227 relations: Abilene Network, Academic Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Apple IIGS, Apple Inc., AppleTalk, Application software, Argonne National Laboratory, ARPANET, Association for Computing Machinery, Asynchronous transfer mode, Atlanta, AUSTPAC, Australian Taxation Office, BBN Technologies, Bell Canada, Bell System, Big Ten Academic Alliance, Big Ten Conference, Bitstream, Bob Kahn, Boulder, Colorado, Cambridge, Massachusetts, CANTV, Cell relay, CERFnet, Channel access method, Channel capacity, Charles Babbage Institute, Chicago, Circuit switching, Cleveland, College Park, Maryland, Communication channel, CompuServe, Computer network, Computer science, Connection-oriented communication, Connectionless communication, ConnNet, Consortium, Control Data Corporation, CSNET, CYCLADES, Datagram, DATAPAC, David Boggs, Decentralization, DECnet, Detroit, ..., Deutsche Bundespost, Digital Equipment Corporation, Digital Signal 3, Donald Davies, Doug Gale, Douglas Comer, Dynamic bandwidth allocation, East Lansing, Michigan, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eir (telecommunications), Eirpac, Ethernet, Fair queuing, Fast packet switching, Fault tolerance, FIFO (computing and electronics), File server, Frame Relay, GEC 4000 series, General Electric, General Packet Radio Service, Header (computing), Hitachi, Host (network), Houston, I-mode, I. P. Sharp Associates, Iberpac, IBM, IBM Personal Computer, IBM Systems Network Architecture, Infrastructure, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, International Packet Switched Service, Internet, Internet backbone, Internet Protocol, Internet protocol suite, Internet service provider, Internet2, Internetworking, IPSANET, IPX/SPX, Ithaca, New York, JANET, John Shoch, KPN, Laser printing, Latency (engineering), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Leaky bucket, Leased line, Leonard Kleinrock, Level 3 Communications, Lincoln, Nebraska, Link layer, Linux, Local area network, Louis Pouzin, Macintosh, Mainframe computer, MCI Communications, MCI Inc., Merit Network, Message switching, Michigan, Michigan State University, Minicomputer, Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom), Minitel, Mobile phone, Multi-bearer network, Multiprotocol Label Switching, National LambdaRail, National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom), National Science Foundation, National Science Foundation Network, NEARnet, Netherlands, NetWare, Network layer, Network packet, Network traffic, Node (networking), Nortel, Novell, NPL network, Nuclear warfare, NYSERNet, Open standard, Open Systems Interconnection, Optical burst switching, OSI model, Packet Assembler/Disassembler, Packet radio, Packet Switch Stream, Packet switching, Palo Alto, California, PARC (company), PARC Universal Packet, Paul Baran, Payload (computing), PDP-11, Peer-to-peer, Philips, Pilot experiment, Plug and play, Post Office Telecommunications, Postal, telegraph and telephone service, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, Protocol stack, Public data network, Public switched data network, Quality of service, Queueing theory, Qwest, RAND Corporation, Redhill, Surrey, Reliable byte stream, Remote procedure call, Resource Reservation Protocol, Robert Metcalfe, Robert Taylor (computer scientist), Robustness (computer science), Router (computing), Routing, Routledge, Rowman & Littlefield, Salt Lake City, San Diego, Seattle, Semi-Automatic Ground Environment, Signaling (telecommunications), SITA (company), Statistical time-division multiplexing, Store and forward, Supercomputer, SURAnet, Telecom Australia, Telefónica, Telenet, Telstra, Texas, Throughput, Time-driven switching, Traffic shaping, Transmission (telecommunications), Transmission Control Protocol, Transmission delay, TransPAC2, Transport layer, Tymnet, Tymshare, United States Air Force, University of Chicago, University of Michigan, User Datagram Protocol, Variable bitrate, Verizon Communications, Very high-speed Backbone Network Service, Videotex, Vint Cerf, Virtual call capability, Virtual circuit, Virtual private network, Wayne State University, Weighted fair queueing, Wide area network, X.121, X.25, X.28, X.75, Xerox, Xerox Network Systems, 10 Gigabit Ethernet, 10BASE5. Expand index (177 more) » « Shrink index
Abilene Network was a high-performance backbone network created by the Internet2 community in the late 1990s.
Academic Press is an academic book publisher.
Ann Arbor is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan and the county seat of Washtenaw County.
The Apple IIGS (styled as II), the fifth and most powerful model of the Apple II family, is a 16-bit personal computer produced by Apple Computer, Inc.
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.
AppleTalk was a proprietary suite of networking protocols developed by Apple Inc. for their Macintosh computers.
An application software (app or application for short) is a computer software designed to perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks, or activities for the benefit of the user.
Argonne National Laboratory is a science and engineering research national laboratory operated by the University of Chicago Argonne LLC for the United States Department of Energy located near Lemont, Illinois, outside Chicago.
The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was an early packet switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP.
The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is an international learned society for computing.
Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is, according to the ATM Forum, "a telecommunications concept defined by ANSI and ITU (formerly CCITT) standards for carriage of a complete range of user traffic, including voice, data, and video signals".
Atlanta is the capital city and most populous municipality of the state of Georgia in the United States.
AUSTPAC was a public X.25 network operated by Telstra.
The Australian Taxation Office (ATO) is an Australian government statutory agency and the principal revenue collection body for the Australian government.
BBN Technologies (originally Bolt, Beranek and Newman) is an American high-technology company which provides research and development services.
Bell Canada (commonly referred to as Bell) is a Canadian telecommunications company headquartered in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
The Bell System was the system of companies, led by the Bell Telephone Company and later by AT&T, which provided telephone services to much of the United States and Canada from 1877 to 1984, at various times as a monopoly.
The Big Ten Academic Alliance (BTAA), formerly the Committee on Institutional Cooperation (CIC), is the academic consortium of the universities in the Big Ten Conference.
The Big Ten Conference (B1G), formerly Western Conference and Big Nine Conference, is the oldest Division I collegiate athletic conference in the United States.
A bitstream (or bit stream), also known as binary sequence, is a sequence of bits.
Robert Elliot Kahn (born December 23, 1938) is an American electrical engineer, who, along with Vint Cerf, invented the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), the fundamental communication protocols at the heart of the Internet.
Boulder is the home rule municipality that is the county seat and the most populous municipality of Boulder County, and the 11th most populous municipality in the U.S. state of Colorado.
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Boston metropolitan area.
CANTV (BVC) is one of the first telephone service enterprises in Venezuela, founded in 1930.
In computer networking, cell relay refers to a method of statistically multiplexing small fixed-length packets, called "cells", to transport data between computers or kinds of network equipment.
The California Education and Research Federation Network (CERFnet) is a mid-level network service provider based in California.
In telecommunications and computer networks, a channel access method or multiple access method allows several terminals connected to the same multi-point transmission medium to transmit over it and to share its capacity.
Channel capacity, in electrical engineering, computer science and information theory, is the tight upper bound on the rate at which information can be reliably transmitted over a communication channel.
The Charles Babbage Institute is a research center at the University of Minnesota specializing in the history of information technology, particularly the history of digital computing, programming/software, and computer networking since 1935.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
Circuit switching is a method of implementing a telecommunications network in which two network nodes establish a dedicated communications channel (circuit) through the network before the nodes may communicate.
Cleveland is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio, and the county seat of Cuyahoga County.
The City of College Park is in Prince George's County, Maryland.
A communication channel or simply channel refers either to a physical transmission medium such as a wire, or to a logical connection over a multiplexed medium such as a radio channel in telecommunications and computer networking.
CompuServe (CompuServe Information Service, also known by its initialism CIS) was the first major commercial online service provider in the United States.
A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
Connection-oriented communication is a network communication mode in telecommunications and computer networking, where a communication session or a semi-permanent connection is established before any useful data can be transferred, and where a stream of data is delivered in the same order as it was sent.
Connectionless communication, often referred to as CL-mode communication,Information Processing Systems - Open Systems Interconnection, "Transport Service Definition - Addendum 1: Connectionless-mode Transmission", International Organization for Standardization, International Standard 8072/AD 1, December 1986.
ConnNet was a packet switched data network operated by the Southern New England Telephone Company serving the U.S. state of Connecticut.
A consortium is an association of two or more individuals, companies, organizations or governments (or any combination of these entities) with the objective of participating in a common activity or pooling their resources for achieving a common goal.
Control Data Corporation (CDC) was a mainframe and supercomputer firm.
The Computer Science Network (CSNET) was a computer network that began operation in 1981 in the United States.
The CYCLADES computer network was a French research network created in the early 1970s.
A datagram is a basic transfer unit associated with a packet-switched network.
DATAPAC was Canada's packet switched X.25-equivalent data network.
David Reeves Boggs (born 1950) is an electrical and radio engineer from the United States who developed early prototypes of Internet protocols, file servers, gateways, network interface cards and, along with Robert Metcalfe and others, co-invented Ethernet, the most popular family of technologies for local area computer networks.
Decentralization is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding planning and decision-making, are distributed or delegated away from a central, authoritative location or group.
DECnet is a suite of network protocols created by Digital Equipment Corporation.
Detroit is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Michigan, the largest city on the United States–Canada border, and the seat of Wayne County.
The Deutsche Bundespost (German federal post office) was a German state-run postal service and telecommunications business founded in 1947.
Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s.
A Digital Signal 3 (DS3) is a digital signal level 3 T-carrier.
Donald Watts Davies, CBE, FRS (7 June 1924 – 28 May 2000) was a Welsh computer scientist who was employed at the UK National Physical Laboratory (NPL).
Doug Gale is an early developer of the Internet.
Douglas Earl Comer is a professor of computer science at Purdue University, where he teaches courses on operating systems and computer networks.
Dynamic bandwidth allocation is a technique by which traffic bandwidth in a shared telecommunications medium can be allocated on demand and fairly between different users of that bandwidth.
East Lansing is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan directly east of Lansing, the state capital.
The Eindhoven University of Technology (Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, abbr. TU/e) is a university of technology in Eindhoven, Netherlands.
Eir Group plc., trading as Eir, is a fixed, mobile and broadband telecommunications company in Ireland, and a former state-owned monopoly, which is currently incorporated in Jersey.
EIRPAC is Ireland's packet switched X.25 data network.
Ethernet is a family of computer networking technologies commonly used in local area networks (LAN), metropolitan area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (WAN).
Fair queuing is a family of scheduling algorithms used in some process and network schedulers.
In telecommunications, fast packet switching is a variant of packet switching that increases the throughput by eliminating overhead associated with flow control and error correction functions, which are either offloaded to upper layer networking protocols or removed altogether.
Fault tolerance is the property that enables a system to continue operating properly in the event of the failure (or one or more faults within) some of its components.
FIFO is an acronym for first in, first out, a method for organizing and manipulating a data buffer, where the oldest (first) entry, or 'head' of the queue, is processed first.
In computing, a file server (or fileserver) is a computer attached to a network that provides a location for shared disk access, i.e. shared storage of computer files (such as text, image, sound, video) that can be accessed by the workstations that are able to reach the computer that shares the access through a computer network.
Frame Relay is a standardized wide area network technology that specifies the physical and data link layers of digital telecommunications channels using a packet switching methodology.
The GEC 4000 was a series of 16/32-bit minicomputers produced by GEC Computers Ltd.
General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a packet oriented mobile data standard on the 2G and 3G cellular communication network's global system for mobile communications (GSM).
In information technology, header refers to supplemental data placed at the beginning of a block of data being stored or transmitted.
() is a Japanese multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan.
A network host is a computer or other device connected to a computer network.
Houston is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 2.312 million within a land area of.
NTT DoCoMo's i-mode is a mobile internet (as opposed to wireless internet) service popular in Japan.
Iberpac (or Red UNO) is the Spanish packet switched X.25 data network.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
The IBM Personal Computer, commonly known as the IBM PC, is the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible hardware platform.
Systems Network Architecture (SNA) is IBM's proprietary networking architecture, created in 1974.
Infrastructure is the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.
The International Packet Switched Service (IPSS) was created in 1978 by a collaboration between the United Kingdom's General Post Office, Western Union International and the United States' Tymnet.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
The Internet backbone might be defined by the principal data routes between large, strategically interconnected computer networks and core routers on the Internet.
The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries.
The Internet protocol suite is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used on the Internet and similar computer networks.
An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet.
Internet2 is a not-for-profit United States computer networking consortium led by members from the research and education communities, industry, and government.
Internetworking is the practice of connecting a computer network with other networks through the use of gateways that provide a common method of routing information packets between the networks.
IPSANET was a packet switching network written by I. P. Sharp Associates (IPSA).
IPX/SPX stands for Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange.
Ithaca is a city in the Finger Lakes region of New York.
Janet is a high-speed network for the UK research and education community provided by Jisc, a not-for-profit company set up to provide computing support for education.
John F. Shoch is an American computer scientist and venture capitalist who made significant contributions to the development of computer networking while at Xerox PARC, in particular to the development of the PARC Universal Protocol (PUP), an important predecessor of TCP/IP.
KPN (in full Koninklijke KPN N.V., also Royal KPN N.V.) is a Dutch landline and mobile telecommunications company.
Laser printing is an electrostatic digital printing process.
Latency is a time interval between the stimulation and response, or, from a more general point of view, a time delay between the cause and the effect of some physical change in the system being observed.
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is an American federal research facility in Livermore, California, United States, founded by the University of California, Berkeley in 1952.
The leaky bucket is an algorithm based on an analogy of how a bucket with a leak will overflow if either the average rate at which water is poured in exceeds the rate at which the bucket leaks or if more water than the capacity of the bucket is poured in all at once, and how the water leaks from the bucket at an (almost) constant rate.
A leased line is a private bidirectional or symmetric telecommunications circuit between two or more locations provided in exchange for a monthly rent.
Leonard Kleinrock (born June 13, 1934) is an American computer scientist.
Level 3 Communications was an American multinational telecommunications and Internet service provider company headquartered in Broomfield, Colorado.
Lincoln is the capital of the U.S. state of Nebraska and the county seat of Lancaster County.
In computer networking, the link layer is the lowest layer in the Internet Protocol Suite, the networking architecture of the Internet.
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a residence, school, laboratory, university campus or office building.
Louis Pouzin (born 1931 in Chantenay-Saint-Imbert, Nièvre, France) invented the datagram and designed an early packet communications network, CYCLADES.
The Macintosh (pronounced as; branded as Mac since 1998) is a family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984.
Mainframe computers (colloquially referred to as "big iron") are computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications; bulk data processing, such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning; and transaction processing.
MCI Communications Corp. was an American telecommunications company that was instrumental in legal and regulatory changes that led to the breakup of the AT&T monopoly of American telephony and ushered in the competitive long-distance telephone industry.
MCI, Inc. (d/b/a Verizon Business) was an American telecommunication corporation, currently a subsidiary of Verizon Communications, with its main office in Ashburn, Virginia.
Merit Network, Inc., is a nonprofit member-governed organization providing high-performance computer networking and related services to educational, government, health care, and nonprofit organizations, primarily in Michigan.
In telecommunications, message switching was the precursor of packet switching, where messages were routed in their entirety, one hop at a time.
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States.
Michigan State University (MSU) is a public research university in East Lansing, Michigan, United States.
A minicomputer, or colloquially mini, is a class of smaller computers that was developed in the mid-1960s and sold for much less than mainframe and mid-size computers from IBM and its direct competitors.
The Ministry of Defence (MoD or MOD) is the British government department responsible for implementing the defence policy set by Her Majesty's Government and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces.
The Minitel was a Videotex online service accessible through telephone lines, and is considered one of the world's most successful pre-World Wide Web online services.
A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.
A multi-bearer network, or an MBN, is a network having the capability to carry a data packet via one of several alternative bearers.
Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a type of data-carrying technique for high-performance telecommunications networks. MPLS directs data from one network node to the next based on short path labels rather than long network addresses, avoiding complex lookups in a routing table.
National LambdaRail (NLR) was a, high-speed national computer network owned and operated by the U.S. research and education community.
The National Physical Laboratory (NPL) is the national measurement standards laboratory for the United Kingdom, based at Bushy Park in Teddington, London, England.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering.
The National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET) was a program of coordinated, evolving projects sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF) beginning in 1985 to promote advanced research and education networking in the United States.
NEARnet (New England Academic and Research Network) was a high-speed network of academic, industrial, government, and non-profit organizations centered in Cambridge and Boston, Massachusetts.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
NetWare is a discontinued computer network operating system developed by Novell, Inc. It initially used cooperative multitasking to run various services on a personal computer, using the IPX network protocol.
In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking, the network layer is layer 3.
A network packet is a formatted unit of data carried by a packet-switched network.
Network traffic or data traffic is the amount of data moving across a network at a given point of time.
In telecommunications networks, a node (Latin nodus, ‘knot’) is either a redistribution point or a communication endpoint.
Nortel Networks Corporation, formerly known as Northern Telecom Limited, Northern Electric and sometimes known simply as Nortel, was a multinational telecommunications and data networking equipment manufacturer headquartered in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada.
Novell, Inc. was a software and services company headquartered in Provo, Utah.
The NPL Network or NPL Data Communications Network was a local area computer network operated by a team from the National Physical Laboratory in England that pioneered the concept of packet switching.
Nuclear warfare (sometimes atomic warfare or thermonuclear warfare) is a military conflict or political strategy in which nuclear weaponry is used to inflict damage on the enemy.
NYSERNet (New York State Education and Research Network) is a non-profit Internet Service Provider in New York State.
An open standard is a standard that is publicly available and has various rights to use associated with it, and may also have various properties of how it was designed (e.g. open process).
The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system without regard to its underlying internal structure and technology.
Optical burst switching (OBS) is an optical networking technique that allows dynamic sub-wavelength switching of data.
The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system without regard to its underlying internal structure and technology.
A packet assembler/disassembler, abbreviated PAD is a communications device which provides multiple asynchronous terminal connectivity to an X.25 (packet-switching) network or host computer.
Packet radio is a form of packet switching technology used to transmit digital data via wireless communications.
In the United Kingdom, Packet Switch Stream (PSS) was an X.25-based packet-switched network, provided by the British Post Office Telecommunications and then British Telecommunications starting in 1980.
Packet switching is a method of grouping data which is transmitted over a digital network into packets which are made of a header and a payload.
Palo Alto is a charter city located in the northwest corner of Santa Clara County, California, in the San Francisco Bay Area of the United States.
PARC (Palo Alto Research Center; formerly Xerox PARC) is a research and development company in Palo Alto, California, with a distinguished reputation for its contributions to information technology and hardware systems.
The PARC Universal Packet (commonly abbreviated to PUP or PuP, although the original documents usually use Pup) was one of the two earliest internetwork protocol suites; it was created by researchers at Xerox PARC in the mid-1970s.
Paul Baran (April 29, 1926 – March 26, 2011) was a Polish-born Jewish American engineer who was a pioneer in the development of computer networks.
In computing and telecommunications, the payload is the part of transmitted data that is the actual intended message.
The PDP-11 is a series of 16-bit minicomputers sold by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from 1970 into the 1990s, one of a succession of products in the PDP series.
Peer-to-peer (P2P) computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers.
Koninklijke Philips N.V. (Philips, stylized as PHILIPS) is a Dutch multinational technology company headquartered in Amsterdam currently focused in the area of healthcare.
A pilot study, pilot project, or pilot experiment is a small scale preliminary study conducted in order to evaluate feasibility, time, cost, adverse events, and improve upon the study design prior to performance of a full-scale research project.
In computing, a plug and play (PnP) device or computer bus, is one with a specification that facilitates the discovery of a hardware component in a system without the need for physical device configuration or user intervention in resolving resource conflicts.
Post Office Telecommunications was set up as a separate department of the UK Post Office, in October 1969.
A postal, telegraph, and telephone service (or PTT) is a government agency responsible for postal mail, telegraph, and telephone services.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Princeton is a municipality with a borough form of government in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States, that was established in its current form on January 1, 2013, through the consolidation of the Borough of Princeton and Princeton Township.
The protocol stack or network stack is an implementation of a computer networking protocol suite or protocol family.
A public data network is a network established and operated by a telecommunications administration, or a recognized private operating agency, for the specific purpose of providing data transmission services for the public.
A public switched data network (PSDN) is a network for providing data services via a system of multiple wide-area networks, similar in concept to the public switched telephone network (PSTN).
Quality of service (QoS) is the description or measurement of the overall performance of a service, such as a telephony or computer network or a cloud computing service, particularly the performance seen by the users of the network.
Queueing theory is the mathematical study of waiting lines, or queues.
Qwest Communications International, Inc. was a large United States telecommunications carrier.
RAND Corporation ("Research ANd Development") is an American nonprofit global policy think tank created in 1948 by Douglas Aircraft Company to offer research and analysis to the United States Armed Forces.
Redhill is a town in the borough of Reigate and Banstead within the county of Surrey, England.
A reliable byte stream is a common service paradigm in computer networking; it refers to a byte stream in which the bytes which emerge from the communication channel at the recipient are exactly the same, and in exactly the same order, as they were when the sender inserted them into the channel.
In distributed computing, a remote procedure call (RPC) is when a computer program causes a procedure (subroutine) to execute in a different address space (commonly on another computer on a shared network), which is coded as if it were a normal (local) procedure call, without the programmer explicitly coding the details for the remote interaction.
The Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) is a transport layer protocol designed to reserve resources across a network for quality of service (QoS) using the integrated services model.
Robert Melancton Metcalfe (born April 7, 1946) is an electrical engineer from the United States who co-invented Ethernet, founded 3Com and formulated Metcalfe's Law.
Robert William Taylor (February 10, 1932 – April 13, 2017), known as Bob Taylor, was an American Internet pioneer, who led teams that made major contributions to the personal computer, and other related technologies.
In computer science, robustness is the ability of a computer system to cope with errors during execution1990.
A router is a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks.
Routing is the process of selecting a path for traffic in a network, or between or across multiple networks.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
Salt Lake City (often shortened to Salt Lake and abbreviated as SLC) is the capital and the most populous municipality of the U.S. state of Utah.
San Diego (Spanish for 'Saint Didacus') is a major city in California, United States.
Seattle is a seaport city on the west coast of the United States.
The Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE, a name selected to mean "wise") was a system of large computers and associated networking equipment that coordinated data from many radar sites and processed it to produce a single unified image of the airspace over a wide area.
In telecommunication, signaling has the following meanings.
SITA is a multinational information technology company providing IT and telecommunication services to the air transport industry.
Statistical multiplexing is a type of communication link sharing, very similar to dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA).
Store and forward is a telecommunications technique in which information is sent to an intermediate station where it is kept and sent at a later time to the final destination or to another intermediate station.
A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer.
SURAnet was a pioneer in scientific computer networks and one of the regional backbone computer networks that made up the National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET).
Telecom Australia was the trading name of the.
Telefónica, S.A. is a Spanish multinational broadband and telecommunications provider with operations in Europe, Asia, and North, Central and South America.
Telenet was an American commercial packet switched network which went into service in 1974.
Telstra Corporation Ltd. (known as Telstra) is Australia's largest telecommunications company which builds and operates telecommunications networks and markets voice, mobile, internet access, pay television and other products and services.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
In general terms, throughput is the maximum rate of production or the maximum rate at which something can be processed.
In Telecommunication and Computer networking, time-driven switching (TDS) is a node by node time variant implementation of Circuit switching, where the propagating datagram is shorter in space than the distance between source and destination.
Traffic shaping is a bandwidth management technique used on computer networks which delays some or all datagrams to bring them into compliance with a desired traffic profile.
In telecommunications, transmission (abbreviations: TX, Xmit) is the process of sending and propagating an analogue or digital information signal over a physical point-to-point or point-to-multipoint transmission medium, either wired, optical fiber or wireless.
The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the main protocols of the Internet protocol suite.
In a network based on packet switching, transmission delay (or store-and-forward delay, also known as packetization delay) is the amount of time required to push all the packet's bits into the wire.
The TransPAC2 Network was a US National Science Foundation-funded high-speed international computer network circuit connecting national research and education networks in the Asia-Pacific region to those in the US.
In computer networking, the transport layer is a conceptual division of methods in the layered architecture of protocols in the network stack in the Internet Protocol Suite and the OSI model.
Tymnet was an international data communications network headquartered in Cupertino, California that used virtual call packet switched technology and X.25, SNA/SDLC, ASCII and BSC interfaces to connect host computers (servers) at thousands of large companies, educational institutions, and government agencies.
Tymshare, Inc. was a time-sharing service and third-party hardware maintenance company competing with companies such as Four-Phase Systems, CompuServe, and Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC, Digital).
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
In computer networking, the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core members of the Internet protocol suite.
Variable bitrate (VBR) is a term used in telecommunications and computing that relates to the bitrate used in sound or video encoding.
Verizon Communications Inc., or simply Verizon, is an American multinational telecommunications conglomerate and a corporate component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average.
The very high-speed Backbone Network Service (vBNS) came on line in April 1995 as part of a National Science Foundation (NSF) sponsored project to provide high-speed interconnection between NSF-sponsored supercomputing centers and select access points in the United States.
Videotex (or "interactive videotex") was one of the earliest implementations of an end-user information system.
Vinton Gray Cerf ForMemRS, (born June 23, 1943) is an American Internet pioneer, who is recognized as one of "the fathers of the Internet", sharing this title with TCP/IP co-inventor Bob Kahn.
In telecommunication, a virtual call capability, sometimes called a virtual call facility, is a service feature in which.
A virtual circuit (VC) is a means of transporting data over a packet switched computer network in such a way that it appears as though there is a dedicated physical layer link between the source and destination end systems of this data.
A virtual private network (VPN) extends a private network across a public network, and enables users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computing devices were directly connected to the private network.
Wayne State University (WSU) is a public research university located in Detroit, Michigan.
Weighted fair queueing (WFQ) is a network scheduler scheduling algorithm.
A wide area network (WAN) is a telecommunications network or computer network that extends over a large geographical distance/place.
X.121 is the ITU-T address format of the X.25 protocol suite used as part of call setup to establish a switched virtual circuit between Public Data Networks (PDNs), connecting two network user addresses (NUAs).
X.25 is an ITU-T standard protocol suite for packet switched wide area network (WAN) communication.
X.28 is an ITU-T standard specifying the interface between asynchronous character-mode data terminal equipment (DTE), such as computer terminals, and a Packet Assembler/Disassembler (PAD) that connects the DTE to a packet switched network such as an X.25 network.
X.75 is an International Telecommunication Union (ITU) (formerly CCITT) standard specifying the interface for interconnecting two X.25 networks.
Xerox Corporation (also known as Xerox, stylized as xerox since 2008, and previously as XEROX or XeroX from 1960 to 2008) is an American global corporation that sells print and digital document solutions, and document technology products in more than 160 countries.
Xerox Network Systems (XNS) is a computer networking protocol suite developed by Xerox within the Xerox Network Systems Architecture.
10 Gigabit Ethernet (10GE, 10GbE, or 10 GigE) is a group of computer networking technologies for transmitting Ethernet frames at a rate of 10 gigabits per second.
10BASE5 (also known as thick Ethernet or thicknet) was the first commercially available variant of Ethernet.
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