138 relations: Acid, Acid dissociation constant, Acid strength, Acid–base homeostasis, Acid–base reaction, Acidity function, Acidosis, Adenosine triphosphate, Agronomy, Alice Catherine Evans, Alkali, Alkali soil, Alkaline diet, Alkalosis, Amphoterism, Angewandte Chemie, Anthocyanin, Aqueous solution, Arnold Orville Beckman, Arterial blood gas test, Artificial seawater, Base (chemistry), Benzoic acid, Bicarbonate, Biological pigment, Blood, Body fluid, Buffer solution, California Institute of Technology, Carbon dioxide, Carbonic acid, Carboxylic acid, Carlsberg Laboratory, Cerebrospinal fluid, Chemical equilibrium, Chemical oceanography, Chemical potential, Chemical property, Chemistry, Chromaffin cell, Citric acid, Citrus, Cologarithm, Colorimeter (chemistry), Concentration, Conservation of mass, Cubic function, Cytosol, Dairy, Danes, ..., Decibel, Denaturation (biochemistry), Dental plaque, Determination of equilibrium constants, Dimensionless quantity, Dissociation (chemistry), Electromotive force, Electronics, Enzyme, Exponentiation, Faraday constant, Fluoride, Food safety, French language, Galvanic cell, Gas constant, Gastric acid, German language, Glass electrode, Hammett acidity function, Hemoglobin, Hibiscus, Human skin, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen ion, Hydronium, Hydroxide, International Organization for Standardization, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Ion selective electrode, Ionic strength, ISO 31-8, Kelvin, Lactic acid, Latin, Lewis acids and bases, Liquid junction potential, Logarithm, Logarithmic scale, Lyonium ion, Lysosome, Mitochondrial matrix, Molar concentration, Mole (unit), Muscle, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Nernst equation, Nonlinear system, Ocean acidification, Operational definition, Pancreas, PCO2, PH indicator, PH meter, Phosphate, Properties of water, Protein, Proton, Protonation, Quadratic equation, Red cabbage, Red wine, RICE chart, Root effect, S. P. L. Sørensen, Saturated calomel electrode, Seawater, Self-ionization of water, Silver chloride electrode, Sodium chloride, Sodium hydroxide, Spectrophotometry, Standard electrode potential, Standard hydrogen electrode, Standard state, Sulfate, Sunkist Growers, Incorporated, Superacid, System of equations, Thermodynamic activity, Thermodynamic temperature, Titration, Tooth decay, Total inorganic carbon, Traceability, Universal indicator, Urine. Expand index (88 more) » « Shrink index
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
An acid dissociation constant, Ka, (also known as acidity constant, or acid-ionization constant) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution.
The strength of an acid refers to its ability or tendency to lose a proton (H+).
Acid–base homeostasis is the homeostatic regulation of the pH of the body's extracellular fluid (ECF).
An acid–base reaction is a chemical reaction that occurs between an acid and a base, which can be used to determine pH.
An acidity function is a measure of the acidity of a medium or solvent system,Rochester, C. H. (1970).
Acidosis is a process causing increased acidity in the blood and other body tissues (i.e., an increased hydrogen ion concentration).
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Agronomy (Ancient Greek ἀγρός agrós 'field' + νόμος nómos 'law') is the science and technology of producing and using plants for food, fuel, fiber, and land reclamation.
Alice Catherine Evans (January 29, 1881 – September 5, 1975) was an American microbiologist.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
Alkali, or Alkaline, soils are clay soils with high pH (> 8.5), a poor soil structure and a low infiltration capacity.
Alkaline diet (also known as the alkaline ash diet, alkaline acid diet, acid ash diet, and acid alkaline diet) describes a group of loosely related diets based on the misconception that different types of food can have an effect on the pH balance of the body.
Alkalosis is the result of a process reducing hydrogen ion concentration of arterial blood plasma (alkalemia).
In chemistry, an amphoteric compound is a molecule or ion that can react both as an acid as well as a base.
Angewandte Chemie (meaning "Applied Chemistry") is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by Wiley-VCH on behalf of the German Chemical Society (Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker).
Anthocyanins (also anthocyans; from Greek: ἄνθος (anthos) "flower" and κυάνεος/κυανοῦς kyaneos/kyanous "dark blue") are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that, depending on their pH, may appear red, purple, or blue.
An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water.
Arnold Orville Beckman (April 10, 1900 – May 18, 2004) was an American chemist, inventor, investor, and philanthropist.
An arterial-blood gas (ABG) test measures the amounts of arterial gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Artificial seawater (abbreviated ASW) is a mixture of dissolved mineral salts (and sometimes vitamins) that simulates seawater.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
Benzoic acid, C7H6O2 (or C6H5COOH), is a colorless crystalline solid and a simple aromatic carboxylic acid.
In inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid.
Biological pigments, also known simply as pigments or biochromes, are substances produced by living organisms that have a color resulting from selective color absorption.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
Body fluid, bodily fluids, or biofluids are liquids within the bodies of living people.
A buffer solution (more precisely, pH buffer or hydrogen ion buffer) is an aqueous solution consisting of a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base, or vice versa.
The California Institute of Technology (abbreviated Caltech)The university itself only spells its short form as "Caltech"; other spellings such as.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbonic acid is a chemical compound with the chemical formula H2CO3 (equivalently OC(OH)2).
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
The Carlsberg Laboratory in Copenhagen, Denmark, was created in 1875 by J. C. Jacobsen, the founder of the Carlsberg brewery, for the sake of advancing biochemical knowledge, especially relating to brewing.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.
In a chemical reaction, chemical equilibrium is the state in which both reactants and products are present in concentrations which have no further tendency to change with time, so that there is no observable change in the properties of the system.
Chemical oceanography is the study of ocean chemistry: the behavior of the chemical elements within the Earth's oceans.
In thermodynamics, chemical potential of a species is a form of energy that can be absorbed or released during a chemical reaction or phase transition due to a change of the particle number of the given species.
A chemical property is any of a material's properties that becomes evident during, or after, a chemical reaction; that is, any quality that can be established only by changing a substance's chemical identity.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Chromaffin cells, also pheochromocytes, are neuroendocrine cells found mostly in the medulla of the adrenal glands in mammals.
Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula.
Citrus is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae.
In mathematics, the base-b cologarithm, sometimes shortened to colog, of a number is the base-b logarithm of the reciprocal of the number.
A colorimeter is a device used in colorimetry.
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
The law of conservation of mass or principle of mass conservation states that for any system closed to all transfers of matter and energy, the mass of the system must remain constant over time, as system's mass cannot change, so quantity cannot be added nor removed.
In algebra, a cubic function is a function of the form in which is nonzero.
The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.
A dairy is a business enterprise established for the harvesting or processing (or both) of animal milk – mostly from cows or goats, but also from buffaloes, sheep, horses, or camels – for human consumption.
Danes (danskere) are a nation and a Germanic ethnic group native to Denmark, who speak Danish and share the common Danish culture.
The decibel (symbol: dB) is a unit of measurement used to express the ratio of one value of a physical property to another on a logarithmic scale.
Denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure, tertiary structure, and secondary structure which is present in their native state, by application of some external stress or compound such as a strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), radiation or heat.
Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that grows on surfaces within the mouth.
Equilibrium constants are determined in order to quantify chemical equilibria.
In dimensional analysis, a dimensionless quantity is a quantity to which no physical dimension is assigned.
Dissociation in chemistry and biochemistry is a general process in which molecules (or ionic compounds such as salts, or complexes) separate or split into smaller particles such as atoms, ions or radicals, usually in a reversible manner.
Electromotive force, abbreviated emf (denoted \mathcal and measured in volts), is the electrical intensity or "pressure" developed by a source of electrical energy such as a battery or generator.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Exponentiation is a mathematical operation, written as, involving two numbers, the base and the exponent.
The Faraday constant, denoted by the symbol and sometimes stylized as ℱ, is named after Michael Faraday.
Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent food-borne illness.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
A galvanic cell, or voltaic cell, named after Luigi Galvani, or Alessandro Volta respectively, is an electrochemical cell that derives electrical energy from spontaneous redox reactions taking place within the cell.
The gas constant is also known as the molar, universal, or ideal gas constant, denoted by the symbol or and is equivalent to the Boltzmann constant, but expressed in units of energy per temperature increment per mole, i.e. the pressure-volume product, rather than energy per temperature increment per particle.
Gastric acid, gastric juice or stomach acid, is a digestive fluid formed in the stomach and is composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl).
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
A glass electrode is a type of ion-selective electrode made of a doped glass membrane that is sensitive to a specific ion.
The Hammett acidity function (H0) is a measure of acidity that is used for very concentrated solutions of strong acids, including superacids.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
Hibiscus is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family, Malvaceae.
The human skin is the outer covering of the body.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
A hydrogen ion is created when a hydrogen atom loses or gains an electron.
In chemistry, hydronium is the common name for the aqueous cation, the type of oxonium ion produced by protonation of water.
Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
An ion-selective electrode (ISE), also known as a specific ion electrode (SIE), is a transducer (or sensor) that converts the activity of a specific ion dissolved in a solution into an electrical potential.
The concept of ionic strength was first introduced by Lewis and Randall in 1921 while describing the activity coefficients of strong electrolytes.
ISO 31-8 is the part of international standard ISO 31 that defines names and symbols for quantities and units related to physical chemistry and molecular physics.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.
Liquid junction potential occurs when two solutions of electrolytes of different concentrations are in contact with each other.
In mathematics, the logarithm is the inverse function to exponentiation.
A logarithmic scale is a nonlinear scale used when there is a large range of quantities.
In chemistry, a lyonium ion is the cation derived by the protonation of a solvent molecule.
A lysosome is a membrane-bound organelle found in nearly all animal cells.
In the mitochondrion, the matrix is the space within the inner membrane.
Molar concentration (also called molarity, amount concentration or substance concentration) is a measure of the concentration of a chemical species, in particular of a solute in a solution, in terms of amount of substance per unit volume of solution.
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.
Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), formerly known as the Soil Conservation Service (SCS), is an agency of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) that provides technical assistance to farmers and other private landowners and managers.
In electrochemistry, the Nernst equation is an equation that relates the reduction potential of an electrochemical reaction (half-cell or full cell reaction) to the standard electrode potential, temperature, and activities (often approximated by concentrations) of the chemical species undergoing reduction and oxidation.
In mathematics and science, a nonlinear system is a system in which the change of the output is not proportional to the change of the input.
Ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
An operational definition is the articulation of operationalization (or statement of procedures) used in defining the terms of a process (or set of validation tests) needed to determine the nature of an item or phenomenon (a variable, term, or object) and its properties such as duration, quantity, extension in space, chemical composition, etc.
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
The pCO2, PCO2, p_\ceor P_\ce is the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (CO2), often used in reference to blood, but also used in oceanography to describe the partial pressure of CO2 in the Ocean, and in life support systems engineering and underwater diving to describe the partial pressure in a breathing gas.
A pH indicator is a halochromic chemical compound added in small amounts to a solution so the pH (acidity or basicity) of the solution can be determined visually.
A pH meter is a scientific instrument that measures the hydrogen-ion activity in water-based solutions, indicating its acidity or alkalinity expressed as pH.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. Water is amphoteric, meaning that it is both an acid and a base—it produces + and - ions by self-ionization.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
In chemistry, protonation is the addition of a proton (H+) to an atom, molecule, or ion, forming the conjugate acid.
In algebra, a quadratic equation (from the Latin quadratus for "square") is any equation having the form where represents an unknown, and,, and represent known numbers such that is not equal to.
The red cabbage (purple-leaved varieties of Brassica oleracea Capitata Group) is a kind of cabbage, also known as purple cabbage, red kraut, or blue kraut after preparation.
Red wine is a type of wine made from dark-colored (black) grape varieties.
A RICE chart or RICE box is a tabular system of keeping track of changing concentrations in an equilibrium reaction.
The Root effect is a physiological phenomenon that occurs in fish hemoglobin, named after its discoverer R. W. Root.
Søren Peder Lauritz Sørensen (9 January 1868 – 12 February 1939) was a Danish chemist, famous for the introduction of the concept of pH, a scale for measuring acidity and alkalinity.
The Saturated calomel electrode (SCE) is a reference electrode based on the reaction between elemental mercury and mercury(I) chloride.
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
The self-ionization of water (also autoionization of water, and autodissociation of water) is an ionization reaction in pure water or in an aqueous solution, in which a water molecule, H2O, deprotonates (loses the nucleus of one of its hydrogen atoms) to become a hydroxide ion, OH−.
A silver chloride electrode is a type of reference electrode, commonly used in electrochemical measurements.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
In chemistry, spectrophotometry is the quantitative measurement of the reflection or transmission properties of a material as a function of wavelength.
In electrochemistry, the standard electrode potential is the measure of the individual potential of a reversible electrode at standard state, i.e., with solutes at an effective concentration of 1 mol dm−3 and gases at a pressure of 1 atm.
The Standard hydrogen electrode (abbreviated SHE), is a redox electrode which forms the basis of the thermodynamic scale of oxidation-reduction potentials.
In chemistry, the standard state of a material (pure substance, mixture or solution) is a reference point used to calculate its properties under different conditions.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
Sunkist Growers, Incorporated is an American citrus growers' non-stock membership cooperative composed of 6,000 members from California and Arizona.
According to the classical definition, a superacid is an acid with an acidity greater than that of 100% pure sulfuric acid, which has a Hammett acidity function (H0) of −12.
In mathematics, a set of simultaneous equations, also known as a system of equations or an equation system, is a finite set of equations for which common solutions are sought.
In chemical thermodynamics, activity (symbol) is a measure of the "effective concentration" of a species in a mixture, in the sense that the species' chemical potential depends on the activity of a real solution in the same way that it would depend on concentration for an ideal solution.
Thermodynamic temperature is the absolute measure of temperature and is one of the principal parameters of thermodynamics.
Titration, also known as titrimetry, is a common laboratory method of quantitative chemical analysis that is used to determine the concentration of an identified analyte.
Tooth decay, also known as dental caries or cavities, is a breakdown of teeth due to acids made by bacteria.
The total inorganic carbon (CT, or TIC) or dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is the sum of inorganic carbon species in a solution.
Traceability is the capability to trace something.
A universal indicator is a pH indicator composed of a solution of several compounds that exhibits several smooth colour changes over a pH value range from 0 to 14 (it may be negative or higher depending on the concentration) to indicate the acidity or alkalinity of solutions, where 7 indicates neutral.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
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