135 relations: "Hello, World!" program, Accumulator (computing), Addition, ALGOL, Allen Newell, Analog computer, Analog-to-digital converter, Arithmetic logic unit, ASCII, Assembly language, Backplane, Bank switching, BASIC, Baudot code, Binary number, Bit field, Bit-serial architecture, Bitwise operation, Booting, Branch (computer science), Carry flag, Cathode ray tube, CDC 160 series, Charles Molnar, Clock rate, CMOS, Command-line interface, Compiler, Computer data storage, Computer terminal, Context (computing), Current loop, Data General, DECmate, DECtape, DECUS, Deutsche Bank, DIBOL, Digital Equipment Corporation, Digital-to-analog converter, Diode–transistor logic, Direct memory access, Disk pack, Disk storage, Douglas W. Jones, Drum memory, Edson de Castro, Emulator, Fan-out, Field-programmable gate array, ..., Flip Chip (PDP module), Flip-flop (electronics), Floppy disk, FOCAL (programming language), Fortran, Friden, Inc., Front panel, Germany, Gordon Bell, Hard disk drive, Harris Corporation, Hertz, IBM 701, IBM PC compatible, Industrial control system, Input/output, Instruction set architecture, Instructions per second, Intel 8086, Interrupt, Intersil, Intersil 6100, Light pen, LINC, LINC-8, Logic gate, Logical disjunction, Machine code, Magnetic-core memory, Memory address register, Memory buffer register, Memory segmentation, Microcontroller, Microprocessor, Microsecond, Minicomputer, NOP, Octal, Open-source hardware, OS/8, Page (computer memory), Parallel ATA, PDP-12, PDP-14, PDP-5, PDP-8/E, Preemption (computing), Printer (computing), Processor register, Program counter, Programmed Data Processor, Punched card, Punched tape, Read-only memory, Real-time operating system, Recursion, Reduced instruction set computer, Reentrancy (computing), Refrigerator, Return address, RS-232, Seymour Cray, Simon Fraser University, Six-bit character code, Slide rule, Smithsonian Institution, Source code, Stack (abstract data type), Steve Gibson (computer programmer), Subroutine, System bus, Tape drive, Teleprinter, Teletype Corporation, Text editor, Time-sharing, Transistor–transistor logic, TSS-8, Two's complement, UTF-8, Wesley A. Clark, Wire wrap, Word (computer architecture), 12-bit, 16-bit. Expand index (85 more) » « Shrink index
A "Hello, World!" program is a computer program that outputs or displays "Hello, World!" to a user.
In a computer's central processing unit (CPU), an accumulator is a register in which intermediate arithmetic and logic results are stored.
Addition (often signified by the plus symbol "+") is one of the four basic operations of arithmetic; the others are subtraction, multiplication and division.
ALGOL (short for "Algorithmic Language") is a family of imperative computer programming languages, originally developed in the mid-1950s, which greatly influenced many other languages and was the standard method for algorithm description used by the ACM in textbooks and academic sources for more than thirty years.
Allen Newell (March 19, 1927 – July 19, 1992) was a researcher in computer science and cognitive psychology at the RAND Corporation and at Carnegie Mellon University’s School of Computer Science, Tepper School of Business, and Department of Psychology.
An analog computer or analogue computer is a form of computer that uses the continuously changeable aspects of physical phenomena such as electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic quantities to model the problem being solved.
In electronics, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC, A/D, or A-to-D) is a system that converts an analog signal, such as a sound picked up by a microphone or light entering a digital camera, into a digital signal.
An arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a combinational digital electronic circuit that performs arithmetic and bitwise operations on integer binary numbers.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
An assembly (or assembler) language, often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the assembly program statements and the architecture's machine code instructions.
A backplane (or "backplane system") is a group of electrical connectors in parallel with each other, so that each pin of each connector is linked to the same relative pin of all the other connectors, forming a computer bus.
Bank switching is a technique used in computer design to increase the amount of usable memory beyond the amount directly addressable by the processor.
BASIC (an acronym for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages whose design philosophy emphasizes ease of use.
The Baudot code, invented by Émile Baudot, is a character set predating EBCDIC and ASCII.
In mathematics and digital electronics, a binary number is a number expressed in the base-2 numeral system or binary numeral system, which uses only two symbols: typically 0 (zero) and 1 (one).
A bit field is a data structure used in computer programming.
In digital logic applications, bit-serial architectures send data one bit at a time, along a single wire, in contrast to bit-parallel word architectures, in which data values are sent all bits or a word at once along a group of wires.
In digital computer programming, a bitwise operation operates on one or more bit patterns or binary numerals at the level of their individual bits.
In computing, booting is starting up a computer or computer appliance until it can be used.
A branch is an instruction in a computer program that can cause a computer to begin executing a different instruction sequence and thus deviate from its default behavior of executing instructions in order.
In computer processors the carry flag (usually indicated as the C flag) is a single bit in a system status (flag) register used to indicate when an arithmetic carry or borrow has been generated out of the most significant ALU bit position.
The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.
The CDC 160 series was a series of minicomputers built by Control Data Corporation.
Charles Edwin Molnar (1935–1996) was a co-developer of one of the first minicomputers, the LINC (Laboratory Instrument Computer), while a graduate student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1962.
The clock rate typically refers to the frequency at which a chip like a central processing unit (CPU), one core of a multi-core processor, is running and is used as an indicator of the processor's speed.
Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor, abbreviated as CMOS, is a technology for constructing integrated circuits.
A command-line interface or command language interpreter (CLI), also known as command-line user interface, console user interface and character user interface (CUI), is a means of interacting with a computer program where the user (or client) issues commands to the program in the form of successive lines of text (command lines).
A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language).
Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data.
A computer terminal is an electronic or electromechanical hardware device that is used for entering data into, and displaying or printing data from, a computer or a computing system.
In computer science, a task context is the minimal set of data used by a task (which may be a process or thread) that must be saved to allow a task to be interrupted, and later continued from the same point.
In electrical signalling an analog current loop is used where a device must be monitored or controlled remotely over a pair of conductors.
Data General was one of the first minicomputer firms from the late 1960s.
DECmate was the name of a series of PDP-8-compatible computers produced by the Digital Equipment Corporation in the late 1970s and early 1980s.
DECtape (originally called Microtape) is a magnetic tape data storage medium used with many Digital Equipment Corporation computers, including the PDP-6, PDP-8, LINC-8, PDP-9, PDP-10, PDP-11, PDP-12, and the PDP-15.
The Digital Equipment Computer Users' Society (DECUS) was an independent computer user group related to Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC).
Deutsche Bank AG is a German investment bank and financial services company headquartered in Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany.
DIBOL or Digital's Business Oriented Language is a general-purpose, procedural, imperative programming language, designed for use in Management Information Systems (MIS) software development.
Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s.
In electronics, a digital-to-analog converter (DAC, D/A, D2A, or D-to-A) is a system that converts a digital signal into an analog signal.
Diode–transistor logic (DTL) is a class of digital circuits that is the direct ancestor of transistor–transistor logic.
Direct memory access (DMA) is a feature of computer systems that allows certain hardware subsystems to access main system memory (Random-access memory), independent of the central processing unit (CPU).
Disk packs and disk cartridges were early forms of removable media for computer data storage, introduced in the 1960s.
Disk storage (also sometimes called drive storage) is a general category of storage mechanisms where data is recorded by various electronic, magnetic, optical, or mechanical changes to a surface layer of one or more rotating disks.
Douglas W. Jones is an American computer scientist at the University of Iowa.
Drum memory was a magnetic data storage device invented by Gustav Tauschek in 1932 in Austria.
Edson de Castro (born 1938) is a computer engineer perhaps best known for designing the Data General Nova series of computers.
In computing, an emulator is hardware or software that enables one computer system (called the host) to behave like another computer system (called the guest).
In digital electronics, the fan-out of a logic gate output is the number of gate inputs it can drive.
A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is an integrated circuit designed to be configured by a customer or a designer after manufacturing hence "field-programmable".
Flip-Chip modules were used in the DEC PDP-7 (referred to in documentation as the "FLIP CHIP"), PDP-8, PDP-9 and PDP-10, beginning on August 24, 1964.
In electronics, a flip-flop or latch is a circuit that has two stable states and can be used to store state information.
A floppy disk, also called a floppy, diskette, or just disk, is a type of disk storage composed of a disk of thin and flexible magnetic storage medium, sealed in a rectangular plastic enclosure lined with fabric that removes dust particles.
FOCAL is an interpreted programming language resembling JOSS.
Fortran (formerly FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translation) is a general-purpose, compiled imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing.
Friden Calculating Machine Company (Friden, Inc.) was an American manufacturer of typewriters and mechanical, later electronic calculators.
A front panel was used on early electronic computers to display and allow the alteration of the state of the machine's internal registers and memory.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive or fixed disk is an electromechanical data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material.
Harris Corporation is an American technology company, defense contractor and information technology services provider that produces wireless equipment, tactical radios, electronic systems, night vision equipment and both terrestrial and spaceborne antennas for use in the government, defense and commercial sectors.
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.
The IBM 701 Electronic Data Processing Machine, known as the Defense Calculator while in development, was IBM’s first commercial scientific computer, which was announced to the public on April 29, 1952.
IBM PC compatible computers are computers similar to the original IBM PC, XT, and AT, able to use the same software and expansion cards.
Industrial control system (ICS) is a general term that encompasses several types of control systems and associated instrumentation used for industrial process control.
In computing, input/output or I/O (or, informally, io or IO) is the communication between an information processing system, such as a computer, and the outside world, possibly a human or another information processing system.
An instruction set architecture (ISA) is an abstract model of a computer.
Instructions per second (IPS) is a measure of a computer's processor speed.
The 8086 (also called iAPX 86) is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel between early 1976 and mid-1978, when it was released.
In system programming, an interrupt is a signal to the processor emitted by hardware or software indicating an event that needs immediate attention.
Intersil is an American semiconductor company headquartered in Milpitas, California.
The Intersil 6100 family consists of a 12-bit microprocessor (the 6100) and a range of peripheral support and memory ICs developed by Intersil in the mid-1970s.
A light pen is a computer input device in the form of a light-sensitive wand used in conjunction with a computer's CRT display.
The LINC (Laboratory INstrument Computer) is a 12-bit, 2048-word transistorized computer.
LINC-8 was the name of a minicomputer manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation between 1966 and 1969.
In electronics, a logic gate is an idealized or physical device implementing a Boolean function; that is, it performs a logical operation on one or more binary inputs and produces a single binary output.
In logic and mathematics, or is the truth-functional operator of (inclusive) disjunction, also known as alternation; the or of a set of operands is true if and only if one or more of its operands is true.
Machine code is a computer program written in machine language instructions that can be executed directly by a computer's central processing unit (CPU).
Magnetic-core memory was the predominant form of random-access computer memory for 20 years between about 1955 and 1975.
In a computer, the Memory Address Register (MAR) is the CPU register that either stores the memory address from which data will be fetched from the CPU, or the address to which data will be sent and stored.
A memory buffer register (MBR) or memory data register (MDR) is the register in a computer's processor, or central processing unit, CPU, that stores the data being transferred to and from the immediate access storage.
Memory segmentation is the division of a computer's primary memory into segments or sections.
A microcontroller (MCU for microcontroller unit, or UC for μ-controller) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit.
A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.
A microsecond is an SI unit of time equal to one millionth (0.000001 or 10−6 or 1/1,000,000) of a second.
A minicomputer, or colloquially mini, is a class of smaller computers that was developed in the mid-1960s and sold for much less than mainframe and mid-size computers from IBM and its direct competitors.
In computer science, a NOP, no-op, or NOOP (pronounced "no op"; short for no operation) is an assembly language instruction, programming language statement, or computer protocol command that does nothing.
The octal numeral system, or oct for short, is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7.
Open-source hardware (OSH) consists of physical artifacts of technology designed and offered by the open design movement.
OS/8 was the primary operating system used on the Digital Equipment Corporation's PDP-8 minicomputer.
A page, memory page, or virtual page is a fixed-length contiguous block of virtual memory, described by a single entry in the page table.
Parallel ATA (PATA), originally, is an interface standard for the connection of storage devices such as hard disk drives, floppy disk drives, and optical disc drives in computers.
The PDP-12 (Programmed Data Processor) was created by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in 1969 and was marketed specifically for science and engineering.
The PDP-14 was a specialized computer from Digital Equipment Corporation.
The PDP-5 was Digital Equipment Corporation's first 12-bit computer, introduced in 1963.
The PDP-8/e was a model of the PDP-8 line of minicomputers, designed by the Digital Equipment Corporation to be a general purpose computer that inexpensively met the needs of the average user while also being capable of modular expansion to meet the more specific needs of advanced user.
In computing, preemption is the act of temporarily interrupting a task being carried out by a computer system, without requiring its cooperation, and with the intention of resuming the task at a later time.
In computing, a printer is a peripheral device which makes a persistent human-readable representation of graphics or text on paper.
In computer architecture, a processor register is a quickly accessible location available to a computer's central processing unit (CPU).
The program counter (PC), commonly called the instruction pointer (IP) in Intel x86 and Itanium microprocessors, and sometimes called the instruction address register (IAR), the instruction counter, or just part of the instruction sequencer, is a processor register that indicates where a computer is in its program sequence.
Programmed Data Processor (PDP), referred to by some customers, media and authors as "Programmable Data Processor, is a term used by the Digital Equipment Corporation from 1957 to 1990 for several lines of minicomputers.
A punched card or punch card is a piece of stiff paper that can be used to contain digital data represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions.
Punched tape or perforated paper tape is a form of data storage, consisting of a long strip of paper in which holes are punched to store data.
Read-only memory (ROM) is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices.
A real-time operating system (RTOS) is an operating system (OS) intended to serve real-time applications that process data as it comes in, typically without buffer delays.
Recursion occurs when a thing is defined in terms of itself or of its type.
A reduced instruction set computer, or RISC (pronounced 'risk'), is one whose instruction set architecture (ISA) allows it to have fewer cycles per instruction (CPI) than a complex instruction set computer (CISC).
In computing, a computer program or subroutine is called reentrant if it can be interrupted in the middle of its execution and then safely be called again ("re-entered") before its previous invocations complete execution.
A refrigerator (colloquially fridge, or fridgefreezer in the UK) is a popular household appliance that consists of a thermally insulated compartment and a heat pump (mechanical, electronic or chemical) that transfers heat from the inside of the fridge to its external environment so that the inside of the fridge is cooled to a temperature below the ambient temperature of the room.
In postal mail, a return address is an explicit inclusion of the address of the person sending the message.
In telecommunications, RS-232, Recommended Standard 232 is a standard introduced in 1960 for serial communication transmission of data.
Seymour Roger Cray (September 28, 1925 – October 5, 1996) was an American electrical engineer and supercomputer architect who designed a series of computers that were the fastest in the world for decades, and founded Cray Research which built many of these machines.
Simon Fraser University (SFU) is a public research university in British Columbia, Canada with campuses in Burnaby (Main Campus), Surrey, and Vancouver.
A six-bit character code is a character encoding designed for use on computers with word lengths a multiple of 6.
The slide rule, also known colloquially in the United States as a slipstick, is a mechanical analog computer.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
In computing, source code is any collection of code, possibly with comments, written using a human-readable programming language, usually as plain text.
In computer science, a stack is an abstract data type that serves as a collection of elements, with two principal operations.
Steven "Steve" Gibson (born 26 March 1955) is an American software engineer, security researcher, and IT security proponent.
In computer programming, a subroutine is a sequence of program instructions that performs a specific task, packaged as a unit.
A system bus is a single computer bus that connects the major components of a computer system, combining the functions of a data bus to carry information, an address bus to determine where it should be sent, and a control bus to determine its operation.
A tape drive is a data storage device that reads and writes data on a magnetic tape.
A teleprinter (teletypewriter, Teletype or TTY) is an electromechanical typewriter that can be used to send and receive typed messages through various communications channels, in both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint configurations.
The Teletype Corporation, a part of American Telephone and Telegraph Company's Western Electric manufacturing arm since 1930, came into being in 1928 when the Morkrum-Kleinschmidt Company changed its name to the name of its trademark equipment.
A text editor is a type of computer program that edits plain text.
In computing, time-sharing is the sharing of a computing resource among many users by means of multiprogramming and multi-tasking at the same time.
Transistor–transistor logic (TTL) is a logic family built from bipolar junction transistors.
TSS-8 is a discontinued time-sharing operating system co-written by Don Witcraft and John Everett at Digital Equipment Corporation in 1967.
Two's complement is a mathematical operation on binary numbers, best known for its role in computing as a method of signed number representation.
UTF-8 is a variable width character encoding capable of encoding all 1,112,064 valid code points in Unicode using one to four 8-bit bytes.
Wesley Allison Clark (April 10, 1927 – February 22, 2016) was an American physicist who is credited for designing the first modern personal computer.
Wire wrap was invented to wire telephone crossbar switches, and later adapted to construct electronic circuit boards.
In computing, a word is the natural unit of data used by a particular processor design.
Possibly the best-known 12-bit CPU is the PDP-8 and its relatives, such as the Intersil 6100 microprocessor produced in various incarnations from August 1963 to mid-1990.
16-bit microcomputers are computers in which 16-bit microprocessors were the norm.