410 relations: Abolitionism, Adam Roberts (scholar), Adolf Hitler, Afghanistan, Age of Enlightenment, Ahimsa, Ahimsa in Jainism, Ahmadiyya, Albert Einstein, Albert Libertad, Albert Schweitzer, Aldous Huxley, All Quiet on the Western Front, Alternative civilian service, America First Committee, American Civil War, American Friends Service Committee, American Peace Mobilization, American Peace Society, American Union Against Militarism, Amish, Ammon Hennacy, Amparo Poch y Gascón, Anabaptism, Anarchism, Anarcho-pacifism, Ancient Greece, André and Magda Trocmé, Anti-war movement, Antimilitarism, Aparigraha, Appeasement, Arms control, Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution, Athens, Attack on Pearl Harbor, Aung San Suu Kyi, Autarchism, Émeric Crucé, Émile Armand, Émile Arnaud, Óscar Romero, Bahá'í Faith, Bahá'í laws, Bahá'u'lláh, Baptist Faith and Message, Baptists, Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, BBC, Benito Mussolini, ..., Benjamin Spock, Bernard Bolzano, Bertha von Suttner, Bertrand Russell, Beverley Nichols, Birmingham, Brian Orend, British Raj, Bruderhof Communities, Brussels, Buddhism, Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, Cannibalism, Capitalism, Carl von Ossietzky, Catholic peace traditions, Catholic Worker Movement, Cecil John Cadoux, Charles II of England, Charles-Irénée Castel de Saint-Pierre, Chatham Islands, Christian anarchism, Christian pacifism, Christian Peacemaker Teams, Christianity, Church of the Brethren, Civil Disobedience (Thoreau), Civil resistance, Civil rights movement, Civil war, Cleansing of the Temple, Clement Attlee, Collective security, Columbia University, Comparative religion, Confederate States of America, Conscientious objector, Conscription, Consequentialism, Constitution of Denmark, Constitution of Italy, Corazon Aquino, Coretta Scott King, Costa Rica, Coup d'état, Crimean War, Criticism of the War on Terror, David Garnett, David Garrow, David Low Dodge, De-escalation, Death of a Hero, Decentralization, Demilitarisation, Democratic peace theory, Deontological ethics, Desmond Tutu, Dick Sheppard (priest), Die-in, Disarmament, Dorothy Day, Draft evasion, E. M. Forster, Economic sanctions, Edward Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax, El Salvador, Elihu Burritt, Empire of Japan, Erasmus, Erich Maria Remarque, Ernest Bevin, Ervin László, Eugene V. Debs, Euripides, Evangelicalism, Fellowship of Reconciliation, Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis, Francisco Franco, Francoist Spain, Franz Jägerstätter, Frédéric Passy, French Revolutionary Wars, Gene Sharp, Geneva Naval Conference, George Lansbury, Gerhard Schröder, Germany, Gibraltar, Glasgow, Gordon Zahn, Government of Australia, Great power, Greece, Greek Orthodox Church, Green party, Guns, Germs, and Steel, Hamas, Hamilton Holt, Harry Hinsley, Hélder Câmara, Hegetorides, Henri Nouwen, Henry David Thoreau, Henry Richard, Hermann Göring, Hezbollah, Hinduism, Hugh Dalton, Hunger strike, Hutterites, Immanuel Kant, In Praise of Folly, In Solitary Witness, Indian independence movement, Inter-Parliamentary Union, International Arbitration League, International Brigades, International Committee of the Red Cross, International Criminal Court, International Fellowship of Reconciliation, International Peace Congress, Iraq War, Islam, Isolationism, Italian Fascism, Italy, Jainism, James Bevel, James Bryce, 1st Viscount Bryce, James Lawson (activist), Jan Narveson, Jane Addams, Jean Jaurès, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Jeannette Rankin, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jenny Teichman, Jeremy Bentham, Jesus, Jewish Peace Fellowship, Jewish religious movements, Jill Liddington, John Bellers, José Brocca, José Figueres Ferrer, Joseph Stalin, Judaism, Just war theory, Keith Robbins, Khudai Khidmatgar, Labour Party (UK), Lambeth Conference, Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, League of Nations, League of Nations Union, League to Enforce Peace, Lemba people, Leo Tolstoy, Leonard Woolf, Liberal democracy, Liberalism, Linus Pauling, List of pacifist organisations, List of peace activists, Lysistrata, Mahatma Gandhi, Mahātmā, Malta, Mandaeans, Martin Luther King Jr., Massachusetts Peace Society, Maximilian of Tebessa, Maximilien de Béthune, Duke of Sully, Māori people, Mennonites, Militarism, Military dictatorship, Minister (Christianity), Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, Mohism, Morality, Moriori, Multilateralism, Myanmar, Napoleonic Wars, Nation state, National Campaign for a Peace Tax Fund, National League for Democracy, National Liberation Front (Algeria), National Peace Council, Nationalist faction (Spanish Civil War), Naturales quaestiones, Nazi Germany, Nazism, Neturei Karta, Neville Chamberlain, New England Non-Resistance Society, New Left, New York Peace Society, Ngāti Mutunga, Ngāti Tama, No More War Movement, Nobel Peace Prize, Non-aggression principle, Non-belligerent, Nonkilling, Nonprofit organization, Nonresistance, Nonviolence, Nonviolent resistance, North Island, Norway, Nuclear arms race, Nuclear disarmament, Nuclear-free zone, Nunuku-whenua, Nuremberg trials, Olaf Kullmann, Oneness Pentecostalism, Opposition to the Iraq War, Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, Ovid, Pacifism, Pacifist Socialist Party, Parihaka, Paris, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Paul Edwards (philosopher), Pax Christi, Peace, Peace Action, Peace and conflict studies, Peace camp, Peace churches, Peace congress, Peace education, Peace movement, Peace Pledge Union, Peace Society, Peloponnesian War, Pentecostal Charismatic Peace Fellowship, People Power Revolution, Peter Brock, Peter Brock (historian), Peter Carnley, Peter Mayer, Philanthropy, Philippines, Police action, Pope Benedict XV, Pope Benedict XVI, Pope John Paul II, Pope John XXIII, Pragmatism, Princeton University, Propaganda of the deed, Propertius, Property damage, Protests against the Iraq War, Province of Pennsylvania, Public Forces of Costa Rica, Quakers, Raëlism, Rabindranath Tagore, Randal Cremer, Rastafari, Reactionary, Reformation, Reginald Sorensen, Baron Sorensen, Religion and peacebuilding, Religious war, Renaissance, Revolution, Revolutions of 1848, Richard Aldington, Richard Gregg (social philosopher), Righteous Among the Nations, Righteousness, Riverside Church, Robert LeFevre, Rowan Williams, Rule according to higher law, Sakharov Prize, Satyagraha, School of the Americas Watch, Secession, Second International, Second Italo-Ethiopian War, Second Spanish Republic, Sedition Act of 1918, Self-defense, Sell your cloak and buy a sword, Seneca the Younger, Sermon on the Mount, Seven Military Classics, Shoghi Effendi, Simone Weil, Social defence, Socialism, Socialist League (UK, 1932), Soka University of America, Southern Baptist Convention, Soviet Union, Spanish Civil War, Stafford Cripps, Stephen Hobhouse, Stoicism, Storm Jameson, Swiss Civilian Service, Sybil Thorndike, Taipingjing, Tank Man, Taranaki, Tax resistance, Te Whiti o Rongomai, Thasos, Thích Nhất Hạnh, The Black Book, The Iliad or the Poem of Force, The Kingdom of God Is Within You, The Trojan Women, Third Party Non-violent Intervention, Thomas Merton, Thorolf Rafto Memorial Prize, Three Strategies of Huang Shigong, Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, Tibullus, Tolstoyan movement, Treaty of Paris (1856), Turning the other cheek, Union (American Civil War), Unitarian Universalist Association, United Methodist Church, United Pentecostal Church International, University of Oxford, Vegetarianism, Vera Brittain, Victoria University of Wellington, Viet Cong, Vietnam War, Violence, Visigothic Code, War, War Resisters' International, Warring States period, Wars of national liberation, Wehrmacht, Wei Liaozi, William Allen (philanthropist), William Penn, William Pitt the Younger, William Wilberforce, Woman's Peace Party, Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, Working class, World government, World War I, World War II, Yamas, Zweites Buch. 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Abolitionism is a general term which describes the movement to end slavery.
Sir Adam Roberts (born 29 August 1940) is Emeritus Professor of International Relations at Oxford University, a senior research fellow in Oxford University's Department of Politics and International Relations, and an emeritus fellow of Balliol College, Oxford.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Ahimsa (IAST:, Pāli) means 'not to injure' and 'compassion' and refers to a key virtue in Indian religions.
Ahimsā in Jainism is a fundamental principle forming the cornerstone of its ethics and doctrine.
Ahmadiyya (officially, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at; الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, transliterated: al-Jamā'ah al-Islāmiyyah al-Aḥmadiyyah; احمدیہ مسلم جماعت) is an Islamic religious movement founded in Punjab, British India, in the late 19th century.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Joseph Albert (known as Albert Libertad or Libertad) (24 November 1875 – 12 November 1908) was an individualist anarchist militant and writer from France who edited the influential anarchist publication L’Anarchie.
Albert Schweitzer, OM (14 January 1875 – 4 September 1965) was a French-German theologian, organist, writer, humanitarian, philosopher, and physician.
Aldous Leonard Huxley (26 July 1894 – 22 November 1963) was an English writer, novelist, philosopher, and prominent member of the Huxley family.
All Quiet on the Western Front (lit) is a novel by Erich Maria Remarque, a German veteran of World War I. The book describes the German soldiers' extreme physical and mental stress during the war, and the detachment from civilian life felt by many of these soldiers upon returning home from the front.
Alternative civilian service is a form of national service performed in lieu of conscription for various reasons, such as conscientious objection, inadequate health, or political reasons.
The America First Committee (AFC) was the foremost United States non-interventionist pressure group against the American entry into World War II.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The American Friends Service Committee (AFSC) is a Religious Society of Friends (Quaker) founded organization working for peace and social justice in the United States and around the world.
The American Peace Mobilization (APM) was a peace group, officially cited in 1947 by United States Attorney General Tom C. Clark on the Attorney General's List of Subversive Organizations for 1948, as directed by President Harry S. Truman’s Executive Order 9835.
The American Peace Society is a pacifist group founded upon the initiative of William Ladd, in New York City, May 8, 1828.
The American Union Against Militarism (AUAM) was an American pacifist organization established in response to World War I. The organization attempted to keep the United States out of the European conflict through mass demonstrations, public lectures, and the printed word.
The Amish (Pennsylvania German: Amisch, Amische) are a group of traditionalist Christian church fellowships with Swiss German Anabaptist origins.
Ammon Ashford Hennacy (July 24, 1893 – January 14, 1970) was an American Christian pacifist, anarchist, social activist, member of the Catholic Worker Movement, and Wobbly.
Amparo Poch y Gascón (1902–1968) was a Spanish anarchist, pacifist, doctor, and activist in the years leading up to and during the Spanish Civil War.
Anabaptism (from Neo-Latin anabaptista, from the Greek ἀναβαπτισμός: ἀνά- "re-" and βαπτισμός "baptism", Täufer, earlier also WiedertäuferSince the middle of the 20th century, the German-speaking world no longer uses the term "Wiedertäufer" (translation: "Re-baptizers"), considering it biased. The term Täufer (translation: "Baptizers") is now used, which is considered more impartial. From the perspective of their persecutors, the "Baptizers" baptized for the second time those "who as infants had already been baptized". The denigrative term Anabaptist signifies rebaptizing and is considered a polemical term, so it has been dropped from use in modern German. However, in the English-speaking world, it is still used to distinguish the Baptizers more clearly from the Baptists, a Protestant sect that developed later in England. Cf. their self-designation as "Brethren in Christ" or "Church of God":.) is a Christian movement which traces its origins to the Radical Reformation.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
Anarcho-pacifism (also pacifist anarchism or anarchist pacifism) is a tendency within anarchism that rejects the use of violence in the struggle for social change and the abolition of the state.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
André Trocmé (April 7, 1901, Saint-Quentin-en-Tourmont – June 5, 1971, Geneva) and his wife Magda (née Grilli di Cortona, November 2, 1901, Florence, Italy – October 10, 1996, Paris) are a French couple designated Righteous Among the Nations.
An anti-war movement (also antiwar) is a social movement, usually in opposition to a particular nation's decision to start or carry on an armed conflict, unconditional of a maybe-existing just cause.
Antimilitarism (also spelt anti-militarism) is a doctrine that opposes war, relying heavily on a critical theory of imperialism and was an explicit goal of the First and Second International.
In Hinduism and Jainism, aparigraha (अपरिग्रह) is the virtue of non-possessiveness, non-grasping or non-greediness.
Appeasement in an international context is a diplomatic policy of making political or material concessions to an aggressive power in order to avoid conflict.
Arms control is a term for international restrictions upon the development, production, stockpiling, proliferation and usage of small arms, conventional weapons, and weapons of mass destruction.
is a clause in the national Constitution of Japan outlawing war as a means to settle international disputes involving the state.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, on the morning of December 7, 1941.
Aung San Suu Kyi (born 19 June 1945) is a Burmese politician, diplomat, and author, and Nobel Peace Prize laureate (1991).
Autarchism is a political philosophy that promotes the principles of individualism, the moral ideology of individual liberty and self-reliance.
Émeric Crucé (1590–1648) was a French political writer, known for the Nouveau Cynée (1623), a pioneer work on international relations.
Émile Armand (pseudonym of Ernest-Lucien Juin Armand; 26 March 1872 – 19 February 1963) was an influential French individualist anarchist at the beginning of the 20th century and also a dedicated free love/polyamory, intentional community, and pacifist/antimilitarist writer, propagandist and activist.
Émile Arnaud (1864–1921) was a French lawyer, notary, and writer noted for his anti-war rhetoric and for coining the term "pacifism".
Óscar Arnulfo Romero y Galdámez (15 August 1917 – 24 March 1980) was a prelate of the Catholic Church in El Salvador, who served as the fourth Archbishop of San Salvador.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
Bahá'í laws are laws and ordinances used in the Bahá'í Faith and are a fundamental part of Bahá'í practice.
Bahá'u'lláh (بهاء الله, "Glory of God"; 12 November 1817 – 29 May 1892 and Muharram 2, 1233 - Dhu'l Qa'dah 2, 1309), born Mírzá Ḥusayn-`Alí Núrí (میرزا حسینعلی نوری), was the founder of the Bahá'í Faith.
The Baptist Faith and Message (BF&M) is the statement of faith of the Southern Baptist Convention (SBC).
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).
The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
Benjamin McLane Spock (May 2, 1903 – March 15, 1998) was an American pediatrician whose book Baby and Child Care (1946) is one of the best-sellers of all time.
Bernard Bolzano (born Bernardus Placidus Johann Nepomuk Bolzano; 5 October 1781 – 18 December 1848) was a Bohemian mathematician, logician, philosopher, theologian and Catholic priest of Italian extraction, also known for his antimilitarist views.
Bertha Felicitas Sophie Freifrau von Suttner (Baroness Bertha von Suttner, née Countess Kinsky, Gräfin Kinsky von Wchinitz und Tettau; 9 June 184321 June 1914) was an Austrian-Bohemian pacifist and novelist.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
John Beverley Nichols (9 September 1898 – 15 September 1983) was an English author, playwright, journalist, composer, and public speaker.
Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,101,360, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Brian Orend is the Director of International Studies and a professor of Philosophy at the University of Waterloo in Waterloo, Ontario.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
The Bruderhof (place of brothers) is a Christian movement that practices community of goods after the example of the first church described in Acts 2 and Acts 4.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) is an organisation that advocates unilateral nuclear disarmament by the United Kingdom, international nuclear disarmament and tighter international arms regulation through agreements such as the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
Cannibalism is the act of one individual of a species consuming all or part of another individual of the same species as food.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
Carl von Ossietzky (3 October 1889 – 4 May 1938) was a German pacifist and the recipient of the 1935 Nobel Peace Prize for his work in exposing the clandestine German re-armament.
Catholic peace traditions begin with its biblical and classical origins to the current practice in the 21st century.
The Catholic Worker Movement is a collection of autonomous communities of Catholics and their associates founded by Dorothy Day and Peter Maurin in the United States in 1933.
Cecil John Cadoux (1883–1947) was a Christian theologian.
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Charles-Irénée Castel, abbé de Saint-Pierre (18 February 1658 – 29 April 1743) was a French author whose ideas were novel for his times.
The Chatham Islands form an archipelago in the Pacific Ocean about east of the South Island of New Zealand.
Christian anarchism is a movement in political theology that claims anarchism is inherent in Christianity and the Gospels.
Christian pacifism is the theological and ethical position that any form of violence is incompatible with the Christian faith.
Christian Peacemaker Teams (CPT) is an international organization set up to support teams of peace workers in conflict areas around the world.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Church of the Brethren is a Christian denomination with origins in the Schwarzenau Brethren (Schwarzenauer Neutäufer "Schwarzenau New Baptists") that was organized in 1708 by Alexander Mack in Schwarzenau, Germany.
Resistance to Civil Government (Civil Disobedience) is an essay by American transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau that was first published in 1849.
Civil resistance is political action that relies on the use of nonviolent resistance by civil groups to challenge a particular power, force, policy or regime.
The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) was a decades-long movement with the goal of securing legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already held.
A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or country.
The cleansing of the Temple narrative tells of Jesus expelling the merchants and the money changers from the Temple, and occurs in all four canonical gospels of the New Testament.
Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was a British statesman of the Labour Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1935 to 1955.
Collective security can be understood as a security arrangement, political, regional, or global, in which each state in the system accepts that the security of one is the concern of all, and therefore commits to a collective response to threats to, and breaches to peace.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
Comparative religion is the branch of the study of religions concerned with the systematic comparison of the doctrines and practices of the world's religions.
The Confederate States of America (CSA or C.S.), commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865.
A conscientious objector is an "individual who has claimed the right to refuse to perform military service" on the grounds of freedom of thought, conscience, or religion.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
Consequentialism is the class of normative ethical theories holding that the consequences of one's conduct are the ultimate basis for any judgment about the rightness or wrongness of that conduct.
The Constitutional Act of the Kingdom of Denmark (Danmarks Riges Grundlov), or simply the Constitution (Grundloven), is the constitution of the Kingdom of Denmark, applying equally in Denmark proper, Greenland and the Faroe Islands.
The Constitution of the Italian Republic (Costituzione della Repubblica Italiana) was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 December 1947, with 453 votes in favour and 62 against.
Maria Corazon "Cory" Sumulong Cojuangco Aquino (January 25, 1933 – August 1, 2009) was a Filipina politician who served as the 11th President of the Philippines and the first woman to hold that office.
Coretta Scott King (April 27, 1927January 30, 2006) was an American author, activist, civil rights leader, and the wife of Martin Luther King, Jr.
Costa Rica ("Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
Criticism of the War on Terror addresses the morals, ethics, efficiency, economics, as well as other issues surrounding the War on Terror.
David Garnett (9 March 1892 – 17 February 1981) was a British writer and publisher.
David J. Garrow (born May 11, 1953 in New Bedford, Massachusetts) is an American historian and author of the book ''Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference'' (1986), which won the 1987 Pulitzer Prize for Biography.
David Low Dodge (June 14, 1774 – April 23, 1852) helped to establish the New York Peace Society and was a founder of the New York Bible Society and the New York Tract Society.
De-escalation refers to behavior that is intended to escape escalations of conflicts.
Death of a Hero is a World War I novel by Richard Aldington.
Decentralization is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding planning and decision-making, are distributed or delegated away from a central, authoritative location or group.
Demilitarisation or demilitarization may mean the reduction of state armed forces.
Democratic peace theory is a theory which posits that democracies are hesitant to engage in armed conflict with other identified democracies.
In moral philosophy, deontological ethics or deontology (from Greek δέον, deon, "obligation, duty") is the normative ethical position that judges the morality of an action based on rules.
Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African Anglican cleric and theologian known for his work as an anti-apartheid and human rights activist.
Hugh Richard Lawrie "Dick" Sheppard (2 September 1880 – 31 October 1937) was an English Anglican priest, Dean of Canterbury and Christian pacifist.
A die-in, sometimes known as a lie-in, is a form of protest in which participants simulate being dead.
Disarmament is the act of reducing, limiting, or abolishing weapons.
Dorothy Day (November 8, 1897 – November 29, 1980) was an American journalist, social activist, and Catholic convert.
Draft evasion is any successful attempt to elude a government-imposed obligation to serve in the military forces of one's nation.
Edward Morgan Forster (1 January 18797 June 1970) was an English novelist, short story writer, essayist and librettist.
Economic sanctions are commercial and financial penalties applied by one or more countries against a targeted country, group, or individual.
Edward Frederick Lindley Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax, (16 April 1881 – 23 December 1959), styled Lord Irwin from 1925 until 1934 and Viscount Halifax from 1934 until 1944, was one of the most senior British Conservative politicians of the 1930s.
El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.
Elihu Burritt (December 8, 1810 – March 6, 1879) was an American diplomat, philanthropist and social activist.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (28 October 1466Gleason, John B. "The Birth Dates of John Colet and Erasmus of Rotterdam: Fresh Documentary Evidence," Renaissance Quarterly, The University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Renaissance Society of America, Vol. 32, No. 1 (Spring, 1979), pp. 73–76; – 12 July 1536), known as Erasmus or Erasmus of Rotterdam,Erasmus was his baptismal name, given after St. Erasmus of Formiae.
Erich Maria Remarque (born Erich Paul Remark; 22 June 1898 – 25 September 1970) was a German novelist who created many works about the horrors of war.
Ernest Bevin (9 March 1881 – 14 April 1951) was a British statesman, trade union leader, and Labour politician.
Ervin László (born 12 June 1932) is a Hungarian philosopher of science, systems theorist, integral theorist, originally a classical pianist.
Eugene Victor Debs (November 5, 1855 – October 20, 1926) was an American democratic socialist political activist and trade unionist, one of the founding members of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies), and five times the candidate of the Socialist Party of America for President of the United States.
Euripides (Εὐριπίδης) was a tragedian of classical Athens.
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
The Fellowship of Reconciliation (FoR or FOR) is the name used by a number of religious nonviolent organizations, particularly in English-speaking countries.
Ferdinand Jacobus Domela Nieuwenhuis (31 December 1846 – 18 November 1919) was the Netherlands' first prominent socialist.
Francisco Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a military dictator from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.
Francoist Spain (España franquista) or the Franco regime (Régimen de Franco), formally known as the Spanish State (Estado Español), is the period of Spanish history between 1939, when Francisco Franco took control of Spain after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War establishing a dictatorship, and 1975, when Franco died and Prince Juan Carlos was crowned King of Spain.
Franz Jägerstätter, O.F.S., (also spelled Jaegerstaetter in English) (20 May 1907 – 9 August 1943) (born as Franz Huber) was an Austrian conscientious objector during World War II.
Frédéric Passy (May 20, 1822 – June 12, 1912) was a French economist and a joint winner (together with Henry Dunant) of the first Nobel Peace Prize awarded in 1901.
The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution.
Gene Sharp (January 21, 1928 – January 28, 2018) was the founder of the Albert Einstein Institution, a non-profit organization dedicated to advancing the study of nonviolent action, and a retired professor of political science at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth.
The Geneva Naval Conference was a conference held to discuss naval arms limitation, held in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1927.
George Lansbury (22 February 1859 – 7 May 1940) was a British politician and social reformer who led the Labour Party from 1932 to 1935. Apart from a brief period of ministerial office during the Labour government of 1929–31, he spent his political life campaigning against established authority and vested interests, his main causes being the promotion of social justice, women's rights and world disarmament. Originally a radical Liberal, Lansbury became a socialist in the early-1890s, and thereafter served his local community in the East End of London in numerous elective offices. His activities were underpinned by his Christian beliefs which, except for a short period of doubt, sustained him through his life. Elected to Parliament in 1910, he resigned his seat in 1912 to campaign for women's suffrage, and was briefly imprisoned after publicly supporting militant action. In 1912, Lansbury helped to establish the Daily Herald newspaper, and became its editor. Throughout the First World War the paper maintained a strongly pacifist stance, and supported the October 1917 Russian Revolution. These positions contributed to Lansbury's failure to be elected to parliament in 1918. He devoted himself to local politics in his home borough of Poplar, and went to prison with 30 fellow-councillors for his part in the Poplar "rates revolt" of 1921. After his return to Parliament in 1922, Lansbury was denied office in the brief Labour government of 1924, although he served as First Commissioner of Works in the Labour government of 1929–31. After the political and economic crisis of August 1931, Lansbury did not follow his leader, Ramsay MacDonald, into the National Government, but remained with the Labour Party. As the most senior of the small contingent of Labour MPs that survived the 1931 general election, Lansbury became the Leader of the Labour Party. His pacifism and his opposition to rearmament in the face of rising European fascism put him at odds with his party, and when his position was rejected at the 1935 Labour Party conference, he resigned the leadership. He spent his final years travelling through the United States and Europe in the cause of peace and disarmament.
Gerhard Fritz Kurt Schröder (born 7 April 1944) is a German politician, and served as Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005, during which his most important political project was the Agenda 2010.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
Glasgow (Glesga; Glaschu) is the largest city in Scotland, and third most populous in the United Kingdom.
Gordon Zahn (born Gordon Charles Paul Roach; 7 August 1918 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin – 9 December 2007 in Wauwatosa, Wisconsin) was an American sociologist, pacifist, professor, and author.
The Government of the Commonwealth of Australia (also referred to as the Australian Government, the Commonwealth Government, or the Federal Government) is the government of the Commonwealth of Australia, a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy.
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
The name Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἑκκλησία, Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía), or Greek Orthodoxy, is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the Septuagint and New Testament, and whose history, traditions, and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers and the culture of the Byzantine Empire.
A Green party is a formally organized political party based on the principles of green politics, such as social justice, environmentalism and nonviolence.
Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies (also titled Guns, Germs and Steel: A short history of everybody for the last 13,000 years) is a 1997 transdisciplinary non-fiction book by Jared Diamond, professor of geography and physiology at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).
Hamas (Arabic: حماس Ḥamās, an acronym of حركة المقاومة الاسلامية Ḥarakat al-Muqāwamah al-ʾIslāmiyyah Islamic Resistance Movement) is a Palestinian Sunni-Islamist fundamentalist organization.
Hamilton Holt (August 18, 1872 – April 26, 1951) was an American educator, editor, author and politician.
Sir Francis Harry Hinsley OBE (26 November 1918 – 16 February 1998) was an English historian and cryptanalyst.
Dom Hélder Pessoa Câmara (February 7, 1909 – August 27, 1999) was a Brazilian Roman Catholic Archbishop.
Hegetorides was a citizen of the Greek island of Thasos during the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta (431-404 BC), mentioned by the 2nd-century historian Polyaenus.
Henri Jozef Machiel Nouwen, (January 24, 1932 – September 21, 1996) was a Dutch Catholic priest, professor, writer and theologian.
Henry David Thoreau (see name pronunciation; July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862) was an American essayist, poet, philosopher, abolitionist, naturalist, tax resister, development critic, surveyor, and historian.
Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering;; 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German political and military leader as well as one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party (NSDAP) that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945.
Hezbollah (pronounced; حزب الله, literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God")—also transliterated Hizbullah, Hizballah, etc.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Edward Hugh John Neale Dalton, Baron Dalton, (16 August 1887 – 13 February 1962) was a British Labour Party economist and politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1945 to 1947. He shaped Labour Party foreign-policy in the 1930s, opposed pacifism, promoted rearmament against the German threat, and strongly opposed the appeasement policy of Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain in 1938. He served in Churchill's wartime coalition cabinet. As Chancellor, he pushed his cheap money policy too hard, and mishandled the sterling crisis of 1947. Dalton's political position was already in jeopardy in 1947, when, he, seemingly inadvertently, revealed a sentence of the budget to a reporter minutes before delivering his budget speech. Prime Minister Clement Attlee accepted his resignation, but he later returned to the cabinet in relatively minor positions. His biographer Ben Pimlott characterised Dalton as peevish, irascible, given to poor judgment and lacking administrative talent. He also recognised that Dalton was a genuine radical and an inspired politician; a man, to quote his old friend and critic John Freeman, "of feeling, humanity, and unshakeable loyalty to people which matched his talent.".
A hunger strike is a method of non-violent resistance or pressure in which participants fast as an act of political protest, or to provoke feelings of guilt in others, usually with the objective to achieve a specific goal, such as a policy change.
Hutterites (Hutterer) are an ethnoreligious group that is a communal branch of Anabaptists who, like the Amish and Mennonites, trace their roots to the Radical Reformation of the 16th century.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
In Praise of Folly, also translated as The Praise of Folly, (Latin: Stultitiae Laus or Moriae Encomium (Greek title: Morias enkomion (Μωρίας ἐγκώμιον); Dutch title: Lof der Zotheid) is an essay written in Latin in 1509 by Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam and first printed in June 1511. Inspired by previous works of the Italian humanist De Triumpho Stultitiae, it is a satirical attack on superstitions and other traditions of European society as well as on the Western Church. Erasmus revised and extended his work, which was originally written in the space of a week while sojourning with Sir Thomas More at More's house in Bucklersbury in the City of London. The title Moriae Encomium had a punning second meaning as In Praise of More. In Praise of Folly is considered one of the most notable works of the Renaissance and played an important role in the beginnings of the Protestant Reformation. "Although Erasmus himself would have denied it vehemently, later reformers found that In Praise of Folly had helped prepare the way for the Protestant Reformation.".
In Solitary Witness: The Life and Death of Franz Jägerstätter is a book written by Gordon Zahn originally published in 1964.
The Indian independence movement encompassed activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company rule (1757–1857) and the British Indian Empire (1857–1947) in the Indian subcontinent.
The Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU; Union Interparlementaire) is a global inter-parliamentary institution established in 1889 by Frédéric Passy (France) and William Randal Cremer (United Kingdom).
The International Arbitration League was a society of pacifists run by working class men.
The International Brigades (Brigadas Internacionales) were paramilitary units set up by the Communist International to assist the Popular Front government of the Second Spanish Republic during the Spanish Civil War.
The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate.
The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands.
The International Fellowship of Reconciliation (IFOR) is a non-governmental organization founded in 1914 in response to the horrors of war in Europe.
International Peace Congress, or International Congress of the Friends of Peace, was the name of a series of international meetings of representatives from peace societies from throughout the world held in various places in Europe from 1843 to 1853.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Isolationism is a category of foreign policies institutionalized by leaders who assert that their nations' best interests are best served by keeping the affairs of other countries at a distance.
Italian Fascism (fascismo italiano), also known simply as Fascism, is the original fascist ideology as developed in Italy.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
James Luther Bevel (October 19, 1936 – December 19, 2008) was a minister and leader of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States.
James Bryce, 1st Viscount Bryce, (10 May 1838 – 22 January 1922) was a British academic, jurist, historian and Liberal politician.
James Morris Lawson, Jr. (born September 22, 1928) is an American activist and university professor.
Jan Narveson, OC (born 1936) is professor of philosophy emeritus at the University of Waterloo, in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
Jane Addams (September 8, 1860May 21, 1935), known as the "mother" of social work, was a pioneer American settlement activist/reformer, social worker, public philosopher, sociologist, public administrator, protestor, author, and leader in women's suffrage and world peace.
Auguste Marie Joseph Jean Léon Jaurès, commonly referred as Jean Jaurès (3 September 185931 July 1914) was a French Socialist leader.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
Jeannette Pickering Rankin (June 11, 1880 – May 18, 1973) was an American politician and women's rights advocate, and the first woman to hold federal office in the United States.
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
Jenny Teichman is an Australian/British philosopher, writing mostly on ethics.
Jeremy Bentham (15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832) was an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
The Jewish Peace Fellowship is a nonprofit, nondenominational organization set up to provide a Jewish voice in the peace movement.
Jewish religious movements, sometimes called "denominations" or "branches", include different groups which have developed among Jews from ancient times.
Jill Liddington (born in Manchester, 1946) is a British writer and academic who specialises in women's history.
John Bellers (1654 – 8 February 1725) was an English educational theorist and Quaker, author of Proposals for Raising a College of Industry of All Useful Trades and Husbandry (1695).
José Brocca (Professor José Brocca Ramón), 1891–1950, was a pacifist and humanitarian of the Spanish Civil War, who allied himself with the Republicans but sought nonviolent ways of resisting the Nationalist rebels.
José María Hipólito Figueres Ferrer (25 October 1906 – 8 June 1990) served as President of Costa Rica on three occasions: 1948–1949, 1953–1958 and 1970–1974.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Just war theory (Latin: jus bellum iustum) is a doctrine, also referred to as a tradition, of military ethics studied by military leaders, theologians, ethicists and policy makers.
Keith Gilbert Robbins FRSE FRHistS FLSW (born 9 April 1940) is a historian and former Vice-Chancellor of the University of Wales, Lampeter.
Khudai Khidmatgar (خدايي خدمتگار) literally translates as the servants of God, represented a non-violent struggle against the British Empire by the Pashtuns (also known as Pathans, Pakhtuns or Afghans) of the North-West Frontier Province of British India (now in Pakistan).
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
The Lambeth Conference is a decennial assembly of bishops of the Anglican Communion convened by the Archbishop of Canterbury.
Le Chambon-sur-Lignon (Auvergnat: Lo Chambon) is a commune in the Haute-Loire department in south-central France.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
The League of Nations Union (LNU) was an organisation formed in October 1918 in the United Kingdom to promote international justice, collective security and a permanent peace between nations based upon the ideals of the League of Nations.
The League to Enforce Peace (LEP) was an American organization established in 1915 to promote the formation of an international body for world peace.
The Lemba, wa-Remba, or MwenyeParfitt, Tudor.
Count Lyov (also Lev) Nikolayevich Tolstoy (also Лев) Николаевич ТолстойIn Tolstoy's day, his name was written Левъ Николаевичъ Толстой.
Leonard Sidney Woolf (25 November 1880 – 14 August 1969) was a British political theorist, author, publisher and civil servant, and husband of author Virginia Woolf.
Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.
Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, educator, and husband of American human rights activist Ava Helen Pauling.
A Pacifist organization promotes the pacifist principle of renouncing war and violence for political ends.
This list of peace activists includes people who have proactively advocated diplomatic, philosophical, and non-military resolution of major territorial or ideological disputes through nonviolent means and methods.
Lysistrata (or; Attic Greek: Λυσιστράτη, Lysistrátē, "Army Disbander") is a comedy by Aristophanes.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule.
Mahatma is Sanskrit for "Great Soul" (महात्मा mahātmā: महा mahā (great) + आत्मं or आत्मन ātman). It is similar in usage to the modern English term saint.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Mandaeans (aṣ-Ṣābi'a al-Mandā'iyūn) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia and are followers of Mandaeism, a Gnostic religion.
Martin Luther King Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from 1954 until his death in 1968.
The Massachusetts Peace Society (1815–1828) was an anti-war organization in Boston, Massachusetts, established to "diffuse light on the subject of war, and to cultivate the principles and spirit of peace." Founding officers included Thomas Dawes, William Phillips, Elisha Ticknor, Thomas Wallcut and Noah Worcester.
Saint Maximilian of Tebessa, also known as Maximilian of Numidia, (Maximilianus; AD 274–295) was a Christian saint and martyr, whose feast day is observed on 12 March.
Maximilien de Béthune, 1st Duke of Sully, Marquis of Rosny and Nogent, Count of Muret and Villebon, Viscount of Meaux (13 December 156022 December 1641) was a nobleman, soldier, statesman, and faithful right-hand man who assisted king Henry IV of France in the rule of France.
The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand.
The Mennonites are members of certain Christian groups belonging to the church communities of Anabaptist denominations named after Menno Simons (1496–1561) of Friesland (which today is a province of the Netherlands).
Militarism is the belief or the desire of a government or a people that a state should maintain a strong military capability and to use it aggressively to expand national interests and/or values; examples of modern militarist states include the United States, Russia and Turkey.
A military dictatorship (also known as a military junta) is a form of government where in a military force exerts complete or substantial control over political authority.
In Christianity, a minister is a person authorized by a church, or other religious organization, to perform functions such as teaching of beliefs; leading services such as weddings, baptisms or funerals; or otherwise providing spiritual guidance to the community.
Mirzā Ghulām Ahmad (13 February 1835 – 26 May 1908) was an Indian religious leader and the founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam.
Mohism or Moism was an ancient Chinese philosophy of logic, rational thought and science developed by the academic scholars who studied under the ancient Chinese philosopher Mozi (c. 470 BC – c. 391 BC) and embodied in an eponymous book: the Mozi.
Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.
Moriori are the indigenous people of the Chatham Islands (Rēkohu in Moriori, Wharekauri in Māori), east of the New Zealand archipelago in the Pacific Ocean.
In international relations, multilateralism refers to an alliance of multiple countries pursuing a common goal.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
The National Campaign for a Peace Tax Fund (NCPTF) is a non-profit organization located in Washington, D.C. It was founded in 1971 to address conscientious objection to military taxation.
The National League for Democracy (အမျိုးသား ဒီမိုကရေစီ အဖွဲ့ချုပ်,; abbreviated NLD) is a social-democratic and liberal democratic political party in Myanmar (Burma), currently serving as the governing party.
The National Liberation Front (جبهة التحرير الوطني Jabhatu l-Taḥrīru l-Waṭanī; Front de libération nationale, FLN) is a socialist political party in Algeria.
The National Peace Council, founded in 1908, and disbanded in 2000, acted as the co-ordinating body for almost 200 groups across Britain, with a membership ranging from small village peace groups to national trade unions and local authorities.
The Nationalist faction (Bando nacional) or Rebel faction (Bando sublevado) was a major faction in the Spanish Civil War of 1936 to 1939.
Naturales quaestiones is a Latin work of natural philosophy written by Seneca around 65 AD.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
Neturei Karta (Jewish Babylonian Aramaic: נָטוֹרֵי קַרְתָּא, literally "Guardians of the City") is a religious group of Haredi Jews, formally created in Jerusalem, British Mandate of Palestine, in 1938, splitting off from Agudas Yisrael.
Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from May 1937 to May 1940.
The New England Non-Resistance Society was an American peace group founded at a special peace convention organized by William Lloyd Garrison, in Boston in September 1838.
The New Left was a broad political movement mainly in the 1960s and 1970s consisting of activists in the Western world who campaigned for a broad range of social issues such as civil and political rights, feminism, gay rights, abortion rights, gender roles and drug policy reforms.
The New York Peace Society was the first peace society to be established in the United States.
Ngāti Mutunga is a Māori iwi of New Zealand.
Ngāti Tama is a historic Māori iwi of present-day New Zealand.
The No More War Movement was the name of two pacifist organisations, one in the United Kingdom and one in New Zealand.
The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
The non-aggression principle (or NAP; also called the non-aggression axiom, the anti-coercion, zero aggression principle or non-initiation of force) is an ethical stance that asserts that aggression is inherently wrong.
A non-belligerent is a person, a state, or other organization that does not fight in a given conflict.
Nonkilling refers to the absence of killing, threats to kill, and conditions conducive to killing in human society.
A non-profit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity or non-profit institution, is dedicated to furthering a particular social cause or advocating for a shared point of view.
Nonresistance (or non-resistance) is "the practice or principle of not resisting authority, even when it is unjustly exercised".
Nonviolence is the personal practice of being harmless to self and others under every condition.
Nonviolent resistance (NVR or nonviolent action) is the practice of achieving goals such as social change through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, satyagraha, or other methods, while being nonviolent.
The North Island (Māori: Te Ika-a-Māui) is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, separated from the slightly larger but much less populous South Island by Cook Strait.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
The nuclear arms race was a competition for supremacy in nuclear warfare between the United States, the Soviet Union, and their respective allies during the Cold War.
Nuclear disarmament is the act of reducing or eliminating nuclear weapons.
A nuclear-free zone is an area in which nuclear weapons (see nuclear-weapon-free zone) and nuclear power plants are banned.
Nunuku-whenua was a Moriori chief and famous sixteenth century pacifist.
The Nuremberg trials (Die Nürnberger Prozesse) were a series of military tribunals held by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war after World War II.
Olaf Bryn Kullmann (2 July 1892 – 9 July 1942) was a Norwegian naval officer and peace activist.
Oneness Pentecostalism (also known as Apostolic or Jesus' Name Pentecostalism and often pejoratively referred to as the "Jesus Only" movement in its early days) is a category of denominations and believers within Pentecostalism which adhere to the nontrinitarian theological doctrine of Oneness.
Significant opposition to the Iraq War occurred worldwide, both before and during the initial 2003 invasion of Iraq by the United States, United Kingdom, and smaller contingents from other nations, and throughout the subsequent occupation.
Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War began with demonstrations in 1964 against the escalating role of the U.S. military in the Vietnam War and grew into a broad social movement over the ensuing several years.
Publius Ovidius Naso (20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus.
Pacifism is opposition to war, militarism, or violence.
The Pacifist Socialist Party (Pacifistisch Socialistische Partij, PSP) was a left-wing Dutch socialist political party.
Parihaka is a small community in the Taranaki region of New Zealand, located between Mount Taranaki and the Tasman Sea.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
Paul Edwards (September 2, 1923 – December 9, 2004) was an Austrian-American moral philosopher.
Pax Christi International is an international Catholic peace movement.
Peace is the concept of harmony and the absence of hostility.
Peace Action is a peace organization whose focus is on preventing the deployment of nuclear weapons in space, thwarting weapons sales to countries with human rights violations, and promoting a new United States foreign policy based on common security and peaceful resolution to international conflicts.
Peace and conflict studies is a social science field that identifies and analyzes violent and nonviolent behaviours as well as the structural mechanisms attending conflicts (including social conflicts), with a view towards understanding those processes which lead to a more desirable human condition.
Peace camps are a form of physical protest camp that is focused on anti-war activity.
Peace churches are Christian churches, groups or communities advocating Christian pacifism or Biblical nonresistance.
A peace congress, in international relations, has at times been defined in a way that would distinguish it from a peace conference (usually defined as a diplomatic meeting to decide on a peace treaty), as an ambitious forum to carry out dispute resolution in international affairs, and prevent wars.
Peace education is the process of acquiring the values, the knowledge and developing the attitudes, skills, and behaviors to live in harmony with oneself, with others, and with the natural environment.
A peace movement is a social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war (or all wars), minimize inter-human violence in a particular place or type of situation, and is often linked to the goal of achieving world peace.
The Peace Pledge Union (PPU) is a British pacifist non-governmental organisation.
The Peace Society, International Peace Society or London Peace Society originally known as the Society for the Promotion of Permanent and Universal Peace, was a British pacifist organization that was active from 1816 until the 1930s.
The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek war fought by the Delian League led by Athens against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta.
The Pentecostal Charismatic Peace Fellowship, which changed its name to Pentecostals & Charismatics for Peace & Justice in 2007, is a multicultural, gender inclusive, and ecumenical organization that promotes peace, justice, and reconciliation work among Pentecostal and Charismatic Christians.
The People Power Revolution (also known as the EDSA Revolution and the Philippine Revolution of 1986 or simply EDSA 1986) was a series of popular demonstrations in the Philippines, mostly in the capital city of Manila from February 22–25, 1986.
Peter Geoffrey Brock (26 February 1945 – 8 September 2006), otherwise known as "Peter Perfect", "The King of the Mountain", or simply "Brocky", was one of Australia's best-known and most successful motor racing drivers.
Peter Brock (1920–2006) was an English-born Canadian historian who specialized in the history of pacifism and Eastern Europe.
Peter Frederick Carnley AC (born 17 October 1934) is a retired Australian Anglican bishop and author.
Peter Michael Mayer (March 28, 1936 – May 11, 2018) was a British-born American independent publisher who was president of The Overlook Press/Peter Mayer Publishers, Inc., a Woodstock, New York-based publishing company he founded with his father in 1971.
Philanthropy means the love of humanity.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
In military/security studies and international relations, "police action" is a euphemism for a military action undertaken without a formal declaration of war.
Pope Benedict XV (Latin: Benedictus; Benedetto), born Giacomo Paolo Giovanni Battista della Chiesa (21 November 1854 – 22 January 1922), was head of the Catholic Church from 3 September 1914 until his death in 1922.
Pope Benedict XVI (Benedictus XVI; Benedetto XVI; Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger;; 16 April 1927) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 2005 until his resignation in 2013.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
Pope John XXIII (Ioannes; Giovanni; born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli,; 25 November 18813 June 1963) was head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 28 October 1958 to his death in 1963 and was canonized on 27 April 2014.
Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870.
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.
Propaganda of the deed (or propaganda by the deed, from the French propagande par le fait) is specific political action meant to be exemplary to others and serve as a catalyst for revolution.
Sextus Propertius was a Latin elegiac poet of the Augustan age.
Property damage (or, in England and Wales criminal damage) is damage to or the destruction of public or private property, caused either by a person who is not its owner or by natural phenomena.
Beginning in 2002, and continuing after the 2003 invasion of Iraq, large-scale protests against the Iraq War were held in many cities worldwide, often coordinated to occur simultaneously around the world.
The Province of Pennsylvania, also known as the Pennsylvania Colony, was founded in English North America by William Penn on March 4, 1681 as dictated in a royal charter granted by King Charles II.
The Public Force of Costa Rica is the country’s law enforcement force, which performs policing and border patrol functions.
Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.
Raëlism (also known as Raëlianism or the Raëlian movement) is a UFO religion that was founded in 1974 by Claude Vorilhon (b. 1946), now known as Raël.
Rabindranath Tagore FRAS, also written Ravīndranātha Ṭhākura (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali polymath who reshaped Bengali literature and music, as well as Indian art with Contextual Modernism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Sir William Randal Cremer (18 March 1828 – 22 July 1908) usually known by his middle name "Randal", was an English Liberal Member of Parliament, a pacifist, and a leading advocate for international arbitration.
Rastafari, sometimes termed Rastafarianism, is an Abrahamic religion that developed in Jamaica during the 1930s.
A reactionary is a person who holds political views that favor a return to the status quo ante, the previous political state of society, which they believe possessed characteristics (discipline, respect for authority, etc.) that are negatively absent from the contemporary status quo of a society.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
Reginald William Sorensen, Baron Sorensen (19 June 1891 – 8 October 1971) was a Unitarian minister and Labour Party politician in the United Kingdom.
Religion and peacebuilding refers to the study of religion's role in the development of peace.
A religious war or holy war (bellum sacrum) is a war primarily caused or justified by differences in religion.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
In political science, a revolution (Latin: revolutio, "a turn around") is a fundamental and relatively sudden change in political power and political organization which occurs when the population revolt against the government, typically due to perceived oppression (political, social, economic).
The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848.
Richard Aldington (8 July 1892 – 27 July 1962), born Edward Godfree Aldington, was an English writer and poet.
Richard Bartlett Gregg (1885–1974) was an American social philosopher said to be "the first American to develop a substantial theory of nonviolent resistance" and an influence on the thinking of Martin Luther King, Jr, Aldous Huxley, civil-rights theorist Bayard Rustin, and pacifist and socialist reformer Jessie Wallace Hughan.
Righteous Among the Nations (חֲסִידֵי אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם, khasidei umót ha'olám "righteous (plural) of the world's nations") is an honorific used by the State of Israel to describe non-Jews who risked their lives during the Holocaust to save Jews from extermination by the Nazis.
Righteousness is defined as "the quality of being morally correct and justifiable." It can also be considered synonymous with "rightness".
Riverside Church is a Christian church in Morningside Heights, Upper Manhattan, New York City.
Robert LeFevre (October 13, 1911 – May 13, 1986) was an American libertarian businessman, radio personality, and primary theorist of autarchism.
Rowan Douglas Williams, Baron Williams of Oystermouth (born 14 June 1950) is a Welsh Anglican bishop, theologian and poet.
The rule according to a higher law means that no law may be enforced by the government unless it conforms with certain universal principles (written or unwritten) of fairness, morality, and justice.
The Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought, commonly known as the Sakharov Prize, honours individuals and groups of people who have dedicated their lives to the defense of human rights and freedom of thought.
Satyagraha सत्याग्रह; satya: "truth", graha: "insistence" or "holding firmly to") or holding onto truth or truth force – is a particular form of nonviolent resistance or civil resistance. The term satyagraha was coined and developed by Mahatma Gandhi (1869–1948). He deployed satyagraha in the Indian independence movement and also during his earlier struggles in South Africa for Indian rights. Satyagraha theory influenced Martin Luther King Jr.'s and James Bevel's campaigns during the Civil Rights Movement in the United States, and many other social justice and similar movements. Someone who practices satyagraha is a satyagrahi.
School of the Americas Watch is an advocacy organization founded by former Maryknoll Father Roy Bourgeois and a small group of supporters in 1990 to protest the training of mainly Latin American military officers, by the United States Department of Defense, at the School of the Americas (SOA).
Secession (derived from the Latin term secessio) is the withdrawal of a group from a larger entity, especially a political entity, but also from any organization, union or military alliance.
The Second International (1889–1916), the original Socialist International, was an organization of socialist and labour parties formed in Paris on July 14, 1889.
The Second Italo-Ethiopian War, also referred to as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, was a colonial war from 3 October 1935 until 1939, despite the Italian claim to have defeated Ethiopia by 5 May 1936, the date of the capture of Addis Ababa.
The Spanish Republic (República Española), commonly known as the Second Spanish Republic (Segunda República Española), was the democratic government that existed in Spain from 1931 to 1939.
The Sedition Act of 1918 was an Act of the United States Congress that extended the Espionage Act of 1917 to cover a broader range of offenses, notably speech and the expression of opinion that cast the government or the war effort in a negative light or interfered with the sale of government bonds.
Self-defence (self-defense in some varieties of English) is a countermeasure that involves defending the health and well-being of oneself from harm.
According to the Gospel of Luke (22:36, NIV, sell your cloak and buy a sword is an instruction, by Jesus to his disciples during the Last Supper, which has been interpreted in several ways.
Seneca the Younger AD65), fully Lucius Annaeus Seneca and also known simply as Seneca, was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and—in one work—satirist of the Silver Age of Latin literature.
The Sermon on the Mount (anglicized from the Matthean Vulgate Latin section title: Sermo in monte) is a collection of sayings and teachings of Jesus, which emphasizes his moral teaching found in the Gospel of Matthew (chapters 5, 6, and 7).
The Seven Military Classics were seven important military texts of ancient China, which also included Sun-tzu's The Art of War.
Shoghí Effendí Rabbání (1 March 1897 – 4 November 1957), better known as Shoghi Effendi, was the Guardian and appointed head of the Bahá'í Faith from 1921 until his death in 1957.
Simone Weil (3 February 1909 – 24 August 1943) was a French philosopher, mystic, and political activist. The mathematician Andre Weil was her brother. After her graduation from formal education, Weil became a teacher. She taught intermittently throughout the 1930s, taking several breaks due to poor health and to devote herself to political activism, work that would see her assisting in the trade union movement, taking the side of the Anarchists known as the Durruti Column in the Spanish Civil War, and spending more than a year working as a labourer, mostly in auto factories, so she could better understand the working class. Taking a path that was unusual among twentieth-century left-leaning intellectuals, she became more religious and inclined towards mysticism as her life progressed. Weil wrote throughout her life, though most of her writings did not attract much attention until after her death. In the 1950s and 1960s, her work became famous in continental Europe and throughout the English-speaking world. Her thought has continued to be the subject of extensive scholarship across a wide range of fields. A meta study from the University of Calgary found that between 1995 and 2012 over 2,500 new scholarly works had been published about her. Albert Camus described her as "the only great spirit of our times".
The term "social defence" is used to describe non-military action by a society or social group, particularly in a context of a sustained campaign against outside attack or dictatorial rule – or preparations for such a campaign in the event of external attack or usurpation.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
The Socialist League was an organisation inside the British Labour Party, which brought together about 3,000 intellectuals who wanted to push the Labour Party outside the National Government (1931-1940) to the left.
Soka University of America (SUA) is a four-year liberal arts university located in Aliso Viejo, California, the United States.
The Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) is a Christian denomination based in the United States.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
Sir Richard Stafford Cripps, (24 April 1889 – 21 April 1952) was a British Labour politician of the first half of the twentieth century.
Stephen Henry Hobhouse (5 August 1881 – 2 April 1961) was a prominent English peace activist, prison reformer, and religious writer.
Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC.
Margaret Storm Jameson (8 January 1891 – 30 September 1986) was an English journalist and author, known for her novels and reviews.
Civilian service is a Swiss institution, created in 1996 as an alternative to military service.
Dame Agnes Sybil Thorndike (24 October 18829 June 1976) was an English actress who toured internationally in Shakespearean productions, often appearing with her husband Lewis Casson.
Taipingjing ("Scriptures of the Great Peace") is the name of several different Daoist texts.
Tank Man (also known as the Unknown Protester or Unknown Rebel) is the nickname of an unidentified man who stood in front of a column of tanks on June 5, 1989, the morning after the Chinese military had suppressed the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 by force.
Taranaki is a region in the west of New Zealand's North Island, administered by the Taranaki Regional Council.
Tax resistance is the refusal to pay tax because of opposition to the government that is imposing the tax, or to government policy, or as opposition to taxation in itself.
Te Whiti o Rongomai III (c. 1830–18 November 1907) was a Māori spiritual leader and founder of the village of Parihaka, in New Zealand's Taranaki region.
Thasos or Thassos (Θάσος) is a Greek island, geographically part of the North Aegean Sea, but administratively part of the Kavala regional unit.
Thích Nhất Hạnh (born as Nguyễn Xuân Bảo on October 11, 1926) is a Vietnamese Buddhist monk and peace activist.
The Sonderfahndungsliste G.B. ("Special Search List Great Britain") was a secret list of prominent British residents to be arrested, produced in 1940 by the SS as part of the preparation for the proposed invasion of Britain codenamed ''Unternehmen Seelöwe'' (Operation Sea Lion).
"The Iliad, or The Poem of Force" (L'Iliade ou le poème de la force) is a 24 page essay written in 1939 by Simone Weil.
The Kingdom of God Is Within You (pre-reform Russian: Царство Божіе внутри васъ; post-reform Tsárstvo Bózhiye vnutrí vas) is a non-fiction book written by Leo Tolstoy.
The Trojan Women (Τρῳάδες, Trōiades), also known as Troades, is a tragedy by the Greek playwright Euripides.
Third Party Non-violent Intervention (sometimes called TPNI) refers to the practice of intervening from the outside in violent conflicts with the aim of reducing violence and allowing "space" for conflict resolution.
Thomas Merton (1915–1968) was a Catalan Trappist monk of American nationality.
The Professor Thorolf Rafto Memorial Prize (Raftoprisen) is a human rights award established in the memory of the Norwegian human rights activist, Thorolf Rafto.
The Three Strategies of Huang Shigong is a text on military strategy that was historically associated with the Han dynasty general Zhang Liang.
The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, commonly known in mainland China as the June Fourth Incident (六四事件), were student-led demonstrations in Beijing, the capital of the People's Republic of China, in 1989.
Albius Tibullus (BC19 BC) was a Latin poet and writer of elegies.
The Tolstoyan movement is a social movement based on the philosophical and religious views of Russian novelist Leo Tolstoy (1828–1910).
The Treaty of Paris of 1856 settled the Crimean War between the Russian Empire and an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, the British Empire, the Second French Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia.
Turning the other cheek is a phrase in Christian doctrine that refers to responding to injury without revenge.
During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the Union, also known as the North, referred to the United States of America and specifically to the national government of President Abraham Lincoln and the 20 free states, as well as 4 border and slave states (some with split governments and troops sent both north and south) that supported it.
Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA) is a liberal religious association of Unitarian Universalist congregations.
The United Methodist Church (UMC) is a mainline Protestant denomination and a major part of Methodism.
The United Pentecostal Church International (or UPCI) is an Apostolic Pentecostal Christian denomination, headquartered in Weldon Spring, Missouri.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
Vegetarianism is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat (red meat, poultry, seafood, and the flesh of any other animal), and may also include abstention from by-products of animal slaughter.
Vera Mary Brittain (29 December 1893 – 29 March 1970) was an English Voluntary Aid Detachment (VAD) nurse, writer, feminist, and pacifist.
Victoria University of Wellington (Te Whare Wānanga o Te Ūpoko o Te Ika a Māui) is a university in Wellington, New Zealand.
The National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (Mặt trận Dân tộc Giải phóng miền Nam Việt Nam) also known as the Việt Cộng was a mass political organization in South Vietnam and Cambodia with its own army – the People's Liberation Armed Forces of South Vietnam (PLAF) – that fought against the United States and South Vietnamese governments during the Vietnam War, eventually emerging on the winning side.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
Violence is defined by the World Health Organization as "the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation," although the group acknowledges that the inclusion of "the use of power" in its definition expands on the conventional understanding of the word.
The Visigothic Code (Latin, Forum Iudicum or Liber Iudiciorum; Spanish, Libro de los Jueces, Book of the Judges), also called Lex Visigothorum (English: Law of the Visigoths) is a set of laws first promulgated by king Chindasuinth (642-653) of the Visigothic Kingdom in his second year of rule (642-643) that survives only in fragments.
War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.
War Resisters' International (WRI) is an international anti-war organization with members and affiliates in over thirty countries.
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.
Wars of national liberation or national liberation revolutions are conflicts fought by nations to gain independence.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
The Wei Liaozi is a text on military strategy, one of the Seven Military Classics of ancient China.
William Allen (c. 1790 – 17 October 1856) was joint founder of St Peter's College, Adelaide, South Australia.
William Penn (14 October 1644 – 30 July 1718) was the son of Sir William Penn, and was an English real estate entrepreneur, philosopher, early Quaker, and founder of the English North American colony the Province of Pennsylvania.
William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 – 23 January 1806) was a prominent British Tory statesman of the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
William Wilberforce (24 August 175929 July 1833) was an English politician known as the leader of the movement to stop the slave trade.
The Woman's Peace Party (WPP) was an American pacifist and feminist organization formally established in January 1915 in response to World War I. The organization is remembered as the first American peace organization to make use of direct action tactics such as public demonstration.
The Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) is a non-profit non-governmental organization working "to bring together women of different political views and philosophical and religious backgrounds determined to study and make known the causes of war and work for a permanent peace" and to unite women worldwide who oppose oppression and exploitation.
The working class (also labouring class) are the people employed for wages, especially in manual-labour occupations and industrial work.
World government or global government is the notion of a common political authority for all of humanity, yielding a global government and a single state that exercises authority over the entire Earth.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yamas (यम), and its complement, Niyamas, represent a series of "right living" or ethical rules within Hinduism and Yoga.
The Zweites Buch ("Second Book"), unofficially published in English as Hitler's Secret Book and then officially Hitler's Second Book, is an unedited transcript of Adolf Hitler's thoughts on foreign policy written in 1928; it was written after Mein Kampf and was not published in his lifetime.
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