1124 relations: -stan, A-level, A.T. Kearney, Abdul Khaliq (athlete), Abdul Khaliq (philosopher), Abdul Qadeer Khan, Abdus Salam, Abul A'la Maududi, Abul Kalam Azad, Acacia, Achaemenid Empire, Acridotheres, Acronym, Adam Nayyar, Administrative units of Pakistan, Admiral, Aerodrome, Aeronomy, Afghan (ethnonym), Afghan Air Force, Afghan Arabs, Afghanistan, Afghanistan–Pakistan skirmishes, Afghans in Pakistan, Agriculture in Pakistan, Ahmadiyya, Ahmadiyya in Pakistan, Air chief marshal, Air Headquarters (Pakistan Air Force), Air Indus, Airblue, Airport, Akhand Bharat, ALA-LC romanization, Alexander Rutskoy, Alexander the Great, Ali Hujwiri, Aligarh Muslim University, All Pakistan Women's Association, All-India Muslim League, Allahabad Address, Allama Iqbal International Airport, Alpine plant, American philosophy, Analytic philosophy, Analytical psychology, Anesthesiology, Anglophile, Anglophobia, Animism, ..., Antarctica, Anti-British sentiment, Anwar Zaheer Jamali, Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Arab world, Arabian Mau, Arabian Sea, Architecture of the United Kingdom, Armed Forces of Saudi Arabia, Armenia, Armenia–Pakistan relations, Armenians in Pakistan, Ashoka, Asian black bear, Asian Development Bank, Asian Games, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, Asiatic cheetah, Asif Ali Zardari, Assassination of Benazir Bhutto, Astola Island, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, Athletics at the 1954 Asian Games, Athletics at the 1958 Asian Games, Atomic Age, Atta ur Rahman (scientist), Attock Petroleum, Attock Refinery, Aurat Foundation, Australia, Automotive industry in Pakistan, Aviation accidents and incidents, Ayub Khan (President of Pakistan), Ayub National Park, Ayub Ommaya, Azad Kashmir, Azadirachta indica, Bacha Khan International Airport, Bachelor of Architecture, Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Business Administration, Bachelor of Commerce, Bachelor of Engineering, Bachelor of Laws, Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Science in Nursing, Bachelor of Technology, Bachelor's degree, Badr-1, Badshahi Mosque, Bahawalpur District, Bahá'í Faith in Pakistan, Bahrain, Bajaur Agency, Baloch people, Balochi Academy, Balochi language, Balochistan, Balochistan conflict, Balochistan Police, Balochistan, Pakistan, Balti language, Bangladesh, Bangladesh Awami League, Bangladesh Liberation War, Banking in Pakistan, BBC News, Benazir Bhutto, Benazir Bhutto International Airport, Bengal, Bengali renaissance, Bengalis in Pakistan, Bibliography of Pakistan, Bicameralism, Biology, Bollywood, Brahui language, Brain (computer virus), Brain tumor, BRIC, British Army, British Council, British cuisine, British Empire, British heritage of Pakistan, British Open Squash Championships, British philosophy, British Raj, Broadcasting, Buddhism, Buddhism in Pakistan, Bulleh Shah, Burmese people in Pakistan, Burushaski, Business administration, Business cycle, Cabinet of Pakistan, Cairns Group, Cambridge International Examinations, Canada, CANDU reactor, Capital Territory Police, Capra (genus), Ceasefire, Cedrus deodara, Cement, Census in Pakistan, Central Asia, Central Intelligence Agency, Central Karakoram National Park, Central Superior Services of Pakistan, Centre-left politics, Centre-right politics, Centrism, CERN, Chagai-I, Chagai-II, Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, Chairman of the Senate of Pakistan, Chandragupta Maurya, Chapati, Chashma Nuclear Power Complex, Chashma, Pakistan, Chemistry, Chief executive officer, Chief judge, Chief Justice of Pakistan, Chief Minister (Pakistan), Chief of Air Staff (Pakistan), Chief of Army Staff (Pakistan), Chief of Naval Staff (Pakistan), Chiffon (fabric), Chili pepper, China, China–Pakistan Free Trade Agreement, China–Pakistan relations, Chinese language, Chinkara, Cholistan Desert, Choudhry Rahmat Ali, Christianity in Pakistan, Christmas, Civet, Civil Aviation Authority (Panama), Civil war, Civil–military relations, Clifton Beach, Karachi, Climate of Pakistan, Coast, Coconut, Cold War, Command and control, Command hierarchy, Commander-in-chief, Commonwealth Games, Commonwealth of Nations, Communication, Community college, Community-led total sanitation, Company rule in India, Comparison of Asian national space programs, Competitiveness, Computer, Computer literacy, Computer science, Condensed matter physics, Consciousness, Conscription, Conservatism in Pakistan, Constituencies of Pakistan, Constitution of Pakistan, Constitution of Pakistan of 1956, Constitution of Pakistan of 1962, Conventional warfare, Corporate sector of Pakistan, Corruption, Corruption in Pakistan, Corvus (genus), Cotton, Cricket, Cricket World Cup, Crime Investigation Department (Pakistan), Culture of Pakistan, D-8 Organization for Economic Cooperation, Dalbergia sissoo, Dameli language, Date palm, Dawah, DAWN (newspaper), Daylight saving time in Pakistan, De facto standard, Death and state funeral of Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, Deciduous, Delhi Sultanate, Demetrius I of Bactria, Democracy in Pakistan, Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, Demographics of Pakistan, Dental degree, Deserts and xeric shrublands, Devanagari, Devapala, Developing country, Dharmapala (emperor), Director-general, Disco Deewane, District Courts of Pakistan, Diwali, Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Pharmacy, Domaaki language, Dominion of Pakistan, Durand Line, Durrani Empire, E-Government in Pakistan, Eagle, East Bengal, East Bengali refugees, East India Company, East Pakistan, Easter, Economic Cooperation Organization, Economic liberalisation in Pakistan, Economics, Economy, Economy of Karachi, Economy of Pakistan, Economy of Punjab, Pakistan, Education, Education in Pakistan, Education in the United Kingdom, Education reform, Eid al-Adha, Eid al-Fitr, Eight-thousander, Election Commission of Pakistan, Elections in India, Elections in Pakistan, Electoral College (Pakistan), Electricity, Electricity generation, Electricity sector in Pakistan, Electronic engineering, Electroweak interaction, Elementary school, Elite Police, Elizabeth II, Emerging and growth-leading economies, Emperor of India, Encyclopædia Britannica, Energy, Energy policy of Pakistan, English Education Act 1835, English language, English-medium education, Engro Corporation, Enlightened moderation, Enriched uranium, Ephedra (plant), Establishment (Pakistan), Ethnic groups in Pakistan, Etiquette in Pakistan, Eucalyptus, Eurasian Plate, Europe, Executive (government), Extended family, Faisal Mosque, Faisalabad, Faisalabad International Airport, Faiz Ahmad Faiz, Falcon, Fauna of Pakistan, Federal Investigation Agency, Federal parliamentary republic, Federal republic, Federal Shariat Court, Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Federation, Fiber-optic communication, Field hockey, Field hockey at the 1960 Summer Olympics, Field hockey at the 1968 Summer Olympics, Field hockey at the 1984 Summer Olympics – Men's tournament, Fighter pilot, Filipinos in Pakistan, First-past-the-post voting, Fiscal year, Fissile material, Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty, Folk costume, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Food industry, Force protection, Foreign direct investment, Foreign relations of Pakistan, Foreign trade of Pakistan, Forensic science, Fossil fuel, Fossil-fuel power station, Free education, Frontier Corps, Frontier Regions, Frontline (magazine), G20 developing nations, Gadani ship-breaking yard, Gandhara, Garam masala, Garlic, Gawar-Bati language, GCE Ordinary Level, Geary–Khamis dollar, Gender equality, General Headquarters (Pakistan Army), Genetics, Geography of Pakistan, George VI, Geostrategy, German Empire, Ghazal, Ghaznavids, Ghurid dynasty, Gilgit, Gilgit-Baltistan, Ginger, Globalization Index, Goa, Gold medal, Golden jackal, Goldman Sachs, Government of Pakistan, Governor-General of Pakistan, Grand Mosque seizure, Greco-Buddhism, Greeks, Gross domestic product, Group of 24, Group of Eleven, Gujranwala, Gujrat City, Gulf of Oman, Gulf War, Gwadar, Gwadar Port, Happy Planet Index, Harappa, Hari Singh, Hasan Askari Rizvi, Hawk, Hazaras, Head of government, Head of state, Health care, Health care in Pakistan, Heavy metal music, Herald (Pakistan), High Courts of Pakistan, High school, Higher Education Commission of Pakistan, Higher Secondary School Certificate, Himalayan brown bear, Hindi–Urdu controversy, Hindko dialect, Hindu, Hindu Kush, Hindu–German Conspiracy, Hindu–Islamic relations, Hinduism, Hinduism in Pakistan, History of Bangladesh, Hockey World Cup, Holi, Hub Power Company, Hub, Balochistan, Human Development Index, Human overpopulation, Hunza Valley, Hydroelectricity, Iman Ittihad Nazm, Immigration to Pakistan, Improved sanitation, Improved water source, Imran Khan, Independence Day (Pakistan), Index of Pakistan-related articles, India, India–Pakistan relations, India–United States Civil Nuclear Agreement, Indian Civil Service (British India), Indian National Congress, Indian nationalism, Indian pangolin, Indian Plate, Indian Rebellion of 1857, Indian subcontinent, Indo-Aryan 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Police, Khyber Pass, Kot Diji, Kuwait, Kyoto Protocol, Labour in Pakistan, Ladakh, Lahore, Lahore Electric Supply Company, Lahore Fort, Lahore Resolution, Lake Saiful Muluk, Lal Shahbaz Qalandar, Lal Suhanra National Park, Languages of Pakistan, Larry Pressler, Lassi, Law and order (politics), Law enforcement in Pakistan, Legal Framework Order, 1970, Legislature, Leopard, Liaquat Ali Khan, Liberal Muslim movements, Line of Control, Lingua franca, List of airlines of Pakistan, List of airports in Pakistan, List of Chief Ministers in Pakistan, List of countries and dependencies by area, List of countries and dependencies by population, List of countries by GDP (nominal), List of countries by GDP (PPP), List of countries by number of Internet users, List of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel, List of districts of Pakistan, List of dry ports in Pakistan, List of earthquakes in Pakistan, List of electric supply companies in Pakistan, List of Governors of Pakistan, List of highest mountains, List of intelligence agencies of the United Kingdom, List of mountain ranges of Pakistan, List of mountains in Pakistan, List of newspapers in Pakistan, List of Nobel laureates, List of nuclear weapons tests of Pakistan, List of Pakistan Movement activists, List of Pakistan National Assembly seats, List of Prime Ministers of Pakistan, List of provincial governments of Pakistan, List of schools in Pakistan, List of states with nuclear weapons, List of television channels in Pakistan, List of terrorist incidents in Pakistan since 2001, List of universities in Pakistan, Literacy, Literary realism, Literature, Local government in Pakistan, Lodi dynasty, Lollywood, Low-cost carrier, Lower house, Lower Paleolithic, Lulusar-Dudipatsar National Park, Lyric poetry, M. M. 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history of Pakistan, Political philosophy, Politics of India, Politics of Pakistan, Politics of Saudi Arabia, Porcupine, Port of Karachi, Port Qasim, Post–Cold War era, Poverty in Pakistan, Power (physics), Preemptive war, Preschool, Presidencies and provinces of British India, President of Pakistan, President of the United States, Primary education, Prime Minister of India, Prime Minister of Pakistan, Prime Minister's Secretariat (Pakistan), Prisoner of war, Privatisation in Pakistan, Pro-Pakistan sentiment, Profit (accounting), Protected area, Provincial languages of Pakistan, Public university, Public–private partnership, Punjab Police (Pakistan), Punjab region, Punjab, Pakistan, Punjabi language, Punjabi literature, Punjabis, Purchasing power parity, Qasba Gujrat, Qatar, Qaumi Taranah, Qawwali, Queen Victoria, Quetta, Quetta International Airport, Quit India Movement, Quranism, Ra'ana Liaquat Ali Khan, Raheel Sharif, Rai dynasty, Ramadan, Rashad Mahmood, Rawalpindi, Rawalpindi 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language, Sindhi literature, Sindhis, Sino-Indian War, Sitara-e-Jurat, Six-Day War, Skardu Fort, Smiling Buddha, Snow leopard, Soan River, Soanian, Sobho Gianchandani, Social class, Social philosophy, Socialism in Pakistan, Socioeconomic development, Socioeconomic impact of female education, Sohail Aman, Sohan Halwa, South Africa, South Asia, South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, South Punjab, Sovereignty, Soviet Air Forces, Soviet Union, Soviet–Afghan War, Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission, Sparrow, Speaker of the National Assembly of Pakistan, Special Services Group, Sport, Spruce, Squash (sport), Squashsite, Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka national cricket team, Staff (military), Standard Model, State Bank of Pakistan, State religion, State-owned enterprise, Statistics, Stranded Pakistanis in Bangladesh, Striped hyena, Sufi poetry, Sufism, Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Limited, Sui Southern Gas Company, Suit (clothing), Sulaiman Mountains, Sunni Islam, Supercomputing in Pakistan, Supermajority, Supreme Court of Pakistan, Swat District, Switzerland, Syed Ahmad Khan, Syed Zafarul Hasan, Syncretism, Tailor, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Takht-i-Bahi, Tamarix, Tamils, Tamils in Pakistan, Tara Singh (activist), Targeted killings in Pakistan, Tashkent Declaration, Taxila, Technology transfer, Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan, Tehsil, Telecommunications in Pakistan, Telephone numbers in Pakistan, Television in Pakistan, Terrorism in Pakistan, Textile industry in Pakistan, Thar Desert, Thatta, The Express Tribune, The Guardian, The News International, The World Factbook, Thermal power station, Third Way, Times Internet, Timurid dynasty, Tit for tat, Tomb of Jahangir, Tonne, Tourism in Pakistan, Transport in Pakistan, Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Trousers, Turkey, Turmeric, Tutor, Two-man rule, Two-nation theory, Umayyad Caliphate, UNESCO Science Prize, Union councils of Pakistan, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United Nations, United Nations Commission on Human Rights, United Nations Economic and Social Council, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan, United Nations peacekeeping missions involving Pakistan, United Nations Security Council, United Nations Security Council Resolution 38, United States, United States Department of State, United States dollar, United States involvement in regime change, Uniting for Consensus, Universal suffrage, University of Balochistan, University of Karachi, University of Peshawar, University of Sindh, University of the Punjab, Upper house, Urbanisation in Pakistan, Urdu, Urdu literature, Urial, Vedic period, Very Important Person, Veterinary medicine, Veterinary physician, Violence against Muslims in India, Vocational education, Wakhan Corridor, War in Afghanistan (2001–present), War in North-West Pakistan, War on Terror, Water and Power Development Authority, WaterAid, Waterborne diseases, Watt, Wazir Khan Mosque, Western tragopan, Wholesale, Wild boar, Wildlife, WIN/GIA, Women in Islam, Women in Pakistan, World Bank, World Economic Forum, World Open (squash), World population, World Trade Organization, World War I, World War II, Yahoo! News, Yahya Khan, Yidgha language, Yom Kippur War, Yousaf Raza Gillani, Zimbabwean cricket team in Pakistan in 2015, Zippe-type centrifuge, Zoroastrianism, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, .pk, 1,000,000,000, 1946 Cabinet Mission to India, 1958 Pakistani coup d'état, 1970 Bhola cyclone, 1971 Bangladesh genocide, 1971 Men's Hockey World Cup, 1972 Nixon visit to China, 1978 Men's Hockey World Cup, 1982 Men's Hockey World Cup, 1987 Cricket World Cup, 1992 Cricket World Cup, 1994 Men's Hockey World Cup, 1996 Cricket World Cup, 1999 Cricket World Cup, 1999 Pakistani coup d'état, 2005 Kashmir earthquake, 2007 ICC World Twenty20, 2009 attack on the Sri Lanka national cricket team, 2009 ICC World Twenty20, 2009–10 Pakistan federal budget, 24-hour news cycle. Expand index (1074 more) » « Shrink index
The suffix -stan (ـستان -) is Persian for "place of" or "country".
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The General Certificate of Education Advanced Level (short form: GCE Advanced Level), or more commonly, the A Level, is a school leaving qualification offered by educational bodies in the United Kingdom and the British Crown dependencies to students completing secondary or pre-university education.
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A.T. Kearney is a global management consulting firm that focuses on strategic and operational CEO-agenda issues facing businesses, governments and institutions around the globe.
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Abdul Khaliq (صوبیدارعبدالخالق پرندہ ایشیاء)Subedar Abdul Khaliq parinda e Asia (March 23, 1933 - March 10, 1988) which means "The Flying bird of Asia" as called by Jawaharlal Nehru was a Pakistani sprinter who won 36 International Gold Medals, 15 International Silver Medals & 12 International Bronze Medals for Pakistan.
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Abdul Khaliq was born in Lahore on 15 June 1935.
Abdul Qadeer Khan, NI, HI, FPAS (ڈاکٹر عبد القدیر خان; b. 1 April 1936), also known as Mohsin-e-Pakistan (محسن پاکِستان|, lit. "Benefactor of Pakistan") by some people, more popularly known as A. Q. Khan, is a Pakistani nuclear physicist and a metallurgical engineer, colloquially regarded as the founder of high-enriched uranium (HEU) based Gas-centrifuge uranium enrichment program for Pakistan's integrated atomic bomb project.
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Mohammad Abdus Salam Salam adopted the forename "Mohammad" in 1974 in response to the anti-Ahmadiyya decrees in Pakistan, similarly he grew his beard.
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Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi (ابو الاعلی مودودی – alternative spellings of last name Maudoodi, Mawdudi, also known as Shaykh al-Hadith Maududi), (–), was an Indian-Pakistani scholar, philosopher, jurist, journalist, islamist and imam.
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Abul Kalam Muhiyuddin Ahmed Azad (আবুল কালাম মুহিয়ুদ্দিন আহমেদ আজাদ,; ابو الکلام محی الدین احمد آزاد Abul Kalam Azad; 11 November 1888 – 22 February 1958) was an Indian scholar and a senior political leader of the Indian independence movement.
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Acacia, known commonly as acacia, thorntree, whistling thorn, or wattle, is a genus of shrubs and trees belonging to the subfamily Mimosoideae of the family Fabaceae, described by the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus in 1773 based on the African species Acacia nilotica.
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The Achaemenid Empire, also called the, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great, notable for embracing various civilizations and becoming the largest empire of the ancient history, spanning at its maximum extent from the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east.
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Acridotheres is a genus of starlings, the "typical" mynas, which are tropical members of the family Sturnidae.
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An acronym is an abbreviation, used as a word, which is formed from the initial components in a phrase or a word.
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The administrative units of Pakistan consist of four provinces, one federal capital territory, two autonomous and disputed territories, and a group of federally administered tribal areas.
Admiral is the rank, or part of the name of the ranks, of the highest naval officers.
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An aerodrome or airdrome is a location from which aircraft flight operations take place, regardless of whether they involve air cargo, passengers, or neither.
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Aeronomy is the science of the upper region of the atmosphere, where dissociation and ionization are important.
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The ethnonym Afghan (افغان) has been used in reference to pashtun people.
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The Afghan Air Force (AAF; Pashto: دافغانستان هوائی ځواک; Dari: قوای هوائی افغانستان), formerly the Afghan National Air Force, is a branch of the military of Afghanistan that is responsible for air defense and air warfare.
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Afghan Arabs (also known as Arab-Afghans) were Arab and other Muslim Islamist mujahideen who came to Afghanistan during and following the Soviet-Afghan War to help fellow Muslims fight Soviets and pro-Soviet Afghans.
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Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Afġānistān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
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The Afghanistan–Pakistan skirmishes are cross-border shellings that have occurred since 1949 along the Durand Line between the Afghan National Security Forces and Pakistan military forces, paramilitary forces.
Afghans in Pakistan (افغان مُہاجر, Muhajir Afghans) are refugees who have fled wars in Afghanistan.
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Pakistan's principal natural resources are arable land and water.
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Ahmadiyya (officially the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at; الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, transliterated) is an Islamic religious movement founded in British India near the end of the 19th century.
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Approximately 2–5 million members of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community live in Pakistan or were born in Pakistan.
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Air chief marshal (Air Chf Mshl or ACM) is a very senior air force rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force (RAF).
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Air Headquarters (AHQ) is the Headquarters of Pakistan Air Force, located at Islamabad.
Air Indus is an airline of Pakistan with its headquarters based in Defence Housing Authority (DHA), Karachi.
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Airblue Limited (styled as airblue) is a private Pakistani airline with its head office on the 12th floor of the Islamabad Stock Exchange (ISE) Towers in Islamabad, Pakistan.
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An airport is an aerodrome with facilities for flights to take off and land.
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Akhand Bharat (Hindustani: अखण्ड भारत (Devanagri), اکھنڈ بھارت (Nastaleeq)), also known as Akhand Hindustan (Hindustani: अखण्ड हिन्दुस्तान (Devanagri), اکھنڈ ہندوستان (Nastaleeq)), is an irredentist Hindustani term literally meaning Undivided India.
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ALA-LC (American Library Association - Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, or the representation of text in other writing systems using the Latin script.
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Alexander Vladimirovich Rutskoy (Алекса́ндр Влади́мирович Руцко́й) (born 16 September 1947) is a Russian politician and a former Soviet military officer.
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Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας, Aléxandros ho Mégas, from the Greek ἀλέξω (alexō) "defend" and ἀνδρ- (andr-), the stem of ἀνήρ (anēr) "man" and means "protector of men") was a King (Basileus) of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;. and a member of the Argead dynasty, a famous ancient Greek royal house.
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Abul Hassan Ali Ibn Usman al-Jullabi al-Hajveri al-Ghaznawi or Abul Hassan Ali Hajvari (sometimes spelled Hajvari, Hajweri, Hajveri), also known as Daata Ganj Bakhsh (Persian/Punjabi:, which means the master who bestows treasures) or Daata Sahib (Persian/Urdu), was a Persian Sufi and scholar in the 11th century.
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Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) is a government funded, public university, originally established by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan as Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College in 1875.
The All Pakistan Women's Association, or APWA, as it is commonly known, is a non-profit and non-political Pakistani organisation whose fundamental aim is the furtherance of the moral, social and economic welfare of the women of Pakistan.
The All-India Muslim League (popularised as Muslim League) was a political party established during the early years of the 20th century in the British Indian Empire.
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The Allahabad Address refers to the presidential address by Muhammad Iqbal to the 25th session of the All-India Muslim League on 29 December 1930, at Allahabad, British India.
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Allama Iqbal International Airport, (Urdu: علامہ اقبال بین الاقوامی ہوائی اڈہ) is the second largest civil airport in Pakistan, serving Lahore, the capital of Punjab province as well a large portion of the travellers from the Punjab province.
Alpine plants are plants that grow in the alpine climate, which occurs at high elevation and above the tree line.
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American philosophy is the philosophical activity or output of Americans, both within the United States and abroad.
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Analytic philosophy (sometimes analytical philosophy) is a style of philosophy that became dominant in English-speaking countries during the 20th century.
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Analytical psychology or Jungian psychology is a school of psychology that originated from the ideas of Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung.
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Anesthesiology is a branch of medicine that focuses on pain relief during and after surgery.
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An Anglophile is a person who admires England, its people, and its culture.
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Anti-English sentiment or Anglophobia (from Latin Anglus "English" and Greek φόβος, phobos, "fear") means opposition to, dislike of, fear of, or hatred towards England or the English people.
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Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life")Segal, p. 14.
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Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent, containing the geographic South Pole.
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Anti-British sentiment is prejudice, fear or hatred against the British Government, the culture or the people of the United Kingdom, or its Overseas territories.
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Anwar Zaheer Jamali(انور ظهير جمالى) is a judge of the Supreme Court of Pakistan since 3 August 2009.
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The Arab states of the Persian Gulf are the seven Arab states which border the Persian Gulf, namely Kuwait, Bahrain, Iraq, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab Nation (الأمة العربية), consists of the 22 Arabic-speaking countries of the Arab League.
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The Arabian Mau is a formal breed of domestic cat, originated from the desert cat, a short-haired landrace native to the desert of the Arabian Peninsula.
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The Arabian Sea is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by northeastern Somalia and the Arabian Peninsula, and on the east by India.
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The architecture of the United Kingdom, or British architecture, consists of an eclectic combination of architectural styles, ranging from those that predate the creation of the United Kingdom, such as Roman, to 21st century contemporary.
The Royal Saudi Armed Forces (القوات المسلحة الملكية السعودية) consists of the Saudi Arabian Army, the Royal Saudi Air Force, the Royal Saudi Navy, the Royal Saudi Air Defense, the Saudi Arabian National Guard (SANG), and paramilitary forces, totaling over 200,000 active-duty personnel.
Armenia (Հայաստան, tr. Hayastan), officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն, tr. Hayastani Hanrapetut’yun), is a mountainous country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
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Armenia–Pakistan relations refers to international and bilateral relations between Armenia and Pakistan.
The Armenians in Pakistan are ethnic Armenians living in the present country of Pakistan.
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Ashoka Maurya (IAST:;; 304–232 BCE), commonly known as Ashoka and Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from circa 269 BCE to 232 BCE.
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The Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus, previously known as Selenarctos thibetanus) is also known as moon bear and white-chested bear.
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The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established on 22 August 1966 which is headquartered in Metro Manila, Philippines, to facilitate economic development in Asia.
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The Asian Games, also known as Asiad, is a Pancontinental multi-sport event held every four years among athletes from all over Asia.
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The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) is a proposed international financial institution which is focused on supporting infrastructure construction in the Asia-Pacific region.
The Asiatic cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus), also known as the Iranian cheetah, is a critically endangered cheetah subspecies surviving today only in Iran.
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Asif Ali Zardari (آصف علی زرداری) آصف علي زرداري); born 26 July 1955) is a Pakistani politician and current co-chairperson of Pakistan People's Party. He served as the 11th President of Pakistan from 2008 to 2013. A landowner from Sindh, Zardari rose to prominence after his marriage to Benazir Bhutto in 1987, becoming the First Gentleman after his wife was elected Prime Minister in 1988. When Bhutto's government was dismissed by President Ghulam Ishaq Khan in 1990, Zardari was widely criticized for involvement in corruption scandals that led to its collapse. When Bhutto was reelected in 1993, Zardari served as Federal Investment Minister and Chairperson Pakistan Environmental Protection Council in her second administration. Following increasing tensions between Bhutto's brother Murtaza and Zardari, Murtaza was killed in a police encounter in Karachi on 20 September 1996. Bhutto's government was dismissed a month later by President Farooq Leghari, while Zardari was arrested and indicted for Murtaza's murder as well as corruption charges. Although incarcerated, he nominally served in Parliament after being elected to the National Assembly in 1990 and Senate in 1997. He was released from jail in 2004 and went into self-exile in Dubai, but returned when Bhutto was assassinated on 27 December 2007. As the new Co-Chairman of the PPP, he led his party to victory in the 2008 general elections. He spearheaded a coalition that forced military ruler Pervez Musharraf to resign, and was elected President on 6 September 2008. He was acquitted of various criminal charges the same year. As president, Zardari remained a strong U.S. ally in the war in Afghanistan, despite prevalent public disapproval of the United States following the Raymond Davis incident and the Nato attack in Salala in 2011. Domestically, Zardari achieved the passage of the Eighteenth Amendment in 2010, which constitutionally reduced his presidential powers. His attempt to prevent the reinstatement of Supreme Court judges failed in the face of massive protests led by his political rival Nawaz Sharif. The restored Supreme Court dismissed the PPP's elected Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gillani for contempt in 2012, after Gillani refused to write to the Government of Switzerland to reopen corruption cases against Zardari. Zardari's tenure was also criticized for mishandling nationwide floods in 2010, and growing terrorist violence. Following multiple bombings of Hazaras in Quetta in early 2013, Zardari dismissed his provincial government in Balochistan. Towards the end of his term, Zardari recorded abysmally low approval ratings, ranging from 11 to 14%. After the PPP was heavily defeated in the 2013 general election, Zardari became the country's first elected president to complete his constitutional term on 8 September 2013. The Zardari-led PPP continues to form the provincial government in Sindh.
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The assassination of Benazir Bhutto occurred on 27 December 2007 in Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
Astola Island, also known as Jezira Haft Talar (جزیرہ ہفت تلار) Satadip or 'Island of the Seven Hills', is a small uninhabited Pakistani island in the Arabian Sea approximately south of the nearest part of the coast and southeast of the fishing port of Pasni.
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Atal Bihari Vajpayee (born 25 December 1924) is an Indian statesman who was the Prime Minister of India, first for 13 days in 1996 and then from 1998 to 2004.
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Athletics was contested at the 1954 Asian Games in Manila, Philippines from May 2 to May 5.
Athletics was contested at the 1958 Asian Games in National Stadium, Tokyo, Japan from May 25 to May 29.
The Atomic Age, also known as the Atomic Era, is the period of history following the detonation of the first nuclear ("atomic") bomb, Trinity, on July 16, 1945 during World War II.
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Atta-ur-Rahman (Urdu: عطاالرحمان; born 22 September 1942), PhD, FRS, FPAS, is a Pakistani organic chemist and a leading scientist in the field of natural product chemistry, with approximately 983 important publications in the field of Organic chemistry, including his works referenced in 155 books largely published by publishers in Europe and the United States.
Attock Petroleum Limited (APL) is one of four oil marketing companies in Pakistan to be granted a license, in February, 1998.
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The Attock Refinery Limited (ARL), is the pioneer in crude oil refining in the country with its operations dating back to the early 1900s.
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Aurat Foundation is a women's rights organization based in Islamabad, Pakistan.
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Australia (colloquially), officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is an Oceanian country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.
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The Automotive industry has been an active and growing field in Pakistan for a long time, however not as much established to figure in the prominent list of the top automotive industries, having a stable annual production of 100-170 thousands only.
An aviation accident is defined by the Convention on International Civil Aviation Annex 13 as an occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft, which takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until all such persons have disembarked, where a person is fatally or seriously injured, the aircraft sustains damage or structural failure or the aircraft is missing or is completely inaccessible.
Muhammad Ayub Khan (محمد ایوب خان; 14 May 1907 –19 April 1974), widely known as Ayub Khan, was the first military dictator and second President of Pakistan.
Ayub National Park, commonly known as Ayub Park or historically Topi Rakh Park (Rakh lit. reserve in Potwari), named after the Pakistani president and general Ayub Khan, is a national park located on Jhelum road not far away from the old presidency in Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
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Ayub Khan Ommaya, MD, ScD (h.c.), FRCS, FACS (April 14, 1930 in Mian Channu – July 11, 2008 in Islamabad) was a Pakistani-born neurosurgeon and the inventor of the Ommaya reservoir.
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Azad Jammu and Kashmir (آزاد جموں و کشمیر Azad Jammu o Kashmir), abbreviated as AJK or Azad Kashmir ("free Kashmir"), is a self-governing state under the federation of Pakistan.
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Azadirachta indica, also known as Neem, Nimtree, and Indian Lilac is a tree in the mahogany family Meliaceae.
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Bacha Khan International Airport (باچا خان بین الاقوامی ہوائی اڈہ; د باچا خان نړیوال هوایی ډګر), previously called Peshawar International Airport (د پېښور نړیوال هوائی ډګر), is an international airport located in the city of Peshawar in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
The Bachelor of Architecture (B.Arch.) is an graduate academic degree designed to satisfy the academic component of professional accreditation bodies, to be followed by a period of practical training prior to professional examination and registration.
A Bachelor of Arts (BA, B.A., AB or A.B.), from the Latin artium baccalaureus or baccalarium artium is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, the sciences, or both.
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The Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA or B.B.A.) is a bachelor's degree in commerce and business administration.
A Bachelor of Commerce (abbreviated B.Com. or B.Comm.) is an undergraduate degree in business or commerce and related subjects.
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The Bachelor of Engineering commonly abbreviated as (B.Eng.) is a undergraduate academic degree awarded to a student after three to five years of studying engineering at university or college.
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The Bachelor of Laws (LL.B. or B.L) (Legum Baccalaureus) is an undergraduate degree in law (or a first professional degree in law, depending on jurisdiction) originating in England and offered in most common law jurisdictions.
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Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, or in Medicinae Baccalaureus, Baccalaureus Chirurgiae. (abbreviated in many ways, viz. MBBS, MBChB, MBBCh, MBBChir(Cantab), BMBCh(Oxon), BMBS, etc.), are the two first professional degrees in medicine and surgery awarded upon graduation from medical school by universities in countries that follow the tradition of the United Kingdom.
A Bachelor of Science (B.S., BS, B.Sc., BSc or Bc.; less commonly, S.B., SB, or Sc.B. from the Latin Scientiæ Baccalaureus) or a Science Degree is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for completed courses that generally last three to five years.
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The Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN, BScN) also known in some countries as a Bachelor of Nursing (BN) or Bachelor of Science (BS) with a Major in Nursing is an academic degree in the science and principles of nursing, granted by an accredited tertiary education provider.
The Bachelor of Technology (commonly abbreviated as B.Tech.; with Honours as B.Tech. (Hons.)) is an undergraduate academic degree conferred after completion of a three or four-year program of studies at an accredited university or accredited university-level institution.
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A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin baccalarius) or baccalaureate (from Modern Latin baccalaureatus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to seven years (depending on institution and academic discipline).
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Badr-1 (بدر-۱, meaning Full Moon-1) was the first artificial and the first digital communication satellite launched by Pakistan's supreme national space authority — the SUPARCO — in 1990.
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The Badshahi Mosque (بادشاہی مسجد, Imperial Mosque) in Lahore was commissioned by the sixth Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb.
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Bahawalpur District (Punjabi,ضلع بہاول پور) is one of the districts of Punjab, Pakistan.
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The Bahá'í Faith in Pakistan begins previous to its independence when it was part of India.
Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is a small island country situated near the western shores of the Persian Gulf.
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Bajaur or Bajur or Bajour (باجوړ) is an Agency (country subdivision) of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan.
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The Baloch or Baluch (Balochi) are a people who live mainly in the Balochistan region of the southeastern-most edge of the Iranian plateau in Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan.
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The Balochi Academy promotes the Balochi culture through the development and promotion of the language and literature; support for literary circles; conducting seminars and conferences; and inviting academics from other parts of Pakistan and abroad as guest speakers.
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Balochi is a Northwestern Iranian language.
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Balochistan or Baluchistan (بلوچستان, lit. Land of the Baloch) is an arid desert and mountainous region on the Iranian plateau in south-western Asia, northwest of the Arabian Sea.
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The Balochistan conflict is an ongoing conflict between Baloch nationalists and the governments of Pakistan and Iran in the Balochistan region of South-West Asia, which includes Balochistan Province in southwestern Pakistan, Sistan and Baluchestan Province in southeastern Iran, and the Balochistan region of southern Afghanistan.
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Balochistan Police is responsible for policing urban Balochistan, Pakistan.
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Balochistan (Balochi, Pashto, بلوچِستان), is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, located in the southwestern region of the country.
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The Balti language (بلتی) is a Tibetic language spoken in Baltistan division of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, and adjoining parts of Ladakh, India.
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Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ,, lit. "The land of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
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The Bangladesh Awami League (বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ; translated from Urdu: Bangladesh People's League), is one of the two largest political parties of Bangladesh.
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The Bangladesh Liberation War (মুক্তিযুদ্ধ), also known as the Bangladesh War of Independence, or simply the Liberation War in Bangladesh, was a revolution and armed conflict sparked by the rise of the Bengali nationalist and self-determination movement in East Pakistan and the 1971 Bangladesh genocide.
Banking in Pakistan first formally started in Pakistan during the period of British colonialism in the South Asia.
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BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
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Benazir Bhutto (Urdu: بینظیر بھوٹو) (Sindhi: بينظير ڀٽو) (June 21, 1953 – 27 December 2007) was the 11th Prime Minister of Pakistan, serving two non-consecutive terms in 1988–90 and then 1993–96.
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Benazir Bhutto International Airport (بینظیر بھٹو بین الاقوامی ہوائی اڈا) is the third-largest airport in Pakistan, serving the capital Islamabad and its twin city Rawalpindi in the province of Punjab.
Bengal (বাংলা /baŋla/ or বঙ্গ Bônggo /bɔŋɡo/) is a geographical and ethno-linguistic region in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent in South Asia, at the apex of the Bay of Bengal and dominated by the fertile Ganges delta.
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The Bengal Renaissance refers to a social reform movement during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in the Bengal region of India during the period of British rule.
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Pakistani Bengalis (پاکستانی بنگالی) are those Pakistani citizens, who migrated from East Pakistan, later Bangladesh, and settled mainly in Karachi.
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This is a list of notable books and works in the English language written about Pakistan.
A bicameral legislature is one in which the legislators are divided into two separate assemblies, chambers or houses.
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Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy.
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Bollywood is the sobriquet for the Hindi language film industry, based in Mumbai, India.
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Brahui (Brahui: براہوئی) is a Dravidian language spoken by the Brahui people in the central Balochistan region of Pakistan and Afghanistan, and by expatriate Brahui communities in Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Iraq, and Iran.
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Brain is the industry standard name for a computer virus that was released in its first form in January 1986, and is considered to be the first computer virus for MS-DOS.
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A brain tumor or intracranial neoplasm occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.
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In economics, BRIC is a grouping acronym that refers to the countries of '''B'''razil, '''R'''ussia, '''I'''ndia and '''C'''hina, which are all deemed to be at a similar stage of newly advanced economic development.
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The British Army is the United Kingdom's principal land warfare force.
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The British Council is a British organisation specialising in international educational and cultural opportunities.
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British cuisine is the specific set of cooking traditions and practices associated with the United Kingdom.
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The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom.
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The modern State of Pakistan had been a part of British India which was an integral part of the British Empire that lasted more than a century.
The British Open Squash Championships is the oldest and most established tournament in the game of squash.
British philosophy refers to the philosophical tradition of the people of the United Kingdom and of its citizens abroad.
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The British Raj (rāj, meaning "rule" in Hindi) was the rule of Great Britain in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
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Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves), in a one-to-many model.
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Buddhism is a nontheistic religion or philosophy (Sanskrit: dharma; Pali: धम्म dhamma) that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha, commonly known as the Buddha ("the awakened one").
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Buddhism took root in Pakistan some 2,300 years ago under the Mauryan king Ashoka, whom Nehru once called “greater than any king or emperor.” Buddhism has a long history in the Pakistan region — over time being part of areas within Bactria, the Indo-Greek Kingdom, the Kushan Empire, Ancient India with the Maurya Empire of Ashoka, the Punjab region, and Indus River Valley cultures — areas now within the present day nation of Pakistan.
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Bulleh Shah, sometimes Bulla(h) Shah (1680–1757) (بلھے شاہ (Shahmukhi); ਬੁੱਲ੍ਹੇ ਸ਼ਾਹ (Gurumukhi)) was a Punjabi Sufi poet, humanist and philosopher.
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Pakistan Burmese (پاکستانی برمی) are a Muslim community based in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
Burushaski (بروشسکی), the language of the Burusho people, is a language isolate spoken in northern Gilgit–Baltistan, Pakistan.
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Business administration is the process of managing a business or non-profit organization, so that it remains stable and continues to grow.
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The business cycle or economic cycle is the downward and upward movement of gross domestic product (GDP) around its long-term growth trend.
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The Cabinet of Pakistan is composed and consisted of the most senior and elected officers of the executive branch of the Government of Pakistan.
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The Cairns Group (Cairns Group of Fair Trading Nations) is an interest group of 20 agricultural exporting countries, composed of Argentina, Australia, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, the Philippines, South Africa, Thailand, Uruguay, and Vietnam.
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Cambridge International Examinations (CIE) are a provider of international qualifications, offering examinations and qualifications in more than 160 countries.
Canada is a country, consisting of ten provinces and three territories, in the northern part of the continent of North America.
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The CANDU (short for CANada Deuterium Uranium) reactor is a Canadian-invented, pressurized heavy water reactor used for generating electric power.
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The Capital Territory Police is a police force formed in 1981 to police Islamabad Capital Territory, Pakistan.
Capra is a genus of mammals, the goats or wild goats, composed of up to nine species, including the wild goat, the markhor, and several species known as ibex.
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A ceasefire (or truce) is a temporary stoppage of a war in which each side agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions.
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Cedrus deodara (deodar cedar, Himalayan cedar, or deodar/devdar/devadar/devadaru; Sanskrit देवदारु devadāru, Hindi: देवदार devadār, दारूक dāruk; Urdu: ديودار/ دیار deodār) is a species of cedar native to the western Himalayas in eastern Afghanistan, northern Pakistan (especially in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and, north Republic of India (Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand states), southwesternmost Tibet in (China) and western Nepal, occurring at altitude. It is a large evergreen coniferous tree reaching tall, exceptionally with a trunk up to in diameter. It has a conic crown with level branches and drooping branchlets. The leaves are needle-like, mostly long, occasionally up to long, slender (thick), borne singly on long shoots, and in dense clusters of 20–30 on short shoots; they vary from bright green to glaucous blue-green in colour. The female cones are barrel-shaped, long and broad, and disintegrate when mature (in 12 months) to release the winged seeds. The male cones are long, and shed their pollen in autumn.
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A cement is a binder, a substance that sets and hardens and can bind other materials together.
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The Census in Pakistan is conducted every 10 years across the entire nation.
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Central Asia is the core region of the Asian continent and stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
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The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the U.S. Government, tasked with gathering, processing and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Central Karakoram is a mountain area endowed with rich biodiversity, natural beauty and important resources.
The Central Superior Services (denoted as CSS; or Bureaucracy) is an elite permanent bureaucratic authority, and the civil service that is responsible for running the civilian bureaucratic operations and government secretariats and directorates of the Cabinet of Pakistan.
The centre-left or moderate left is an adherence to views leaning to the left but closer to the centre on the left-right political spectrum than other left-wing variants.
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Centre-right politics, also referred to as moderate-right politics, are politics that lean to the right of the left-right political spectrum, but are closer to the centre than other right-wing variants.
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In politics, centrism or the centre is a political outlook or specific position that involves acceptance or support of a balance of a degree of social equality and a degree of social hierarchy; while opposing political changes which would result in a significant shift of society either strongly to the left or the right.
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The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name "Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire"; see ''History'') is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.
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Chagai-I is the code name of five simultaneous underground nuclear tests conducted by Pakistan at 15:15 hrs PST on 28 May 1998.
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Chagai-II is the codename assigned to the second atomic test conducted by Pakistan, carried out on 30 May 1998 in the Kharan Desert in Balochistan Province of Pakistan.
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The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee of Pakistan is, in principle, the highest-ranking military officer in the Pakistan Defense Forces, and the principal military advisor to the Prime minister of Pakistan, Parliament of Pakistan, Ministry of Defence, and the National Security Council.
The Chairman of the Senate of Pakistan (Urdu: ﭽئرمين سينـﭧ); informally as Chairman senate), is the president-chair of the Senate of Pakistan. of the Chapter 2: Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) in Part III of the Constitution of Pakistan. According to the Constitution of Pakistan, the chairman is a presiding official and that Senate must choose a chairman and deputy chairman for a time interval of three years. During the President's absence, the chairman senate is empowered with the duties of the presidency; in rare events involving the absence of the chairman, the presidential duties are usually held by Speaker National Assembly. The Chairman of the Senate is the second in the line of succession to the President of Pakistan, ahead of the Speaker National Assembly. The Chairman of the Senate was Habibullah Marwat while Wasim Sajjad remains the longest-serving chairman. Raza Rabbani, a PPP leader and senior senator from Sindh, is the current Chairman of the Senate, having assumed office in 12 March 2015.
Chandragupta Maurya (Sanskrit: Candragupta Maurya, 340 BCE – 298 BCE) was the founder of the Maurya Empire and the first emperor to unify most of Greater India into one state.
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Chapati (alternately Chapatti, Chappati or Chapathi) is an unleavened flatbread (also known as roti) from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.
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The Chashma Nuclear Power Complex near Chashma city, Punjab, Pakistan, is a commercial nuclear power generation complex, consisting of Chashma Nuclear Power Plant-I (CHASNUPP-I) and Chashma Nuclear Power Plant-II (CHASNUPP-II), with CHASNUPP-III and CHASNUPP-IV under construction.
Chashma Colony (چشمہ) is located in Punjab, Pakistan.
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Chemistry is a branch of physical science that studies the composition, structure, properties and change of matter.
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A chief executive officer (CEO in American English) or managing director (MD in British English) describes the position of the most senior corporate officer, executive, or administrator in charge of managing a non-profit or for-profit organization.
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Chief judge is a title that can refer to the highest-ranking judge of a court that has more than one judge.
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The Chief Justice of Pakistan (Urdu:چيف جسٹس پاكستان; initials as CJP), is the head of the court system of Pakistan (the judicature branch of government) and the chief judge of the Supreme Court of Pakistan.
A Chief Minister(وزیر اعلى—), is the elected head of government of a province in Pakistan.
The Chief of the Air Staff of the Pakistan Air Force, abbreviated as CAS, is typically the highest ranking 4-star rank officer in the Pakistan Air Force, unless a four-star officer is appointed as the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee.
The Chief of Army Staff of Pakistan Army, (reporting name: COAS), is the four-star rank appointment in the Pakistan Army, held by the senior four-star rank officer appointed by the President of Pakistan, on a summary sent by the Prime Minister of Pakistan.
The Chief of the Naval Staff, abbreviated as CNS, is the highest-ranking officer in the Pakistani Navy unless a 4-star naval officer is appointed as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee.
Chiffon (English pronunciation,, from the French word for a cloth or rag) is a lightweight, balanced plain-woven sheer fabric woven of alternate S- and Z-twist crepe (high-twist) yarns.
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The chili pepper (also chile pepper or chilli pepper, from Nahuatl chīlli) is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae.
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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.
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The China–Pakistan Free Trade Agreement is a major free trade agreement signed between the People's Republic of China and Pakistan.
China–Pakistan relations began in 1950 when Pakistan was among the first countries to end official diplomatic relations with the Republic of China on Taiwan and recognize the PRC.
Chinese (汉语 / 漢語; Hànyǔ or 中文; Zhōngwén) is a group of related but in many cases mutually unintelligible language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
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The chinkara, also known as the Indian gazelle, is a gazelle species native to Iran, Pakistan and India.
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The Cholistan Desert (صحرائے چولِستان; Punjabi), also locally known as Rohi, sprawls thirty kilometers from Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan and covers an area of.
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Chaudhry Rehmat Ali (16 November 1895 – 3 February 1951) was a Pakistani Muslim nationalist who was one of the earliest proponents of the creation of the state of Pakistan.
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Christians make up the largest religious minority in Pakistan.
Christmas or Christmas Day (Crīstesmæsse, meaning "Christ's Mass") is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
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A civet is a small, lithe-bodied, mostly nocturnal mammal native to tropical Asia and Africa, especially the tropical forests.
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The Civil Aviation Authority (Autoridad Aeronáutica Civil, AAC) is the civil aviation authority of Panama.
A civil war is a war between organized groups within the same state or country,James Fearon, in Foreign Affairs, March/April 2007.
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Civil–military relations (Civ-Mil or CMR) describes the relationship between civil society as a whole and the military organization or organizations established to protect it.
Clifton Beach or Seaview is a beach in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan located on the Arabian Sea.
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Pakistan has recorded one of the highest temperatures in the world – – on 26 May 2010.
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A coastline or a seashore is the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean or a lake.
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The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family).
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The Cold War was a state of political and military tension after World War II between powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others) and powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its allies in the Warsaw Pact).
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Older versions of U.S. Army FM 3-0 state: Command and control, or C2, in a military organization is the exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commanding officer over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of the mission.
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A command hierarchy is a group of people dedicated to carrying out orders "from the top," that is, of authority.
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A commander-in-chief is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces or significant elements of those forces.
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The Commonwealth Games (known as the British Empire Games from 1930–1950, the British Empire and Commonwealth Games from 1954–1966, and British Commonwealth Games from 1970–1974) is an international, multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations.
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The Commonwealth of Nations, commonly known as the Commonwealth (formerly the British Commonwealth), is an intergovernmental organization of 53 member states that were mostly territories of the former British Empire.
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Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the purposeful activity of information exchange between two or more participants in order to convey or receive the intended meanings through a shared system of signs and semiotic rules.
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A community college is a type of educational institution.
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Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) is an approach to achieve sustained behavior change in mainly rural people by a process of "triggering" leading to spontaneous and long-term abandonment of open defecation practices.
Company rule in India (sometimes, Company Raj, "raj," lit. "rule" in Hindi) refers to the rule or dominion of the British East India Company on the Indian subcontinent.
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Several Asian countries have space programs and are actively competing to achieve scientific and technological advancements in space, a situation sometimes referred to as the Asian space race in the popular media as a reference to the earlier Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union.
Competitiveness pertains to the ability and performance of a firm, sub-sector or country to sell and supply goods and services in a given market, in relation to the ability and performance of other firms, sub-sectors or countries in the same market.
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A computer is a general-purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically.
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Computer literacy is the ability to use computers and related technology efficiently, with a range of skills covering levels from elementary use to programming and advanced problem solving.
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Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations Computer science is the scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications.
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Condensed matter physics is a branch of physics that deals with the physical properties of condensed phases of matter.
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.
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Conscription, or drafting, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
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Conservatism in Pakistan (or The Right in Pakistan), generally relates to the traditional, social, and religious identities in the politics of Pakistan.
The following is a list of Constituencies of Pakistan for elected seats in National Assembly (Urdu: ایوان زیریں پاکستان) also known as lower house (National Assembly).
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu), also known as the 1973 Constitution is the supreme law of the State of Pakistan.
The Constitution of 1956 was the fundamental law of Pakistan from March 1956 until the Revolution of October 1958.
The Constitution of 1962 was the fundamental law of Pakistan from June 1962 until martial law was declared in March 1969.
Conventional warfare is a form of warfare conducted by using conventional weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more states in open confrontation.
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The Corporate sector of Pakistan (otherwise attributed as the Corporatization; or/ simply referred to as the Pakistan Inc.) is an elite business sector expanded in financial cities of Pakistan, and a policy measure programme in the economic period of Pakistan.
There is no globally accepted definition of corruption.
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Corruption in Pakistan is widespread, particularly in the government and lower levels of police forces.
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Corvus is a widely distributed genus of birds in the family Corvidae.
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Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the family of Malvaceae.
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Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players each on a field at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard-long pitch.
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The ICC Cricket World Cup is the international championship of One Day International (ODI) cricket.
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The Crime Investigation Department (reporting name: CID) is a crime scene investigation, interrogation, antiterrorism, and an intelligence bureaus in the provincial police service of Pakistan.
The society and culture of Pakistan (ثقافتِ پاکستان) comprises numerous ethnic groups: the Punjabis, Kashmiris, Sindhis in east, Muhajirs, Makrani in the south; Baloch and Pashtun in the west; and the ancient Dardic, Wakhi, Baltistani and Burusho communities in the north.
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The D-8 Organization for Economic Cooperation, also known as Developing-8, is an organization for development cooperation among the following countries: Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, and Turkey.
Dalbergia sissoo, known commonly as Indian Rosewood, is an evergreen rosewood tree, also known as sisu, sheesham, tahli, Tali and also Irugudujava.
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Dameli is a language spoken by approximately 5,000 people in the Domel Valley, in the Chitral District of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
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Phoenix dactylifera (date or date palm) is a flowering plant species in the palm family Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit.
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(also transliterated daawa(h); دعوة "invitation") means the proselytizing or preaching of Islam.
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DAWN is Pakistan's oldest and most widely read English-language newspaper in Pakistan.
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Pakistan has experimented with Daylight Saving Time (DST) a number of times since 2002, shifting local time from UTC+05:00 to UTC+06:00 during various summer periods, having the effect of making Pakistan counter-intuitively half an hour ahead of India during those times, even though India is generally to its east.
A de facto standard is a custom, convention, product, or system that has achieved a dominant position by public acceptance or market forces (such as early entrance to the market).
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The State funeral of Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq was held on 19 August 1988 in Shah Faisal Mosque in Islamabad, Pakistan.
Deciduous means "falling off at maturity" or "tending to fall off", and it is typically used in order to refer to trees or shrubs that lose their leaves seasonally (most commonly during autumn) and to the shedding of other plant structures such as petals after flowering or fruit when ripe.
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The Delhi Sultanate was a Muslim kingdom based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
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Demetrius I (Greek: Δημήτριος Α΄; -fa/دیمتریوس بلخی) was a Greek king (reigned c. 200–180 BC) of Gandhara.
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Democracy (جمہوریت; pronounced jamhooriat) is one of the ideologies and systems upon which Pakistan was sought to be established in 1947 as a nation-state, as envisaged by the leader and founding father of the nation, Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
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The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA; جمهوری دمکراتی افغانستان,; دافغانستان دمکراتی جمهوریت), renamed in 1987 to the Republic of Afghanistan (جمهوری افغانستان;; د افغانستان جمهوریت), existed from 1978 to 1992 and covers the period when the socialist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) ruled Afghanistan.
Pakistan's estimated population in 2015 is over 191.71 million, making it the world's sixth-most-populous country, behind Brazil and ahead of Nigeria.
There are a number of professional degrees in dentistry offered by dental schools in various countries around the world.
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Deserts and xeric shrublands also called xerófila are a biome characterized by, relating to, or requiring only a small amount of moisture, usually defined as less than 250 mm of annual precipitation.
Devanagari (देवनागरी devanāgarī a compound of "deva" and "nāgarī"), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, ISBN 978-1615301492, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) alphabet of India and Nepal.
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Devapala (9th century) was the most powerful ruler of the Pala Empire of Bengal region in the Indian Subcontinent.
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A developing country, also called a less developed country or underdeveloped country, is a nation with an underdeveloped industrial base, and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
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Dharama Pala (ruled 8th century) was the second ruler of the Pala Empire of Bengal region in the Indian Subcontinent.
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Director-general (plural directors-general), or general director, is a title given to the highest executive officer within a governmental, statutory, NGO, third sector or not-for-profit institution.
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Disco Deewane is a 1981 best-selling pop album by Nazia Hassan with Zoheb Hassan, her brother, it was produced by Biddu.
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The District Courts of Pakistan are courts that operate at the district level, they are controlled by the high courts.
Diwali (or Deepavali, the "festival of lights") is an ancient Hindu festival celebrated in autumn (northern hemisphere) every year.
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Doctor of Medicine (MD or DM), or in Medicinae Doctor, meaning "Teacher of Medicine", is a terminal degree for physicians and surgeons.
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A Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.) is a professional doctor degree in pharmacy.
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Domaakí, also known as Dumaki or Domaá, is a Dardic language spoken by a few hundred people living in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan.
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Dominion of Pakistan (পাকিস্তান অধিরাজ্য, Pakistan ôdhirajyô; مملکتِ پاکستان, Mumlikāt-ē Pākistān), also usually called Pakistan; was an independent federal Dominion in South Asia that was established in 1947 on the Partition of India into two sovereign countries (the other being the Dominion of India).
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The Durand Line (د ډیورنډ کرښه) is the long border between Afghanistan and Pakistan.
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The Durrani Empire, Durrani Tulukamani, Durrani Wakmani, Durrani Emirate (د درانیانو واکمني), also called the Sadozai Kingdom and the Last Afghan Empire, was founded in 1747 by Ahmad Shah Durrani with its capital at Kandahar, Afghanistan.
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The e-Government in Pakisan was established October 2002.
Eagle is a common name for many large birds of prey of the family Accipitridae; it belongs to several groups of genera that are not necessarily closely related to each other.
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East Bengal (পূর্ববঙ্গ Purbobôngo) was the name used during two periods in the 20th century for a territory that roughly corresponded to the modern state of Bangladesh.
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East Bengali Refugees refers to the people who left East Bengal following the partition of Bengal, which was part of the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947.
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The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company and informally as John Company was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to pursue trade with the East Indies, but which ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and Qing China.
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East Pakistan (পূর্ব পাকিস্তান; مشرقی پاکستان), present-day Bangladesh, was a provincial state of Pakistan that existed in the Bengal region of the northeast of South Asia from 1955 until 1971, following the One Unit programme that laid the existence of East Pakistan.
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EasterTraditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, (Old English usually Ēastrun, -on, or -an; also Ēastru, -o; and Ēostre), also called Pasch (derived, through Pascha and Greek Πάσχα Paskha, from פסחא, cognate to פֶּסַח Pesaḥ)In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Greek word Pascha is used for the celebration; in English, the analogous word is Pasch.
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The Economic Cooperation Organisation or ECO (سازمان همکاری اقتصادی, اقتصادی تعاون تنظیم, Ekonomik İşbirliği Teşkilatı, Экономикалық ынтымақтастық ұйымы, Iqtisodiy Hamkorlik Tashkiloti, İqtisadi Əməkdaşlıq Təşkilatı, Tajik: Ташкилоти ҳамкории иқтисодӣ) is a Eurasian political and economic intergovernmental organization which was founded in 1985 in Tehran by the leaders of Iran, Pakistan and Turkey.
The Economic liberalisation in Pakistan refers to a policy measure programme in order to promote and accelerate the economic independence and development in the economic context of history of Pakistan.
Economics is the social science that seeks to describe the factors which determine the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services.
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An economy (Greek οίκος-household and νέμoμαι - manage) or economic system consists of the production, distribution or trade, and consumption of limited goods and services by different agents in a given geographical location.
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Karachi is referred as the financial capital of Pakistan; it accounts for most of Pakistan's revenue generation.
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The economy of Pakistan is the 26th largest in the world in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP), and 38th largest in terms of nominal Gross Domestic Product.
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The economy of Punjab, Pakistan is one that is largely based on agriculture and industry.
Education is the process of facilitating learning.
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Education in Pakistan is overseen by the Ministry of Education of the Government of Pakistan as well as the provincial governments, whereas the federal government mostly assists in curriculum development, accreditation and in the financing of research and development.
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Education in the United Kingdom is a devolved matter with each of the countries of the United Kingdom having separate systems under separate governments: the UK Government is responsible for England; whilst the Scottish Government, the Welsh Government and the Northern Ireland Executive are responsible for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, respectively.
Education reform is the name given to the goal of changing public education.
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Eid al-Adha (عيد الأضحى,, "Festival of the Sacrifice"), also called the Feast of Sacrifice or Bakr-Eid, is the second of two religious holidays celebrated by Muslims worldwide each year.
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Eid al-Fitr (عيد الفطر,, "festival of breaking of the fast"), also called Feast of Breaking the Fast, the Sugar Feast, Bayram (Bajram), the Sweet Festival or Hari Raya Puasa and the Lesser Eid, is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting (sawm).
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The eight-thousanders are the 14 independentIn making any "highest mountains" list, one needs to use a criterion to exclude subpeaks and only list independent mountains.
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The Election Commission of Pakistan (الیکشن کمیشن پاکستان), is an independent, autonomous, and constitutionally established federal institution responsible with the function of administrating the general electoral process in Pakistan.
India has an asymmetric federal government, with elected officials at the federal, state and local levels.
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Since its establishment in 1947, Pakistan has had an asymmetric federal government and is a federal parliamentary democratic republic.
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The President of Pakistan is chosen by an electoral college, in Pakistan.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and flow of electric charge.
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Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from other sources of primary energy.
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Electricity in Pakistan is generated, transmitted, distributed, and retail supplied by two vertically integrated public sector utilities: Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) for all of Pakistan (except Karachi), and the Karachi Electric (K-Electric) for the city of Karachi and its surrounding areas.
Electronics engineering, or electronic engineering, is an engineering discipline which utilizes non-linear and active electrical components (such as electron tubes, and semiconductor devices, especially transistors, diodes and integrated circuits) to design electronic circuits, devices and systems.
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In particle physics, the electroweak interaction is the unified description of two of the four known fundamental interactions of nature: electromagnetism and the weak interaction.
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Elementary school is for students at the ages of 4-12 to receive primary education.
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The Elite Punjab Police, also known as the "Elite Force" or "Police Commandos", is a branch of the Punjab Police specializing in Counter-Terrorist operations and VIP security duties, as well as acting against serious crime and performing high-risk operations which can't be carried out by the regular police.
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Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is the queen of 16 of the 53 member states in the Commonwealth of Nations.
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Emerging and growth-leading economies (EAGLEs) are a grouping of key emerging markets developed by BBVA Research.
The title Emperor of India was used by the British monarchs during the British Raj in the Indian Subcontinent from 1876 (see Royal Titles Act 1876) until 1948,India Independence Act 1947 (10 & 11 Geo. 6. c. 30) after India had attained independence from the United Kingdom, when for a transitional period the British monarch was also King of India and King of Pakistan.
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The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
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In physics, energy is a property of objects which can be transferred to other objects or converted into different forms, but cannot be created or destroyed.
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The energy policy of Pakistan is formulated and determined by the federal, provisional, and local institutional entities in Pakistan, which address the issues of energy production, distribution, and consumption of energy, such as gas mileage and petroleum standards.
The English Education Act was a legislative Act of the Council of India in 1835 giving effect to a decision in 1835 by William Bentinck, 4th Duke of Portland, the then Governor-General of British India to reallocate funds the East India Company was required by the British Parliament to spend on education and literature in India.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
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An English-medium education system is one that uses English as the primary medium of instruction—particularly where English is not the mother tongue of the students.
Engro Corporation is a Pakistani public multinational corporation based in Karachi with subsidiaries involved in production of fertilizers, foods, chemicals, energy and petrochemicals.
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Enlightened moderation is a term coined by former President of Pakistan Pervez Musharraf, which applies to practicing Islam moderately, as opposed to interpreting it in a fundamental way.
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Enriched uranium is a type of uranium in which the percent composition of uranium-235 has been increased through the process of isotope separation.
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Ephedra is a genus of gymnosperm shrubs, the only genus in its family, Ephedraceae, and order, Ephedrales.
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The Establishment in Pakistan refers to its cooperative federations of the powerful military-dominant oligarchy, and the consolidated intelligence community.
The major ethnic groups of Pakistan in numerical size include: Punjabis, Pashtuns, Sindhis, Saraikis, Muhajirs, Balochis, Hindkowans, Chitralis, Gujarati and other smaller groups.
In Pakistan, Islamic culture is predominant but Pakistan also has cultural etiquette based mainly on South Asian influence.
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Eucalyptus L'Heritier 1789 is a diverse genus of flowering trees and shrubs (including a distinct group with a multiple-stem mallee growth habit) in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae.
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The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate which includes most of the continent of Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the traditional continents of Europe and Asia), with the notable exceptions of the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Chersky Range in East Siberia.
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Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.
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The executive branch is the part of the government that has its authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state.
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An extended family is a family that extends beyond the nuclear family, consisting of aunts, uncles, and cousins all living nearby or in the same household.
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The Faisal Mosque (فیصل مسجد) is the largest mosque in Pakistan, located in the national capital city of Islamabad.
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Faisalabad, formerly Lyallpur, is the third most populous city in Pakistan after Karachi and Lahore.
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Faisalabad International Airport is an international airport situated on Jhang Road, south west from the city centre of Faisalabad, in the Punjab province of Pakistan.
Faiz Ahmad Faiz (Punjabi, فیض احمد فیض, born 13 February 1911 – 20 November 1984) ''MBE'', ''NI'', Lenin Peace Prize was an influential left-wing intellectual, revolutionary poet, and one of the most highly-regarded poets of the Urdu language, having been nominated four times for the Nobel Prize for literature. Faiz also wrote poetry in the Punjabi language. A notable member of the Progressive Writers' Movement (PWM), Faiz was an avowed Marxist, for which he received the Lenin Peace Prize by the Soviet Union in 1962. Faiz was identified as an opponent of the Prime minister Liaquat Ali Khan's government in the Rawalpindi conspiracy case, along with the left-wing military sponsor Major-General Akbar Khan. The Military police arrested Faiz as a result, held to trial by its JAG branch, and given a long sentence. These were commuted after the assassination of Liaquat Ali Khan in 1951. His work remains influential in Pakistan literature and arts. Faiz's literary work was posthumously publicly honored when the Pakistan Government conferred upon him the nation's highest civil award, Nishan-e-Imtiaz, in 1990.
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A falcon is any one of 37 species of raptors in the genus Falco, widely distributed on all continents of the world except Antarctica.
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Pakistan's native fauna reflect its varied climatic zones.
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The Federal Investigation Agency (وفاقی ادارۂ تحقیقات; reporting name: FIA) is a counter-intelligence and security agency under the Ministry of Interior of Pakistan, tasked with investigative jurisdiction on undertaking operations against terrorism, espionage, federal crimes, fascism, smuggling as well as infringement and other specific crimes.
A federal parliamentary republic refers to a federation of states with a republican form of government that is, more or less, dependent upon the confidence of parliaments at both the national and subnational levels.
A federal republic is a federation of states with a democratic form of government.
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The Federal Shariat Court (FSC) of Pakistan is a court which has the power to examine and determine whether the laws of the country comply with Shari'a law.
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The Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA; وسطي قبایلي سیمې، منځنۍ پښتونخوا; وفاقی منتظم شدہ قبائیلی علاقہ جات) is a semi-autonomous tribal region in northwestern Pakistan, bordering Pakistan's provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan to the east and south, and Afghanistan's provinces of Kunar, Nangarhar, Paktia, Khost and Paktika to the west and north.
A federation (from Latin: foedus, gen.: foederis, "covenant"), also known as a federal state, is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing states or regions under a central (federal) government.
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Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending pulses of light through an optical fiber.
Field hockey, or simply hockey, is a team sport of the hockey family.
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The field hockey tournament at the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome, Italy was contested from August 26 to September 9, with sixteen participating teams.
Final results for the Hockey competition at the 1968 Summer Olympics: Only a men's competition was held.
A fighter pilot is a military aviator trained to engage in air-to-air, and often air-to-ground combat while in the cockpit of a fighter aircraft.
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Filipinos in Pakistan (فَلپائنی) consist of migrants from the Philippines.
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A first-past-the-post (abbreviated FPTP, 1stP, or FPP), or winner-takes-all, election is one that is won by the candidate receiving more votes than any others.
A fiscal year (or financial year, or sometimes budget year) is a period used for calculating annual ("yearly") financial statements in businesses and other organizations all over the world.
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In nuclear engineering, fissile material is material capable of sustaining a nuclear fission chain reaction.
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The Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty (FMCT) is a proposed international treaty to prohibit the further production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other explosive devices.
A folk costume (also regional costume, national costume, or traditional garment) expresses an identity through costume, which is usually associated with a geographic area or a period of time in history.
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The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; French: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Italian: Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is an agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
The food industry is a complex, global collective of diverse businesses that supply most of the food consumed by the world population.
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Force protection (FP): Preventive measures taken to mitigate hostile actions against Department of Defense personnel (to include family members), resources, facilities, and critical information.
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A Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is a controlling ownership in a business enterprise in one country by an entity based in another country.
Pakistan is the second largest Muslim country in terms of population (after Indonesia, and its status as a declared nuclear power, being the only Islamic nation to have that status, plays a part in its international role. Pakistan has a fiercely independent foreign policy, especially when it comes to issues such as development of nuclear weapons, construction of nuclear reactors, foreign military purchases and other issues that are vital to its national interests. Pakistan has a strategic geo-political location at the corridor of world major maritime oil supply lines, and has close proximity to the resource and oil rich central Asian countries. Pakistan is an important member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), is ranked by the US as a major non-NATO ally in the war against terrorism, and has a highly disciplined and professional military.
This article covers topics relating to the foreign trade of Pakistan.
Forensic science is any scientific field that is applied to the field of law.
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Fossil fuels are fuels formed by natural processes such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms.
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A fossil-fuel power station is a power station which burns fossil fuel such as coal, natural gas or petroleum to produce electricity.
Free education refers to education that is funded through taxation or charitable organizations rather than tuition fees.
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The Frontier Corps (سرحد کور) (reporting name: FC), is a provincial auxiliary force part of the Paramilitary forces of Pakistan.
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The Frontier Regions (often abbreviated as FR) of Pakistan are a group of small administrative units in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), lying immediately to the east of the seven main tribal agencies and west of the settled districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
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Frontline is a fortnightly English language magazine published by The Hindu Group of publications from Chennai, India.
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The G20, also known as the Group of 20 (and, occasionally, the G21, G23 or G20+) is a bloc of developing nations established on 20 August 2003.
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Gadani ship-breaking yard is the world's third largest ship breaking yard.
Gandhāra (ګندارا, گندھارا, Avestan: Vaēkərəta, Sanskrit Puruṣapura, Old Persian Para-upari-sena, Bactrian Paropamisadae, Greek Caspatyrus) is the ancient term for the city, and old kingdom of Peshawar, which encompassed the Swat valley, and the Potohar Plateau regions of Pakistan as well as the Jalalabad district of modern-day Afghanistan.
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Garam masala (from गरम मसाला, garam ("hot") and masala (a mixture of spices)) is a blend of ground spices common in North Indian and other South Asian cuisines.
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Allium sativum, commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion genus, Allium.
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Gawar-Bati (Narsati) is a language spoken in Chitral, Pakistan and across the border in Afghanistan.
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The O Level (Ordinary Level) is a subject-based qualification conferred as part of the General Certificate of Education.
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The Geary–Khamis dollar, more commonly known as the international dollar, is a hypothetical unit of currency that has the same purchasing power parity that the U.S. dollar had in the United States at a given point in time.
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Gender equality, also known as sex equality, gender egalitarianism, sexual equality or equality of the genders, is the view that men and women should receive equal treatment, and should not be discriminated against based on gender.
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General Headquarters (GHQ) is the headquarters of Pakistan Army located at Rawalpindi.
Genetics is the study of genes, heredity, and genetic variation in living organisms.
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The geography of Pakistan (جغرافیۂ پاکِستان) is a profound blend of landscapes varying from plains to deserts, forests, hills, and plateaus ranging from the coastal areas of the Arabian Sea in the south to the mountains of the Karakoram range in the north.
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George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death.
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Geostrategy, a subfield of geopolitics, is a type of foreign policy guided principally by geographical factors as they inform, constrain, or affect political and military planning.
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The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich), variously referred to as the German Reich or Realm, or Imperial Germany, was the historical German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in November 1918, when Germany became a federal republic.
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The ghazal is a poetic form consisting of rhyming couplets and a refrain, with each line sharing the same meter.
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The Ghaznavid dynasty (غزنویان) was a Persianate Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin at their greatest extent ruling large parts of Iran, much of Transoxiana, and North India from 977–1186.
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The Ghurids or Ghorids (سلسله غوریان; self-designation: شنسباني, Shansabānī) were a dynasty of Eastern Iranian descent (presumably Tajik, but the exact ethnic origin is uncertain), from the Ghor region of present-day central Afghanistan.
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Gilgit (Urdu, Shina) is the Capital city of Gilgit-Baltistan, an administrative territory of Pakistan.
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Gilgit-Baltistan (Urdu/Shina/Burushaski:, Balti), formerly known as the Northern Areas of Pakistan is the northernmost administrative territory of Pakistan.
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Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a flowering plant in the family Zingiberaceae whose rhizome, ginger root or simply ginger, is widely used as a spice or a folk medicine.
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This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their globalization, the global connectivity, integration and interdependence in the economic, social, technological, cultural, political, and ecological spheres.
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Goa is a state located in the western region of India, it is bounded by the state of Maharashtra to the north, and by Karnataka to the east and south, while the Arabian Sea forms its western coast.
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A gold medal is the highest medal awarded for highest achievement in a non-military field.
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The golden jackal (Canis aureus), also known as the common jackal, Asiatic jackalJhala, Y. V. & Moehlman, P. D. 2004.
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The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. is an American multinational investment banking firm that engages in global investment banking, securities, investment management, and other financial services primarily with institutional clients.
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The Government of Pakistan (حکومتِ پاکستان) is a federal government established by the Constitution of Pakistan as a constituted governing authority of the four provinces of a proclaimed and established parliamentary democratic republic, constitutionally called the State of Pakistan.
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The Governor-General of Pakistan (گورنر جنرل پاکستان), was the representative in Pakistan of the British monarch, from the country's independence in 1947.
The Grand Mosque seizure occurred during November and December 1979 when extremist insurgents calling for the overthrow of the House of Saud took over Al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.
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Greco-Buddhism, sometimes spelled Graeco-Buddhism, refers to the cultural syncretism between Hellenistic culture and Buddhism, which developed between the 4th century BCE and the 5th century CE in Bactria and the Indian subcontinent, corresponding to the territories of modern day Afghanistan, India, and Pakistan.
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The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, Albania, Anatolia, Southern Italy, and other regions. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered around the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
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Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is a measure of the size of an economy.
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The Group of 24 (G24), a chapter of the G-77, was established in 1971 to coordinate the positions of developing countries on international monetary and development finance issues and to ensure that their interests were adequately represented in negotiations on international monetary matters.
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Group of Eleven (G11) is a forum, constituted by mostly developing countries aimed at easing their debt burden (See also: government debt), narrowing the income gap with rich countries and lifting millions of people out of poverty.
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Gujranwala Gujranwala (Punjabi, گوجرانوالا) is an industrial city in Gujranwala District, Punjab province of Pakistan.
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Gujrat (Punjabi, گُجرات), is a city in Punjab Province of Pakistan.
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The Gulf of Oman or Sea of Oman (خليج عُمان—Ḫalīdj ʾUmān; alternatively known as خليج مکران—, Ḫalīdj Makrān; in Persian: دریای عمان Daryā-ye Ommān, or دریای مکران Daryā-ye Makrān, or دریای پارسDaryā-ye Pārs; in خلیج عمان Khaleej Oman) is a strait (and not an actual gulf) that connects the Arabian Sea with the Strait of Hormuz, which then runs to the Persian Gulf.
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The Gulf War (2 August 1990 – 28 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 1990 – 17 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 1991 – 28 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 34 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
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Gwadar (Balochi: گوادر Gwadur) is a city on the southwestern Arabian Sea coastline of Pakistan, in Balochistan province.
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Gwadar Port is a warm-water, deep-sea port situated on the Arabian Sea at Gwadar in Balochistan province of Pakistan.
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The Happy Planet Index (HPI) is an index of human well-being and environmental impact that was introduced by the New Economics Foundation (NEF) in July 2006.
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Harappa (ਹੜੱਪਾ; ہڑپّہا) is an archaeological site in Punjab, Pakistan, about west of Sahiwal.
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Hari Singh (born 23 September 1895 in Jammu; died 26 April 1961 in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India) was the last ruling Maharaja of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir in India.
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Hassan Askari Rizvi (Urdu: حسن عسكرى رضوى; SI, PhD), is a Pakistani political scientist and military analyst, noted for his work in comparative politics, nuclear weapons, and country's domestic policy.
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Hawk is a common name for some small to medium-sized diurnal birds of prey, widely distributed and varying greatly in size.
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The Hazaras (Persian: هزاره) are a Persian-speaking people who mainly live in central Afghanistan and Hazara Town in Balochistan, Pakistan.
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Head of government is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony who often presides over a cabinet.
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A head of state is the highest-ranking constitutional position in a sovereign state and is vested with powers to act as the chief public representative of that state.
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Health care or healthcare is the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.
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Healthcare in Pakistan is administered mainly in the private sector which accounts for approximately 80% of all outpatient visits.
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Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom and the United States.
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The Herald is a monthly political magazine published in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
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There are five High Courts of Pakistan, each of four based in the capital city of one of the four provinces.
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A high school (also secondary school, senior school, secondary college) is a school that provides adolescents with part or all of their secondary education.
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The Higher Education Commission of Pakistan (reporting name:HEC), is an independent, autonomous, and constitutionally established institution of primary funding, overseeing, regulating, and accrediting the higher education efforts in Pakistan.
The Higher Secondary School Certificate, also known as HSSC, is a public examination taken by students of Intermediate college (Junior college) in Bangladesh, Pakistan and in the states of Gujarat, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Maharashtra and Goa in India.
The Himalayan brown bear (Ursus arctos isabellinus), also known as the Himalayan red bear, Isabelline bear or Dzu-Teh, is a subspecies of the brown bear.
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The Hindi–Urdu controversy is an ongoing dispute—dating back to the 19th century—regarding the status of Hindi and Urdu as a single language, Hindustani, or as two dialects of a single language, and the establishment of a single standard language in certain areas of north and northwestern India.
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Hindko (ہندکو| ALA-LC), also known as Panjistani or (ambiguously) as Pahari,Shackle, "Lahnda", in Brown & Ogilvie, eds, Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World is a dialect of Western Punjabi (Lahnda) of the Indo-Aryan (Indic) language family spoken in Northern Pakistan.
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Hindu has historically referred to geographical, religious or cultural identifier for people indigenous to the Indian subcontinent.
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The Hindu Kush (Pashto, Persian and هندوکش), also known in Sanskrit as Pāriyātra Parvata and in Ancient Greek as the Caucasus Indicus Καύκασος Ινδικός) or Paropamisadae (Παροπαμισάδαι), is an mountain range that stretches between central Afghanistan and northern Pakistan. It forms the western section of the Hindu Kush Himalayan Region (HKH). It divides the valley of the Amu Darya (the ancient Oxus) to the north from the Indus River valley to the south. The highest point in the Hindu Kush is Tirich Mir or Terichmir at in the Chitral District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. To the east, the Hindu Kush buttresses the Pamir Mountains near the point where the borders of China, Pakistan and Afghanistan meet, after which it runs southwest through Pakistan and into Afghanistan, finally merging into minor ranges in western Afghanistan. The mountain range separates Central Asia from South Asia.
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The Hindu–German Conspiracy(Note on the name) was a series of plans between 1914 and 1917 by radical Indian nationalist groups to attempt Pan-Indian rebellion against the British Raj during World War I, formulated between the Indian revolutionary underground and exiled or self-exiled nationalists who formed, in the United States, the Ghadar Party, and in Germany, the Indian independence committee, in the decade preceding the Great War.
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Hinduism and Islam are two of the world’s largest religions, whose interaction began after Islam was launched in the 7th century CE.
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Hinduism is the dominant religion, or way of life, in South Asia, most notably in India and Nepal.
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Pakistani Hindus are Hindus of full or partial Pakistani descent.
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Modern Bangladesh emerged as an independent nation in 1971 after achieving independence from Pakistan in the Bangladesh Liberation War.
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The Hockey World Cup is an international field hockey competition organised by the International Hockey Federation (FIH).
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Holi (Holī) is a spring festival, also known as the festival of colours or the festival of love.
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Hub Power Company Limited (HUBCO) is located at Hub, Lasbela District, Balochistan, Pakistan.
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Hub (حب) (also known as Hub Chowki) is the capital city of the Hub Tehsil, located in the Lasbela District of Balochistan, Pakistan.
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The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
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Human overpopulation occurs if the number of people in a group exceeds the carrying capacity of the region occupied by that group.
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The Hunza (Burushaski and ہنزہ) is a mountainous valley in the Gilgit–Baltistan region of Pakistan.
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Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water.
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"Iman Ittihad Nazm" (Pronounced:; ایمان، اتحاد، نظم; lit. Faith, Unity, Discipline) is a "Asool-e-Amal" and guiding principals of Pakistan in Urdu.
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Immigration to Pakistan refers to the settlement of foreign nationals in Pakistan.
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Improved sanitation is a way of categorizing certain types or levels of sanitation.
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An improved drinking-water source is defined as one that, by nature of its construction or through active intervention, is likely to be protected from outside contamination, in particular from contamination with fecal matter.
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Imran Khan Niazi (born 25 November 1952) better known as Imran Khan is a Pakistani politician, former cricketer, philanthropist, cricket commentator and former chancellor of the University of Bradford.
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Independence Day (یوم آزادی; Yaum-e Āzādī), observed annually on 14 August, is a national holiday in Pakistan.
This is a list of topics related to Pakistan.
India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.
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Relations between India and Pakistan have been complex due to a number of historical and political events.
The 123 Agreement signed between the United States of America and the Republic of India is known as the U.S.–India Civil Nuclear Agreement or Indo-US nuclear deal.
The Indian Civil Service (ICS) for part of the 19th century officially known as the Imperial Civil Service, was the élite higher civil service of the British Empire in British India during British rule in the period between 1858 and 1947.
The Indian National Congress (INC, often called the Congress), is one of two major political parties in India; the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party.
Indian nationalism refers to the many underlying forces that defined the principles of the Indian independence movement, and strongly continue to influence the politics of India, as well as being the heart of many contrasting ideologies that have caused ethnic and religious conflict in Indian society.
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The Indian pangolin, thick-tailed pangolin, or scaly anteater (Manis crassicaudata) is a pangolin found in the plains and hills of India, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Bhutan.
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The Indian Plate or India Plate is a major tectonic plate straddling the equator in the eastern hemisphere.
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The Indian Rebellion of 1857 refers to a rebellion in India against the rule of the East India Company, that ran from May 1857 to June 1858.
The Indian subcontinent or the subcontinent is a southern region of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
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Indo-Aryan are an ethno-linguistic group referring to the wide collection of peoples united as native speakers of the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-Iranian language family, and is in turn a member of the larger Indo-European language family.
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The Indo-Greek Kingdom or Graeco-Indian Kingdom was a Hellenistic kingdom covering various parts of the northwest regions of the Indian subcontinent (modern Afghanistan, Pakistan and North Western India) during the last two centuries BC, and was ruled by more than 30 kings, often in conflict with each other.
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Indo-Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of styles from various backgrounds that helped shape the architecture of the Indian subcontinent from the advent of Islam in the Indian subcontinent around the 7th century.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948, sometimes known as the First Kashmir War, was fought between India and Pakistan over the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu from 1947 to 1948.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between Pakistan and India.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was the direct military confrontation between India and Pakistan during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971.
Since the partition of British India in 1947 and creation of modern republics of India and Pakistan, the two South Asian countries have been involved in four wars, including one undeclared war, and many border skirmishes and military stand-offs.
"Indo-Persian culture" refers to those Persian aspects that have been integrated into or absorbed into the culture of South Asia, and in particular, into North India, and modern-day Pakistan.
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Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
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The Indus River, also called the Sindhū River (سنڌو دريا), or Abāsīn (اباسين) in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
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The Indus river dolphin (Platanista gangetica minor) is a subspecies of freshwater river dolphin found in the Indus river (and its Beas and Sutlej tributaries) of India and Pakistan.
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The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilisation (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE, pre-Harappan cultures starting c.7500 BCE) in northwest Indian subcontinent (including present day Pakistan, northwest India) and also in some regions in northeast Afghanistan.
Pakistan ranks as number 43-44 among the countries of the world in nominal GDP, 26th in GDP with purchasing power parity and Pakistan's industrial sector accounts for about 24% of GDP.
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Information technology in Pakistan is a growing and rising industry that has a lot of potential.
An inspector general is an investigative official in a civil or military organization.
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The Instrument of Accession is a legal document executed by Maharajah Hari Singh, ruler of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, on 26 October 1947.
The Instrument of Surrender (আত্মসমর্পনের দলিল) was a written agreement that enabled the surrender of West Pakistani forces in the Bangladesh Liberation War.
The Intelligence Bureau (Urdu:انٹليجنس بيورو; reporting name:IB), is an internal and counterespionage intelligence agency responsible for conducting domestic deep infiltration and extraction operations in the country.
The Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence (more commonly known as just the Inter-Services Intelligence or simply by its initials ISI) is the premier military operated intelligence service of Pakistan, operationally responsible for providing critical national security and intelligence assessment to the Government of Pakistan.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
The international community is a phrase used in international relations to refer to a broad group of peoples and governments of the world.
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The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 16 December 1966, and in force from 23 March 1976.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
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The International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA) is an intergovernmental organization based in Stockholm, Sweden.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, DC, of "188 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world".
The International Nathiagali Summer College on Physics and Contemporary Needs (INSC), was founded by Nobel laureate in Physics Dr.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
Interventionism is a term for a policy of non-defensive (proactive) activity undertaken by a nation-state, or other geo-political jurisdiction of a lesser or greater nature, to manipulate an economy or society.
Iran (or; ایران), historically known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia.
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The Persian Plateau, or Iranian Plateau, is a geological formation in Western Asia and Central Asia.
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There are an unknown small number of Iranians in Pakistan, the vast majority of whom live in Karachi and Lahore.
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Irreligion and atheism are present among a minority of mainly young people in Pakistan.
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Major General Sahibzada Sayyid Iskander Ali Mirza', CIE, OBE English IPA: ɪskɑndæɾ əɪiː mi(ə)ɹzə (ইস্কান্দার মীর্জা; اسکندر مرزا; November 13, 1899 – November 13, 1969), was the first President of Pakistan, serving from 1956 to 1958.
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Islam (There are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster). The most common are (Oxford English Dictionary, Random House) and (American Heritage Dictionary). الإسلام,: Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~. In Northwestern Africa, they do not have stress or lengthened vowels.) is a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a religious text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God, and, for the vast majority of adherents, by the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (circa 570–8 June 632 CE), considered by most of them to be the last prophet of God.
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Muslims constitute the world's second largest religious group.
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Islam is the second-largest religion in India, making up 14.2% of the country's population with about 172 million adherents (2011 census).
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Islamabad (اسلام آباد.) is the capital city of Pakistan located within the Islamabad Capital Territory.
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The Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT) (وفاقی دارالحکومت) is one of the two federal territories of Pakistan.
Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the foundation of Islam to the present day.
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The Islamic calendar, Muslim calendar or Hijri calendar (AH) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 days.
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The Islamization of the economy of Pakistan, refers to economic policies that started with General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq's "Islamisation" programme.
Islamic republic is the name given to several states in countries ruled by Islamic laws, including the Islamic Republics of Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan, and Mauritania.
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Israel, officially the State of Israel (מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל; دولة إِسْرَائِيل), is a country in West Asia, situated at the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Gulf of Aqaba in the Red Sea.
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The bilateral relations between the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the state of Israel have been complex since their establishment in 1947 and 1948 respectively, shifting from close ties to hostilities against each other.
Jahangir Khan, HI, (born 10 December 1963, in Karachi, Pakistan) (sometimes spelled "Jehangir Khan") is a former World No.
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Jainism in Pakistan has an extensive heritage and history, although Jains form a very small community in the Islamic Republic today.
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Jalaludin Abdur Rahim (Urdu: جلال الدين عبدرالرحيم; Bengali: জালালুদ্দিন আবদুর রহিম; also known as J.A. Rahim) (c1905–1977) was a Bengali communist and Nietzschean philosopher who was renowned as one of the founding members of the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP)— a democratic socialist political party.
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Jammu is the largest city in the Jammu Division and the winter capital of state of Jammu and Kashmir.
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Jammu and Kashmir is a state in northern India.
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Jammu and Kashmir was, from 1846 until 1952, a princely state in the British Empire in India, and was ruled by Jamwal Rajput Dogra Dynasty.
Jansher Khan (born 15 June 1969, in Peshawar, Pakistan) is a former World No.
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Japan (日本 Nippon or Nihon; formally or Nihon-koku, "State of Japan") is an island country in East Asia.
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(ジェトロ JETRO) is an independent government agency established by Japan Export Trade Research Organization as a nonprofit corporation in Osaka in February 1951, and reorganized as the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) in 1958 (later Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry or METI) to consolidate Japan's efforts in export promotion.
Jawaharlal Nehru (14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence.
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Jeans are trousers typically made from denim or dungaree cloth.
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Jhelum (Urdu, جہلم) (Alexandria Bucephalous) is a city on the right bank of the Jhelum River, in the district of the same name in the north of Punjab province, Pakistan.
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Jinnah International Airport (جناح بین الاقوامی ہوائی اڈا) is Pakistan's largest international and domestic airport.
. The Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee (Urdu: جوانٹ چيفس ﺁف اسٹاف كميٹى; Acronym:JCSC), is an administrative body of senior high-ranking uniformed military leaders of the unified Pakistan Armed Forces who advises the civilian Government of Pakistan, National Security Council, Defence Minister, President and Prime minister of Pakistan on important military and non-military strategic matters.
The Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation by WHO and UNICEF is the official United Nations mechanism tasked with monitoring progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) relating to drinking water and sanitation (MDG 7, Target 7c), which is to: "Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking-water and basic sanitation".
The Joint Staff Headquarters (reporting name:JS HQ), is the combatant joint-field operations secretariat and principal headquarters of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee established after Indo-Pakistani war of 1971 in Rawalpindi.
Jaun Elia (جون ایلیا, 14 December 1931 – 8 November 2002) was a Pakistani Urdu-language poet, philosopher, biographer, and scholar.
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The judiciary of Pakistan is a hierarchical system with two classes of courts: the superior (or higher) judiciary and the subordinate (or lower) judiciary.
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The jungle cat (Felis chaus), also called reed cat and swamp cat, is a medium-sized cat native to Asia from southern China in the east through Southeast and Central Asia to the Nile Valley in the west.
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Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae.
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The Juris Doctor degree (J.D. or JD) or Doctor of Jurisprudence degree (D.Jur. or DJur) is a professional doctorate Under "Data notes" this article mentions that the J.D. is a professional doctorate.
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K-Electric, formerly known as Karachi Electric Supply Company Limited and commonly referred to as KE is a Pakistani vertically integrated electric corporation involved in generating, transmitting and distributing power to around 20 million inhabitants of Karachi.
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K2, also known as Chhogori/Qogir, Ketu/Kechu, and Mount Godwin-Austen (Native Balti name: Chhoghori; Balti/Tibetan script: ཆོ་གོ་རི); Urdu: چھوغوری), is the second highest mountain in the world at, after Mount Everest. It is located on the China-Pakistan border between Baltistan, in the Gilgit–Baltistan region of northern Pakistan, and the Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County of Xinjiang, China. K2 is the highest point of the Karakoram Range and the highest point in Pakistan. K2 is known as the Savage Mountain due to the extreme difficulty of ascent and the second-highest fatality rate among the eight thousanders. With 302 summits and 80 fatalities, about one person dies on the mountain for every four who summit. It is more difficult and hazardous to reach the peak of K2 from the Chinese side; thus, it is usually climbed from the Pakistani side. Unlike Annapurna, the mountain with the highest fatality-to-summit rate (191 summits and 61 fatalities), K2 has never been climbed during winter.
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The Kaghan Valley (وادی کاغان) is an alpine-climate valley in Mansehra District of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan.
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Kalasha (also known as Kalasha-mondr) is an Indo-European language in the Indo-Aryan branch spoken by the Kalash people, further classified as a Dardic language in the Chitral group.
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The Kalasha (Kalasha: Kaĺaśa, Nuristani: Kasivo) or Kalash, are a Dardic indigenous people residing in the Chitral District of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
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Kalasha, also spelled as Kalash and kalasa (कलश;, literally "pitcher, pot"), is a metal (brass, copper, silver or gold) pot with a large base and small mouth, large enough to hold a coconut.
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Kalsoom Nawaz Sharif (Urdu: كلثوم نواز شريف; born: 1950) PhD, is the wife of 12th Prime minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif, and is currently the First Lady of Pakistan for the third non-consecutive term.
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The Kambojs (कम्बोज Kamboj, کمبوہ ALA-LC:, ਕੰਬੋਜ Kamboj), also Kamboh, is a community mainly in the Northern India and eastern Pakistan.
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Karachi (ڪراچي, کراچی / ALA-LC) is the capital of the province of Sindh, as well as the largest and most populous metropolitan city of Pakistan.
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Karachi Nuclear Power Complex or KNPC is located in Paradise Point, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
The Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE), is a stock exchange currently located at the Stock Exchange Building (SEB) on Stock Exchange Road, in the heart of Karachi's Business District, I. I. Chundrigar Road, Karachi, Sindh Province of Pakistan.
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The Karakoram, or Karakorum (سلسلہ کوہ قراقرم; Balti: ཁརན ཨ ཀུརམ, Uyghur), is a large mountain range spanning the borders between Pakistan, India and China, located in the regions of Gilgit–Baltistan (Pakistan), Ladakh (India), and southern Xinjiang (China).
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The Karakoram Highway (KKH) is one of the highest paved international roads in the world.
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Kargil is a district of Ladakh region in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.
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The Kargil War (करगिल युद्ध kargil yuddh, کرگل جنگ kargil jang), also known as the Kargil conflict, was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place between May and July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir and elsewhere along the Line of Control (LOC). In India, the conflict is also referred to as Operation Vijay (विजय, lit. "Victory") which was the name of the Indian operation to clear the Kargil sector. The cause of the war was the infiltration of Pakistani soldiers and Kashmiri militants into positions on the Indian side of the LOC, which serves as the de facto border between the two states. During the initial stages of the war, Pakistan blamed the fighting entirely on independent Kashmiri insurgents, but documents left behind by casualties and later statements by Pakistan's Prime Minister and Chief of Army Staff showed involvement of Pakistani paramilitary forces, led by General Ashraf Rashid. The Indian Army, later on supported by the Indian Air Force, recaptured a majority of the positions on the Indian side of the LOC infiltrated by the Pakistani troops and militants. With international diplomatic opposition, the Pakistani forces withdrew from the remaining Indian positions along the LOC. The war is one of the most recent examples of high-altitude warfare in mountainous terrain, which posed significant logistical problems for the combating sides. To date, it is also the only instance of direct, conventional warfare between nuclear states (i.e., those possessing nuclear weapons). India had conducted its first successful test in 1974; Pakistan, which had been developing its nuclear capability in secret since around the same time, conducted its first known tests in 1998, just two weeks after a second series of tests by India.
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Karimabad (كريم آباد) is the capital of Hunza Valley in Gilgit-Baltistan, northern Pakistan.
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Kashmir (Kashmiri:كشهير; کشمیر; کشمیر), archaically spelled Cashmere, is in the northwestern region of South Asia.
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The Kashmir conflict is a territorial conflict between India and Pakistan which started just after partition of India.
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Kashmir valley (وادی کشمیر; कश्मीर घाटी) is a valley located between the Karakoram and the Pir Panjal Range in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.
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Kashmiri (کأشُر), or Koshur, is a language from the Dardic subgroup of the Indo-Aryan languages and it is spoken primarily in the Kashmir Valley, in Jammu and Kashmir.
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The Kashmiris (کٲشُر لُکھ / कॉशुर लुख) are a Dardic ethnic group living in or originating from the Kashmir Valley, located in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.
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The Khan Research Laboratories, previously known at various times as Project-706, Engineering Research Laboratories, and Kahuta Research Laboratories, is a Pakistan Government's multi-program national research institute, managed and operated under the scrutiny of Pakistan Armed Forces, located in Kahuta, Punjab Province.
Khowar (کهووار), also known as Chitrali (چترالي) and Arniya, is an Indo-Aryan language of the Dardic branch, spoken by the Kho people in Chitral in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, in the Ghizer district of Gilgit-Baltistan (including the Yasin Valley, Phandar Ishkoman and Gupis), and in parts of Upper Swat.
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Khwaja Ghulam Farid (Urdu) or Khwaja Farid (1845–1901) – the most famous 19th-century sufi poet of the Indian subcontinent, polyglot, scholar and writer.
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Khyber Pakhtunkhwa abbreviated as KPK (خیبر پښتونخوا.), formerly known as '''North-West Frontier Province''' abbreviated as NWFP, in Urdu Sarhad (means Frontier), is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country.
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The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Police (formerly the Frontier Police) is responsible for law enforcement and policing in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
The Khyber Pass (تنگه یا گذرگاه خیبر., د خیبر درہ, در خیبر.) (elevation) is a mountain pass connecting Afghanistan and Pakistan, cutting through the northeastern part of the Spin Ghar mountains.
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The ancient site at Kot Diji (کوٹ ڈیجی) was the forerunner of the Indus Civilization.
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Kuwait (دولة الكويت), officially the State of Kuwait, is a country in Western Asia.
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The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty, which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits State Parties to reduce greenhouse gases emissions, based on the premise that (a) global warming exists and (b) man-made CO2 emissions have caused it.
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Pakistan has one of the largest labour and manpower resources in the world, due to its large population, which is the sixth largest in the world.
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Ladakh ("land of high passes") (Ladakhi: ལ་དྭགས la'dwags; लद्दाख़; لَدّاخ) is a region in Jammu and Kashmir that currently extended from the Kuen Lun mountain range to the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people of Indo-Aryan and Tibetan descent.
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Lahore (ALA-LC:; لہور, لاہور ALA-LC) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, the second largest metropolitan area in the country and 16th most populous city in the world.
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Lahore Electric Supply Company (LESCO) is an electric distribution company which supplies electricity to Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
The Lahore Fort, locally referred to as Shahi Qila (Punjabi, شاہی قلعہ), is a citadel in the city of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
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The Lahore Resolution (قرارداد لاہور, Qarardad-e-Lahore; Bengali: লাহোর প্রস্তাব, Lahor Prostab), also known as the Pakistan Resolution (قرارداد پاکستان, Qarardad-e-Pakistan), was a formal political statement adopted by the All-India Muslim League on the occasion of its three-day general session in Lahore on March 22–24, 1940.
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Saiful Muluk (جھیل سیف الملوک.) is a mountainous lake located at the northern end of the Kaghan Valley, near the town of Naran.
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Sayed Muhammad Usman Marwandi Sarah Ansari (1971) Sufi Saints and State Power: The Pirs of Sindh, 1843–1947.
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Lal Sohanra is a national park of Pakistan situated in Bahawalpur district of Punjab province, which is one of the largest nationals parks in South Asia.
Pakistan's national language is Urdu and its official language is English.
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Larry Lee Pressler (born March 29, 1942) is a U.S. politician from South Dakota.
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Lassi (La'See) is a popular, traditional, yogurt-based drink from the Indian Subcontinent and is popular in India.
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In politics, law and order refers to demands for a strict criminal justice system, especially in relation to violent and property crime, through stricter criminal penalties.
The Law enforcement in Pakistan (Urdu: قانون نافذ کرنے والے ادارے) is one of the three main components criminal justice system of Pakistan, alongside with the courts and the corrections.
The Legal Framework Order, 1970 (LFO) was a decree issued by then-President of Pakistan Gen.
A legislature is the law-making body of a political unit, usually a national government, that has power to enact, amend, and repeal public policy.
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The leopard (Panthera pardus) is one of the five "big cats" in the genus Panthera.
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Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan (Næʍābzādāh Liāqat Alī Khān, Urdu and لیاقت علی خان; October 1895 – 16 October 1951), often simply referred as Liaquat, was one of the leading Founding Fathers of modern Pakistan, statesman, lawyer, and political theorist who became and served as the first Prime Minister of Pakistan; in addition, he was also the first Defence Minister of Pakistan, the first Finance Minister of India, and the minister of Commonwealth and Kashmir Affairs from 1947 until his assassination in 1951.
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Liberal movements within Islam involve professed Muslims who have produced a considerable body of liberal thought on the re-interpretation and reform of Islamic understanding and practice.
The term Line of Control (LoC) refers to the military control line between the Indian and Pakistani controlled parts of the former princely state of Kashmir and Jammu—a line which, to this day, does not constitute a legally recognized international boundary but is the de facto border.
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A lingua franca (plural lingua francas), also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language or vehicular language, is a language or dialect systematically (as opposed to occasionally, or casually) used to make communication possible between persons not sharing a native language or dialect, in particular when it is a third language, distinct from both native languages.
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The Pakistan aviation industry was started up when Orient Airways merged with Pakistan International Airlines Corporation (PIAC) to become the national flag carrier of Pakistan called Pakistan International Airlines (PIA).
This page lists the civil airports, military airbases and small airports in Pakistan.
A Chief Minister in Pakistan is the elected Head of Government of one of Pakistan's four Provinces or the two non-provincial sub-national territories that have assemblies.
This is a list of the world's sovereign states and their dependent territories by area, ranked by its total area.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population with inclusion within the list being based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1.
Countries are sorted by nominal GDP estimates from financial and statistical institutions, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates.
This article includes a list of countries in the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a state in a given year.
This is a sortable list of countries by number of Internet users as of 2013.
This is a list of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel.
The Districts of Pakistan (اِضلاعِ پاكِستان), are the third order administrative divisions of Pakistan.
At present, there are six dry ports running under the management of Pakistan Railways.
Pakistan is situated at the north western side of the Indian subcontinent and overlaps both with the Indian and the Eurasian tectonic plates.
This is a list of electric supply companies in Pakistan.
A Governor in Pakistan is the appointed Head of Government of a province.
There are at least 109 mountains with elevations greater than above sea level.
The Government of the United Kingdom maintains intelligence agencies within several different government departments.
Pakistan is home to many mountains above.
Pakistan is home to 108 peaks above 7,000 metres.
Following is a list of newspapers in Pakistan.
The Nobel Prizes (Nobelpriset, Nobelprisen) are prizes awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institute, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.
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The Nuclear testing series programme refers to an active military programme directed towards the development of techniques of experimenting nuclear forces and further investigations of the blast effects.
The Founders and activists of the Pakistan Movement, also known as Founding Fathers of Pakistan, were the political leaders and statespersons who participated in the success of the political movement, following the signing of the Pakistan Resolution, that led the establishment and creation of Pakistan on August 1947.
The National Assembly of Pakistan (Urdu: ایوان زیریں پاکستان) is the lower house of the bicameral Majlis-e-Shura.
The Prime Minister of Pakistan is the political leader and head of government of the country, and is responsible for nominating the rest of the government, chairing Cabinet meetings and deciding when to call general elections for the National Assembly.
The four provincial governments of Pakistan administer the four provinces of Pakistan.
The following is a list of schools in Pakistan, categorized by province/territory and by district.
There are eight sovereign states that have successfully detonated nuclear weapons.
This is a list of television channels in Pakistan.
This is the list of major terrorist incidents in Pakistan.
The higher education in Pakistan is the systematic process of students continuing their education beyond high schools, learned societies, and two-year colleges.
Literacy is traditionally understood as the ability to read and write.
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Literary realism is part of the realist art movement beginning with mid nineteenth-century French literature (Stendhal), and Russian literature (Alexander Pushkin) and extending to the late nineteenth and early twentieth century.
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Literature, in its broadest sense, is any written work; etymologically the term derives from Latin litaritura/litteratura "writing formed with letters", although some definitions include spoken or sung texts.
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The 2001 Local Government Ordinance provides for devolution of government to district administrations.
The Lodi dynasty (Lodhi) (لودی) was a Pashtun dynasty that ruled Delhi Sultanate from 1451 to 1526.
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Lollywood (لالی وڈ) is Pakistani film industry based in the city of Lahore.
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A low-cost carrier or low-cost airline (also known as a ''no-frills'', ''discount'' or budget carrier or airline, or LCC) is an airline that generally has lower fares and fewer comforts.
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A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house.
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The Lower Paleolithic (or Lower Palaeolithic) is the earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.
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Lulusar-Dodipat National Park is located in the Kaghan Valley in Mansehra District of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Lyric poetry is a form of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically spoken in the first person.
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Mian Mohammad Sharif (Urdu: محمد شریف; b. 1893—d. 1965) TI, best known as M.M. Sharif, was an influential philosopher, clergyman, and college professor.
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Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix makro- meaning "large" and economics) is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole, rather than individual markets.
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Macromanagement is the act of leading decision makers or managing the managers.
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Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس,, Medrese) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion).
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Madrassas of Pakistan are Islamic seminaries in Pakistan, known as Madaris-e-Deeniya in Urdu.
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Major non-NATO ally (MNNA) is a designation given by the United States government to close allies who have strategic working relationships with U.S. Armed Forces but are not members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
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A majority is a subset of a set consisting of more than half of the set's elements.
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Majority rule is a decision rule that selects alternatives which have a majority, that is, more than half the votes.
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Malala Yousafzai S.St (Malālah Yūsafzay, ملاله یوسفزۍ; born 12 July 1997) is a Pakistani activist for female education and the youngest-ever Nobel Prize laureate.
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Malik Meraj Khalid (ملک معراج خالد; 20 September 1916 – 13 June 2003), was a Pakistani left wing statesman and Marxist philosopher who served as the acting Prime Minister of Pakistan from November 1996 until February 1997.
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Mamnoon Hussain (ممنون حسین; born 23 December 1940) is a Pakistani textile businessman, nationalist conservative, and politician who has served as the President of Pakistan since 9 September 2013.
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Launched in 1971, UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) is an Intergovernmental Scientific Programme that aims to establish a scientific basis for the improvement of relationships between people and their environments.
Management science (MS), is the broad interdisciplinary study of problem solving and decision making in human organizations, with strong links to economics, business, engineering, and other sciences.
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Mangroves are various large and extensive types of trees up to medium height and shrubs that grow in saline coastal sediment habitats in the tropics and subtropics—mainly between latitudes ° N and ° S.
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Manzoor Ahmed, DSc (Urdu: منظور احمد; born 11 March 1934) is a Pakistani scientist and philosopher of science.
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The Marco Polo sheep (Ovis ammon polii) is a subspecies of argali sheep, named after Marco Polo.
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Mardan (مردان) is a city and headquarters of Mardan District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan.
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A maritime boundary is a conceptual division of the Earth's water surface areas using physiographic or geopolitical criteria.
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The markhor (Capra falconeri; مرغومی marǧūmi; Persian/Urdu) is a large species of wild goat that is found in north-eastern Afghanistan, northern Pakistan, Kashmir, southern Tajikistan and southern Uzbekistan.
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Martensite, named after the German metallurgist Adolf Martens (1850–1914), most commonly refers to a very hard form of steel crystalline structure, but it can also refer to any crystal structure that is formed by diffusionless transformation.
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Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that analyzes class relations and societal conflict, that uses a materialist interpretation of historical development, and a dialectical view of social transformation.
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The Masjid al-Ḥarām (المسجد الحرام, literally "the sacred mosque"), also called the Sacred Mosque, and the Grand Mosque or Great Mosque of Mecca, is the largest mosque in the world and surrounds Islam's holiest place, the Kaaba, in the city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia.
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Originally from Pakistan, Masood Ashraf Raja (Urdu: مسعود اشرف راجہ) is an Associate Professor of Postcolonial literature and Theory at the University of North Texas and the editor of Pakistaniaat: A Journal of Pakistan Studies, an open access journal that he founded in 2009.
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The Master of Business Administration (MBA or M.B.A.) is a master's degree in business administration (management).
The Master of Laws is an academic degree, pursued by those either holding an undergraduate academic law degree, a professional law degree, or an undergraduate degree in a related subject.
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Material physics is the use of physics to describe materials in many different ways such as force, heat, light and mechanics.
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Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, “knowledge, study, learning”) is the study of topics such as quantity (numbers), structure, space, and change.
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The Maurya Empire, also known as the Mauryan Empire, was a geographically extensive Iron Age historical power in ancient India, ruled by the Maurya dynasty from 322–185 BCE.
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Mazar-e-Quaid (مزار قائد), also known as the Jinnah Mausoleum or the National Mausoleum, is the final resting place of Quaid-e-Azam (Great Leader) Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, as well as his sister, Māder-e Millat (Mother of the Nation) Fatima Jinnah, and Liaquat Ali Khan, the first Prime Minister of Pakistan.
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Mecca (مكة), also transliterated Makkah, is a city in the Hejaz in Saudi Arabia.
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Mehrgarh (Balochi: Mehrgaŕh; مهرګړ; مہرگڑھ), sometimes anglicized as Mehergarh or Mehrgar, near the capital of the Kachi District Dadhar, is one of the most important Neolithic (6500 BCE to c. 2500 BCE) sites in archaeology.
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Menander I Soter (Μένανδρος Α΄ ὁ Σωτήρ, Ménandros A' ho Sōtḗr, "Menander I the Saviour"; known in Indian Pali sources as Milinda) was a Greek King of the Indo-Greek Kingdom (165/Bopearachchi (1998) and (1991), respectively. The first date is estimated by Osmund Bopearachchi and R. C. Senior, the other Boperachchi/155 –130 BC) who established a large empire in South Asia and became a patron of Buddhism.
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Mīān Muhammad Bakhsh (میاں محمد بخش.) was a Sufi saint and a Hindko poet.
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The middle class is a class of people in the middle of a social hierarchy.
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The Middle EastArabic: الشرق الأوسط,; Armenian: Միջին Արևելք, Merdzavor Arevelk’; Azerbaijani: Orta Şərq; French: Moyen-Orient; Georgian: ახლო აღმოსავლეთი, akhlo aghmosavleti; Greek: Μέση Ανατολή, Mési Anatolí; Hebrew: המזרח התיכון, Ha'Mizrah Ha'Tihon; Kurdish: Rojhilata Navîn; Persian: خاورمیانه, khāvar-miyāneh; Somali: Bariga Dhexe; Soranî Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, rrojhellatî nayn; Turkish: Orta Doğu; Urdu: مشرق وسطی, hashrq vsty (also called the Mid East) is a eurocentric description of a region centered on Western Asia and Egypt.
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Middle Eastern cuisine is the cuisine of the various countries and peoples of the Middle East.
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In international relations, a middle power is a sovereign state that is not a superpower or a great power, but still has large or moderate influence and international recognition.
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A middle school or junior high school is a school for students older than elementary school, but not yet in high school.
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Military coups in Pakistan began in 1958 and there have been three successful attempts.
A military exercise or war game is the employment of military resources in training for military operations, either exploring the effects of warfare or testing strategies without actual combat.
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The military history of Pakistan (تاريخ عسكری پاكِستان.) encompasses an immense panorama of conflicts and struggles extending for more than 2,000 years across areas constituting modern Pakistan, and the greater South Asia.
Britain, along with most of its dominions, Crown colonies, and British India, declared war on Nazi Germany in 1939.
Minar-e-Pakistan (مینارِ پاکستان / ALA-LC:, literally "Tower of Pakistan") is a public monument located in Iqbal Park which is one of the largest urban parks in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
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A miniseries (also mini-series) is a television program that tells a story in a predetermined, limited number of episodes.
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The Education Minister of Pakistan heads the Ministry of Education.
The Ministry of Labour of Pakistan is a government ministry responsible for Labour relations in Pakistan.
The Ministry of Overseas Pakistanis and Human Resource Development is a ministry of the Government of Pakistan that oversees matters concerning Overseas Pakistanis and human resource development in Pakistan.
Shams-ul-Ulema Mirza Kalich Beg (شمس العلما مرزا قليچ بيگ) is a renowned scholar hailed for his contributions to the Sindhi literature.
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Mogadishu (Muqdisho; مقديشو), known locally as Xamar (Hamar), is the largest and capital city of Somalia.
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Mohammad Ali Jouhar (10 December 1878 – 4 January 1931), also known as Maulana Mohammad Ali Jauhar (Arabic: مَولانا مُحمّد علی جَوہر), was an Indian Muslim leader, activist, scholar, journalist and poet, and was among the leading figures of the Khilafat Movement.
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Mohenjo-daro (موهن جو دڙو, موئن جو دڑو, IPA:, lit. Mound of the Dead) is an archeological site in the province of Sindh, Pakistan.
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The Monarchy of Pakistan (the Pakistani monarchy) was the system of government in which a hereditary monarch was the sovereign of the Dominion of Pakistan from 1947 to 1956.
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The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles), existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
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Mongoose is the popular English name for 29 of 34 species in the 14 genera of the family Herpestidae, which are small carnivorans that are native to southern Eurasia and mainland Africa.
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Monsoon (UK:; US) is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
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Montane ecology is the branch of ecology that studies life systems on mountains or other high elevation regions on the Earth.
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Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
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Morus, a genus of flowering plants in the family Moraceae, comprises 10–16 species of deciduous trees commonly known as mulberries growing wild and under cultivation in many temperate world regions.
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The motorways of Pakistan are a network of multiple-lane, high-speed, limited-access or controlled-access highways in Pakistan, which are owned, maintained and operated federally by Pakistan's National Highway Authority.
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The movement to impeach Pervez Musharraf was an August 2008 attempt by the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP), the Pakistan Muslim League (N) (PML-N), Awami National Party (ANP), and Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam to force Pakistan's President Pervez Musharraf out of office.
The mugger crocodile (Crocodylus palustris.
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Mughal architecture is an architectural style developed by the Mughals in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries throughout the extent of their empire in the Indian subcontinent.
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The Mughal Empire or Mogul Empire, self-designated as Gurkani (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān, meaning "son-in-law"), was an empire established and ruled by a Persianate dynasty of Chagatai Turco-Mongol origin that extended over large parts of the Indian subcontinent and Afghanistan.
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Muhajir or Mahajir (مہاجر, مهاجر), is an Arabic-origin term used in Pakistan in some regions to describe Muslim immigrants and their descendants of multi-ethnic origin who migrated from regions of India and settled in the newly formed state of Pakistan after the Partition of India during the Independence of India and Pakistan from British rule in 1947.
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Muhammad Ali Jinnah, મુહમ્મદ અલી જિન્ના, محمد علی جناح (born Mahomedali Jinnahbhai; 25 December 1876 – 11 September 1948) was a lawyer, politician, and the founder of Pakistan.
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Muhammad Asad (محمد أسد, born Leopold Weiss; 2 July 1900 – 20 February 1992) was a Jewish-born Austro-Hungarian journalist, traveler, writer, linguist, thinker, political theorist, diplomat and Islamic scholar.
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‘Imād ad-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Qāsim ath-Thaqafī (عماد الدين محمد بن القاسم الثقفي; c. 31 December 69518 July 715) was an Umayyad general who conquered the Sindh and Multan regions along the Indus River (now a part of Pakistan) for the Umayyad Caliphate.
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Sir Muhammad Iqbal (محمد اقبال) (9 November 1877 – 21 April 1938), widely known as Allama Iqbal (علامہ اقبال), was an academic, poet, barrister, philosopher, and politician in British India who is widely regarded as having inspired the Pakistan Movement.
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Admiral Muhammad Zakaullah (Urdu: محمد ذكاءالله; HI(M), SI(M), TI(M)), is a four-star rank admiral and the current Chief of Naval Staff of the Pakistan Navy having been promoted to the four-star assignment on 2 October 2014.
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Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (محمد ضياء الحق; 12 August 1924 – 17 August 1988), was a Pakistani general, who served as the 6th President of Pakistan from 1978 until his death in 1988, having declared martial law for the third time in the country's history in 1977.
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"Sharization" or "Islamisation" was the "primary" policy, or "centerpiece" of the government of General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, the ruler of Pakistan from 1977 until his death in 1988.
Mujahideen (المجاهدين) is the plural form of mujahid (مجاهد), the term for one engaged in Jihad.
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The Mukti Bahini (মুক্তি বাহিনী meaning Freedom Fighters or Liberation Forces; also known as the Bangladesh Forces) is a popular Bengali term which refers to the guerrilla resistance movement formed by East Pakistani military, paramilitary and civilians during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971.
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Multan (مُلتان), is a city in Punjab, Pakistan.
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Multan International Airport (مُلتان بین الاقوامی ہوائی اڈہ) is situated 4 km west of the city Multan in Punjab, Pakistan.
A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have a similar or equal chance of gaining control of government offices, separately or in coalition government.
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Murtaza Javed Abbasi (مرتضٰی جاوید عباسی.; born 15 March 1970) is the current and 18th Deputy Speaker of the National Assembly, a lower house of Parliament of State of Pakistan.
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A Muslim, sometimes spelled Moslem, relates to a person who follows the religion of Islam, a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the Quran.
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Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 12th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into modern Afghanistan and Pakistan as early as the time of the Rajput kingdoms in the 8th century.
Muslim nationalism in South Asia refers to the political and cultural expression of nationalism, founded upon the religious tenets and identity of Islam, of the Muslims of South Asia.
Muslim population growth refers to the topic of population growth of the global Muslim community.
The term Muslim world, also known as Islamic world and the (أمة, meaning "nation" or "community") has different meanings.
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Mutual assured destruction, or mutually assured destruction (MAD), is a doctrine of military strategy and national security policy in which a full-scale use of high-yield weapons of mass destruction by two or more opposing sides would cause the complete annihilation of both the attacker and the defender (see Pre-emptive nuclear strike and Second strike).
Muzaffarabad (مُظفَّرآباد; Pahari, Potwari) is the capital of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.
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The Minimum Credible Deterrence (MCD; officially names as N-deterrence), is a defence and strategic principle on which the atomic weapons programme of Pakistan is based.
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Naeem Ashraf Raja (Urdu: نعیم اشرف راجہ) is the Director of biodiversity in the Federal Government of Pakistan.
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Nanga Parbat (literally, Naked Mountain Urdu) is the ninth highest mountain in the world at above sea level.
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A nation state is a geographical area that can be identified as deriving its political legitimacy from serving as a sovereign nation.
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The Pakistani National Assembly (قومی اسمبلئ پاکستان—); is the lower house of the bicameral Majlis-e-Shura, which also comprises the President of Pakistan and Senate (upper house).
The National Command Authority, (Urdu: نيشنل كمانڈ اتھارٹى; abbreviated as NCA), is the apex civilian led command to oversee the employment, policy formulation, exercises, deployment, research and development, and operational command and control of Pakistan's nuclear arsenals.
The National Counter Terrorism Authority (reporting name: NACTA), is an internal counterextremism intelligence agency and the tactical special weapons law enforcement force which uses military-style light weapons and specialized tactics in high-risk operations that fall outside of the capabilities of regular and uniformed police.
The National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA) is responsible for regulating electricity in Pakistan.
The 185,000-member National Guard, is a paramilitary force comprising the Mujahid Force and the Janbaz Force, a locally recruited militia mainly charged with air defense, and two programs similar to the United States Reserve Officers Training Corps, the National Cadet Corps and the Women's Guard.
The National Highway Authority is responsible for building and maintaining highways and motorways in Pakistan.
National Highways & Motorway Police (NH&MP) is a police force in Pakistan that is responsible for enforcement of traffic and safety laws, security and recovery on Pakistan's National Highways and Motorway network.
SUP The National Highways of Pakistan consists of all public highways maintained by National Highways Authority under the Ministry of Transport.
The National Institute of Oceanography, commonly known as NIO, is an executive and federal department of Pakistan Government, and a major research institute of Ministry of Science and Technology.
The National Intelligence Directorate (Urdu: نيشنل انٹلیجنس ڈائريكٹوريٹ; NID), is a national intelligence estimate authority to integrate foreign, military and domestic intelligence in the national interests of Pakistan.
The National Library of Pakistan (Urdu: قومى لأبيرى), is the national and the research library located in the vicinity of the Constitutional Avenue, Islamabad, Pakistan.
A national poet or national bard is a poet held by tradition and popular acclaim to represent the identity, beliefs and principles of a particular national culture.
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National Refinery Limited (NRL) is a Oil refinery based in Korangi area of in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
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A national sport or national pastime is a sport or game that is considered to be an intrinsic part of the culture of a nation.
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The Nationalization process in Pakistan (or historically simply regarded as the "Nationalization in Pakistan") was a policy measure programme in the economic history of Pakistan, first introduced, promulgated and implemented by people-elected Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and the Pakistan Peoples Party in order to lay the foundation of socialist economics reforms to improve the growth of national economy of Pakistan.
Natural gas is a fossil fuel formed when layers of decomposing plant and animal matter are exposed to intense heat and pressure over thousands of years.
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The phrase nature and nurture relates to the relative importance of an individual's innate qualities ("nature" in the sense of nativism or innatism) as compared to an individual's personal experiences ("nurture" in the sense of empiricism or behaviorism) in causing individual differences, especially in behavioral traits.
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Naval Headquarters (NHQ) is the headquarters of Pakistan Navy established in 1947 at Karachi.
Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif (میاں محمد نواز شریف.,; born 25 December 1949) is the 18th and current Prime Minister of Pakistan in office since June 2013.
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A necktie or simply tie is a long piece of cloth worn for decorative purposes around the neck, resting under the shirt collar and knotted at the throat.
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The Neolithic Age, Era, or Period, from νέος (néos, "new") and λίθος (líthos, "stone"), or New Stone Age, was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world from First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies by Peter Bellwood, 2004 and ending between 4,500 and 2,000 BC.
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There is a small community of Nepalis in Pakistan (پاکستانی نیپالی) who are mostly descendants of Nepalese Gurkhas who served in the Punjab Army as well as recent migrants from Nepal.
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The New Wave of British Heavy Metal (commonly abbreviated in NWOBHM) was a nation-wide musical movement that started in the late 1970s in the United Kingdom and achieved international attention by the early 1980s.
The Next Eleven (known also by the numeronym N-11) are the eleven countries – Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines, Turkey, South Korea and Vietnam – identified by Goldman Sachs investment bank and economist Jim O'Neill in a research paper as having a high potential of becoming, along with the BRICs, among the world's largest economies in the 21st century.
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The nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus), sometimes called nilgau, is the largest Asian antelope.
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Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher,, by Zoltán Gendler Szabó, in Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers, 1860–1960, ed.
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The Nobel Peace Prize (Norwegian and Swedish: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
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The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.
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Non-denominational Muslims are Muslims who adhere to a form of Islam that is not restricted to any specific denomination.
North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere.
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North India (उत्तर भारत, ਉੱਤਰ ਭਾਰਤ, شمالي هندستان) is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India.
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North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), is a country in East Asia, in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
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North Pakistan (شمالی پاکستان) is the northern part of Pakistan.
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The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) was a former province created by the British in their controlled territories in Indian Subcontinent then called British India.
Northwestern India is a region which is not yet officially defined.
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Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk)), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a sovereign and unitary monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus Jan Mayen and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard.
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Nowshera (Pashto: نوښار) - known locally as Nowkhaar or Nowshaar is the chief city of Nowshera District in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan.
The Nuclear doctrine of State of Pakistan (otherwise referred as Option-enhancing Policy (OeP); or simply: Nuclear doctrine), is a theoretical concept of military strategy that promotes the deterrence by guaranteeing an immediate "massive retaliation" to an aggressive attacks against the state.
A nuclear family or elementary family is a family group consisting of a pair of adults and their children.
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As of 2012, nuclear power in Pakistan is provided by 3 licensed-commercial nuclear power plants.
A nuclear power plant is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor.
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A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or a combination of fission and fusion (thermonuclear weapon).
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Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life.
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An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
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Oil and Gas Development Company Limited commonly known as OGDCL is a Pakistani multinational oil and gas company.
An oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas.
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Oil reserves are the amount of technically and economically recoverable oil.
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The modern Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques) are the leading international sporting event featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.
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Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country in the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
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An Ommaya reservoir is an intraventricular catheter system that can be used for the aspiration of cerebrospinal fluid or for the delivery of drugs (e.g. chemotherapy) into the cerebrospinal fluid.
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Operation Black Thunderstorm was an aggressive military operation that commenced on April 26, 2009 conducted by the Pakistan Army, with the aim of retaking Buner, Lower Dir, Swat and Shangla districts from the Taliban after the militants took control of them since the start of the year.
Operation Cyclone was the code name for the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) program to arm and finance the Afghan mujahideen prior to and during the Soviet war in Afghanistan, from 1979 to 1989.
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Operation Fair Play was the code name for the 5 July 1977 coup by Pakistan Chief of Army Staff General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq overthrowing the government of Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.
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Operation Gothic Serpent was a military operation conducted by United States special operations forces with the primary mission of capturing faction leader Mohamed Farrah Aidid.
The Operation Rah-e-Nijat (Path to Salvation; Urdu: آپریشن راہ نجات) was a strategic offensive military operation by the unified command of Pakistan Armed Forces against the Tehrik-i-Taliban (TTP) and their extremist allies in the South Waziristan area of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas that began on June 19, 2009; a major ground-naval-air offensive was subsequently launched on October 17.
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Operation Searchlight was a planned military operation carried out by the Pakistan Army to curb the Bengali nationalist movement in the erstwhile East Pakistan in March 1971.
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The Orangi Pilot Project (OPP) collectively designates three Pakistani Non-governmental organisations working together, having emerged from a socially innovative project carried out in 1980s in the squatter areas of Orangi Town, Karachi, Pakistan.
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The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; منظمة التعاون الإسلامي; Organisation de la coopération islamique, OCI)Upon the groups's renaming, some sources provided the English-language translation "Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation", but and have since indicated the preferred English translation omits the "the".
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Pakistan: Pakistan – sovereign country located in South-central Asia.
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The Pakistani diaspora refers to overseas Pakistanis, who are Pakistani citizens that have migrated to another country, as well as people who are of Pakistani descent.
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Pak-Arab Refinery (PARCO) is a fully integrated energy company and is the second largest company in the Pakistan’s corporate sector by sales (PKR 250BN+) and has an asset base of over PKR 141 billion.
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The Pakistan Academy of Letters (PAL) is a national academy with its main focus on Pakistani literature and related fields.
The Pakistan Academy of Sciences (Urdu: پاکستان اكيڈ مى ﺁف سائنسز; abbreviated as: PAS), is a learned society of sciences, which described itself as "a repository of the highest scientific talent available in the country." Established in 1953 in Lahore, Punjab, the Academy acts as a consultative forum and scientific advisor to the Pakistan government on important aspects on the affairs of all forms of science– the social and physical sciences.
The Pakistan Air Force (PAF) (پاک فِضائیہ—,, reporting name: PAF), is the aerial warfare branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces, primarily tasked with the aerial defence of Pakistan with a secondary role of providing air support to the Pakistan Army and the Pakistan Navy.
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Pakistan is one of nine states to poses nuclear weapons, and the only Muslim majority country to do so. Pakistan began development of nuclear weapons in January 1972 under Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, who delegated the program to the Chairman of PAEC Munir Ahmad Khan with a commitment to have the bomb ready by the end of 1976.http://www.thenews.com.pk/Todays-News-9-296851-An-indomitable-man Since PAEC, consisting of over twenty laboratories and projects under nuclear engineer, Munir Ahmad Khan was falling behind schedule and having considerable difficulty producing fissile material, Abdul Qadeer Khan was brought from Europe by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto at the end of 1974. As pointed out by Houston Wood, Professor of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, USA in his article on gas centrifuges, "The most difficult step in building a nuclear weapon is the production of fissile material", so this work in producing fissile material as head of the Kahuta Project was pivotal to Pakistan developing the capability to detonate a nuclear bomb by the end of 1984.Levy, Adrian and Catherine Scott-Clark, Deception: Pakistan, the United States, and the Secret Trade in Nuclear Weapons. New York. Walker Publishing Company. 1977: page 112. Print.http://www.thenews.com.pk/Todays-News-9-252241-A-historic-day The Kahuta Project started under the supervision of a coordination board that oversaw the activities of ERL and the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). The Board consisted of Mr A G N Kazi (secretary general, finance), Mr Ghulam Ishaq Khan (secretary general, defence) and Mr Agha Shahi (secretary general, foreign affairs) and reported directly to Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. Mr. Ghulam Ishaq Khan and General Tikka Khan appointed military engineer, Major General Ali Nawab to the program. Eventually, the supervison passed to Lt General Zahid Ali Akbar in President General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq's Administration. Moderate uranium enrichment for the production of fissile material was achieved at KRL by April 1978. Pakistan's nuclear weapons development was in response to neighboring India's development of its nuclear programme. Bhutto called a meeting of senior scientists and engineers on 20 January 1972, in Multan, which came to known as "Multan meeting". Bhutto was the main architect of this programme, and it was here that Bhutto orchestrated nuclear weapons programme and rallied Pakistan's academic scientists to build the atomic bomb in three years for national survival. At the Multan meeting, Bhutto also appointed Munir Ahmad Khan as chairman of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), who, until then, had been working as Director at the nuclear power and Reactor Division of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in Vienna, Austria. In December 1972, Abdus Salam led the establishment of Theoretical Physics Group (TPG) as he called scientists working at ICTP to report to Munir Ahmad Khan. This marked the beginning of Pakistan's pursuit of nuclear deterrence capability. Following India's surprise nuclear test, codenamed ''Smiling Buddha'' in 1974, the first confirmed nuclear test by a nation outside the permanent five members of the United Nations Security Council, the goal to develop nuclear weapons received considerable impetus. Finally, on 28 May 1998, a few weeks after India's second nuclear test (Operation Shakti), Pakistan detonated five nuclear devices in the Ras Koh Hills in the Chagai district, Balochistan. This operation was named Chagai-I by Pakistan, the underground iron-steel tunnel having been long-constructed by provincial martial law administrator General Rahimuddin Khan during the 1980s. The last test of Pakistan was conducted at the sandy Kharan Desert under the codename Chagai-II, also in Balochistan, on 30 May 1998. Pakistan's fissile material production takes place at Nilore, Kahuta, and Khushab/Jauharabad, where weapons-grade plutonium is refined. Pakistan thus became the seventh country in the world to successfully develop and test nuclear weapons. Although, according to a letter sent by A.Q. Khan to General Zia, the capability to detonate a nuclear bomb using highly enriched uranium as fissile material produced at KRL had been achieved by KRL in 1984.
The Pakistan Antarctic Programme (PAP) is a scientific administrative division of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST) which represents the Government of Pakistan on the continent of Antarctica.
The Pakistan Armed Forces (پاک مُسَلّح افواج, Musallah Afwaj-e-Pakistan) are the military forces of Pakistan.
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Pakistan Armed Forces deployments include all Pakistani military deployments that are stationed outside Pakistan and serving in other countries.
The Pakistan Army (پاک فوج Pak Fauj (IPA: pɑk fɒ~ɔd͡ʒ); Reporting name: PA) is the land-based service branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces.
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The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), (Urdu), is an independent governmental authority and a scientific research institution, concerned with research and development of nuclear power, promotion of nuclear science, energy conservation and the peaceful usage of nuclear technology.
Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (Urdu: ریڈیو پاکستان; reporting name: PBC), also known as Radio Pakistan, is a public radio broadcasting network, as well as a mass-media state-owned megacorporation in Pakistan.
Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority (پاکستان سول ایوی ایشن اتھارٹی) is a regulatory authority, which oversees and regulates all aspects of civil aviation in Pakistan.
Pakistan Declaration (titled Now or Never; Are We to Live or Perish Forever?) was a pamphlet written and published by Choudhary Rahmat Ali, on 28 January 1933, in which the word Pakstan (without the letter "i") was used for the first time and was presented in the Round Table conferences in 1933.
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Pakistan International Airlines (پاکستان انٹرنیشنل ایئر لائنز) commonly known as PIA or Pakistan International is the national flag carrier airline of Pakistan.
The Pakistan Marines; English IPA: pɑkʰ məriːniz or/ simply Marines; reporting name PM), is an expeditionary and naval warfare uniform service branch of Pakistan Armed Forces that consists of active duty high-ranking officers and personnel of the Pakistan Navy. The Pakistan Marines are responsible for providing force projection from the sea, using the mobility of the Pakistan Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. Established in 1990, it is estimated about 2,000 active-duty personnel from the Navy, with plans to grow to brigade strength by 2015. In a military leadership structure, the Marines are a component of Pakistan Navy, often working closely with the Navy for training, executing expeditionary operations and logistics purposes. The Marines are not the separate branch but a part of Pakistan Navy. The Marines were first formed as an amphibious battalion on 1 June 1971, in East-Pakistan as naval infantry to execute operations; however after producing a poor performance in the 1971 war with India, the Marines were disbanded from their service in 1974. In 1990, the Marines were re-established by Commander Obaidullah; since then they have been a part of Navy, often conducting operations with the Pakistan naval forces. Pakistan Marines are primarily tasked with defending naval installations whilst guarding and monitoring the disputed Sir Creek border with India. During their training at the Marines Training School, military exercises are occasionally conducted in conjunction with the United States Marine Corps. As befits their close association with the Navy, the Marines share the same ranks with the Pakistan Navy but the military codes and training is the same as in the Pakistan Army. In 2010, Marines, with a close coordination with the Army, Navy, and Air Force, were working around the clock to rescue villagers trapped by the country's worst deluge in 80 years.
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The Ministry of Railways (وزارث ريلوے; reporting name: MoR) is a cabinet-level ministry of the Government of Pakistan.
The Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e-Pakistan (تحریک پاکستان —) was a historic and subsequently successful political movement that aimed for the independence of Pakistan from the British Empire, to form the new independent nation state by the union of the four provinces located in the far northwest of the Indian subcontinent, the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, as well as the far eastern region of Bengal.
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The Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz) ((پاکستان مسلم لیگ (ن) (PML-N) is a centre-right and conservative political party in Pakistan. It is the majority party in the National Assembly following the general election of 2013, with a supermajority in the Provincial Assembly of the Punjab. One of several continuing factions of the original Pakistan Muslim League (PML), the PML-N has its origins in the League endorsed by President Zia-ul-Haq in 1985, when Nawaz Sharif was Chief Minister of Punjab. After Zia's death in 1988, the PML-N assumed its present form under the leadership of Sharif, splitting from the PML led by Muhammad Khan Junejo. The PML-N was one of the two major parties in the Pakistani political system during the 1990s, along with the Pakistan People's Party. It formed the government (as part of conservative alliance Islami Jamhoori Ittehad) from 1990 to 1993, when parliament was dissolved by President Ghulam Ishaq Khan, and 1997 to 1999, when Prime Minister Sharif was deposed by General Pervez Musharraf in a military coup. It was eclipsed by its own splinter faction, the Musharraf-supported PML-Q, until the elections of 2008, when the PML-N was again elected the principal opposition party. It returned to power following the elections of 2013, with Sharif elected Prime Minister for an unprecedented third term. The party's stronghold is the Punjab province; it has formed provinical government an unsurpassed five times since 1985, thrice under Sharif's brother Shehbaz. In contrast to the leftist PPP, the party's platform is generally conservative, and involves supporting free market capitalism, infrastructure, strong national defense, and opposing regulation and labor unions. According to the International Republican Institute (IRI) survey conducted in 2012, 2013 & 2014 it is the most popular political party in the country.
The Pakistan cricket team (پاکستان کرکٹ ٹیم), also known as The Green Shirts or Shaheen), is the national cricket team of Pakistan. Represented by the Pakistan Cricket Board (PCB), the team is a full member of the International Cricket Council, and participates in, and cricket matches. Pakistan have played 848 s, winning 449 (54.57%), losing 373, tying 8 and with 17 ending in no-result. Pakistan were the 1992 World Cup champions, and also came runners-up in the 1999 tournament. Pakistan, in conjunction with other countries in Southeast Asia, have hosted the 1987 and 1996 World Cups, with the 1996 final being hosted at Gaddafi Stadium in Lahore. The team has also played 92 s, the most of any team, winning 56 losing 34 and tying 2. Pakistan won the 2009 ICC World Twenty20 and came runners-up in the inaugural tournament in 2007. Pakistan have played 392 Test matches, with winning 124, losing 111 and drawing 157. The team has the third-best win/loss ratio in Test cricket of 1.117, and the fifth-best overall win percentage of 31.53%. Pakistan was given Test status on 28 July 1952, following a recommendation by India, and made its Test debut against India at Feroz Shah Kotla Ground, Delhi, in October 1952, with India winning by an innings and 70 runs. In the 1950s, several Pakistani Test players had played Test cricket for the Indian cricket team before the creation of Pakistan in 1947. As of 23rd August 2015, the Pakistani cricket team is ranked fourth in Tests, eighth in ODIs and second in T20Is by the ICC.
The Pakistan Navy ('''پاکستان بحریہ'''.; Pɑkistan Bahri'a) (reporting name: PN) is the naval warfare branch of Pakistan Armed Forces, responsible for Pakistan's of coastline along the Arabian Sea, and the defence of important civilian harbours and military bases.
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The Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority پاکستان نيؤكلر ريگيلرٹوى اثھارٹى; Acronym: PNRA), is an administrative and an executive independent government authority of Pakistan Government initially mandate and tasked to overlook and ensure the safe operation of nuclear industry, its related atomic facilities, and to protect radiation employers, general public and the environment from the harmful effects of radiation by formulating and implementing effective regulations and building a relationship of trust with the licensees and maintain transparency in its actions and decisions. Although, the concept of nuclear regulatory existed in 1965 but it gained full government commission in 2001, with the establishment Nuclear Command Authority. Headquartered in Islamabad, this agency was established in 2001 after President Justice (retired) Rafiq Tarar signed the executive decree "Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority Ordinance No.III" in 2000, and was first opened its operation in 2001.
The Pakistan Penal Code usually called PPC (Majmū'ah-yi ta'zīrāt-i Pākistān) is a penal code for all offences charged in Pakistan.
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The Pakistan People's Party (پاکستان پیپلز پارٹی, commonly referred to as the PPP) is a centre-left, socialist-progressive, and social democratic political party in Pakistan.
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This article is about the rail company in Pakistan.
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The Pakistan Rangers (پاکستان رےنجروں) are a Pakistani paramilitary force, under the direct control of the Ministry of the Interior of the Government of Pakistan.
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Pakistan Refinery Limited is located Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
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The current Pakistan time (PKT) became effective at midnight between 30 April and 1 May 1954.
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Pakistan State Oil (پاکستان اسٹیٹ آئل; reporting name: PSO) is a Karachi-based Pakistani state-owned multinational petroleum corporation involved in marketing and distribution of petroleum products.
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The Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf commonly known as PTI (پاکستان تحريک انصاف; Pakistan Movement for Justice) is a centrist, welfarist, nationalist, and communitarian political party in Pakistan, which was founded by former and famed Pakistani cricket captain and philanthropist Imran Khan.
Pakistan Television Corporation (پاكِستان ٹیلی وژن نیٹ ورک; reporting name: PTV) is a public and commercial broadcasting television network, as well as a mass-media state-owned megacorporation, headquarters at Islamabad, Pakistan.
Pakistan's role in the War on Terror is a widely discussed topic among policy-makers of various countries, political analysts and international delegates around the world.
The term Pakistani clothing refers to the ethnic clothing that is typically worn by individuals in the country of Pakistan and by the people of Pakistani origin.
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Pakistani dramas (پاکستانی ڈرامہ) refers to televised dramas produced in Pakistan, mostly in telenovela and miniseries formats, with distinctive features that set it apart from regular Western television series or soap operas.
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Pakistani English or Paklish is the group of English language varieties spoken and written in Pakistan.
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Pakistani English literature refers to English literature that has been developed and evolved in Pakistan, as well as by members of the Pakistani diaspora who write in the English language.
The Pakistani general election of 1970 was held on 7 December 1970 was the first general election held in the Pakistan.
General elections were held in Pakistan on 3 February 1997 to elect the National Assembly of Pakistan and the four provincial assemblies.
General elections were held in Pakistan on 18 February 2008, after being postponed from 8 January 2008.
General elections were held in Pakistan on 11 May 2013 to elect the members of the 14th National Assembly and to the four provincial assemblies of Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa.
Pakistan Intelligence Services (PIC; otherwise it is better regarded as the Pakistan Intelligence Community by Institute For Topical Studies in Chennai), is a cooperative services federation of the consolidated intelligence services of Pakistan that works separately and together to manage, research and collected intelligence materials and information considered necessary for the conduct of the foreign relations and national security of Pakistan.
The missile research and development program was the Pakistan Ministry of Defence secretive program for the comprehensive research and the development of the guided missiles.
Pakistani nationalism refers to the political, cultural, linguistic, historical, religious and geographical expression of patriotism by the people of Pakistan, of pride in the history, and identity of Pakistan, and visions for its future.
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The Pakistani philosophy is the philosophical activity or the philosophical academic output both within Pakistan and abroad.
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Pakistani pop music refers to popular music forms in Pakistan.
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Pakistani rock is a variety of rock music that is largely produced in Pakistan.
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The Pakistani rupee (روپیہ / ALA-LC:; ISO code: PKR) is the official currency of Pakistan.
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In Pakistan, tea is popular all over the country and holds an integral significance in local culture.
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Pakistanis (پاكِستانى قوم; Pakistani Qaum) are the people who are citizens of the modern State of Pakistan and their descendants.
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The Pala Empire was a Buddhist imperial power in Classical India.
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Palas is a valley in Kohistan District, North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan.
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The Pamir Mountains are a mountain range in Central Asia at the junction of the Himalayas with the Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, and Hindu Kush ranges.
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Parallel computing is a form/type of computation in which many calculations are carried out simultaneously, operating on the principle that large problems can often be divided into smaller ones, which are then solved at the same time.
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The paramilitary forces of Pakistan consist of various organizations constitutionally charged with safeguarding Pakistan from external and internal threats as well as maintaining internal law and order.
The Parliament of Pakistan, officially termed the Majlis-e-Shoora (مجلسِ شورىٰ —); is the federal and supreme legislative body of Pakistan.
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The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the UK Parliament or the British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom, British Crown dependencies and British overseas territories.
A parliamentary republic or parliamentary constitutional republic is a type of republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).
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A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state in which the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from, and is held accountable to, the legislature (parliament); the executive and legislative branches are thus interconnected.
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Particle physics is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter (particles with mass) and radiation (massless particles).
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The Partition of India was the partition of the British Indian Empire that led to the creation of the sovereign states of the Dominion of Pakistan (it later split into Pakistan and Bangladesh) and the Union of India (later Republic of India) on 15 August 1947.
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In politics, a party chair (often party chairman/-woman/-person or party president) is the presiding officer of a political party.
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Pashto literature and poetry (پښتو ليكنې) refers to literature and poetry in Pashto language.
The Pashtuns (پښتانه Pax̌tānə; sing. masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pakhtuns), historically known by the exonyms Afghans (افغان, Afğān) and Pathans (tr. from Hindustani, Paṭhān), are an ethnic group with populations in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
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The Periods of Stagflation (or also attribute as Stagflation in Pakistan, Pakistan Stagflation or Inflation and unemployment in Pakistan), is a generic on-going period of economic, political and social stagflation in the economic context, which had been affecting the national economic growth of Pakistan in its successive decades of its history.
Pakistan Ambassador to the United Nations or officially the Permanent Representative of Pakistan to the United Nations is the diplomatic head representing Pakistan on all platforms of the United Nations (UNO) in New York City.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi or Parsi (English:; Persian: فارسی), is the predominant modern descendant of Old Persian, a southwestern Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages.
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Persian literature (ادبیات فارسی) is one of the world's oldest literatures.
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A personal computer is a general-purpose computer whose size, capabilities and original sale price make it useful for individuals, and is intended to be operated directly by an end-user with no intervening computer operator.
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Pervez Musharraf (پرویز مشرف; born 11 August 1943), is a Pakistani politician and a retired four-star rank army general who tenured as the tenth President of Pakistan from 2001 until tendering resignation to avoid impeachment in 2008.
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Peshawar (پېښور) is the capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (formerly called the North-West Frontier Province) of Pakistan.
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Petroleum (L. petroleum, from early 15c. "petroleum, rock oil" (mid-14c. in Anglo-French), from Medieval Latin petroleum, from petra: "rock" + ''oleum'': "oil".) is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface, which is commonly refined into various types of fuels.
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The petroleum industry includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting (often by oil tankers and pipelines), and marketing petroleum products.
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The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American think tank based in Washington, D.C., that provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
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Philosophy is the study of the general and fundamental nature of reality, existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
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Pines are conifer trees in the genus Pinus, in the family Pinaceae.
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A plastic magnet is a non-metallic magnet made from an organic polymer.
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Pokhran-II was the series of five nuclear bomb test explosions conducted by India at the Indian Army's Pokhran Test Range in May 1998.
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The political history of Pakistan (پاکستان کی سیاسی تاريخ.) is the narrative and analysis of political events, ideas, movements, and leaders of Pakistan.
Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.
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Politics in India take place within the framework of its constitution, as India is a federal parliamentary democratic republic in which the President of India is the head of state and the Prime Minister of India is the head of government.
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The Politics in Pakistan (پاکستان کی سیاست) takes place within the framework under which the country is established by the Constitution.
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The politics of Saudi Arabia takes place in the context of an absolute monarchy, where the King of Saudi Arabia is both head of state and the head of government, but decisions are, to a large extent, made on the basis of consultation among the senior princes of the royal family and the religious establishment.
Porcupines are rodents with a coat of sharp spines, or quills, that protect against predators.
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The Port of Karachi (کراچی بندرگاہ Bandar gāh Karāchī) is one of South Asia's largest and busiest deep-water seaports, handling about 60% of the nation's cargo (25 million tons per annum) located in Karachi, Pakistan.
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The Port Muhammad Bin Qasim (بندر گاہ محمد بن قاسم Bandar-gāh Muhammad bin Qāsim), also known as Port Qasim, is a deep-water seaport in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan, on the coastline of the Arabian Sea.
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The post–Cold War era is the period in world history from the Collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 to the present.
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Poverty in Pakistan has fallen dramatically, independent bodies supported estimates of a considerable fall in the statistic by the 2007-08 fiscal year, when it was estimated that 17.2% of the total population lived below the poverty line.
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In physics, power is the rate of doing work.
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A preemptive war is a war that is commenced in an attempt to repel or defeat a perceived imminent offensive or invasion, or to gain a strategic advantage in an impending (allegedly unavoidable) war.
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A preschool (also nursery school, kindergarten outside the US and UK) is an educational establishment offering early childhood education to children between the ages of three and five, prior to the commencement of compulsory education at primary school.
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Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
The President of Pakistan (صدر مملکت پاکستان —), the ceremonial head of state of Pakistan and a figurehead who represent the "unity of the Republic." in Chapter 1: The President, Part III: The Federation of Pakistan in the Constitution of Pakistan.
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The President of the United States of America (POTUS) is the elected head of state and head of government of the United States.
Primary education or elementary education often in primary school or elementary school is typically the first stage of compulsory education, coming between early childhood education and secondary education.
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The Prime Minister of India (Hindi: भारत के प्रधानमंत्री Bhārat kē Pradhānmantrī), as addressed to in the Constitution of India, is the chief of government, chief adviser to the President of India, head of the Council of Ministers and the leader of the majority party in the parliament.
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The Prime Minister of Pakistan (وَزِیرِ اَعظَم —,; lit. "Grand Vizier"), is the head of government of Pakistan and designated as the "chief executive of the Republic." The Prime minister leads the executive branch of the government, oversees the economical growth, heads the Council of Common Interests as well as the Cabinet, and is vested with the command authority over the nuclear arsenals.
The Prime Minister Secretariat is the official residence and principle workplace of the Prime Minister of Pakistan located in 44000 Constitution Avenue, Islamabad, Pakistan.
A prisoner of war (POW, PoW, PW, P/W, WP, PsW, enemy prisoner of war (EPW) or "missing-captured") is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
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The Privatization process in Pakistan (sometimes referred to as Denationalization programme or simply the Privatization in Pakistan) was a policy measure programme in the economic period of Pakistan.
Pro-Pakistan sentiment is fondness and love of aspects of Pakistani culture, Pakistani history, Pakistani cuisine, Pakistani traditions and the people of Pakistan.
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Profit is an income distributed to the owner in a profitable market production process (business).
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Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological and/or cultural values.
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The provincial languages of Pakistan are a set of languages that are spoken and used in the five Provinces of Pakistan (Punjab, Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Gilgit–Baltistan, and Balochistan).
A public university is a university that is predominantly funded by public means through a national or subnational government, as opposed to private universities.
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A public–private partnership (PPP) is a government service or private business venture which is funded and operated through a partnership of government and one or more private sector companies.
The Punjab Police (Urdu: پنجاب پولیس) is responsible for policing in the province of Punjab, Pakistan.
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab, panj-āb, "five rivers" (Punjabi: (Shahmukhi), ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi), Hindi: पंजाब (Devanagari)), is a geographical region in the Indian subcontinent or South Asia comprising vast areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
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Punjab (پنجاب, Shahmukhī Punjabi:, panj-āb, "five waters"), also spelled Panjab, is the most populous of the four provinces of Pakistan.
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Punjabi (Shahmukhi: پنجابی; Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by 130 million native speakers worldwide, making it the 9th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
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Punjabi literature refers to literary works written in the Punjabi language particularly by peoples from the historical Punjab region of India and Pakistan including the Punjabi diaspora.
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The Punjabis (Punjabi: (Shahmukhi), ਪੰਜਾਬੀ (Gurmukhi), Hindi: पंजाबी (Devanagari)), also spelt Panjabis, are an ethnic group of Indo-Aryan peoples, originating from the Punjab region, found in Pakistan and northern India.
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Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a component of some economic theories and is a technique used to determine the relative value of different currencies.
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Qasba Gujrat (قصبه گُجرات) is a small town in District Muzaffargarh, Punjab, Pakistan.
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Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Southwest Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
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The Qaumi Taranah (قومی ترانہ,, lit. “National Anthem”), also known as (پاک سرزمین,, lit. “The Sacred Land”), is the national anthem of Pakistan.
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Qawwali (Nastaʿlīq:; Gurmukhī:ਕਵਾਲੀ Devanāgarī: क़व्वाली; Eastern Nagari: ক়ব্বালী) is a form of Sufi devotional music popular in South Asia: in the Punjab and Sindh regions of Pakistan; in Hyderabad, Delhi and other parts of India, especially North India; as well as Dhaka, Chittagong, Sylhet and many parts of Bangladesh.
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Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
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Quetta (کوئٹہ, کوټه, کویته) is the provincial capital of Balochistan, Pakistan and 9th largest city of Pakistan.
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Quetta International Airport (کوئٹہ بین الاقوامی ہوائی اڈا); (د کوټی نړیوال هوائی ډګر); is located at Quetta, the provincial capital of Balochistan, Pakistan.
The Quit India Movement (भारत छोड़ो आन्दोलन), or the India August Movement (August Kranti), was a civil disobedience movement launched in India during World War II on 9 August 1942 by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.
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Quranism (القرآنية; al-Qur'āniyyat) is an Islamic view that holds the Qur'an to be the most authentic criterion in Islam.
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Begum Sheila Irene Pant (شیلا ارانی پنٹ) February 1905 – 13 June 1990 (formerly Sheila Irene Pant), ''DPhil'', ''NI'', was one of the leading woman figures in the Pakistan Movement along with her husband Liaquat Ali Khan, and a career economist, and prominent stateswoman from the start of the cold war till the fall and the end of the cold war.
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General Raheel Sharif (Urdu:; born 16 June 1956), NI(M), HI(M), is a four-star rank army general, currently serving as 15th Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army, since 2013.
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Rai (c. AD 489–632) was a Buddhist dynasty of Sindh, in modern Pakistan.
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Ramadan (رمضان,;In Arabic phonology, it can be, depending on the region. also transliterated Ramazan, Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief.
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General Rashad Mahmood (Urdu/راشد محمود), is a four-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army and currently serving as the 16th Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee.
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Rawalpindi (Punjabi, راولپنڈى, Rāwalpiṅḋī), commonly known as Pindi (پنڈی), is a city in the Punjab, Pakistan.
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Rawalpindi Cantonment is a cantonment located at Rawalpindi in Punjab province, Pakistan.
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Senator Mian Raza Rabbani (Urdu: رضا ربانى; b. 23 July 1953), is a Pakistani nationalist–left-wing politician and a constitutional lawyer who serves as the Chairman of Senate of Pakistan since 12 March 2015; as chairman senate, he is the second in the line of succession to the President of Pakistan.
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Regional Cooperation for Development (RCD) was a multi-governmental organization which was originally established in 1964 by Iran, Pakistan and Turkey to allow socio-economic development of the member states.
In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region.
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Rehbar was series of sounding rocket launches into the upper atmosphere and the edge of space.
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Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974 when he became the only U.S. president to resign the office.
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A rocket (Italian rocchetta‚ "little fuse") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
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The Roman Catholic Church in Pakistan is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
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Sheikh Rukn-ud-Din Abul Fateh (Persian: رکن الدین ابوالفتح) commonly known by the title Rukn-e-Alam (pillar of the world) or Shah Rukn-e-Alam (King Rukn-e-Alam) (1251-1335) was an eminent Sufi saint from Multan, Pakistan who belonged to Suhrawardiyya Sufi order (tariqa).
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Russia (Ru-Россия.ogg), also officially known as the Russian Federation (a), is a country in northern Eurasia.
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Syed Sadequain Ahmed Naqvi (سید صادقین احمد نقوی), Tamgha-e-Imtiaz, Pride of Performance, Sitara-e-Imtiaz, also often referred to as Sadequain Naqqash, was a world-renowned Pakistani artist, best known for his skills as a calligrapher and a painter.
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Salimuzzaman Siddiqui (سلیم الزّماں صدّیقی; 19 October 1897 – 14 April 1994), HI, MBE, SI, DPhil, ''FPAS'', ''FRS'', was a Pakistani organic chemist, versatile scholar, and a leading scientist in the natural product chemistry.
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Sanskrit (Sanskrit: or, originally, "refined speech") is the primary sacred language of Hinduism, a philosophical language in Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism, and a literary language that was in use as a lingua franca in Greater India.
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Saraiki (Shahmukhi) is the southern dialect of Western Punjabi of the Indo-Aryan language family.
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The Saraiki people (Saraiki: سرائیکی قوم), also known as Multani people, are ethnically Aryan race, a group or an amalgamation of the Punjabi people and long established Pashtun people in the region with some distinct cultural adaptions (due to proximity to Sindh and Balochistan) and linguistically speak the Saraiki.
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Sargodha (Punjabi, سرگودها) is a city and the administrative centre of the Sargodha Division located in the Punjab province, Pakistan.
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Saudi Arabia, officially known as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is an Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
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Science and technology is a growing field in Pakistan and has played an important role in the country's development since its founding.
A university research park, science park, or science and technology park is an area managed in a manner designed to promote innovation.
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The II Amendment (Second Amendment) to the Constitution of Pakistan became a part of the Constitution of Pakistan on September 7, 1974.
Secondary education normally takes place in secondary schools, taking place after primary education and may be followed by higher education or vocational training.
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The Secondary School Certificate (SSC) Examination, is a public examination in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan conducted as completion exam of secondary education.
Secretary is a title often used in organizations to indicate a person having a certain amount of authority, power, or importance in the organization.
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Sectarian violence in Pakistan refers to attacks against people and places in Pakistan motivated by antagonism toward the target's sect, usually a religious group.
Sehwan (سيهوڻ شريف, Urdu: سیہون) (aka: Sehwan Sharif) is a city located in Jamshoro District in the Sindh province of Pakistan.
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The Senate of Pakistan (سینیٹ) (ایوانِ بالا پاکستان), is the upper legislative chamber of the bicameral legislature of Pakistan, and together with the National Assembly makes up the Parliament of Pakistan.
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The separation of powers, often imprecisely used interchangeably with the trias politica principle, is a model for the governance of a state (or who controls the state).
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The September 11 attacks (also referred to as September 11, September 11th, or 9/11)9/11 is pronounced "nine eleven".
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Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, primarily from household sewage.
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Sexism or gender discrimination is prejudice or discrimination based on a person's sex or gender.
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Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai (also referred to by the honorifics: Lakhino Latif, Latif Ghot, Bhittai, and Bhitt Jo Shah) (1689 – 1752) (شاه عبداللطيف ڀٽائي, شاہ عبداللطیف بھٹائی) was a noted Sindhi Sufi scholar, mystic, saint, and poet, widely considered to be greatest Muslim poet of Sindhi language.
The Shah Jahan Mosque is located in Thatta, Sindh province, Pakistan.
Shaheen Air International operating as Shaheen Air is a private Pakistani airline with its head office on the grounds of Jinnah International Airport in Karachi.
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The shaheen falcon (Falco peregrinus peregrinator) is a non-migratory subspecies of the peregrine falcon found mainly in the Indian subcontinent.
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The Shalimar Gardens (Punjabi, شالیمار باغ), sometimes written as Shalamar Gardens, is a Mughal garden complex located in Lahore, Pakistan.
Shalwar kameez, also spelled salwar kameez or shalwar qameez, is a traditional outfit originating in South Asia and is a generic term used to describe different styles of dress.
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The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO;; Шанхайская организация сотрудничества (ШОС), Shankhayskaya organizatsiya sotrudnichestva), or Shanghai Pact, is a Eurasian political, economic and military organisation which was founded in 2001 in Shanghai by the leaders of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.
Sheikhupura (شَيخُوپُورہ) (شیخاپورا) is an industrial city and capital of Sheikhupura District in the province of Punjab about 35 km northwest of Lahore in Pakistan.
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Shell Pakistan Limited (SPL) is a subsidiary of Royal Dutch Shell Plc and has been in South Asia for over 100 years.
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Shia population in Pakistan is between 5-20% of the country's total population.
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Sunni and Shia Islam are the two major denominations of Islam.
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Shina (شینا) is a language from the Dardic sub-group of the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by the Shina people, a plurality of the people in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, formerly known as the Northern Areas of Pakistan.
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The Siachen Conflict, sometimes referred to as the Siachen War, is a military conflict between India and Pakistan over the disputed Siachen Glacier region in Kashmir.
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The Siachen Glacier (Hindi: सियाचेन) (Urdu:سیاچین) is located in the eastern Karakoram range in the Himalaya Mountains at about, just northeast of the point NJ9842 where the Line of Control between India and Pakistan ends.
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Sialkot (Punjabi, سيالكوٹ) is the capital city of Sialkot District, located in the northeast of the Punjab, Pakistan.
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Sialkot International Airport is situated 14 km (8.7 mi) west of Sialkot in the Sialkot District of Pakistan.
A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a follower of Sikhism, a monotheistic dharma which originated during the 15th century in the Punjab region of South Asia.
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The Sikh Empire was a major power in the Indian subcontinent, that arose under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh who established a secular empire basing it around the Punjab.
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Sikhism in present day Pakistan area has an extensive heritage and history, although Sikhs form a very small community in Pakistan today.
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Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles.
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The Simla Agreement (or Shimla Agreement) was signed between India and Pakistan on July 2, 1972 in Simla, the capital city of Indian state of Himachal Pradesh.
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Sindh سندھ; (سنڌ (Perso- Arabic); Indus; Ἰνδός; Sindhu) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, located in the south east of the country.
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The Department of Sindh Police (سنڌ پوليس, سنده پولیس) (also known as Sindh Police) is a police department established in 1843 to maintain law and order and law enforcement in Sindh, Pakistan.
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Sindhi (سنڌي, सिन्धी) is an Indo-Aryan language of the historical Sindh region, spoken by the Sindhi people.
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Sindhi literature ('''سنڌي ادب'''.) writers have contributed extensively in various forms of literature both in poetry and prose.
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Sindhis (سنڌي (Perso-Arabic), सिन्धी (Devanagari), (Khudabadi)) are a Sindhi-speaking ethnic group primarily of Indo-Aryan origin native to the Sindh province of Pakistan.
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The Sino-Indian War (भारत-चीन युद्ध Bhārat-Chīn Yuddh), also known as the Sino-Indian Border Conflict, was a war between China and India that occurred in 1962.
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Sitara-e-Jurat (Star of Courage) is the third highest military award of Pakistan.
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The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim; Arabic: النكسة, an-Naksah, "The Setback" or حرب ۱۹٦۷, Ḥarb 1967, "War of 1967"), also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between June 5 and 10, 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria.
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Skardu Fort or Kharpocho (Balti) means The king of Forts is a fort in Skardu city in Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan administered Kashmir.
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Smiling BuddhaThis test has many code names.
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The snow leopard (Panthera uncia syn. Uncia uncia) is a large cat native to the mountain ranges of Central and South Asia.
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The Soan (Urdu and سون) (preferred), Swan (Urdu and سواں), Sawan or Sohan River is a river in Punjab, Pakistan.
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The Soanian is an archaeological culture of the Lower Paleolithic (ca. 500,000 to 125,000 BP) in Pakistan.
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Sobho Gianchandani (3 May 1920 – 8 December 2014) was a Pakistani Sindhi social scientist, and revolutionary writer.
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Social class (or simply "class"), as in a class society, is a set of concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle, and lower classes.
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Social philosophy is the study of questions about social behavior and interpretations of society and social institutions in terms of ethical values rather than empirical relations.
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The influences of socialism and socialist movements in Pakistan have taken many different forms as a counterpart to political conservatism, from the hard-liners of the Communist Party through to the reformist electoral project enshrined in the birth of the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) and PTI.
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Socio-economic development is the process of social and economic development in a society.
The socioeconomic impact of female education constitutes a significant area of research within international development.
Air Chief Marshal Sohail Aman (Urdu: سہیل عمان; born 1959),, is the 21st Chief of Air Staff of the Pakistan Air Force.
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Sohan Halwa (Hindi: सोहन हलवा; Urdu سوہن حلوہ) or Multani Sohan Halwa is a traditional dessert in India and Pakistan, which is a variety of dense, sweet confection or halwa and believed to be Persian in origin.
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South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa.
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South Asia or Southern Asia is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
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The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is an economic and geopolitical organisation of eight countries that are primarily located in South Asia or the Indian subcontinent.
South Punjab name is commonly used for the Seraiki belt of Punjab province of Pakistan, in which following districts are included.
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Sovereignty is understood in jurisprudence as the full right and power of a governing body to govern itself without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
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The Soviet Air Forces (r, literally "Military Air Forces") was the official designation of one of the air forces of the Soviet Union.
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The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a) abbreviated to USSR (r) or shortened to the Soviet Union (p), was a Marxist–Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991.
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The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years from December 1979 to February 1989.
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The Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO; خلائی و بالائی فضائی تحقیقاتی مأموریہ), is an executive and bureaucratic space agency of the Government of Pakistan, responsible for the nation's public and civil space programme and for aeronautics and aerospace research.
Sparrows are a family of small passerine birds, Passeridae.
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The Speaker of the National Assembly (Urdu: اسﭘيكر نيشنل اسمبلى); informally as Speaker National assembly, is the presiding official of the National Assembly of Pakistan– a lower house of the Parliament of Pakistan.
The Special Services Group (SSG) is a special operations force of the Pakistan Army.
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Sport (UK) or sports (US) are all forms of usually competitive physical activity which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing entertainment to participants, and in some cases, spectators.
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A spruce is a tree of the genus Picea, a genus of about 35 species of coniferous evergreen trees in the Family Pinaceae, found in the northern temperate and boreal (taiga) regions of the earth.
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Squash is a racquet sport played by two (singles) or four players (doubles) in a four-walled court with a small, hollow rubber ball.
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Squashsite (referring to squashsite.co.uk) is a sport website that provides squash news, results, squash tournament coverage.
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Sri Lanka (or; Sinhalese Śrī Laṃkāva, Tamil Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka and known from the beginning of British colonial rule until 1972 as Ceylon, is an island country in South Asia near south-east India.
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The Sri Lankan cricket team, nicknamed The Lions, is the national cricket team of Sri Lanka.
A military staff (often referred to as General Staff, Army Staff, Navy Staff or Air Staff within the individual services) is a group of officers and enlisted personnel that are responsible for the administrative, operational and logistical needs of its unit.
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The Standard Model of particle physics is a theory concerning the electromagnetic, weak, and strong nuclear interactions, as well as classifying all the subatomic particles known.
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The State Bank of Pakistan (SBP; بینک دولت پاکستان) is the central bank of Pakistan.
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A state religion (also called an established religion, state church, established church, or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
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A state-owned enterprise (SOE) otherwise known as a: state-owned company, state-owned entity, state enterprise, publicly owned corporation, government business enterprise, crown corporation, government-owned corporation, commercial government agency, public sector undertaking, or parastatal is a legal entity that undertakes commercial activities on behalf of an owner government.
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Statistics is the study of the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.
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The Stranded Pakistanis (پھنسے ہوئے پاکستانی, উদ্বাস্তু পাকিস্তানী) are Urdu-speaking Muslim migrants with homelands in present-day India and Pakistan who settled in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) following the partition of India in 1947.
The striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena) is a species of true hyena native to North and East Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus, Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent.
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Sufi poetry has been written in many languages, both for private devotional reading and as lyrics for music played during worship, or dhikr.
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Sufism (تصوف, Ta'sawwuf), according to its adherents, is the inner mystical dimension of Islam.
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Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Limited (SNGPL) was incorporated as a private limited Company in 1963 and converted into a public limited company in January 1964 under the Companies Act 1913, now Companies Ordinance 1984, and is listed on all the three Stock Exchanges of the Country.
The Sui Southern Gas Company (SSGC) (Formerly Sui Gas Transmission Company Limited) was formed in 1954.
In clothing, a suit is a set of garments made from the same cloth, usually consisting of at least a jacket and trousers.
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The Sulaiman Mountains (د كسي غرونه; Balochi/Urdu/کوه سليمان), or Kōh-e Sulaymān, are the southern extension of the Hindu Kush mountain system, located in the Zabul, Kandahar and Loya Paktia regions of Afghanistan, and in the southern Federally Administered Tribal Areas (South Waziristan and Frontier Region Dera Ismail Khan), most of northern Balochistan, and some of southwestern Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan.
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Sunni Islam is a denomination of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad's proper successor as Caliph was his father-in-law Abu Bakr.
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The Supercomputing is a recent area of Computer science in which Pakistan has made progress, driven in part by the growth of the information technology age in the country.
A supermajority or a qualified majority is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified greater level of support than a more than 50% simple majority.
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The Supreme Court of Pakistan (SC) (Urdu: عدالت عظمیٰ پاکستان; Adālat-e-Uzma Pākistān) is the apex court in the judicial hierarchy of Pakistan, the final arbiter of legal and constitutional disputes.
Swat (سوات) is a river valley and an administrative district in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan.
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Switzerland (Schweiz;Swiss Standard German spelling and pronunciation. The Swiss German name is sometimes spelled as Schwyz or Schwiiz. Schwyz is also the standard German (and international) name of one of the Swiss cantons. Suisse; Svizzera; Svizra or),The latter is the common Sursilvan pronunciation.
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Sir Syed Ahmad Khan CSI (سر سید احمد خان; 17 October 1817 – 27 March 1898), born Syed Ahmad Taqvi; (سید احمد تقوی), commonly known as Sir Syed, was an Anglophile Indian Muslim pragmatist, Islamic modernist, philosopher and social activist of nineteenth century India.
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Syed Zafarul Hasan (February 14, 1885 – June 19, 1949) was a prominent twentieth-century Muslim philosopher.
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Syncretism is the combining of different, often contradictory beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
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A tailor is a person who makes, repairs, or alters clothing professionally, especially suits and men's clothing.
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Taiwan (see below), officially the Republic of China (ROC) is a sovereign state in East Asia.
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Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Çumhuriji Toçikiston/Jumhuriyi Tojikiston; جمهوری تاجیکستان; Респу́блика Таджикистан, Respublika Tadzhikistan), is a mountainous landlocked sovereign country in Central Asia.
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Takht Bhai (or Takht Bahi)(or takh bay), rare known as (station) is a Parthian archaeological site in Mardan, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
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The genus Tamarix (tamarisk, salt cedar) is composed of about 50–60 species of flowering plants in the family Tamaricaceae, native to drier areas of Eurasia and Africa.
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The Tamils, also known as the Tamilans, are a Dravidian ethnic group who speak Tamil as their mother tongue and native to Indian State of Tamil Nadu, Union territory of Puducherry, Northern and Eastern Province of Sri Lanka.
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There is a small community of Tamils in Pakistan.
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Master Tara Singh (24 June 1885, Rawalpindi, Punjab – 22 November 1967, Chandigarh) was a prominent Sikh political and religious leader in the first half of the 20th century.
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In Pakistan, targeted killings have been a rising form of violence and have contributed to security instability in the country.
The Tashkent Declaration of 10 January 1966 was a peace agreement between India and Pakistan after the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.
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Taxila or Takshashila (meaning "City of Cut Stone" or " Rock") is a town and an important archaeological site in Rawalpindi District of Punjab, Pakistan.
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Technology transfer, also called transfer of technology (TOT), is the process of transferring skills, knowledge, technologies, methods of manufacturing, samples of manufacturing and facilities among governments or universities and other institutions to ensure that scientific and technological developments are accessible to a wider range of users who can then further develop and exploit the technology into new products, processes, applications, materials or services.
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Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP; Urdu:; "Taliban Movement of Pakistan"), alternatively referred to as the Pakistani Taliban, is an umbrella organization of various Islamist militant groups based in the northwestern Federally Administered Tribal Areas along the Afghan border in Pakistan.
A tehsil or tahsil/tahasil (तहसील, ਤਹਿਸੀਲ, తహశీల్, تحصیل), also known as taluk (or taluq/taluka (تعلقو)) or mandal, is an administrative division of some countries of South Asia.
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Telecommunications in Pakistan describes the overall environment for the growing mobile telecommunications, telephone, and Internet markets in Pakistan.
Area codes in Pakistan are from two to five digits long; the smaller the city, the longer the prefix.
Television in Pakistan started in 1964, and the first live transmission of Pakistan Television began on November 26, 1964, in Lahore.
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Terrorism in Pakistan has become a major and highly destructive phenomenon in recent years.
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The Textile industry in Pakistan is the largest manufacturing industry in Pakistan.
The Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert, is a large, arid region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent that forms a natural boundary between India and Pakistan.
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Thatta (ٺٽو; ٹھٹھہ) is a city and capital of Thatta District and will be capital of announced Banbhore Division.
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The Express Tribune is a major daily English-language newspaper in Pakistan.
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The Guardian is a British national daily newspaper.
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The News International, published in broadsheet size, is the largest English language newspaper in Pakistan.
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The World Factbook (ISSN; also known as the CIA World Factbook) is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
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A thermal power station is a power plant in which the prime mover is steam driven.
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In politics, the Third Way is a position that tries to reconcile right-wing and left-wing politics by advocating a varying synthesis of right-wing economic and left-wing social policies.
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Times Internet is an Internet subsidiary of The Times of India Group, under which some of the largest websites in India - The Times of India, The Economic Times, Navbharat Times and Maharashtra Times operate.
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The Timurid dynasty (تیموریان), self-designated as Gurkani (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān), was a Sunni Muslim dynasty or clan of Turco-Mongol lineageB.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006Encyclopædia Britannica, "", Online Academic Edition, 2007.
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Tit for tat is an English saying dating to 1556, from "tip for tap", meaning "blow for blow," i.e., retaliation in kind—or more broadly, an equivalent to an action given in return.
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The Tomb of Jahangir (مقبرہُ جہانگیر, جہانگير دا مقبرہ) is a mausoleum built for Jahangir, who ruled the Mughal Empire from 1605 to 1627.
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The tonne (British and SI; or metric ton (in the United States) is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to.
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Tourism in Pakistan has been stated by the Lonely Planet as being "tourism's ‘next big thing’ for more years than we care to remember.
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Transportation in Pakistan (پاکِستان نقل و حمل) is extensive and varied and serving a population of over 191 million people.
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The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.
Trousers (pants in North America and Australia) are an item of clothing worn from the waist to the ankles, covering both legs separately (rather than with cloth extending across both legs as in robes, skirts, and dresses).
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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Turkish), is a parliamentary republic in Eurasia, largely located in Western Asia, with the smaller portion of Eastern Thrace in Southeast Europe.
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Turmeric (Curcuma longa) or or http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/turmeric is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae.
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A tutor is an instructor who gives private lessons.
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The two-man rule is a control mechanism designed to achieve a high level of security for especially critical material or operations.
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The two-nation theory (دو-قومی نظریہ — Dō-qaumī naẓariyah, Devanagari: दो-क़ौमी नज़रिया, দ্বিজাতি তত্ত্ব — Dijati totto) is the ideology that the primary identity and unifying denominator of Muslims in the South Asian subcontinent is their religion, rather than their language or ethnicity, and therefore Indian Hindus and Muslims are two distinct nations, regardless of ethnic or other commonalities.
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The Umayyad Caliphate (الخلافة الأموية, trans. Al-Khilāfat al-ʾumawiyya) was the second of the four major Islamic caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
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The UNESCO Science Prize is a biennial scientific prize awarded by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to "a person or group of persons for an outstanding contribution they have made to the technological development of a developing member state or region through the application of scientific and technological research (particularly in the fields of education, engineering and industrial development)." The candidates for the Science Prize are proposed to the Director-General of UNESCO by the governments of member states or by non-governmental organizations.
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A sherwan or union council in Pakistan is an elected local government body consisting of 21 councillors, and headed by a nazim now called Chairman (which is equivalent to a mayor) and a naib nazim now called Vice Chairman (deputy).
The United Arab Emirates (دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates or the UAE,الامارات is a country located in the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing sea borders with Qatar and Iran.
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The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign state in Europe.
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The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation.
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The United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) was a functional commission within the overall framework of the United Nations from 1946 until it was replaced by the United Nations Human Rights Council in 2006.
The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC; Conseil économique et social des Nations unies, CESNU) is one of the principal organs of the United Nations, responsible for coordinating the economic, social and related work of 14 UN specialized agencies, their functional commissions and five regional commissions.
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), also known as the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations agency mandated to protect and support refugees at the request of a government or the UN itself and assists in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.
The United Nations has played an important role in maintaining peace and order in Jammu and Kashmir since the transfer of Power to India and independence to Pakistan in 1947.
UN peacekeeping missions involving Pakistan covers a long and cherished history of Pakistani involvement with the United Nations.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations and is charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 38, adopted on January 17, 1948, called upon the governments of India and Pakistan to refrain from in any way aggravating the situation in Kashmir and deploy any means at their disposal to improve it.
The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.
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The United States Department of State (DoS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department responsible for international relations of the United States, equivalent to the foreign ministry of other countries.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, US dollar or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its overseas territories.
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United States involvement in regime change encompasses both overt and covert actions aimed at altering, replacing, or preserving foreign governments.
Uniting for Consensus (UfC) is a movement, nicknamed the Coffee Club, that developed in the 1990s in opposition to the possible expansion of permanent seats in the United Nations Security Council.
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Universal suffrage (also universal adult suffrage, general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to adult citizens (or subjects), though it may also mean extending that right to minors (Demeny voting) and non-citizens.
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The University of Balochistan (popular as Balochistan University), is a public university located in the downtown area of Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan.
The University of Karachi (جامعۂ كراچى; or KU) is a public research university located in the neighborhood of Gulshan-e-Iqbal of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
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The University of Peshawar (جامعۂ پشاور; د پېښور پوهنتون; popular as Peshawar University), is a public research university located in Peshawar, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
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The University of Sindh (سنڌ يونيورسٽي; جامعه سندھ, informally known as Sindh University), is a public research university located in the residential area of Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan.
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The University of the Punjab (یونیورسٹی آف پنجاب); informally Punjab University), is a public research university located in the downtown area of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. It is the oldest and largest public university in Pakistan. With multiple campuses in Gujranwala, Jhelum, and Khanspur, the university was formally established by the British Government after convening the first meeting for establishing higher education institutions in October 1882 at Simla. The Punjab University was the fourth university to be established by the British colonial authorities in the indian subcontinent; the first three universities were established in other parts of British India. The university offers a wide range of undergraduate, post-graduate, and doctoral programmes and various institutes in Punjab are affiliated with the Punjab University. Approximately 30,000 enrolled students are currently attending the university, the PU has total of 13 faculties within which there are 63 academic departments, research centers, and institutes. The Punjab University has ranked first amongst large-sized multiple faculty universities by the HEC in 2012. There are also two Nobel Laureates amongst the university's alumni and former staff. Additionally, the university is also a member of Association of Commonwealth Universities of the United Kingdom.
An upper house, often called a Senate, is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house.
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Urbanisation in Pakistan has increased since the time of independence and has several different causes.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:;, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a standardised register of the Hindustani language.
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Urdu literature (ادبیات اردو) has a history that is inextricably tied to the development of the Urdu language.
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The urial (Ovis orientalis vignei), also known as the arkars or shapo, is a subspecies group of the wild sheep Ovis orientalis.
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The Vedic period (or Vedic age) (ca. 1500–500 BCE) was the period in Indian history during which the Vedas, the oldest scriptures of Hinduism, were composed.
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A very important person (VIP) is a person who is accorded special privileges due to his or her status or importance.
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Veterinary medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, disorder and injury in animals.
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A veterinary physician, colloquially called a vet, shortened from veterinarian (American English, Australian English) or veterinary surgeon (British English), is a professional who practices veterinary medicine by treating disease, disorder, and injury in non-human animals.
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Violence against Muslims in India is a part of religious violence in India.
Vocational education is education within vocational schools that prepares people for a specific trade.
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The Wakhan Corridor (alternatively Vakhan Corridor, or Wakhan) is the narrow strip of territory in northeastern Afghanistan that extends to China and separates Tajikistan from Pakistan.
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The War in Afghanistan is the period in which the United States invaded Afghanistan after the September 11 attacks.
The War in North-West Pakistan, also known as the War in Waziristan, is an armed conflict involving the State of Pakistan, and armed militant groups such as the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), Jundallah, Lashkar-e-Islam (LeI), Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi (TNSM), al-Qaeda, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), and elements of organized crime.
The War on Terror (WoT), also known as the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT), refers to the international military campaign that started after the September 11 attacks on the United States.
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The Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) is a government-owned public utility maintaining power and water in Pakistan, although it does not manage thermal power.
WaterAid is an international non-profit organisation that was set up in 1981 as a response to the UN International Drinking Water & Sanitation decade (1981–1990).
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Waterborne diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms that most commonly are transmitted in contaminated fresh water.
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The watt (symbol: W) is a derived unit of power in the International System of Units (SI), named after the Scottish engineer James Watt (1736–1819).
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The Wazir Khan Mosque (Punjabi/Urdu: Masjid Wazīr Khān) in Lahore, Pakistan, is famous for its extensive faience tile work.
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The western tragopan or western horned tragopan (Tragopan melanocephalus) is a medium-sized brightly plumed pheasant found along the Himalayas from Hazara in northern Pakistan in the west to Uttarakhand within India to the east.
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Wholesaling, jobbing, or distributing is the sale of goods or merchandise to retailers; to industrial, commercial, institutional, or other professional business users; or to other wholesalers and related subordinated services.
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The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swineHeptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.
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Wildlife traditionally refers to non-domesticated animal species, but has come to include all plants, fungi, and other organisms that grow or live wild in an area without being introduced by humans.
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The Worldwide Independent Network/Gallup International Association (WIN/GIA) is an international consortium of independent market research and polling firms.
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Women in Islam are guided by primary Islamic sources of personal law, namely the Quran and hadiths, as well as secondary sources such as the ijma, qiyas, ijtihad in form such as fatwas; the secondary sources vary with various sects of Islam and schools of jurisprudence (madhhab).
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The status of women in Pakistan varies considerably across classes, regions, and the rural/urban divide due to uneven socioeconomic development and the impact of tribal, feudal, and capitalist social formations on women's lives.
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The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programs.
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The World Economic Forum (WEF) is a Swiss nonprofit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva.
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The World Open Squash Championship is a squash event which serves as the individual world championship for squash players organized by the Professional Squash Association.
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In demographics and general statistics, the term world population refers to the total number of living humans on Earth.
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The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization which regulates international trade.
World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918.
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World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.
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Yahoo News originated as a pure Internet-based news aggregator by Yahoo.
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Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (Urdu:,4 February 1917 – 10 August 1980), was a Pakistani general who served as the 3rd President of Pakistan from 1969 until East Pakistan's secession to Bangladesh in 1971, and Pakistan's defeat in the Indo-Pakistani war of the same year.
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The Yidgha language is a Pamir language spoken in the Upper Lutkuh Valley (Tehsil Lotkuh) of Chitral, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa west of Garam Chashma in Pakistan.
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The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War, or October War (or حرب تشرين; or מלחמת יום כיפור), also known as the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, was a war fought by the coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel from October 6 to 25, 1973.
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Syed Yousuf Raza Gillani also spelled Gilani (Urdu, Saraiki:;; born 9 June 1952) is a Pakistani politician who served as the 16th Prime minister of Pakistan from 25 March 2008 until his retroactive disqualification and ouster by the Supreme Court of Pakistan on 26 April 2012.
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The Zimbabwe cricket team toured Pakistan from 19 to 31 May 2015.
The Zippe-type centrifuge is a gas centrifuge designed to enrich the rare fissile uranium isotope Uranium-235 out of the mixture of isotopes found in naturally-occurring uranium compounds.
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Zoroastrianism or Mazdaism is the religion ascribed to the teachings of the prophet Zoroaster, whose Supreme Being was Ahura Mazda.
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Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (Urdu: ذوالفقار علی بھٹو, ذوالفقار علي ڀُٽو) (5 January 1928 – 4 April 1979) was a Pakistani politician and statesman who served as the 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that as the 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973.
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.pk is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Pakistan.
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1,000,000,000 (one billion, short scale; one thousand million or milliard, yard, long scale) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001.
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The United Kingdom Cabinet Mission of 1946 to India aimed to discuss and plan for the transfer of power from the British Government to Indian leadership, providing India with independence.
The 1958 Pakistani coup d'état refers to the events between October 7, when the President of Pakistan Iskander Mirza abrogated the Constitution of Pakistan and declared martial law, and October 27, when Mirza himself was deposed by Gen.
The 1970 Bhola cyclone was a devastating tropical cyclone that struck East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) and India's West Bengal on 12 November 1970.
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The genocide in Bangladesh began on 26 March 1971 with the launch of Operation Searchlight, as West Pakistan began a military crackdown on the Eastern wing of the nation to suppress Bengali calls for self-determination.
The 1971 Men's Hockey World Cup was the inaugural tournament of the Hockey World Cup men's field hockey tournament.
U.S. President Richard Nixon's 1972 visit to the People's Republic of China was an important step in formally normalizing relations between the United States (U.S.) and the People's Republic of China (PRC).
The 1978 Men's Hockey World Cup was the fourth Hockey World Cup men's field hockey tournament.
The 1982 Hockey World Cup was the fifth installment of the Hockey World Cup men's field hockey tournament.
The 1987 Cricket World Cup (also known as the Reliance World Cup for sponsorship reasons) was the fourth edition of the ICC Cricket World Cup tournament.
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The 1992 Cricket World Cup was the fifth staging of the Cricket World Cup, organised by the International Cricket Council (ICC).
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The 1994 Hockey World Cup, was the eighth tournament of the Hockey World Cup men's field hockey tournament.
The 1996 Cricket World Cup, also called the Wills World Cup after its official sponsors, ITC's Wills brand, was the sixth Cricket World Cup, organised by the International Cricket Council (ICC).
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The 1999 ICC Cricket World Cup, the seventh edition of the tournament, was hosted primarily by England, with some games being hosted in Scotland, Ireland, Wales and the Netherlands.
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The 1999 Pakistani coup d'état was a bloodless coup d'état in which the Pakistan Army and then Chief of Army Staff and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, General Pervez Musharraf, overthrew elected Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and his existing elected government, on 12 October 1999.
The 2005 Kashmir earthquake occurred at on 8 October in the Azad Kashmir region of Pakistan.
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The 2007 ICC World Twenty20 was the inaugural Twenty20 cricket world championship, contested in South Africa from 11 to 24 September 2007.
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The Sri Lankan cricket team attack occurred on 3 March 2009, when a bus carrying Sri Lankan cricketers, part of a larger convoy, was fired upon by 12 gunmen, near the Gaddafi Stadium in Lahore, Pakistan.
The 2009 ICC World Twenty20 was an international Twenty20 cricket tournament which took place in England in June 2009.
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The Pakistan federal budget of 2009-2010 has been prepared in accordance with the budgeting and accounting classification system that has been approved by the Government of Pakistan as an integral part of the New Accounting Model.
The 24-hour news cycle (or 24/7 news cycle) refers to 24-hour investigation and reporting of news, concomitant with fast-paced lifestyles.
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Al-Bakistan, Al-Pakistan, Bakistaan, Bakistan, Bakstaan, Etymology of Pakistan, Federation of Pakistan, Federation of pakistan, I.R. of Pakistan, IROP, ISO 3166-1:PK, Islamic Pakistan, Islamic Republic Of Pakistan, Islamic Republic Pakistan, Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Islamic State of Pakistan, Islāmī Jumhūriyah-yi Pākistān, Islāmī Jumhūrī-ye Pākistān, Mumlikat e Khudad e Pakistan, Mumlikat-e-Khudad-e-Pakistan, Name of Pakistan, PAKISTAN, Paakistan, Packistan, Pak-e-stan, Pak-i-stan, Pakastan, Pakasthan, Pakisatan, Pakistaan, Pakistan's, Pakistan, Islamic Republic, Pakistan, Islamic Republic of, Pakistan., Pakistana, Pakistani Federation, Pakistani Republic, Pakistani state, Pakistano, Pakisthan, Pakistán, Pakistāna, Pakland, Pakstan, Paquistan, Paquistao, Paquistán, Paquistão, Paskitan, Pákistán, Pākistān, Republic of Pakistan, State of Pakistan, The Islamic Republic Pakistan, The Islamic Republic of Pakistan, The Republic of Pakistan, The State of Pakistan, Union of Pakistan, اسلامی جمہوریہ پاکستان, اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاكِستان, اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاکستان, باكستان, پاكِستان, پاکستان, پاکِستان, پاڪستان.