard for accessible PDF technology.
PDF/VT is an international standard published by ISO in August 2010 as ISO 16612-2.
PDF/X is a subset of the PDF ISO standard.
PDFedit is a free PDF editor for Unix-like operating systems (including Cygwin on top of Windows).
The computer program pdfTeX is an extension of Knuth's typesetting program TeX, and was originally written and developed into a publicly usable product by Hàn Thế Thành as a part of the work for his PhD thesis at the Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
PDFVue is an online PDF viewer and editor that is in beta release.
PICT is a graphics file format introduced on the original Apple Macintosh computer as its standard metafile format.
In computing, plain text is the data (e.g. file contents) that represent only characters of readable material but not its graphical representation nor other objects (images, etc.). It may also include a limited number of characters that control simple arrangement of text, such as line breaks or tabulation characters.
In computer science, a pointer is a programming language object that stores the memory address of another value located in computer memory.
Poppler is a free software utility library for rendering Portable Document Format (PDF) documents.
Portable Network Graphics (PNG, pronounced or) is a raster graphics file format that supports lossless data compression.
PostScript (PS) is a page description language in the electronic publishing and desktop publishing business.
PostScript fonts are font files encoded in outline font specifications developed by Adobe Systems for professional digital typesetting.
PRC (Product Representation Compact) is a 3D file format that can be used to embed 3D data in a PDF file.
Prepress is the term used in the printing and publishing industries for the processes and procedures that occur between the creation of a print layout and the final printing.
A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.
A proprietary format is a file format of a company, organization, or individual that contains data that is ordered and stored according to a particular encoding-scheme, designed by the company or organization to be secret, such that the decoding and interpretation of this stored data is easily accomplished only with particular software or hardware that the company itself has developed.
In cryptography, a public key certificate, also known as a digital certificate or identity certificate, is an electronic document used to prove the ownership of a public key.
Public-key cryptography, or asymmetric cryptography, is any cryptographic system that uses pairs of keys: public keys which may be disseminated widely, and private keys which are known only to the owner.
Qiqqa (pronounced "Quicker") is a freeware and freemium reference management software that allows researchers to work with thousands of PDFs.
QPDF is a free command-line program that can convert one PDF file to another equivalent PDF file.
In Apple computer's macOS operating system, Quartz is the Quartz 2D and Quartz Compositor part of the Core Graphics framework.
A radio button or option button is a graphical control element that allows the user to choose only one of a predefined set of mutually exclusive options.
In computer science, random access (more precisely and more generally called direct access) is the ability to access any item of data from a population of addressable elements roughly as easily and efficiently as any other, no matter how many elements may be in the set.
In computer graphics, a raster graphics or bitmap image is a dot matrix data structure that represents a generally rectangular grid of pixels (points of color), viewable via a monitor, paper, or other display medium.
A raster image processor (RIP) is a component used in a printing system which produces a raster image also known as a bitmap.
Rasterisation (or rasterization) is the task of taking an image described in a vector graphics format (shapes) and converting it into a raster image (pixels or dots) for output on a video display or printer, or for storage in a bitmap file format.
A rotation is a circular movement of an object around a center (or point) of rotation.
Royalty-free, or RF, refers to the right to use copyright material or intellectual property without the need to pay royalties or license fees for each use, per each copy or volume sold or some time period of use or sales.
Run-length encoding (RLE) is a very simple form of lossless data compression in which runs of data (that is, sequences in which the same data value occurs in many consecutive data elements) are stored as a single data value and count, rather than as the original run.
Safari is a web browser developed by Apple based on the WebKit engine.
The scale ratio of a model represents the proportional ratio of a linear dimension of the model to the same feature of the original.
A screen reader is a form of assistive technology (AT) which is essential to people who are blind, as well as useful to people who are visually impaired, illiterate, or have a learning disability.
Scribd is a digital library, e-book and audiobook subscription service that includes one million titles.
Scribus is a desktop publishing (DTP) application, released under the GNU General Public License as free software.
In plane geometry, a shear mapping is a linear map that displaces each point in fixed direction, by an amount proportional to its signed distance from a line that is parallel to that direction.
Skim is an open-source PDF reader.
In computer science, a stream is a sequence of data elements made available over time.
In computer programming, a string is traditionally a sequence of characters, either as a literal constant or as some kind of variable.
Symbol is one of the four standard fonts available on all PostScript-based printers, starting with Apple's original LaserWriter (1985).
A text box, text field or text entry box is a graphical control element intended to enable the user to input text information to be used by the program.
The Inquirer is a British technology tabloid website founded by Mike Magee after his departure from The Register (of which he was one of the founding members) in 2001.
ThinkFree Office is a proprietary office suite written in Java that runs on Windows, Linux, Macintosh and Android platforms.
Tagged Image File Format, abbreviated TIFF or TIF, is a computer file format for storing raster graphics images, popular among graphic artists, the publishing industry, and photographers.
Times New Roman is a serif typeface designed for legibility in body text.
Transparency is possible in a number of graphics file formats.
TrueType is an outline font standard developed by Apple and Microsoft in the late 1980s as a competitor to Adobe's Type 1 fonts used in PostScript.
In typography, a typeface (also known as font family) is a set of one or more fonts each composed of glyphs that share common design features.
Universal 3D (U3D) is a compressed file format standard for 3D computer graphics data.
Vector graphics are computer graphics images that are defined in terms of 2D points, which are connected by lines and curves to form polygons and other shapes.
The Wayback Machine is a digital archive of the World Wide Web and other information on the Internet.
A web annotation is an online annotation associated with a web resource, typically a web page.
A web page (also written as webpage) is a document that is suitable for the World Wide Web and web browsers.
Window-Eyes is a screen reader for the Microsoft Windows operating system, developed by GW Micro.
WordPerfect (WP) is a word processing application owned by Corel with a long history on multiple personal computer platforms.
WordStar is a word processor application that had a dominant market share during the early- to mid-1980s.
A workflow consists of an orchestrated and repeatable pattern of business activity enabled by the systematic organization of resources into processes that transform materials, provide services, or process information.
In cryptography, X.509 is a standard that defines the format of public key certificates.
XFA (also known as XFA forms) stands for XML Forms Architecture, a family of proprietary XML specifications that was suggested and developed by JetForm to enhance the processing of web forms.
In computing, Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable.
Xpdf is a free and open-source PDF viewer for operating systems supported by the Qt toolkit.
XSL-FO (XSL Formatting Objects) is a markup language for XML document formatting that is most often used to generate PDF files.
Zamzar is an online file converter, created by brothers Mike and Chris Whyley in England.
ITC Zapf Dingbats is one of the more common dingbat typefaces.
ZIP is an archive file format that supports lossless data compression.
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