202 relations: Aboriginal Australians, Abrahamic religions, Albanian mythology, Alexander Afanasyev, Algernon Charles Swinburne, Analytical psychology, Ancient Egyptian religion, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek religion, Ancient history, Ancient Mesopotamian religion, Ancient Semitic religion, Animism, Anthropology, Archaeology, Armenian language, Armenian mythology, Atheism, Athenaeus, Attested language, Augustine of Hippo, Australia, Ásatrúarfélagið, Baltic mythology, Basque mythology, Bible, British Traditional Wicca, Brothers Grimm, Byzantine Empire, Celtic polytheism, Celtic Reconstructionist Paganism, Celtic Revival, Chilling effect, Christian Church, Christian persecution of paganism under Theodosius I, Christianization, Classical antiquity, Classical Latin, College of Pontiffs, Crypto-paganism, Cult (religious practice), Culture, Daemon (classical mythology), Deity, Demolition of Dhul Khalasa, Dionysus, Discordianism, Druidry (modern), Dualistic cosmology, Early Christianity, ..., Earth religion, East Asian religions, Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, Edward Gibbon, Elias Lönnrot, Emanationism, Encyclopædia Britannica, Epulones, Ethnic group, Ethnology, Etruscan mythology, Evolutionary origin of religions, Field research, Finnic mythologies, Folklore studies, G. K. Chesterton, Gentile, Georgian mythology, Germanic languages, Germanic paganism, Gnosticism, God, Goddess, Goddess movement, Gospel of John, Gothic Bible, Gothic language, Goy, Greeks, Gregory of Nazianzus, Haitian Vodou, Heath, Heathenry (new religious movement), Hellenism (religion), Hellenistic Judaism, Henotheism, Historical Jesus, Iceland, Indian religions, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Isaac Bonewits, Islamization, Jacob Grimm, Jargon, Jørgen Moe, Jewish Christian, Joseph Jacobs, Julius Caesar, Kaaba, Kafir, Kalevala, Koine Greek, Late antiquity, Late Latin, Liberalism, Lingua franca, List of modern Pagan temples, List of Neopagan movements, List of Pagans, List of religions and spiritual traditions, Lithuania, Logos (Christianity), Ludwig Feuerbach, Magic in the Graeco-Roman world, Manichaeism, Marcus Terentius Varro, Marriage at Cana, Martin Hengel, Mecca, Middle Ages, Miles Christianus, Military of ancient Rome, Mithraism, Modern Paganism, Monotheism, Muhammad, Musical nationalism, Myth and ritual, Nation state, National epic, National myth, Naturalistic pantheism, Nature, Nature worship, Neoplatonism, New Age, New Testament, Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc, Noble savage, Norse mythology, Occult, Old English, Old Norse, Old Norse religion, Orthodoxy, Orthopraxy, Owen Davies (historian), Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, Pantheism, Pauline epistles, Pausanias (geographer), Pejorative, Peter Brown (historian), Peter Christen Asbjørnsen, Polytheism, Polytheistic reconstructionism, Pontius Pilate, Prehistory, Proto-Indo-European language, Religion, Religion in ancient Rome, Religions of the ancient Near East, Religious symbol, Renaissance, Renaissance Latin, Renaissance magic, Retronym, Revolutions of 1848, Rhetoric, Roman Empire, Roman Polytheistic Reconstructionism, Romantic nationalism, Romanticism, Romuva (religion), Sack of Rome (410), Santería, Second Temple Judaism, Shirk (Islam), Slavic Native Faith, Slavic paganism, Spiritualism, Stereotype, Supreme Being, Tacitus, Tertullian, The City of God, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, The World Is Too Much with Us, Theosophy (Blavatskian), Totem, Traditional African religions, University of California Press, Vainakh religion, Viking Age, Viking revival, Visigoths, Western Roman Empire, Wicca, William Wordsworth, Wine, World view. Expand index (152 more) » « Shrink index
Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members "of the Aboriginal race of Australia" (indigenous to mainland Australia or to the island of Tasmania).
The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as Abrahamism, are a group of Semitic-originated religious communities of faith that claim descent from the practices of the ancient Israelites and the worship of the God of Abraham.
Albanian mythology comprises myths and legends of the Albanians.
Alexander Nikolayevich Afanasyev (Afanasief, Afanasiev or Afanas'ev, Александр Николаевич Афанасьев) (—) was a Russian Slavist and ethnographer who published nearly 600 Russian fairy and folk tales, one of the largest collections of folklore in the world.
Algernon Charles Swinburne (5 April 1837 – 10 April 1909) was an English poet, playwright, novelist, and critic.
Analytical psychology (sometimes analytic psychology), also called Jungian psychology, is a school of psychotherapy which originated in the ideas of Carl Jung, a Swiss psychiatrist.
Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals which were an integral part of ancient Egyptian society.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and cult practices.
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
Mesopotamian religion refers to the religious beliefs and practices of the civilizations of ancient Mesopotamia, particularly Sumer, Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia between circa 3500 BC and 400 AD, after which they largely gave way to Syriac Christianity.
Ancient Semitic religion encompasses the polytheistic religions of the Semitic peoples from the ancient Near East and Northeast Africa.
Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life") is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
Armenian mythology began with ancient Indo-European and Urartian origins, gradually incorporating Mesopotamian, Iranian, and Greek ideas and deities.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Athenaeus of Naucratis (Ἀθήναιος Nαυκρατίτης or Nαυκράτιος, Athēnaios Naukratitēs or Naukratios; Athenaeus Naucratita) was a Greek rhetorician and grammarian, flourishing about the end of the 2nd and beginning of the 3rd century AD.
In linguistics, attested languages are languages (living or dead) that have been documented and for which the evidence has survived to the present day.
Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Ásatrúarfélagið (Ásatrú Fellowship) is an Icelandic religious organisation of Heathenry (in Iceland also called Ásatrú, "faith of the Æsir").
Baltic mythology is the body of mythology of the Baltic people stemming from Baltic paganism and continuing after Christianization and into Baltic folklore.
The mythology of the ancient Basques largely did not survive the arrival of Christianity in the Basque Country between the 4th and 12th century AD.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
British Traditional Wicca (abbreviated BTW) is the term used to group a set of Wiccan traditions originating in the New Forest region of England.
The Brothers Grimm (die Brüder Grimm or die Gebrüder Grimm), Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, were German academics, philologists, cultural researchers, lexicographers and authors who together collected and published folklore during the 19th century.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Celtic polytheism, commonly known as Celtic paganism, comprises the religious beliefs and practices adhered to by the Iron Age people of Western Europe now known as the Celts, roughly between 500 BCE and 500 CE, spanning the La Tène period and the Roman era, and in the case of the Insular Celts the British and Irish Iron Age.
Celtic Reconstructionist Paganism (also Celtic Reconstructionism or CR) is a polytheistic reconstructionist approach to Celtic neopaganism, emphasising historical accuracy over eclecticism such as is found in many forms of Neo-druidism.
The Celtic Revival (also referred to as the Celtic Twilight or Celtomania) was a variety of movements and trends in the 19th and 20th centuries that saw a renewed interest in aspects of Celtic culture.
In a legal context, a chilling effect is the inhibition or discouragement of the legitimate exercise of natural and legal rights by the threat of legal sanction.
"Christian Church" is an ecclesiological term generally used by Protestants to refer to the whole group of people belonging to Christianity throughout the history of Christianity.
The Persecution of paganism under Theodosius I began in 381, after the first couple of years of his reign as co-emperor in the eastern part of the Roman Empire.
Christianization (or Christianisation) is the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire groups at once.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
The College of Pontiffs (Latin: Collegium Pontificum; see collegium) was a body of the ancient Roman state whose members were the highest-ranking priests of the state religion.
A Crypto-pagan is a pagan who maintains the pretense of adherence to a non-pagan (i.e. Abrahamic) religion while continuing to observe their own religious practices in private.
Cult is literally the "care" (Latin cultus) owed to deities and to temples, shrines, or churches.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
Daemon is the Latin word for the Ancient Greek daimon (δαίμων: "god", "godlike", "power", "fate"), which originally referred to a lesser deity or guiding spirit; the daemons of ancient Greek religion and mythology and of later Hellenistic religion and philosophy.
A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.
The Demolition of Dhul Khalasa occurred in April and May 632 AD, in 10 AH of the Islamic calendar.
Dionysus (Διόνυσος Dionysos) is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, fertility, theatre and religious ecstasy in ancient Greek religion and myth.
Discordianism is a paradigm based upon the book Principia Discordia, written by Greg Hill with Kerry Wendell Thornley in 1963, the two working under the pseudonyms Malaclypse the Younger and Omar Khayyam Ravenhurst.
Druidry, sometimes termed Druidism, is a modern spiritual or religious movement that generally promotes harmony, connection, and reverence for the natural world.
Dualism in cosmology is the moral or spiritual belief that two fundamental concepts exist, which often oppose each other.
Early Christianity, defined as the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325, typically divides historically into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age until Nicea).
Earth religion is a term used mostly in the context of neopaganism.
In the study of comparative religion, the East Asian religions form a subset of the Eastern religions.
The Ecumenical Patriarch (Η Αυτού Θειοτάτη Παναγιότης, ο Αρχιεπίσκοπος Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Νέας Ρώμης και Οικουμενικός Πατριάρχης, "His Most Divine All-Holiness the Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome, and Ecumenical Patriarch") is the Archbishop of Constantinople–New Rome and ranks as primus inter pares (first among equals) among the heads of the several autocephalous churches that make up the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Edward Gibbon FRS (8 May 173716 January 1794) was an English historian, writer and Member of Parliament.
Elias Lönnrot (9 April 1802 – 19 March 1884) was a Finnish physician, philologist and collector of traditional Finnish oral poetry.
Emanationism is an idea in the cosmology or cosmogony of certain religious or philosophical systems.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The epulones (Latin epulōnēs, sing. epulō; "feasters") arranged feasts and public banquets at festivals and games (ludi) They constituted one of the four great religious corporations (quattuor amplissima collegia) of ancient Roman priests.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Ethnology (from the Greek ἔθνος, ethnos meaning "nation") is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyzes the characteristics of different peoples and the relationship between them (cf. cultural, social, or sociocultural anthropology).
Etruscan mythology comprises a set of stories, beliefs, and religious practices of the Etruscan civilization, originating in the 7th century BC from the preceding Iron Age Villanovan culture, with its influences in the mythology of ancient Greece and Phoenicia, and sharing similarities with concurrent Roman mythology.
The emergence of religious behavior by the Neolithic period has been discussed in terms of evolutionary psychology, the origin of language and mythology, cross-cultural comparison of the anthropology of religion, as well as evidence for spirituality or cultic behavior in the Upper Paleolithic, and similarities in great ape behavior.
Field research or fieldwork is the collection of information outside a laboratory, library or workplace setting.
Finnic mythologies are the various mythologies of the Finnic peoples.
Folklore studies, also known as folkloristics, and occasionally tradition studies or folk life studies in Britain, is the formal academic discipline devoted to the study of folklore.
Gilbert Keith Chesterton, KC*SG (29 May 1874 – 14 June 1936), was an English writer, poet, philosopher, dramatist, journalist, orator, lay theologian, biographer, and literary and art critic.
Gentile (from Latin gentilis, by the French gentil, feminine: gentille, meaning of or belonging to a clan or a tribe) is an ethnonym that commonly means non-Jew.
Georgian mythology refers to the mythology of pre-Christian Georgians.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
Germanic religion refers to the indigenous religion of the Germanic peoples from the Iron Age until Christianisation during the Middle Ages.
Gnosticism (from γνωστικός gnostikos, "having knowledge", from γνῶσις, knowledge) is a modern name for a variety of ancient religious ideas and systems, originating in Jewish-Christian milieus in the first and second century AD.
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
A goddess is a female deity.
The Goddess movement includes spiritual beliefs or practices (chiefly neopagan) which has emerged predominantly in North America, Western Europe, Australia, and New Zealand in the 1970s.
The Gospel According to John is the fourth of the canonical gospels.
The Gothic Bible or Wulfila Bible is the Christian Bible as allegedly translated by the Arian bishop and missionary Wulfila in the fourth century into the Gothic language spoken by the Eastern Germanic (Gothic) tribes.
Gothic is an extinct East Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths.
Goy (גוי, regular plural goyim, rtl or rtl) is the standard Hebrew biblical term for a nation.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Gregory of Nazianzus (Γρηγόριος ὁ Ναζιανζηνός Grēgorios ho Nazianzēnos; c. 329Liturgy of the Hours Volume I, Proper of Saints, 2 January. – 25 January 390), also known as Gregory the Theologian or Gregory Nazianzen, was a 4th-century Archbishop of Constantinople, and theologian.
Haitian Vodou (also written as Vaudou; known commonly as Voodoo, sometimes as Vodun, Vodoun, Vodu, or Vaudoux) is a syncretic religion practiced chiefly in Haiti and the Haitian diaspora.
A heath is a shrubland habitat found mainly on free-draining infertile, acidic soils and is characterised by open, low-growing woody vegetation.
Heathenry, also termed Heathenism or Germanic Neopaganism, is a modern Pagan religion.
Hellenism (Greek: Ἑλληνισμός, Ἑllēnismós), the Hellenic ethnic religion (Ἑλληνικὴ ἐθνική θρησκεία), also commonly known as Hellenismos, Hellenic Polytheism, Dodekatheism (Δωδεκαθεϊσμός), or Olympianism (Ὀλυμπιανισμός), refers to various religious movements that revive or reconstruct ancient Greek religious practices, publicly, emerging since the 1990s.
Hellenistic Judaism was a form of Judaism in the ancient world that combined Jewish religious tradition with elements of Greek culture.
Henotheism is the worship of a single god while not denying the existence or possible existence of other deities.
The term historical Jesus refers to attempts to "reconstruct the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth by critical historical methods", in "contrast to Christological definitions ('the dogmatic Christ') and other Christian accounts of Jesus ('the Christ of faith')." It also considers the historical and cultural context in which Jesus lived.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
Indian religions, sometimes also termed as Dharmic faiths or religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Phillip Emmons Isaac Bonewits (October 1, 1949 – August 12, 2010) was an American Druid who published a number of books on the subject of Neopaganism and magic.
Islamization (also spelled Islamisation, see spelling differences; أسلمة), Islamicization or Islamification is the process of a society's shift towards Islam, such as found in Sudan, Pakistan, Iran, Malaysia, or Algeria.
Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm (4 January 1785 – 20 September 1863) also known as Ludwig Karl, was a German philologist, jurist, and mythologist.
Jargon is a type of language that is used in a particular context and may not be well understood outside that context.
Jørgen Engebretsen Moe (22 April 1813–27 March 1882) was a Norwegian folklorist, bishop, poet, and author.
Jewish Christians, also Hebrew Christians or Judeo-Christians, are the original members of the Jewish movement that later became Christianity.
Joseph Jacobs (29 August 1854 – 30 January 1916) was an Australian folklorist, translator, literary critic, social scientist, historian and writer of English literature who became a notable collector and publisher of English folklore.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
The Kaaba (ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة, "The Cube"), also referred as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah (ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة الْـمُـشَـرًّفَـة, the Holy Ka'bah), is a building at the center of Islam's most important mosque, that is Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـد الْـحَـرَام, The Sacred Mosque), in the Hejazi city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia.
Kafir (كافر; plural كَافِرُونَ, كفّار or كَفَرَة; feminine كافرة) is an Arabic term (from the root K-F-R "to cover") meaning "unbeliever", or "disbeliever".
The Kalevala (Finnish Kalevala) is a 19th-century work of epic poetry compiled by Elias Lönnrot from Karelian and Finnish oral folklore and mythology.
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.
Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity.
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
This article is a list of modern pagan temples, sorted alphabetically by continent, country, and city.
Neopaganism (also modern paganism or contemporary paganism) encompasses a wide range of religious groups and individuals.
This is a list of historical individuals notable for their Pagan religion, and modern individuals who self-describe as adherents of some form of Paganism or Neopaganism.
Religion is a collection of cultural systems, beliefs and world views that establishes symbols relating humanity to spirituality and, often, to moral values.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
In Christology, the Logos (lit) is a name or title of Jesus Christ, derived from the prologue to the Gospel of John (c 100) "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God", as well as in the Book of Revelation (c 85), "And he was clothed with a vesture dipped in blood: and his name is called The Word of God." These passages have been important for establishing the doctrine of the divinity of Jesus since the earliest days of Christianity.
Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach (28 July 1804 – 13 September 1872) was a German philosopher and anthropologist best known for his book The Essence of Christianity, which provided a critique of Christianity which strongly influenced generations of later thinkers, including Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Richard Wagner, and Friedrich Nietzsche.
The study of magic in the Greco-Roman world is a branch of the disciplines of classics, ancient history and religious studies.
Manichaeism (in Modern Persian آیین مانی Āyin-e Māni) was a major religious movement that was founded by the Iranian prophet Mani (in مانی, Syriac: ܡܐܢܝ, Latin: Manichaeus or Manes from Μάνης; 216–276) in the Sasanian Empire.
Marcus Terentius Varro (116 BC – 27 BC) was an ancient Roman scholar and writer.
The transformation of water into wine at the Marriage at Cana or Wedding at Cana is the first miracle attributed to Jesus in the Gospel of John.
Martin Hengel (14 December 1926 – 2 July 2009) was a German historian of religion, focusing on the "Second Temple Period" or "Hellenistic Period" of early Judaism and Christianity.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The miles Christianus (Christian soldier) or "miles Christi" (soldier of Christ) is a Christian allegory based on New Testament military metaphors, especially the Armor of God metaphor of military equipment standing for Christian virtues and on certain passages of the Old Testament from the Latin Vulgate.
The military of ancient Rome, according to Titus Livius, one of the more illustrious historians of Rome over the centuries, was a key element in the rise of Rome over “above seven hundred years” from a small settlement in Latium to the capital of an empire governing a wide region around the shores of the Mediterranean, or, as the Romans themselves said, ‘’mare nostrum’’, “our sea.” Livy asserts Titus Flavius Josephus, a contemporary historian, sometime high-ranking officer in the Roman army, and commander of the rebels in the Jewish revolt, describes the Roman people as if they were "born ready armed." At the time of the two historians, Roman society had already evolved an effective military and had used it to defend itself against the Etruscans, the Italics, the Greeks, the Gauls, the maritime empire of Carthage, and the Macedonian kingdoms.
Mithraism, also known as the Mithraic mysteries, was a mystery religion centered around the god Mithras that was practised in the Roman Empire from about the 1st to the 4th century CE.
Modern Paganism, also known as Contemporary Paganism and Neopaganism, is a collective term for new religious movements influenced by or claiming to be derived from the various historical pagan beliefs of pre-modern Europe, North Africa and the Near East.
Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Musical nationalism refers to the use of musical ideas or motifs that are identified with a specific country, region, or ethnicity, such as folk tunes and melodies, rhythms, and harmonies inspired by them.
In traditional societies, myth and ritual are two central components of religious practice.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
A national epic is an epic poem or a literary work of epic scope which seeks or is believed to capture and express the essence or spirit of a particular nation; not necessarily a nation state, but at least an ethnic or linguistic group with aspirations to independence or autonomy.
A national myth is an inspiring narrative or anecdote about a nation's past.
Naturalistic pantheism is a kind of pantheism.
Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe.
Nature worship is any of a variety of religious, spiritual and devotional practices that focus on the worship of the nature spirits considered to be behind the natural phenomena visible throughout nature.
Neoplatonism is a term used to designate a strand of Platonic philosophy that began with Plotinus in the third century AD against the background of Hellenistic philosophy and religion.
New Age is a term applied to a range of spiritual or religious beliefs and practices that developed in Western nations during the 1970s.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc (1 December 1580 – 24 June 1637), often known simply as Peiresc, or by the Latin form of his name Peirescius, was a French astronomer, antiquary and savant, who maintained a wide correspondence with scientists, and was a successful organizer of scientific inquiry.
A noble savage is a literary stock character who embodies the concept of the indigene, outsider, wild human, an "other" who has not been "corrupted" by civilization, and therefore symbolizes humanity's innate goodness.
Norse mythology is the body of myths of the North Germanic people stemming from Norse paganism and continuing after the Christianization of Scandinavia and into the Scandinavian folklore of the modern period.
The term occult (from the Latin word occultus "clandestine, hidden, secret") is "knowledge of the hidden".
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
Old Norse religion developed from early Germanic religion during the Proto-Norse period, when the North Germanic people separated into a distinct branch of the Germanic peoples.
Orthodoxy (from Greek ὀρθοδοξία orthodoxía "right opinion") is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion.
In the study of religion, orthopraxy is correct conduct, both ethical and liturgical, as opposed to faith or grace etc.
Owen Davies is a reader in Social History at the University of Hertfordshire.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pantheism is the belief that reality is identical with divinity, or that all-things compose an all-encompassing, immanent god.
The Pauline epistles, Epistles of Paul, or Letters of Paul, are the 13 New Testament books which have the name Paul (Παῦλος) as the first word, hence claiming authorship by Paul the Apostle.
Pausanias (Παυσανίας Pausanías; c. AD 110 – c. 180) was a Greek traveler and geographer of the second century AD, who lived in the time of Roman emperors Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius.
A pejorative (also called a derogatory term, a slur, a term of abuse, or a term of disparagement) is a word or grammatical form expressing a negative connotation or a low opinion of someone or something, showing a lack of respect for someone or something.
Peter Robert Lamont Brown, FBA, (born 26 July 1935) is Rollins Professor of History Emeritus at Princeton University.
Peter Christen Asbjørnsen (15 January 18126 January 1885) was a Norwegian writer and scholar.
Polytheism (from Greek πολυθεϊσμός, polytheismos) is the worship of or belief in multiple deities, which are usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religions and rituals.
Polytheistic reconstructionism (or simply Reconstructionism) is an approach to paganism first emerging in the late 1960s to early 1970s, which gathered momentum starting in the 1990s.
Pontius Pilate (Latin: Pontius Pīlātus, Πόντιος Πιλάτος, Pontios Pilatos) was the fifth prefect of the Roman province of Judaea, serving under Emperor Tiberius from AD 26 to 36.
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
Religion in Ancient Rome includes the ancestral ethnic religion of the city of Rome that the Romans used to define themselves as a people, as well as the religious practices of peoples brought under Roman rule, in so far as they became widely followed in Rome and Italy.
The religions of the ancient Near East were mostly polytheistic, with some early examples of primitive monolatry (Yahwism/Judaism, Mardukites), Ashurism and Monism (Atenism).
A religious symbol is an iconic representation intended to represent a specific religion, or a specific concept within a given religion.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Renaissance Latin is a name given to the distinctive form of Latin style developed during the European Renaissance of the fourteenth to fifteenth centuries, particularly by the Renaissance humanism movement.
Renaissance humanism (15th and 16th century) saw a resurgence in hermeticism and Neo-Platonic varieties of ceremonial magic.
A retronym is a newer name for an existing thing that differentiates the original form or version from a more recent one.
The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848.
Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Roman Polytheistic Reconstructionism, known variously as Religio Romana (Roman religion) in Latin, the Roman Way to the Gods in Italian and Spanish (via romana agli dei and camino romano a los dioses, respectively), and Cultus Deorum Romanorum (care of the Gods), is a contemporary reconstructionist movement reviving traditional Roman religious cults consisting of loosely related organizations.
Romantic nationalism (also national romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of the unity of those it governs.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Romuva is a modern reinstitution of the traditional ethnic religion of the Baltic peoples, reviving the ancient religious practices of the Lithuanians before their Christianization in 1387.
The Sack of Rome occurred on 24 August 410.
Santería, also known as Regla de Ocha, La Regla de Ifá, or Lucumí, is an Afro-American religion of Caribbean origin that developed in the Spanish Empire among West African descendants.
Second Temple Judaism is Judaism between the construction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem, c. 515 BCE, and its destruction by the Romans in 70 CE.
In Islam, shirk (شرك širk) is the sin of practicing idolatry or polytheism, i.e. the deification or worship of anyone or anything besides the singular God, i.e. Allah.
The Slavic Native Faith, also known as Rodnovery, is a modern Pagan religion.
Slavic paganism or Slavic religion define the religious beliefs, godlores and ritual practices of the Slavs before the formal Christianisation of their ruling elites.
Spiritualism is a new religious movement based on the belief that the spirits of the dead exist and have both the ability and the inclination to communicate with the living.
In social psychology, a stereotype is an over-generalized belief about a particular category of people.
Supreme Being is a term used by theologians and philosophers of many religions, including Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Judaism, Sikhism, Jainism, Deism and Zoroastrianism, often as an alternative to the term God.
Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (–) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.
Tertullian, full name Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, c. 155 – c. 240 AD, was a prolific early Christian author from Carthage in the Roman province of Africa.
The City of God Against the Pagans (De civitate Dei contra paganos), often called The City of God, is a book of Christian philosophy written in Latin by Augustine of Hippo in the early 5th century AD.
The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire is a six-volume work by the English historian Edward Gibbon.
"The World Is Too Much with Us" is a sonnet by the English Romantic poet William Wordsworth.
Theosophy is an esoteric religious movement established in the United States during the late nineteenth century.
A totem (Ojibwe doodem) is a spirit being, sacred object, or symbol that serves as an emblem of a group of people, such as a family, clan, lineage, or tribe.
The traditional African religions (or traditional beliefs and practices of African people) are a set of highly diverse beliefs that include various ethnic religions.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The Vainakh people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingush) were Islamised comparatively late, during the early modern period, and Amjad Jaimoukha (2005) proposes to reconstruct some of the elements of their pre-Islamic religion and mythology, including traces of ancestor worship and funerary cults.
The Viking Age (793–1066 AD) is a period in European history, especially Northern European and Scandinavian history, following the Germanic Iron Age.
The Viking revival was a movement of interest and appreciation for Viking history and culture in the 18th and 19th centuries, often with romanticized heroic overtones.
The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.
Wicca, also termed Pagan Witchcraft, is a contemporary Pagan new religious movement.
William Wordsworth (7 April 1770 – 23 April 1850) was a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their joint publication Lyrical Ballads (1798).
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.
A world view or worldview is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the whole of the individual's or society's knowledge and point of view.
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