1085 relations: -stan, A. K. Fazlul Huq, A.T. Kearney, Abdul Khaliq (philosopher), Abdul Qadeer Khan, Abdus Salam, Abul A'la Maududi, Abul Kalam Azad, Acacia, Achaemenid Empire, Acridotheres, Acronym, Adam Nayyar, Adil Najam, Administrative units of Pakistan, Admiral, Aeronomy, Afghan (ethnonym), Afghan Air Force, Afghan Arabs, Afghan Civil War (1989–1992), Afghan refugees, Afghanistan, Afghanistan–Pakistan skirmishes, Afghans in Pakistan, Agence France-Presse, Agriculture in Pakistan, Ahmad Sirhindi, Ahmadiyya, Ahmadiyya in Pakistan, Air chief marshal, Air Headquarters (Pakistan Air Force), Air Indus, Airblue, Akhand Bharat, Al Jazeera English, Al-Ghazali, Alexander Rutskoy, Alexander the Great, Ali Hujwiri, Aligarh Movement, All-India Muslim League, Allama Iqbal International Airport, Alpine plant, American philosophy, Analytic philosophy, Ancient Egypt, Anglophile, Anglophobia, Animism, ..., Anti-British sentiment, Anwar Pervez, Arab world, Arabian Mau, Arabian Sea, Architecture of the United Kingdom, Armed Forces of Saudi Arabia, Armenia, Armenia–Pakistan relations, Armenians in Pakistan, Ashoka, Asian black bear, Asian Development Bank, Asif Ali Zardari, Assassination of Benazir Bhutto, Associated Press of Pakistan, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, Atomic Age, Atta-ur-Rahman (chemist), Attock Petroleum Limited, Attock Refinery Limited, Aurangzeb, Automotive industry in Pakistan, Ayesha Jalal, Ayub Khan (President of Pakistan), Ayub Ommaya, Azad Kashmir, Azadirachta indica, Bacha Khan International Airport, Badr-1, Badshahi Mosque, Bahá'í Faith in Pakistan, Bajaur Agency, Baloch people, Balochi Academy, Balochi language, Balochistan Police, Balochistan, Pakistan, Balti language, Bangladesh, Bangladesh Awami League, Bangladesh Liberation War, BBC, BBC News, Benazir Bhutto, Bengal, Bengali renaissance, Bengalis in Pakistan, Bibliography of Pakistan, Bicameralism, Biology, Bollywood, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brahui language, Brahui people, BRIC, British Army, British Council, British cuisine, British Empire, British heritage of Pakistan, British intelligence agencies, British philosophy, British Raj, Bronze Age, Brookings Institution, Buddhism, Buddhism in Pakistan, Bulleh Shah, Burushaski, Business cycle, Cabinet of Pakistan, Cambridge Assessment International Education, Cambridge University Press, CANDU reactor, Capital Territory Police, Capra (genus), Catholic Church in Pakistan, Cedrus deodara, Census in Pakistan, Central Intelligence Agency, Central Superior Services, Centre-left politics, Centre-right politics, Centrism, CERN, Chagai-I, Chagai-II, Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, Chairman of the Senate of Pakistan, Chandragupta Maurya, Chashma Nuclear Power Plant, Chashma, Pakistan, Chaudhry Khaliquzzaman, Chemistry, Chief judge, Chief Justice of Pakistan, Chief Minister (Pakistan), Chief of Air Staff (Pakistan), Chief of Army Staff (Pakistan), Chief of Naval Staff (Pakistan), Chief Secretary (Pakistan), Chiffon (fabric), Chili powder, China, China–Pakistan Free Trade Agreement, 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countries and dependencies by area, List of countries and dependencies by population, List of countries by GDP (nominal), List of countries by GDP (PPP), List of countries by number of Internet users, List of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel, List of current Pakistani chief ministers, List of current Pakistani governors, List of dry ports in Pakistan, List of earthquakes in Pakistan, List of electric supply companies in Pakistan, List of highest mountains on Earth, List of hill stations of Pakistan, List of members of the 14th National Assembly of Pakistan, List of mountain ranges of Pakistan, List of mountains in Pakistan, List of newspapers in Pakistan, List of nuclear weapons tests of Pakistan, List of Pakistan Movement activists, List of Prime Ministers of Pakistan, List of provincial governments of Pakistan, List of schools in Pakistan, List of states with nuclear weapons, List of television channels in Pakistan, List of terrorist incidents in Pakistan 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News, Yahya Khan, Yale University, Yidgha language, Yom Kippur War, Yousaf Raza Gillani, Zayn Malik, Zee News, Zimbabwean cricket team in Pakistan in 2015, Zippe-type centrifuge, Zoroastrianism, Zubair Mahmood Hayat, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, .pk, 1946 Cabinet Mission to India, 1958 Pakistani coup d'état, 1970 Bhola cyclone, 1971 Men's Hockey World Cup, 1978 Men's Hockey World Cup, 1982 Men's Hockey World Cup, 1984 Men's World Open Squash Championship, 1987 Cricket World Cup, 1989 South Asian Games, 1990 Men's Hockey World Cup, 1992 Cricket World Cup, 1993 Men's World Open Squash Championship, 1994 Men's Hockey World Cup, 1996 Cricket World Cup, 1996 Men's World Open Squash Championship, 1998 Pakistan Census, 1999 Cricket World Cup, 1999 Pakistani coup d'état, 2003 Men's World Open Squash Championship, 2004 South Asian Games, 2005 Kashmir earthquake, 2007 ICC World Twenty20, 2009 attack on the Sri Lanka national cricket team, 2009 ICC World Twenty20, 2017 Census of Pakistan. 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The suffix -stan (ـستان|translit.
Abul Kasem Fazlul Huq (26 October 1873—27 April 1962); was a Bengali lawyer, legislator and statesman in the 20th century.
A.T. Kearney is an American global management consulting firm that focuses on strategic and operational CEO-agenda issues facing businesses, governments and institutions around the globe.
Abdul Khaliq was born in Lahore on 15 June 1935.
Abdul Qadeer Khan, NI, HI, FPAS (ڈاکٹر عبد القدیر خان; born 1935 or 1936), known as A. Q. Khan, is a Pakistani former nuclear physicist and a metallurgical engineer, who founded the uranium enrichment program for Pakistan's atomic bomb project.
Mohammad Abdus Salam Salam adopted the forename "Mohammad" in 1974 in response to the anti-Ahmadiyya decrees in Pakistan, similarly he grew his beard.
Syed Abul A'la Maududi Chishti (ابو الاعلی مودودی – alternative spellings of last name Maudoodi, Mawdudi, also known as Abul Ala Maududi; –) was a Muslim philosopher, jurist, journalist and imam.
Maulana Sayyid Abul Kalam Ghulam Muhiyuddin Ahmed bin Khairuddin Al-Hussaini Azad (11 November 1888 – 22 February 1958) was an Indian scholar and the senior Muslim leader of the Indian National Congress during the Indian independence movement.
Acacia, commonly known as the wattles or acacias, is a large genus of shrubs and trees in the subfamily Mimosoideae of the pea family Fabaceae.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Acridotheres is a genus of starlings, the "typical" mynas, which are tropical members of the family Sturnidae.
An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux).
Adil Najam PhD (عادل نجم) is a Pakistani academic and intellectual who serves as the inaugural dean of the Pardee School of Global Studies at Boston University, and previously served as vice-chancellor of the LUMS.
The administrative units of Pakistan (انتظامی اکائیاں) consist of five provinces (Balochistan, Gilgit-Baltistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab and Sindh), one autonomous territory (Azad Jammu and Kashmir) and one federal territory (Islamabad Capital Territory).
Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navies, and in many navies is the highest rank.
Aeronomy is the meteorological science of the upper region of the Earth's or other planetary atmospheres, which relates to the atmospheric motions, its chemical composition and properties, and the reaction to it from the environment from space.
The ethnonym Afghan (افغان) has been used in the past to denote a member of the Pashtuns, by Muhammad Qāsim Hindū Šāh Astarābādī Firištah, The Packard Humanities Institute Persian Texts in Translation.
The Afghan Air Force (AAF; دافغانستان هوائی ځواک; قوای هوائی افغانستان) is the aerial warfare branch of the Afghan Armed Forces.
The term Afghan Arabs (also known as Arab-Afghans) refers mostly to Arab and other Muslim Islamist mujahideen who came to Afghanistan during and following the Soviet-Afghan War to help fellow Muslims fight Soviets and pro-Soviet Afghans.
This article covers the Afghan history from the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan on 15 February 1989 until 27 April 1992, the day after the proclamation of the Peshawar Accords proclaiming a new interim Afghan government which was supposed to start serving on 28 April 1992.
Afghan refugees are nationals of Afghanistan who left their country as a result of major wars or persecution.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Since 1949, a series of armed skirmishes and firefights have occurred along the Durand Line (the Afghanistan–Pakistan border) between the Afghan National Security Forces and the Pakistan Armed Forces.
Afghans in Pakistan (افغان مهاجرين., Afghan Muhajreen) primarily constitute refugees who have fled wars in Afghanistan, but there are small numbers of Afghan asylum seekers, migrant workers, merchants, businesspeople, exchange students and diplomats..
Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.
Pakistan's principal natural resources are arable land and water.
Ahmad al-Fārūqī al-Sirhindī (1564–1624) was an Indian Islamic scholar, a Hanafi jurist, and a prominent member of the Naqshbandī Sufi order.
Ahmadiyya (officially, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at; الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, transliterated: al-Jamā'ah al-Islāmiyyah al-Aḥmadiyyah; احمدیہ مسلم جماعت) is an Islamic religious movement founded in Punjab, British India, in the late 19th century.
Between 0.02%-2.2% of Pakistan's population is Ahmadi.
Air chief marshal (Air Chf Mshl or ACM) is a four-star air officer rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force, where it is the most senior peacetime air force rank.
Air Headquarters (AHQ) is the Headquarters of Pakistan Air Force, located at Islamabad.
Air Indus was a private airline based in Karachi operating as a domestic airline.
Airblue Limited (styled as airblue) is a private Pakistani low-cost airline with its head office on the 12th floor of the Islamabad Stock Exchange (ISE) Towers in Islamabad, Pakistan.
Akhanda Bharata (Akhanda Bhārata, Akhand Bharat, Okhond Bharot) or Greater India are irredentist terms literally meaning "Undivided India".
Al Jazeera English (AJE) is an international state-funded 24-hour English-language news and current affairs TV channel owned and operated by Al Jazeera Media Network, headquartered in Doha, Qatar.
Al-Ghazali (full name Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī أبو حامد محمد بن محمد الغزالي; latinized Algazelus or Algazel, – 19 December 1111) was one of the most prominent and influential philosophers, theologians, jurists, and mysticsLudwig W. Adamec (2009), Historical Dictionary of Islam, p.109.
Alexander Vladimirovich Rutskoy (p; born 16 September 1947) is a Russian politician and a former Soviet military officer.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. ʿUthmān b. ʿAlī al-Ghaznawī al-Jullābī al-Hujwīrī (c. 1009-1072/77), known as ʿAlī al-Hujwīrī or al-Hujwīrī (also spelt Hajweri, Hajveri, or Hajvery) for short, or reverentially as Shaykh Syed ʿAlī al-Hujwīrī or as Dātā Ganj Bakhsh by Muslims of the Indian subcontinent, was an 11th-century Ghaznian-Persian Sunni Muslim mystic, theologian, and preacher from what is now Afghanistan who became famous for composing the Kashf al-maḥjūb (Unveiling of the Hidden), which is considered the "earliest formal treatise" on Sufism in Persian.
The Aligarh Movement was the push to establish a modern system of education for the Muslim population of British India, during the later decades of the 19th century.
The All-India Muslim League (popularised as Muslim League) was a political party established during the early years of the 20th century in the British Indian Empire.
Allama Iqbal International Airport (علامہ اقبال بین الاقوامی ہوائی اڈا) is the third largest civil airport by traffic in Pakistan, serving Lahore, the capital of Punjab province as well a large portion of the travellers from the Punjab province.
Alpine plants are plants that grow in an alpine climate, which occurs at high elevation and above the tree line.
American philosophy is the activity, corpus, and tradition of philosophers affiliated with the United States.
Analytic philosophy (sometimes analytical philosophy) is a style of philosophy that became dominant in the Western world at the beginning of the 20th century.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
An Anglophile is a person who admires England, its people, and its culture.
Anti-English sentiment or Anglophobia (from Latin Anglus "English" and Greek φόβος, phobos, "fear") means opposition to, dislike of, fear of, or hatred towards England or the English people.
Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life") is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.
Anti-British sentiment is prejudice, fear or hatred against the British Government, the culture or the people of the United Kingdom, or its Overseas territories usually because of British Imperial past.
Sir Mohammed Anwar Pervez OBE, HI (سر انور پرویز), (born March 1935) is a Pakistan-born British businessman.
The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.
The Arabian Mau is a formal breed of domestic cat, originated from the desert cat, a short-haired landrace native to the desert of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Arabian Sea, also known as Sea of Oman, is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, and on the east by India.
The architecture of the United Kingdom, or British architecture, consists of an eclectic combination of architectural styles, ranging from those that predate the creation of the United Kingdom, such as Roman, to 21st century contemporary.
The Royal Saudi Arabian Armed Forces (al-Quwwāt al-Musallaḥah as-Su‘ūdiyyah) is the Armed Forces, consists of the Saudi Arabian Army, the Royal Saudi Air Force, the Royal Saudi Navy, the Royal Saudi Air Defense, and the Royal Saudi Strategic Missile Force.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Armenia–Pakistan relations refers to international and bilateral relations between Armenia and Pakistan.
The Armenians in Pakistan are ethnic Armenians living in the present country of Pakistan.
Ashoka (died 232 BCE), or Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from to 232 BCE.
The Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus, previously known as Selenarctos thibetanus), also known as the moon bear and the white-chested bear, is a medium-sized bear species native to Asia and largely adapted to arboreal life.
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established on 19 December 1966, which is headquartered in the Ortigas Center located in the city of Mandaluyong, Metro Manila, Philippines.
Asif Ali Zardari (آصف علی زرداری; آصف علي زرداري; born 26 July 1955) is a Pakistani politician and the former co-chairperson of Pakistan People's Party.
The assassination of Benazir Bhutto took place on 27 December 2007 in Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
Associated Press of Pakistan (APP) is a government-operated national news agency of Pakistan.
Atal Bihari Vajpayee (pronunciation; born 25 December 1924) is an Indian politician who was the 10th Prime Minister of India, first term for 13 days in 1996 and then from 1998 to 2004.
The Atomic Age, also known as the Atomic Era, is the period of history following the detonation of the first nuclear ("atomic") bomb, Trinity, on July 16, 1945, during World War II.
Atta-ur-Rahman (عطاالرحمان; born 22 September 1942), FRS, FPAS, is a Pakistani scientist specialising in organic chemistry who served as the Chairman of the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan between October 2002 until September 2008 and the Minister for Science and Technology between March 2000 and September 2002.
Attock Petroleum Limited is Pakistani oil marketing company based in Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
The Attock Refinery Limited is a Pakistani refinery which does crude oil refining in the country with its operations dating back to 1922.
Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad (محي الدين محمد) (3 November 1618 – 3 March 1707), commonly known by the sobriquet Aurangzeb (اَورنگزیب), (اورنگزیب "Ornament of the Throne") or by his regnal title Alamgir (عالمگِیر), (عالمگير "Conqueror of the World"), was the sixth, and widely considered the last effective Mughal emperor.
The automotive industry in Pakistan (پاکستان موٹر گاڑی صنعت) is the one of the fastest growing industries of the country, accounting for 4% of Pakistan's GDP and employing a workforce of over 1,800,000 people.
Ayesha Jalal (Punjabi, عائشہ جلال) is a Pakistani-American historian who serves as the Mary Richardson Professor of History at Tufts University, and was the recipient of the 1998 MacArthur Fellow.
Mohammad Ayub Khan (محمد ایوب خان; 14 May 1907 – 19 April 1974),, was a Pakistani military dictator and the 2nd President of Pakistan who forcibly assumed the presidency from 1st President through coup in 1958, the first successful coup d'état of the country. The popular demonstrations and labour strikes which were supported by the protests in East Pakistan ultimately led to his forced resignation in 1969., Retrieved 25 August 2015 Trained at the British Royal Military College, Ayub Khan fought in the World War II as a Colonel in the British Indian Army before deciding to transfer to join the Pakistan Army as an aftermath of partition of British India in 1947. His command assignment included his role as chief of staff of Eastern Command in East-Bengal and elevated as the first native commander-in-chief of Pakistan Army in 1951 by then-Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan in a controversial promotion over several senior officers., Retrieved 25 August 2015 From 1953–58, he served in the civilian government as Defence and Home Minister and supported Iskander Mirza's decision to impose martial law against Prime Minister Feroze Khan's administration in 1958., Retrieved 27 August 2015 Two weeks later, he took over the presidency from Mirza after the meltdown of civil-military relations between the military and the civilian President., Retrieved 25 August 2015 After appointing General Musa Khan as an army chief in 1958, the policy inclination towards the alliance with the United States was pursued that saw the allowance of American access to facilities inside Pakistan, most notably the airbase outside of Peshawar, from which spy missions over the Soviet Union were launched. Relations with neighboring China were strengthened but deteriorated with Soviet Union in 1962, and with India in 1965. His presidency saw the war with India in 1965 which ended with Soviet Union facilitating the Tashkent Declaration between two nations. At home front, the policy of privatisation and industrialization was introduced that made the country's economy as Asia's fastest-growing economies. During his tenure, several infrastructure programs were built that consisted the completion of hydroelectric stations, dams and reservoirs, as well as prioritizing the space program but reducing the nuclear deterrence. In 1965, Ayub Khan entered in a presidential race as PML candidate to counter the popular and famed non-partisan Fatima Jinnah and controversially reelected for the second term. He was faced with allegations of widespread intentional vote riggings, authorized political murders in Karachi, and the politics over the unpopular peace treaty with India which many Pakistanis considered an embarrassing compromise. In 1967, he was widely disapproved when the demonstrations across the country were led by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto over the price hikes of food consumer products and, dramatically fell amid the popular uprising in East led by Mujibur Rahman in 1969. Forced to resign to avoid further protests while inviting army chief Yahya Khan to impose martial law for the second time, he fought a brief illness and died in 1974. His legacy remains mixed; he is credited with an ostensible economic prosperity and what supporters dub the "decade of development", but is criticized for beginning the first of the intelligence agencies' incursions into the national politics, for concentrating corrupt wealth in a few hands, and segregated policies that later led to the breaking-up of nation's unity that resulted in the creation of Bangladesh., Retrieved 25 August 2015.
Ayub Khan Ommaya, MD, ScD (h.c.), FRCS, FACS (April 14, 1930, in Mian Channu – July 11, 2008, in Islamabad) was a French-Pakistani-American neurosurgeon and the inventor of the Ommaya reservoir.
Azad Jammu and Kashmir (آزاد جموں و کشمیر Āzād Jammū̃ o Kaśmīr, translation: Free Jammu and Kashmir), abbreviated as AJK and commonly known as Azad Kashmir, is a nominally self-governing polity administered by Pakistan.
Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, nimtree or Indian lilac, is a tree in the mahogany family Meliaceae.
Bacha Khan International Airport (باچا خان بین الاقوامی ہوائی اڈا; د باچا خان نړیوال هوایی ډګر), previously called Peshawar International Airport (د پېښور نړیوال هوائی ډګر), is an international airport located in the city of Peshawar in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Badr-1 (بدر-۱, meaning Full Moon-1) was the first artificial and the first digital communications satellite launched by Pakistan's supreme national space authority—the SUPARCO—in 1990.
The Badshahi Mosque (Punjabi and بادشاہی مسجد, or "Imperial Mosque") is a Mughal era mosque in Lahore, capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab.
The Bahá'í Faith in Pakistan begins previous to its independence when it was part of India.
Bajaur, Bajur or Bajour (باجوړ) is a district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
The Baloch or Baluch (Balochi) are a people who live mainly in the Balochistan region of the southeastern-most edge of the Iranian plateau in Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan, as well as in the Arabian Peninsula.
The Balochi Academy promotes the Balochi culture through the development and promotion of the language and literature; support for literary circles; conducting seminars and conferences; and inviting academics from other parts of Pakistan and abroad as guest speakers.
Balochi (بلؤچی, transliteration: balòči) is the principal language of the Baloch people spoken primarily in Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Balochistan Police (Baloch, Urdu: بلوچستان پولیس) is responsible for policing urban Balochistan, Pakistan.
Balochistan (bəloːt͡ʃɪs't̪ɑːn) (بلوچِستان), is one of the five provinces of Pakistan.
Balti (Nastaʿlīq script) is a Tibetic language spoken in the Baltistan region of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, the Nubra Valley of Leh district, and in the Kargil district of Jammu and Kashmir, India.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
The Bangladesh Awami League (BAL) (বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ; translated from Urdu: Bangladesh People's League), often simply called the Awami League or AL, is one of the two major political parties of Bangladesh.
The Bangladesh Liberation War (মুক্তিযুদ্ধ), also known as the Bangladesh War of Independence, or simply the Liberation War in Bangladesh, was a revolution and armed conflict sparked by the rise of the Bengali nationalist and self-determination movement in what was then East Pakistan during the 1971 Bangladesh genocide.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Benazir Bhutto (بينظير ڀُٽو; 21 June 1953 – 27 December 2007) was a Pakistani politician who served as Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1988 to 1990 and again from 1993 to 1996.
Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.
The Bengali renaissance or simply Bengal renaissance, (বাংলার নবজাগরণ; Bānglār nabajāgaraṇ) was a cultural, social, intellectual and artistic movement in Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent during the period of the British Indian Empire, from the nineteenth century to the early twentieth century.
Pakistani Bengalis (پاکستانی بنگالی) are Pakistani citizens who migrated from East Bengal and live in West Pakistan or East Pakistan prior to 1971, or immigrants who migrated from Bangladesh after 1971; although according to social activists in Pakistan, economic migrants have mostly moved out because it is no longer profitable to work and earn in Pakistan due to the Pakistani rupee being weaker than the Bangladeshi taka.
This is a list of notable books and works in the English language written about Pakistan.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Hindi cinema, often metonymously referred to as Bollywood, is the Indian Hindi-language film industry, based in the city of Mumbai (formerly Bombay), Maharashtra, India.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
Brahui (براهوئی) is a Dravidian language spoken primarily by the Brahui people in the central part of Baluchistan province in Pakistan, and in scattered parts of Afghanistan, Iran, and Turkmenistan, and by expatriate Brahui communities in Qatar, United Arab Emirates, and Iraq.
The Brahui (Brahui: براہوئی) or Brahvi people are an ethnic group of about 2.2 million people with the vast majority found in Baluchistan, Pakistan.
In economics, BRIC is a grouping acronym that refers to the countries of '''B'''razil, '''R'''ussia, '''I'''ndia and '''C'''hina, which are all deemed to be at a similar stage of newly advanced economic development.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
The British Council is a British organisation specialising in international cultural and educational opportunities.
British cuisine is the set of cooking traditions and practices associated with the United Kingdom.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The Dominion of Pakistan (later the 'Islamic Republic of Pakistan') was founded in 1947 as a result of the independence of India from British rule, when India was simultaneously partitioned to create the new country of Pakistan (in two non-contiguous halves called East Pakistan & West Pakistan).
The Government of the United Kingdom maintains intelligence agencies within several different government departments.
British philosophy refers to the philosophical tradition of the British people.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
The Brookings Institution is a century-old American research group on Think Tank Row in Washington, D.C. It conducts research and education in the social sciences, primarily in economics, metropolitan policy, governance, foreign policy, and global economy and development.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Buddhism in Pakistan took root some 2,300 years ago under the Mauryan king Ashoka, whom Nehru once called “greater than any king or emperor.” Buddhism has a long history in the Pakistan region — over time being part of areas within Bactria, the Indo-Greek Kingdom, the Kushan Empire; Ancient India with the Maurya Empire of Ashoka, the Pala Empire; the Punjab region, and Indus River Valley cultures — areas now within the present day nation of Pakistan.
Syed Abdullah Shah Qadri (سید عبداللہ شاہ قادری), popularly known as Bulleh Shah, was a Mughal-era Punjabi Islamic philosopher and Sufi poet.
Burushaski (بروشسکی) is a language isolate spoken by Burusho people who reside almost entirely in northern Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, with a few hundred speakers in northern Jammu and Kashmir, India.
The business cycle, also known as the economic cycle or trade cycle, is the downward and upward movement of gross domestic product (GDP) around its long-term growth trend.
The Cabinet of Pakistan (کابینہ پاکستان, Kabina-e-Pakistan) is a formal body composed of senior government officials chosen and led by the Prime Minister.
Cambridge Assessment International Education (or simply Cambridge, formerly known as CIE - (University of) Cambridge International Examinations) is a provider of international qualifications, offering examinations and qualifications to 10,000 schools in more than 160 countries.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The CANDU, for Canada Deuterium Uranium, is a Canadian pressurized heavy-water reactor design used to generate electric power.
The Capital Territory Police (وفاقی دارالحکومت پولیس) is a police force formed in 1981 to police Islamabad Capital Territory, Pakistan under administrative control of the Chief Commissioner, Islamabad Capital Territory Administration.
Capra is a genus of mammals, the goats, composed of up to nine species, including the wild goat, the markhor, and several species known as ibex.
The Catholic Church in Pakistan is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the pope in Rome.
Cedrus deodara, the deodar cedar, Himalayan cedar, or deodar/devdar/devadar/devadaru, is a species of cedar native to the western Himalayas in Eastern Afghanistan, Northern Pakistan (especially in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) and India (Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and, Arunachal Pradesh states and the Darjeeling Region of West Bengal), Southwestern Tibet and Western Nepal, occurring at altitude.
The Census in Pakistan (مردم شماری پاکستان), is a decennial census and a descriptive count of Pakistan's population on Census Day, and of their dwellings, conducted and supervised by the Bureau of Statistics of the Ministry of Finance and Statistics.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Central Superior Services (denoted as CSS; or Bureaucracy) is a permanent elite bureaucratic authority, and the civil service that is responsible for running the civilian bureaucratic operations and government secretariats and directorates of the Cabinet of Pakistan.
Centre-left politics or center-left politics (American English), also referred to as moderate-left politics, is an adherence to views leaning to the left-wing, but closer to the centre on the left–right political spectrum than other left-wing variants.
Centre-right politics or center-right politics (American English), also referred to as moderate-right politics, are politics that lean to the right of the left–right political spectrum, but are closer to the centre than other right-wing variants.
In politics, centrism—the centre (British English/Canadian English/Australian English) or the center (American English/Philippine English)—is a political outlook or specific position that involves acceptance or support of a balance of a degree of social equality and a degree of social hierarchy, while opposing political changes which would result in a significant shift of society either strongly to the left or the right.
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.
Chagai-I is the code name of five simultaneous underground nuclear tests conducted by Pakistan at 15:15 hrs PST on 28 May 1998.
Chagai-II is the codename assigned to the second atomic test conducted by Pakistan, carried out on 30 May 1998 in the Kharan Desert in Balochistan Province of Pakistan.
The Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee (CJCSC) is, in principle, the highest-ranking and senior most military officer, typically at four-star rank, in the Pakistan Armed Forces who serves as a principal military adviser to the civilian government led by elected Prime minister of Pakistan and his/her National Security Council.
The Chairman of the Senate of Pakistan (صدر ایوانِ بالا), is the president-chair of the Senate of Pakistan.
Chandragupta Maurya (reign: 321–297 BCE) was the founder of the Maurya Empire in ancient India.
The Chashma Nuclear Power Plant (CHASNUPP) or Chashma Nuclear Power Complex, near Chashma Colony and Kundian town, Mianwali District, Punjab, Pakistan, is a commercial nuclear power plant consisting of four operating units (CHASHNUPP-I, CHASHNUPP-II, CHASHNUPP-III and CHASHNUPP-IV) and one planned unit (CHASHNUPP-V).
Chashma (چشمہ) is located in Mianwali District near Kundian, Punjab, Pakistan.
Chaudhry Khaliquzzaman (چودھری خلیق الزمان) (25 December 1889 – 1973) was a Pakistani politician and a very important Muslim figure during British India.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Chief judge is the highest-ranking judge of a court that has more than one judge.
The Chief Justice of Pakistan (initials as CJP) is the head of the court system of Pakistan (the judicature branch of government) and the chief judge of the Supreme Court of Pakistan.
A Chief Minister (وزیر اعلى—), is the elected head of government of a province in Pakistan.
The Chief of Air Staff (سربراہ پاک فضائيہ) (reporting name: CAS), is a military appointment and a statutory office held by the four-star rank air force general in the Pakistan Air Force, who is appointed by the Prime Minister of Pakistan and final confirmation by the President of Pakistan.
The Chief of Army Staff (سربراہ پاک فوج) (reporting name: COAS), is a military appointment and statutory office held by the four-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army, who is appointed by the Prime Minister of Pakistan and final confirmation by the President of Pakistan.
The Chief of the Naval Staff ((سربراہ پاک بحریہ (reporting name as CNS), is a military appointment and a Statutory office held by the four-star rank admiral in the Pakistan Navy, who is nominated and appointed by the Prime Minister of Pakistan and confirmed by the President of Pakistan. The Chief of Naval Staff is one of the senior-most appointments in the Pakistan military who is one of the senior members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee in a separate capacity, providing senior consultation to the Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee to act as a principle military advisor to the Prime Minister of Pakistan and its civilian government in the line of defending and safeguarding the expedition, maritime and sealine borders of the nation. The Chief of Naval Staff exercise its responsibility of command and control of the operational, combatant, logistics, administration, and training commands within the Pakistan Navy, in a clear contrast to the U.S. Navy's Chief of Naval Operations (CNO). Due to its responsibility and importance, the Chief of Naval Staff plays a critical role in assessing the coastal defence and conducting reconnaissance to insure its strike capability against aggressive forces. In Principle, the appointment is constitutionally subjected for three years but extensions may be granted by the President upon recommendations and approvals from the Prime Minister. The Chief of Naval Staff is based on the Navy NHQ, and the current Chief of Naval Staff is Admiral Admiral Z.M. Abbasi serving as chief of naval staff, who took over the command as chief of naval staff on 6 October 2017.
In Pakistan, the position of Chief Secretary is occupied by the highest-ranking civil servant in each of the four provinces.
Chiffon ((French cloth, or rag; Arabic شف transparent, diaphanous, translucent fabric, or gauze; (عن s.th.) to shimmer through, reveal) is a lightweight, balanced plain-woven sheer fabric, or gauze, woven of alternate S- and Z-twist crepe (high-twist) yarns.Kadolph, Sara J., ed.: Textiles, 10th edition, Pearson/Prentice-Hall, 2007,, p. 230. The twist in the crepe yarns puckers the fabric slightly in both directions after weaving, giving it some stretch and a slightly rough feel. Early chiffon was made purely from silk. In 1938, however, a nylon version of chiffon was invented, and in 1958 polyester chiffon was invented and became immensely popular due to its resilience and low cost. Under a magnifying glass chiffon resembles a fine net or mesh which gives it some transparency. Chiffon is most commonly used in evening wear, especially as an overlay, for giving an elegant and floating appearance to the gown. It is also a popular fabric used in blouses, ribbons, scarves and lingerie. Like other crêpe fabrics, chiffon can be difficult to work with because of its light and slippery texture. Due to this delicate nature, chiffon must be hand washed very gently. Since chiffon is a light-weight fabric that frays very easily, bound or French seams must be used to stop the fabric from fraying. Chiffon is smoother and more lustrous than the similar fabric georgette. In African countries, such as Eritrea and Ethiopia, traditional ankle-length gowns are often made of chiffon which comes in many different designs and colors.
Chili powder (also powdered chili, chile powder or chilli powder) is the dried, pulverized fruit of one or more varieties of chili pepper, sometimes with the addition of other spices (also sometimes known as chili powder blend).
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The China–Pakistan Free Trade Agreement is a major free trade agreement signed between the People's Republic of China and Pakistan.
China–Pakistan relations began in 1950 when Pakistan was among the first countries to end official diplomatic relations with the Republic of China (on Taiwan) and recognize the People's Republic of China (PRC) regime on mainland China.
The chinkara (Gazella bennettii), also known as the Indian gazelle, is a gazelle species native to Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India.
The Cholistan Desert (صحرائے چولستان; Saraki), also locally known as Rohi, sprawls from Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan and covers an area of.
Chaudhry Rehmat Ali (In Punjabi and) (16 November 1893 – 3 February 1951) was a Pakistani Punjabi Muslim nationalist who was one of the earliest proponents of the creation of the state of Pakistan.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christians make up one of the two largest (non-Muslim) religious minorities in Pakistan, along with Hindus.
The Cinema of Pakistan or Pakistani cinema (پاکِستانی سینما) refers to the filmmaking industry in Pakistan.
A civet is a small, lithe-bodied, mostly nocturnal mammal native to tropical Asia and Africa, especially the tropical forests.
Civil–military relations (Civ-Mil or CMR) describes the relationship between civil society as a whole and the military organization or organizations established to protect it.
Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was a British statesman of the Labour Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1935 to 1955.
Pakistan recorded one of the highest temperatures in the world – – on 26 May 2010, the hottest temperature ever recorded in Pakistan, but also the hottest reliably measured temperature ever recorded on the continent of Asia.
A coastline or a seashore is the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean or a lake.
The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family) and the only species of the genus Cocos.
The Cold Desert, also known as the Katpana Desert or Biama Nakpo, is a high-altitude desert located near Skardu, in Pakistan's northern Gilgit-Baltistan region.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Command and control or C2 is a "set of organizational and technical attributes and processes...
A command hierarchy is a group of people who carry out orders based on others authority within the group.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
A community college is a type of educational institution.
Company rule in India (sometimes, Company Raj, "raj, lit. "rule" in Hindi) refers to the rule or dominion of the British East India Company over parts of the Indian subcontinent.
Several Asian countries have space programs and are actively competing to achieve scientific and technological advancements in space, a situation sometimes referred to as the Asian space race in the popular media as a reference to the earlier Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic and microscopic physical properties of matter.
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
Conservatism in Pakistan (پاكستانی قدامت پسندی), generally relates to the traditional, social, and religious identities in the politics of Pakistan.
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu), also known as the 1973 Constitution is the supreme law of Pakistan.
The Constitution of 1956 was the fundamental law of Pakistan from March 1956 until the 1958 Pakistani coup d'état.
The Constitution of 1962 was the fundamental law of Pakistan from June 1962 until martial law was declared in March 1969.
Conventional warfare is a form of warfare conducted by using conventional weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more states in open confrontation.
The Corporate sector of Pakistan (otherwise attributed as the Corporatization; or/ simply referred to as the Pakistan Inc.) is an elite business sector expanded in financial cities of Pakistan, and a policy measure programme in the economic period of Pakistan.
Corruption in Pakistan is widespread, particularly in the government and lower levels of police forces.
Council of Islamic Ideology (اِسلامی نظریاتی کونسل) is a constitutional body of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, responsible for giving legal advice on Islamic issues to the government and the Parliament.
Counter-terrorism (also spelled counterterrorism) incorporates the practice, military tactics, techniques, and strategy that government, military, law enforcement, business, and intelligence agencies use to combat or prevent terrorism.
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular pitch with a target at each end called the wicket (a set of three wooden stumps upon which two bails sit).
The ICC Cricket World Cup is the international championship of One Day International (ODI) cricket.
The Crime Investigation Department (محکمہ جرم تفتیش; CID) also known as the Criminal Investigation Department is a crime scene investigation, interrogation, antiterrorism, and an intelligence bureaus in the provincial police service of Pakistan.
A Crow is a bird of the genus Corvus, or more broadly is a synonym for all of Corvus.
The society and culture of Pakistan (ثقافتِ پاکستان) comprises numerous ethnic groups: the Punjabis, Saraikis, Pothwaris, Kashmiris, Sindhis in east, Makrani in the south; Baloch, Hazaras and Pashtuns in the west; and the Dards, Wakhi, Baltis, Shinaki and Burusho communities in the north.
The D-8 Organization for Economic Cooperation, also known as Developing-8, is an organisation for development co-operation among the following countries: Bangladesh, Egypt, Nigeria, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Pakistan, and Turkey.
The Daily Times (DT) is an English-language Pakistani newspaper.
Dalbergia sissoo, known commonly as North Indian rosewood, is a fast-growing, hardy deciduous rosewood tree native to the Indian Subcontinent and Southern Iran.
Dameli is a Dardic language spoken by approximately 5,000 people in the Domel Valley, in the Chitral District of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Phoenix dactylifera, commonly known as date or date palm, is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit.
(also daawa or daawah; دعوة "invitation") is the proselytizing or preaching of Islam.
DAWN is Pakistan's oldest, leading and most widely read English-language newspaper.
A standard is a custom or convention that has achieved a dominant position by public acceptance or market forces (for example, by early entrance to the market).
The state funeral of Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq was held on 19 August 1988 in Shah Faisal Mosque in Islamabad, Pakistan.
In economics, the debt-to-GDP ratio is the ratio between a country's government debt (a cumulative amount) and its gross domestic product (GDP) (measured in years).
In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous (/dɪˈsɪdʒuəs/) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to the shedding of petals, after flowering; and to the shedding of ripe fruit.
The Delhi Sultanate (Persian:دهلی سلطان, Urdu) was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
Demetrius I (Greek: Δημήτριος Α΄) was a Greek king (reigned c. 200–180 BC) of Gandhara.
Democracy (جمہوریت; pronounced jamhooriat) is one of the ideologies and systems upon which Pakistan was sought to be established in 1947 as a nation-state, as envisaged by the leader and founding father of the nation, Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA; جمهوری دمکراتی افغانستان,; دافغانستان دمکراتی جمهوریت), renamed in 1987 to the Republic of Afghanistan (جمهوری افغانستان;; د افغانستان جمهوریت), commonly known as Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Afġānistān), existed from 1978 to 1992 and covers the period when the socialist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) ruled Afghanistan.
On 6 December 1992, a large crowd of Hindu Kar Sevaks (activists) demolished the 16th-century Babri Mosque in the city of Ayodhya, in Uttar Pradesh.
Deobandi (Pashto and دیو بندی, دیو بندی, দেওবন্দী, देवबन्दी) is a revivalist movement within Sunni (primarily Hanafi) Islam.
The Deosai National Park is a high-altitude alpine plain and national park in northern Pakistan.
Derawar Fort (قِلعہ دراوڑ), is a large square fortress in Yazman Tehsil, Punjab, Pakistan.
Deserts and xeric shrublands are a biome characterized by receiving only a small amount of moisture, usually defined as less than 250 mm of annual precipitation.
Devapala (9th century) was the most powerful ruler of the Pala Empire of Bengal region in the Indian Subcontinent.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Dharmapala (ruled 8th century) was the second ruler of the Pala Empire of Bengal region in the Indian Subcontinent.
A director general or director-general (plural: directors generals, sometimes director generals) or general director is a senior executive officer, often the chief executive officer, within a governmental, statutory, NGO, third sector or not-for-profit institution.
Disco Deewane is a 1981 best-selling Pakistani pop/disco album by the duo Nazia and Zoheb, consisting of Nazia Hassan and her brother Zoheb Hassan, with composition and production by Indian synth-pop producer Biddu.
The District Courts of Pakistan are courts that operate at the district level, they are controlled by the high courts.
The Districts of Pakistan (اِضلاعِ پاكِستان), are the third-order administrative divisions of Pakistan, below provinces and divisions, but form the first-tier of local government.
Diwali or Deepavali is the Hindu festival of lights celebrated every year in autumn in the northern hemisphere (spring in southern hemisphere).
Domaakí, also known as Dumaki or Domaá, is a Dardic language spoken by a few hundred people living in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan.
Pakistan (পাকিস্তান অধিরাজ্য; مملکتِ پاکستان), also called the Dominion of Pakistan, was an independent federal dominion in South Asia that was established in 1947 as a result of the Pakistan movement, followed by the simultaneous partition of British India to create a new country called Pakistan.
The Durand Line (د ډیورنډ کرښه) is the international border between Pakistan and Afghanistan.
The Durrani Empire (د درانیانو واکمني), also called the Afghan Empire (د افغانانو واکمني), was founded and built by Ahmad Shah Durrani.
Eagle is the common name for many large birds of prey of the family Accipitridae.
East Bengal (পূর্ব বাংলা Purbô Bangla) was a geographically noncontiguous province of the Dominion of Pakistan covering Bangladesh.
East Bengali Refugees refers to the people who left East Bengal following the Partition of Bengal, which was part of the Independence of India and Pakistan in 1947.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
East Pakistan was the eastern provincial wing of Pakistan between 1955 and 1971, covering the territory of the modern country Bangladesh.
The Economic and Political Weekly is a weekly peer-reviewed academic journal covering all social sciences, and is published by the Sameeksha Trust.
The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) is a holistic measure of the production characteristics of large economic systems, usually whole countries.
The Economic Cooperation Organization or ECO is a Eurasian political and economic intergovernmental organization which was founded in 1985 in Tehran by the leaders of Iran, Pakistan and Turkey.
The Economic liberalisation in Pakistan refers to a policy measure programme in order to promote and accelerate the economic independence and development in the economic context of history of Pakistan.
Karachi is the financial and industrial capital of Pakistan.
The economy of Pakistan is the 25th largest in the world in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP), and 42nd largest in terms of nominal gross domestic product.
Education in Pakistan is overseen by the Federal Ministry of Education and the provincial governments, whereas the federal government mostly assists in curriculum development, accreditation and in the financing of research and development.
Education in the United Kingdom is a devolved matter with each of the countries of the United Kingdom having separate systems under separate governments: the UK Government is responsible for England; whilst the Scottish Government, the Welsh Government and the Northern Ireland Executive are responsible for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, respectively.
Education reform is the name given to the goal of changing public education.
Eid al-Adha (lit), also called the "Festival of Sacrifice", is the second of two Islamic holidays celebrated worldwide each year (the other being Eid al-Fitr), and considered the holier of the two.
Eid al-Fitr (عيد الفطر) is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting (sawm).
The eight-thousanders are the 14 independentIn making any "highest mountains" list, one needs to use a criterion to exclude subpeaks and only list independent mountains.
The Election Commission of Pakistan (انتخابی دفتر پاکستان), is an independent, autonomous, permanent and constitutionally established federal body responsible for organizing and conducting of elections to state parliament, provincial legislatures, local governments, elections to the office of President of Pakistan, delimitation of constituencies and preparation of Electoral Rolls.
Elections in Jammu and Kashmir are conducted to elect members of the Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly and the Lok Sabha (House of People).
Since its establishment in 1947, Pakistan has had an asymmetric federal government and is a federal parliamentary democratic republic.
The President of Pakistan is chosen by an electoral college, in Pakistan.
Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy.
Electricity in Pakistan (بجلی) is generated, transmitted, distributed, and retail supplied by two vertically integrated public sector utilities: Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) for all of Pakistan (except Karachi), and the Karachi Electric (K-Electric) for the city of Karachi and its surrounding areas.
Electronic engineering (also called electronics and communications engineering) is an electrical engineering discipline which utilizes nonlinear and active electrical components (such as semiconductor devices, especially transistors, diodes and integrated circuits) to design electronic circuits, devices, VLSI devices and their systems.
The Electronic Government Directorate of Pakistan was established October 2002.
In particle physics, the electroweak interaction is the unified description of two of the four known fundamental interactions of nature: electromagnetism and the weak interaction.
The Elite Police (اشرافیہ پولیس), also known as the "Elite Force" or "Police Commandos", is a branch of the Punjab Police specializing in Counter-Terrorist operations and VIP security duties, as well as acting against serious crime and performing high-risk operations which can't be carried out by the regular police.
Emerging and growth-leading economies (EAGLEs) are a grouping of key emerging markets developed by BBVA Research.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The is formulated and determined by the federal, provincial, and local institutional entities in Pakistan, which address the issues of energy production, distribution, and consumption of energy, such as gas mileage and petroleum standards.
The English Education Act was a legislative Act of the Council of India in 1835 giving effect to a decision in 1835 by Lord William Bentinck,then Governor-General of British India, to reallocate funds the East India Company was required by the British Parliament to spend on education and literature in India.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
An English-medium education system is one that uses English as the primary medium of instruction—particularly where English is not the mother tongue of the students.
Engro Corporation is a Pakistani public multinational corporation based in Karachi with subsidiaries involved in production of fertilizers, foods, chemicals, energy and petrochemicals.
Enlightened moderation is a term coined by a former Pakistani president, Pervez Musharraf; it applies to practicing a moderate Islam, as opposed to the interpretions of fundamentalist Islam.
Enriched uranium is a type of uranium in which the percent composition of uranium-235 has been increased through the process of isotope separation.
Ephedra is a genus of gymnosperm shrubs, the only genus in its family, Ephedraceae, and order, Ephedrales.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
The major ethnic groups of Pakistan in numerical size include: Punjabis, Pashtuns, Sindhis, Siddis, Saraikis, Muhajirs, Baloch, Hindkowans, Chitralis, Gujarati and other smaller groups.
In Pakistan, Islamic culture is predominant but Pakistan also has cultural etiquette based mainly on South Asian influence.
Eucalyptus L'Héritier 1789 (plural eucalypti, eucalyptuses or eucalypts) is a diverse genus of flowering trees and shrubs (including a distinct group with a multiple-stem mallee growth habit) in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae.
The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate which includes most of the continent of Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the traditional continents of Europe and Asia), with the notable exceptions of the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Chersky Range in East Siberia.
An extended family is a family that extends beyond the nuclear family, consisting of parents like father, mother, and their children, aunts, uncles, and cousins, all living nearby or in the same household.
Faisal Mosque (فیصل مسجد) is the mosque in Islamabad, Pakistan.
Faisalabad (فیصل آباد;; Lyallpur until 1979) is the third-most-populous city in Pakistan, and the second-largest in the eastern province of Punjab.
Faisalabad International Airport is an international airport and standby Pakistan Air Force military base situated on Jhang Road, south west from the city centre of Faisalabad, in the Punjab province of Pakistan.
Faiz Ahmad Faiz MBE, NI (فَیض احمد فَیض), (born 13 February 1911 – 20 November 1984) was a Pakistani leftist poet and author, and one of the most celebrated writers of the Urdu language.
Falcons are birds of prey in the genus Falco, which includes about 40 species.
Farooq Azam (born in Lahore, Pakistan) is a researcher in the field of marine microbiology.
Pakistan Fashion Week (PFW) is a fashion event annually held in Karachi, Pakistan.
Pakistan's native fauna reflect its varied climatic zones.
The Federal Investigation Agency (وفاقی ادارۂ تحقیقات; reporting name: FIA) is a border control, counter-intelligence and security agency under the control of the Interior Secretary of Pakistan, tasked with investigative jurisdiction on undertaking operations against terrorism, espionage, federal crimes, fascism, smuggling as well as infringement and other specific crimes.
A federal parliamentary republic refers to a federation of states with a republican form of government that is, more or less, dependent upon the confidence of parliaments at both the national and subnational levels.
The Federal Shariat Court of Pakistan, abbreviated as FSC, is a prestigious court which has the power to examine and determine whether the laws of the country comply with Islamic Shari'a law.
The Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA; قبایلي سیمې، منځنۍ پښتونخوا; وفاقی منتظم شدہ قبائیلی علاقہ جات) was a semi-autonomous tribal region in northwestern Pakistan that existed from 1947 until being merged with neighboring province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, in 2018.
Field hockey is a team game of the hockey family.
The field hockey tournament at the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome, Italy was contested from August 26 to September 9, with sixteen participating teams.
Final results for the Hockey competition at the 1968 Summer Olympics: Only a men's competition was held.
The men's field hockey tournament at the 1984 Summer Olympics was the 15th edition of the field hockey event for men at the Summer Olympic Games.
A fighter pilot is a military aviator trained to engage in air-to-air combat while in the cockpit of a fighter aircraft.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
A first-past-the-post (FPTP) voting method is one in which voters indicate on a ballot the candidate of their choice, and the candidate who receives the most votes wins.
A fiscal year (or financial year, or sometimes budget year) is the period used by governments for accounting and budget purposes, which vary between countries.
In nuclear engineering, fissile material is material capable of sustaining a nuclear fission chain reaction.
The Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty (FMCT) is a proposed international treaty to prohibit the further production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other explosive devices.
A folk costume (also regional costume, national costume, or traditional garment) expresses an identity through costume, which is usually associated with a geographic area or a period of time in history.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
The food industry is a complex, global collective of diverse businesses that supplies most of the food consumed by the world population.
Pakistan is the second largest Muslim-majority country in terms of population (after Indonesia) and its status as a declared nuclear power, being the only Muslim majority nation to have that status, plays a part in its international role.
This article covers topics relating to the foreign trade of Pakistan.
Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
A fossil fuel power station is a power station which burns a fossil fuel such as coal, natural gas, or petroleum to produce electricity.
Free education is education funded through taxation or charitable organizations rather than tuition funding.
The Frontier Corps (سرحد واہنی) (reporting name: FC), is an umbrella term for the two western provincial auxiliary forces part of the paramilitary forces of Pakistan along the western provinces of Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and are the direct counterparts to the Rangers of the eastern provinces (Sindh and Punjab).
The Frontier Regions (often abbreviated as FR) of Pakistan are a group of small administrative units in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), lying immediately to the east of the seven main tribal agencies and west of the settled districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Frontline is a fortnightly English language magazine published by The Hindu Group of publications from Chennai, India.
The G20 developing nations (and, occasionally, the G21, G23 or G20+) was a bloc of developing nations established on 20 August 2003.
Gadani ship-breaking yard is the world's third largest ship breaking yard.
Gandhāra was an ancient kingdom situated along the Kabul and Swat rivers of Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Garam masala (गरम मसाला;; گرم مصالحہ; গরম মসলা garam ("hot") and masala (a mixture of spices)) is a blend of ground spices common in cuisines from the Indian subcontinent.
Gawar-Bati (Narsati) is a Dardic language spoken in Chitral, Pakistan and across the border in Afghanistan.
The A Level (Advanced Level) is a subject-based qualification conferred as part of the General Certificate of Education, as well as a school leaving qualification offered by the educational bodies in the United Kingdom and the educational authorities of British Crown dependencies to students completing secondary or pre-university education.
The O Level (Ordinary Level; official title: General Certificate of Education: Ordinary Level) is a subject-based qualification conferred as part of the General Certificate of Education.
The Geary–Khamis dollar, more commonly known as the international dollar (Int'l. dollar or Intl. dollar, abbreviation: Int'l$., Intl$. or Int$), is a hypothetical unit of currency that has the same purchasing power parity that the U.S. dollar had in the United States at a given point in time.
General Headquarters (GHQ) is the headquarters of Pakistan Army located at Rawalpindi.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
The Geography of Pakistan (جغرافیۂ پاکِستان) is a profound blend of landscapes varying from plains to deserts, forests, hills, and plateaus ranging from the coastal areas of the Arabian Sea in the south to the mountains of the Karakoram range in the north.
Geostrategy, a subfield of geopolitics, is a type of foreign policy guided principally by geographical factors as they inform, constrain, or affect political and military planning.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The ghazal (غزَل, غزل, غزل), a type of amatory poem or ode, originating in Arabic poetry.
The Ghaznavid dynasty (غزنویان ġaznaviyān) was a Persianate Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin, at their greatest extent ruling large parts of Iran, Afghanistan, much of Transoxiana and the northwest Indian subcontinent from 977 to 1186.
The Ghurids or Ghorids (سلسله غوریان; self-designation: شنسبانی, Shansabānī) were a dynasty of Eastern Iranian descent from the Ghor region of present-day central Afghanistan, presumably Tajik, but the exact ethnic origin is uncertain, and it has been argued that they were Pashtun.
Gilgit (Shina:, Urdu), known locally as Gileet, is the capital city of the Gilgit-Baltistan region, an administrative territory of Pakistan.
Gilgit-Baltistan, formerly known as the Northern Areas, is the northernmost administrative territory in Pakistan.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a flowering plant whose rhizome, ginger root or simply ginger, is widely used as a spice or a folk medicine.
Goa is a state in India within the coastal region known as the Konkan, in Western India.
The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is a wolf-like canid that is native to Southeast Europe, Southwest Asia, South Asia, and regions of Southeast Asia.
The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. is an American multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in New York City.
The Government of Pakistan (حکومتِ پاکستان) is a federal government established by the Constitution of Pakistan as a constituted governing authority of the four provinces of a proclaimed and established parliamentary democratic republic, constitutionally called the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
The Governor-General of India (or, from 1858 to 1947, officially the Viceroy and Governor-General of India, commonly shortened to Viceroy of India) was originally the head of the British administration in India and, later, after Indian independence in 1947, the representative of the Indian head of state.
The Governor-General of Pakistan (گورنر جنرل پاکستان), was the representative in Pakistan of the British monarch, from the country's independence in 1947.
The Grand Mosque seizure occurred during November and December 1979 when extremist insurgents calling for the overthrow of the House of Saud took over Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.
The Great Mosque of Mecca, also called Al-Haram Mosque (al-Masjid al-Ḥarām, "the Forbidden Mosque" or "the Sacred Mosque") or Grand Mosque of Makkah, is the largest mosque in the world, and surrounds the Islamic Qiblah (قِـبْـلَـة, Direction of Prayer), that is the Kaaba in the Hejazi city of Mecca (مَـكَّـة, Makkah), Saudi Arabia.
Greco-Buddhism, or Graeco-Buddhism, is the cultural syncretism between Hellenistic culture and Buddhism, which developed between the 4th century BC and the 5th century AD in Bactria and the Indian subcontinent, corresponding to the territories of modern-day Afghanistan, Tajikistan, India, and Pakistan.
The Green Revolution, or Third Agricultural Revolution, refers to a set of research and the development of technology transfer initiatives occurring between the 1930s and the late 1960s (with prequels in the work of the agrarian geneticist Nazareno Strampelli in the 1920s and 1930s), that increased agricultural production worldwide, particularly in the developing world, beginning most markedly in the late 1960s.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
The Group of 24 (G24), a chapter of the G-77, was established in 1971 to coordinate the positions of developing countries on international monetary and development finance issues and to ensure that their interests were adequately represented in negotiations on international monetary matters.
The Group of 77 (G77) at the United Nations is a coalition of developing nations, designed to promote its members' collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations.
Gujarati (ગુજરાતી) is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat.
Gujarati people or Gujaratis (ગુજરાતી) are an ethnic group traditionally from Gujarat that speak Gujarati, an Indo-Aryan language.
Gujari, also known as Gojri (ગુજરી, गुजरी) is a variety of Indo-Aryan spoken by the Gurjars and other tribes of India and Pakistan, with some speakers in Afghanistan.
Gujranwala (Punjabi, گوجرانوالا) is a city in Punjab, Pakistan, that is located north of the nearby provincial capital of Lahore.
Gujrat (Punjabi, گُجرات), is a city in Punjab Province of Pakistan.
The Gulf of Oman or Sea of Oman (خليج عُمان khalīj ʿUmān; دریای عمان daryāye ʿUmān) is a strait (and not an actual gulf) that connects the Arabian Sea with the Strait of Hormuz, which then runs to the Persian Gulf.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire, existing from approximately 240 to 590 CE.
Gurdwara Panja Sahib (گردوارہ پنجہ صاحب) is a famous gurdwara located in Hasan Abdal, Pakistan.
Gwadar (Balochi and گوادر) is a port city on the southwestern coast of Balochistan, Pakistan.
The Gwadar Port (گوادر بندرگاه; IPA: gʷɑːd̪əɾ bənd̪əɾgɑː) is a deep-sea port situated on the Arabian Sea at Gwadar in Balochistan province of Pakistan.
Harappa (Urdu/ہڑپّہ) is an archaeological site in Punjab, Pakistan, about west of Sahiwal.
Hari Singh (September 1895 – 26 April 1961) was the last ruling Maharaja of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir in India.
Hasanabdal (حسَن ابدال), frequently misspelt as Hassan Abdal, is a city in northern Punjab, Pakistan, located 40 km northwest of the country's capital city, Islamabad.
Hassan Askari Rizvi (Urdu: حسن عسكرى رضوى; SI), is a Pakistani political scientist and military analyst who is currently serving as caretaker Chief Minister of Punjab, Pakistan.
Hawks are a group of medium-sized diurnal birds of prey of the family Accipitridae.
Hazara (Hindko/ہزارہ, هزاره) is a region in the North-Eastern part of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
The Hazaras (هزاره, آزره) are an ethnic group native to the region of Hazarajat in central Afghanistan, speaking the Hazaragi variant of Dari, itself an eastern variety of Persian and one of the two official languages of Afghanistan.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Heavy metal (or simply metal) is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom.
The Herald is a monthly magazine of politics and current affairs published in Karachi, Pakistan.
introduction There are five High Courts of Pakistan, each of four based in the capital city of one of the four provinces.
High school is a term primarily used in the United States to describe the level of education students receive from approximately 14 to 18 years old, although there is some variation.
The Higher Secondary Certificate, also known as HSC or Intermediate or +2 examination, is a public examination taken by students of Intermediate college (Junior college) in Bangladesh, Pakistan and in the states of Gujarat, Kerala, Telangana, Punjab, Maharashtra, West Bengal and Goa in India.
The Himalayan brown bear (Ursus arctos isabellinus), also known as the Himalayan red bear, isabelline bear or Dzu-Teh, is a subspecies of the brown bear and is known from northern Afghanistan, northern Pakistan, northern India, west China, and Nepal.
The Hindi–Urdu controversy is an ongoing dispute—dating back to the 19th century—regarding the status of Hindi and Urdu as a single language, Hindustani (lit "of Hindustan"), or as two dialects of a single language, and the establishment of a single standard language in certain areas of North India.
Hindko (ہندکو ALA-LC) is a cover term for a diverse group of Lahnda (Western Punjabi) dialects spoken by people of various ethnic backgrounds in several discontinuous areas in northwestern Pakistan, primarily in the provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab.
Hindkowans (Pashto/هندکوان; "Hindko-speakers") are an linguistic-cultural group native to the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pothohar Plateau and Azad Kashmir regions of Pakistan.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
The Hindu Kush, also known in Ancient Greek as the Caucasus Indicus (Καύκασος Ινδικός) or Paropamisadae (Παροπαμισάδαι), in Pashto and Persian as, Hindu Kush is an mountain range that stretches near the Afghan-Pakistan border,, Quote: "The Hindu Kush mountains run along the Afghan border with the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan".
The Hindu–German Conspiracy(Note on the name) was a series of plans between 1914 and 1917 by Indian nationalist groups to attempt Pan-Indian rebellion against the British Raj during World War I, formulated between the Indian revolutionary underground and exiled or self-exiled nationalists who formed, in the United States, the Ghadar Party, and in Germany, the Indian independence committee, in the decade preceding the Great War.
Hinduism is a diversity-filled socio-religious way of life of the Hindu people of the Indian subcontinent, their diaspora, and some other regions which had Hindu influence in the ancient and medieval times.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Hindus comprise approximately 1.85% of Pakistan's population.
Hindustan Times is an Indian English-language daily newspaper founded in 1924 with roots in the Indian independence movement of the period ("Hindustan" being a historical name for India).
The hippie trail (also the overland) is the name given to the overland journey taken by members of the hippie subculture and others from the mid-1950s to the late 1970s between Europe and South Asia, mainly through Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India (including Jammu and Kashmir) and Nepal.
Modern Bangladesh emerged as an independent nation in 1971 after breaking away and achieving independence from Pakistan in the Bangladesh Liberation War.
The history of Pakistan encompasses the history of the region constituting modern-day Pakistan.
The Hockey World Cup is an international field hockey competition organised by the International Hockey Federation (FIH).
Holi (Holī), also known as the "festival of colours", is a spring festival celebrated all across the Indian subcontinent as well as in countries with large Indian subcontinent diaspora populations such as Jamaica, Suriname, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, South Africa, Malaysia, the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Mauritius, and Fiji.
Hub Power Company Limited (HUBCO) is a Pakistani independent power producing company based in Hub, Lasbela District, Balochistan, Pakistan.
Hub (حب) (also known as Hub Chowki) is the capital city of the Hub Tehsil, located in the Lasbela District of Balochistan, Pakistan.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
Human overpopulation (or population overshoot) occurs when the ecological footprint of a human population in a specific geographical location exceeds the carrying capacity of the place occupied by that group.
Hunza (Burushaski: ہنزو, Wakhi, and ہنزہ) is a mountainous valley in the Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan.
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
"Iman, Ittihad, Nazm" (ایمان، اتحاد، نظم; pronounced:; lit. "Faith, Unity, Discipline") is the national motto of Pakistan.
Immigration to Pakistan refers to the settlement of foreign nationals in Pakistan.
Independence Day (یوم آزادی; Yaum-e Āzādī), observed annually on 14 August, is a national holiday in Pakistan.
This is a list of topics related to Pakistan.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Relations between India and Pakistan have been complex and largely hostile due to a number of historical and political events.
The 123 Agreement signed between the United States of America and the Republic of India is known as the U.S.–India Civil Nuclear Agreement or Indo-US nuclear deal.
The Indian campaign of Alexander the Great began in 326BC.
The Indian Civil Service (ICS) for part of the 19th century officially known as the Imperial Civil Service, was the elite higher civil service of the British Empire in British India during British rule in the period between 1858 and 1947.
The Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica), or Indian porcupine, is a large species of hystricomorph rodent (order Rodentia) belonging to the Old World porcupine family, Hystricidae.
The Indian National Congress (INC, often called Congress Party) is a broadly based political party in India.
Indian nationalism developed as a concept during the Indian independence movement fought against the colonial British Raj.
The Indian pangolin, thick-tailed pangolin, or scaly anteater (Manis crassicaudata) is a pangolin found on the Indian subcontinent.
The Indian Plate or India Plate is a major tectonic plate straddling the equator in the eastern hemisphere.
Provincial elections were held in British India in the winter of 1936-37 as mandated by the Government of India Act 1935.
Provincial elections were held in British India in January 1946 to elect members of the legislative councils of British Indian provinces.
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major uprising in India between 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
Indo-Aryan peoples are a diverse Indo-European-speaking ethnolinguistic group of speakers of Indo-Aryan languages.
The Indo-Greek Kingdom or Graeco-Indian Kingdom was an Hellenistic kingdom covering various parts of Afghanistan and the northwest regions of the Indian subcontinent (parts of modern Pakistan and northwestern India), during the last two centuries BC and was ruled by more than thirty kings, often conflicting with one another.
Indo-Islamic architecture is the architecture of the Indian subcontinent produced for Islamic patrons and purposes.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948, sometimes known as the First Kashmir War, was fought between India and Pakistan over the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu from 1947 to 1948.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between Pakistan and India. The conflict began following Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar, which was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against Indian rule. India retaliated by launching a full-scale military attack on West Pakistan. The seventeen-day war caused thousands of casualties on both sides and witnessed the largest engagement of armored vehicles and the largest tank battle since World War II. Hostilities between the two countries ended after a United Nations-mandated ceasefire was declared following diplomatic intervention by the Soviet Union and the United States, and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration. Much of the war was fought by the countries' land forces in Kashmir and along the border between India and Pakistan. This war saw the largest amassing of troops in Kashmir since the Partition of British India in 1947, a number that was overshadowed only during the 2001–2002 military standoff between India and Pakistan. Most of the battles were fought by opposing infantry and armoured units, with substantial backing from air forces, and naval operations. Many details of this war, like those of other Indo-Pakistani Wars, remain unclear. India had the upper hand over Pakistan when the ceasefire was declared. "Satisfied that it had secured a strategic and psychological victory over Pakistan by frustrating its attempt to seize Kashmir by force, when the UN resolution was passed, India accepted its terms... with Pakistan's stocks of ammunition and other essential supplies all but exhausted, and with the military balance tipping steadily in India's favour." "Losses were relatively heavy—on the Pakistani side, twenty aircraft, 200 tanks, and 3,800 troops. Pakistan's army had been able to withstand Indian pressure, but a continuation of the fighting would only have led to further losses and ultimate defeat for Pakistan." Quote: The invading Indian forces outfought their Pakistani counterparts and halted their attack on the outskirts of Lahore, Pakistan's second-largest city. By the time the United Nations intervened on 22 September, Pakistan had suffered a clear defeat. Although the two countries fought to a standoff, the conflict is seen as a strategic and political defeat for Pakistan, "... the war itself was a disaster for Pakistan, from the first failed attempts by Pakistani troops to precipitate an insurgency in Kashmir to the appearance of Indian artillery within range of Lahore International Airport." – U.S. Department of State, – Interview with Steve Coll in United States House of Representatives 12 September 1994South Asia in World Politics By Devin T. Hagerty, 2005 Rowman & Littlefield,, p. 26 as it had neither succeeded in fomenting insurrection in Kashmir "... after some initial success, the momentum behind Pakistan's thrust into Kashmir slowed, and the state's inhabitants rejected exhortations from the Pakistani insurgents to join them in taking up arms against their Indian "oppressors." Pakistan's inability to muster support from the local Kashmiri population proved a disaster, both militarily and politically." nor had it been able to gain meaningful support at an international level. "Mao had decided that China would intervene under two conditions—that India attacked East Pakistan, and that Pakistan requested Chinese intervention. In the end, neither of them obtained." Internationally, the war was viewed in the context of the greater Cold War, and resulted in a significant geopolitical shift in the subcontinent. Before the war, the United States and the United Kingdom had been major material allies of both India and Pakistan, as their primary suppliers of military hardware and foreign developmental aid. During and after the conflict, both India and Pakistan felt betrayed by the perceived lack of support by the western powers for their respective positions; those feelings of betrayal were increased with the imposition of an American and British embargo on military aid to the opposing sides. As a consequence, India and Pakistan openly developed closer relationships with the Soviet Union and China, respectively. The perceived negative stance of the western powers during the conflict, and during the 1971 war, has continued to affect relations between the West and the subcontinent. In spite of improved relations with the U.S. and Britain since the end of the Cold War, the conflict generated a deep distrust of both countries within the subcontinent which to an extent lingers to this day."In retrospect, it is clear that the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 represented a watershed in the West's association with the subcontinent.""By extending the Cold War into South Asia, however, the United States did succeed in disturbing the subcontinent's established politico-military equilibrium, undermining British influence in the region, embittering relations between India and Pakistan and, ironically, facilitating the expansion of communist influence in the developing world." "The legacy of the Johnson arms cut-off remains alive today. Indians simply do not believe that America will be there when India needs military help... the legacy of the U.S. "betrayal" still haunts U.S.-Pakistan relations today.".
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military confrontation between India and Pakistan that occurred during the liberation war in East Pakistan from 3 December 1971 to the fall of Dacca (Dhaka) on 16 December 1971.
Since the partition of British India in 1947 and creation of modern states of India and Pakistan, the two South Asian countries have been involved in four wars, including one undeclared war, and many border skirmishes and military stand-offs.
Indo-Persian culture refers to those Persian aspects that have been integrated into or absorbed into the cultures of South Asia and in particular, into North India, and Pakistan.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Indus Kohistani is a Dardic language spoken in part of the Indus valley in Kohistan District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
The Indus River Delta-Arabian Sea mangroves are a large mangrove ecoregion on the Arabian Sea coast of Sindh Province, Pakistan.
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
Pakistan ranked as number 43-44 among the countries of the world in nominal GDP, 26th in GDP with purchasing power parity and Pakistan's industrial sector accounts for about 24% of GDP.
Information technology in Pakistan is a growing and rising, which has the potential to expand even more in the future.
An inspector general is an investigative official in a civil or military organization.
The Institute of Social and Policy Sciences (انسٹیٹیوٹ آف سوشل اینڈ پالیسی سائنسز) is a policy research and advocacy think tank with its headquarters located in Islamabad, Pakistan.
The Instrument of Accession is a legal document executed by Maharaja Hari Singh, ruler of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, on 26 October 1947.
The Intelligence Bureau (سراغرسانی کا دفتر; Reporting name: IB), is a civilian intelligence agency in Pakistan.
The Inter-Services Intelligence (بین الخدماتی مخابرات, abbreviated as ISI) is the premier intelligence agency of Pakistan, operationally responsible for gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
The International Business Times is an American online news publication that publishes seven national editions and four languages.
The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly with resolution 2200A (XXI) on 16 December 1966, and in force from 23 March 1976 in accordance with Article 49 of the covenant.
International development or global development is a wide concept concerning level of development on an international scale.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA) is an intergovernmental organization with regional offices in Latin America (Costa Rica), Asia and the Pacific (Australia) and Africa (Ethiopia).
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Nathiagali Summer College on Physics and Contemporary Needs (INSC), was founded by Nobel laureate in Physics Dr.
Interventionism is a policy of non-defensive (proactive) activity undertaken by a nation-state, or other geo-political jurisdiction of a lesser or greater nature, to manipulate an economy and/or society.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iranian Plateau or the Persian Plateau is a geological formation in Western Asia and Central Asia.
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
Irreligion and atheism are present among a minority of mainly young people in Pakistan.
Sahibzada Iskander Ali Mirza (اسکندر مرزا, ইস্কান্দার মির্জা); 13 November 1899 – 13 November 1969),, was the first President of Pakistan, elected in this capacity in 1956 until being dismissed by his appointed army commander General Ayub Khan in 1958. Mirza was educated at the University of Mumbai before attending the military academy in Sandhurst in the United Kingdom. After a brief military service in the British Indian Army, he joined the Indian Political Service and spent the majority of his career as a political agent in the Western region of the British India until elevated as joint secretary at the Ministry of Defence in 1946. After the independence of Pakistan as result of the Partition of India, Mirza was appointed as first Defence Secretary by Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan, only to oversee the military efforts in first war with India in 1947, followed by failed secessionism in Balochistan in 1948. In 1954, he was appointed as Governor of his home province of East Bengal by Prime Minister Mohammad Ali of Bogra to control the law and order sparked as a result of the popular language movement in 1952, but later elevated as Interior Minister in Bogra administration in 1955. Playing a crucial role in ousting of Governor-General Sir Malik Ghulam, Mirza assumed his position in 1955 and was elected as the first President of Pakistan when the first set of Constitution was promulgated in 1956. His presidency, however, marked with political instability which saw his unconstitutional interferences in the civilian administration that led to the dismissal of four prime ministers in a mere two years. Facing challenges in getting the political endorsements and reelection for the presidency, Mirza surprisingly suspended the writ of the Constitution by having imposed martial law against his own party's administration governed by Prime Minister Feroze Khan on 8 October 1958, enforcing it through his army commander General Ayub Khan who dismissed him when the situation between them escalated, also in 1958. Mirza lived in the United Kingdom for the remainder of his life and was buried in Iran in 1969. His legacy and image is viewed negatively by some Pakistani historians who believe that Mirza was responsible for political instability in the country.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Adherents of Islam constitute the world's second largest religious group.
Islam is the second largest religion in India, with 14.2% of the country's population or roughly 172 million people identifying as adherents of Islam (2011 census) as an ethnoreligious group.
Islamabad (اسلام آباد) is the capital city of Pakistan located within the federal Islamabad Capital Territory.
Islamabad Capital Territory (وفاقی دارالحکومت, or ICT) is the one and only federal territory of Pakistan.
Islamabad International Airport (اسلام آباد بین الاقوامی ہوائی اڈہ) is the main international airport serving the Islamabad-Rawalpindi metropolitan area.
Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the early history of Islam to the present day.
The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days.
The economic policies proposed under the banner of "Islamisation" in Pakistan include executive decrees on Zakāt (poor-due), Ushr (tithe), judicial changes that helped to halt land redistribution to the poor, and perhaps most importantly, elimination of riba (defined by activists as interest charged on loans and securities).
An Islamic republic is the name given to several states that are officially ruled by Islamic laws, including the Islamic Republics of Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, and Mauritania.
An Islamic state (دولة إسلامية, dawlah islāmiyyah) is a type of government primarily based on the application of shari'a (Islamic law), dispensation of justice, maintenance of law and order.
Islamistan (اسلامستان) literally means Islamland or land of Islam.
Ismail Gulgee – The Gulgeez (25 October 1926 – 16 December 2007) Pride of Performance, Sitara-e-Imtiaz (twice), Hilal-e-Imtiaz, was a Pakistani artist born in Peshawar.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Israel–Pakistan relations refers to the bilateral relations between the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the State of Israel, which have varied from non-recognition to close coordination during the Soviet–Afghan War.
Jainism in Pakistan (پاکستان میں جین مت) has an extensive heritage and history, although Jains form a very small community in the country today.
Jalālābād, or Dzalalabad, formerly called Ādīnapūr as documented by the 7th-century Xuanzang, is a city in eastern Afghanistan.
Jalaludin Abdur Rahim (Urdu: جلال الدين عبدالرحيم; Bengali: জালালুদ্দিন আবদুর রহিম; also known as J. A. Rahim) (1905–1977) was a Bengali communist and political philosopher who was renowned as one of the founding members of the Pakistan People's Party—a democratic socialist political party.
Jamaat-e-Islami (Urdu: جماعتِ اسلامی) is an Islamic political organisation and social conservative movement founded in 1941 in British India by the Islamist theologian and socio-political philosopher, Abul Ala Maududi.
Jammu and Kashmir (ænd) is a state in northern India, often denoted by its acronym, J&K.
Jammu and Kashmir was, from 1846 until 1952, a princely state of the British Empire in India and ruled by a Jamwal Rajput Dogra Dynasty.
Jaun Elia (جون ایلیا, 14 December 1931 – 8 November 2002) was a Pakistani Urdu poet, philosopher, biographer, and scholar.
Lieutenant-General Javed Nasir (Urdu: جاويد ناصر;b. 1936)), is a retired engineering officer in the Pakistan Army Corps of Engineers, who served as the Director-General of the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), appointed on 14 March 1992 until being forcefully removed from this assignment on 13 May 1993. An educator and engineer by profession, Nasir gained national prominence as his role of bringing the unscattered mass of Afghan Mujahideen to agree to the power-sharing formula to form Afghan administration under President Mojaddedi in Afghanistan in 1992–93. Later, he played an influential and decisive role in the Bosnian war when he oversaw the covert military intelligence program to support the Bosnian Army against the Serbs, while airlifting the thousands of Bosnian refugees in Pakistan.
Jawaharlal Nehru (14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence.
Jeans are a type of trousers, typically made from denim or dungaree cloth.
Jhelum (جِہلم) is a city on the right bank of the Jhelum River, in the district of the same name in the north of Punjab province, Pakistan.
Jinnah International Airport (جناح بین الاقوامی ہوائی اڈا; جناح بين الاقوامي هوائي اڏي) is Pakistan's busiest international and domestic airport, and handled 6,860,095 passengers in 2016-2017.
John "Richard" Sisson (born October 16, 1936) was the acting President of Ohio State University from December 15, 1997 to June 30, 1998 after Elwood Gordon Gee left the office.
The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a body of senior uniformed leaders in the United States Department of Defense who advise the President of the United States, the Secretary of Defense, the Homeland Security Council and the National Security Council on military matters.
The Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee (جوانٹ چيفس ﺁف اسٹاف كميٹى; JCSC), is an administrative body of senior high-ranking uniformed military leaders of the unified Pakistan Armed Forces who advises the civilian Government of Pakistan, National Security Council, Defence Minister, President and Prime minister of Pakistan on important military and non-military strategic matters.
The Joint Staff Headquarters (reporting name:JS HQ), is the combatant joint-field operations secretariat and principal headquarters of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee established after Indo-Pakistani war of 1971 in Rawalpindi.It is situated neighborhood to GHQ.
Joseph Francis Dunford Jr. (born December 8, 1955) is a United States Marine Corps General and the 19th Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
Josh Malihabadi (جوش ملیح آبادی) (born as Shabbir Hasan Khan) (5 December 1894 – 22 February 1982) popularly known as Shayar-e-Inquilab(poet of revolution) is regarded as one of the finest Urdu poets of the era of British India.
The Journal of Genocide Research is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering studies of genocide.
JSTOR (short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995.
The judiciary of Pakistan (پاکستان کا عدلیہ) is a hierarchical system with two classes of courts: the superior (or higher) judiciary and the subordinate (or lower) judiciary.
The jungle cat (Felis chaus), also called reed cat and swamp cat, is a medium-sized cat native to the Middle East, South and Southeast Asia and southern China.
Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae.
K-Electric (KE) is a vertically integrated power utility, and a Pakistani electric supply company, based in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
K2 (کے ٹو), also known as Mount Godwin-Austen or Chhogori (Balti and چھوغوری),, at above sea level, is the second highest mountain in the world, after Mount Everest, at.
The Kalasha (Kalasha: Kaĺaśa; Nuristani: Kasivo; کالاش), or Kalash, are a Dardic indigenous people residing in the Chitral District of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. They speak the Kalasha language, from the Dardic family of the Indo-Aryan branch. They are considered unique among the peoples of Pakistan. They are also considered to be Pakistan's smallest ethnoreligious community, practising a religion which some scholars characterise as a form of animism, and other academics as "a form of ancient Hinduism". The neighbouring Nuristani people of the adjacent Nuristan (historically known as Kafiristan) province of Afghanistan once practised the faith adhered to by the Kalash. By the late 19th century, much of Nuristan had been converted to Islam, although some evidence has shown the people continued to practice their customs. Over the years, the Nuristan region has also been the site of much war activity that has led to the death of many endemic Nuristanis and has seen an inflow of surrounding Afghans to claim the vacant region, who have since admixed with the remaining natives. The Kalash of Chitral maintained their own separate cultural traditions.Newby, Eric. A Short Walk in the Hindu Kush. 2008.
Kalasha (locally: Kalashamondr) is an Indo-European language in the Indo-Aryan branch spoken by the Kalash people, further classified as a Dardic language in the Chitral group.
Karachi (کراچی; ALA-LC:,; ڪراچي) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh.
The Karachi Agreement of 1949 was signed by the military representatives of India and Pakistan, supervised by the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan, establishing a cease-fire line in Kashmir following the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947.
The Karachi Nuclear Power Complex or KNPC is located in Paradise Point, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
The Karakoram, or Karakorum is a large mountain range spanning the borders of Pakistan, India, and China, with the northwest extremity of the range extending to Afghanistan and Tajikistan.
The N-35 or National Highway 35 (قومی شاہراہ 35), known more popularly as the Karakoram Highway (شاہراہ قراقرم) and China-Pakistan Friendship Highway, is a 1300 km national highway in Pakistan which extends from Hasan Abdal in Punjab province of Pakistan to the Khunjerab Pass in Gilgit-Baltistan, where it crosses into China and becomes China National Highway 314.
Kargil is a district of Ladakh division in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.
The Kargil War (करगिल युद्ध, kargil yuddh, کرگل جنگ kargil jang), also known as the Kargil conflict, was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place between May and July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir and elsewhere along the Line of Control (LOC).
Karimabad (كريم آباد), formerly known as Baltit, is the capital of Hunza Valley, in the Gilgit-Baltistan province of Pakistan.
Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.
The Kashmir conflict is a territorial conflict primarily between India and Pakistan, having started just after the partition of India in 1947.
The Kashmir Valley, also known as the Vale of Kashmir, is a valley in the portion of the Kashmir region administered by India.
Kashmiri (کأشُر), or Koshur (pronounced kọ̄šur or kạ̄šur) is a language from the Dardic subgroup of Indo-Aryan languages and it is spoken primarily in the Kashmir Valley and Chenab Valley of Jammu and Kashmir.
The Kashmiris (کٲشُر لُکھ / कॉशुर लुख) are an ethnic group native to the Kashmir Valley, in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, who speak Kashmiri, an Indo-Aryan Dardic language.
The Katas Raj Temples (Punjabi, کٹاس راج مندر, also known as Qila Katas(), are several Hindu temples connected to one another by walkways. The temples form a complex surrounding a pond named Katas which is regarded as sacred by Hindus. The complex is located in the Potohar Plateau region of Pakistan's Punjab province. The temples are located near the town of Kallar Kahar, and are near the M2 Motorway. The temples' pond is said in the Puranas to have been created from the teardrops of Shiva, after he wandered the Earth inconsolable after the death of his wife Sati. The pond occupies an area of two kanals and 15 marlas, with a maximum depth of 20 feet. The temples play a role in the Hindu epic poem, the Mahābhārata, where the temples are traditionally believed to have been the site where the Pandava brothers spent a significant portion of their exile. It is also traditionally believed by Hindus to be the site where the brothers engaged in a riddle contest with the Yakshas, as described in the Yaksha Prashna. Another tradition states that the Hindu deity Krishna laid the foundation of the temple, and established a hand-made shivling in it. The temples were visited by India's former deputy prime minister Lal Krishna Advani in 2005. In 2006, the Pakistani government began restoration works at the temples, with further improvements announced in 2017.
The Khan Research Laboratories, previously known at various times as Project-706, Engineering Research Laboratories, and Kahuta Research Laboratories, is a Pakistan Government's multi-program national research institute, managed and operated under the scrutiny of Pakistan Armed Forces, located in Kahuta, Punjab Province.
Khowar (کهووار), also known as Chitrali, is an Indo-Aryan language of the Dardic subbranch.
Khwaja Ghulam Farid (Urdu) or Khwaja Farid (1845–1901) was a 19th-century Saraiki sufi poet of the Indian subcontinent.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (abbreviated as KP; خیبر پختونخوا; خیبر پښتونخوا) is one of the four administrative provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country along the international border with Afghanistan.
The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Police (Urdu: خیبر پختونخوا پولیس) (formerly the Frontier Police) is responsible for law enforcement and policing in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
The Khyber Pass (د خیبر درہ, درۂ خیبر) (elevation) is a mountain pass in the north of Pakistan, close to the border with Afghanistan.
The ancient site at Kot Diji (کوٹ ڈیجی) was the forerunner of the Indus Civilization.
Kumail Nanjiani (born February 21, 1978) is a Pakistani-American stand-up comedian, actor, writer, and podcast host.
The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (part one) global warming is occurring and (part two) it is extremely likely that human-made CO2 emissions have predominantly caused it.
Pakistan has one of the largest labour and manpower resources in the world, due to its large population, which is the sixth largest in the world.
Ladakh ("land of high passes") is a region in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir that currently extends from the Kunlun mountain range to the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people of Indo-Aryan and Tibetan descent.
Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.
Lahore Electric Supply Company (LESCO) is an electric distribution company which supplies electricity to Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
The Lahore Fort (Punjabi and شاہی قلعہ: Shahi Qila, or "Royal Fort"), is a citadel in the city of Lahore, Pakistan.
The Lahore Resolution (قرارداد لاہور, Karardad-e-Lahore; Bengali: লাহোর প্রস্তাব, Lahor Prostab),was a declaration written by Muhammad Zafarullah Khan and others and presented by A. K. Fazl ul Huq, the Prime Minister of Bengal, was a formal political statement adopted by the All-India Muslim League on the occasion of its three-day general session in Lahore on 22–24 March 1940.
Saiful Muluk (جھیل سیف الملوک.) is a mountainous lake located at the northern end of the Kaghan Valley, near the town of Naran in the Saiful Muluk National Park.
Syed Usman MarvandiSarah Ansari (1992) Sufi Saints and State Power: The Pirs of Sindh, 1843–1947.
Pakistan is home to many dozens of languages spoken as first languages.
Larry Lee Pressler (born March 29, 1942) is a Republican U.S. politician from South Dakota.
Lassi is a popular traditional dahi (yogurt)-based drink that originated in the Indian subcontinent.
In politics, law and order (also known as tough on crime and the War on Crime) refers to demands for a strict criminal justice system, especially in relation to violent and property crime, through stricter criminal penalties.
Law enforcement in Pakistan (قانون نافذ کرنے والے ادارے) is one of the three main components of the criminal justice system of Pakistan, alongside the courts and the prisons.
The terms right-hand traffic (RHT) and left-hand traffic (LHT) refer to the practice, in bidirectional traffic situations, to keep to the right side or to the left side of the road, respectively.
The Legal Framework Order, 1970 (LFO) was a decree issued by then-President of Pakistan Gen.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
The leopard (Panthera pardus) is one of the five species in the genus Panthera, a member of the Felidae.
Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan (Næʍābzādāh Liāqat Alī Khān,لِیاقت علی خان; born October 1895 – 16 October 1951), widely known as Quaid-e-Millat (Leader of the Nation) and Shaheed-e-Millat (شہِیدِ مِلّت Martyr of the Nation), was one of the leading founding fathers of Pakistan, statesman, lawyer, and political theorist who became and served as the first Prime Minister of Pakistan; in addition, he also held cabinet portfolio as the first foreign, defence, and the frontier regions minister from 1947 until his assassination in 1951.
Liberalism and progressivism within Islam involve professed Muslims who have produced a considerable body of liberal thought on the re-interpretation and reform of Islamic understanding and practice.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.
The term Line of Control (LoC) refers to the military control line between the Indian and Pakistani controlled parts of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir—a line which does not constitute a legally recognized international boundary, but is the de facto border.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
The Pakistan aviation industry started with Orient Airways, founded on 23 October 1946.
This page lists the civil airports, some joint with military airbases and small airports in Pakistan.
This is a list of Asian cuisines, by region.
The following is a list of Constituencies of Pakistan for elected seats in National Assembly (Urdu: ایوان زیریں پاکستان) also known as lower house (National Assembly).
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.
This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).
Below is a sortable list of countries by number of Internet users as of 2016.
This is a list of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel.
A Chief Minister in Pakistan is the elected Head of Government of one of Pakistan's four Provinces or the two non-provincial sub-national territories that have assemblies.
A Governor in Pakistan is the appointed Head of State of a province.
This is a List of dry ports in Pakistan.
Pakistan is one of the most seismically active countries in the world, being crossed by several major faults.
This is a list of electric supply companies in Pakistan.
There are at least 109 mountains on Earth with elevations greater than above sea level.
There are many hill stations in Pakistan, where there is snow in the winter.
The 14th National Assembly of Pakistan was the legislature of Pakistan following the 2013 general election of members of parliament (MPs) to the National Assembly of Pakistan, the lower house of the bicameral Majlis-e-Shura.
Pakistan is home to many mountains like northern and western mountains above.
Pakistan is home to 108 peaks above 7,000 metres.
Following is a list of newspapers in Pakistan.
The Nuclear testing series programme refers to an active military programme directed towards the development of techniques of experimenting nuclear forces and further investigations of the blast effects.
The Founders and activists of the Pakistan Movement, also known as Founding Fathers of Pakistan (Urdu:بانيڹ پاكستان; ''Romanization lit''.:bəŋɨaɪaɪ-e-Pəkɨstəŋ), were the political leaders and statespersons who participated in the success of the political movement, following the signing of the Pakistan Resolution, that led the establishment and creation of Pakistan on August 1947.
The Prime Minister of Pakistan (وزِیرِ اعظم —,; Turkish lit. "Grand Vizier"), is the popularly elected politician who is the chief executive of the Government of Pakistan.
The four provincial governments of Pakistan administer the four provinces of Pakistan.
The following is a list of schools in Pakistan, categorized by province/territory and by district.
There are eight sovereign states that have successfully detonated nuclear weapons.
This is a list of television channels in Pakistan.
This is the list of major terrorist incidents in Pakistan.
Higher education in Pakistan is the systematic process of students continuing their education beyond secondary school, learned societies, and two-year colleges.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
Literary realism is part of the realist art movement beginning with mid nineteenth-century French literature (Stendhal), and Russian literature (Alexander Pushkin) and extending to the late nineteenth and early twentieth century.
Local government in Pakistan is a complex pattern, with distribution of power varying according to the local arrangements.
The Lodi dynasty (or Lodhi) was an Afghan dynasty that ruled the Delhi Sultanate from 1451 to 1526.
The Lollywood (لالی وُڈ), is the oldest film industry of Pakistani cinema based in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, (born Prince Louis of Battenberg; 25 June 1900 – 27 August 1979) was a British Royal Navy officer and statesman, an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and second cousin once removed of Queen Elizabeth II.
A low-cost carrier or low-cost airline (also known as ''no-frills'', ''discount'' or budget carrier or airline, or LCC) is an airline without most of the traditional services provided in the fare, resulting in lower fares and fewer comforts.
A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house.
The Lower Paleolithic (or Lower Palaeolithic) is the earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.
Lyric poetry is a formal type of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically spoken in the first person.
Mian Mohammad Sharif (Urdu: محمد شریف) (1893 – 1965) TI, best known as Professor M. M. Sharif, was an influential philosopher, clergyman, and college professor.
Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix makro- meaning "large" and economics) is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole.
Macromanagement is a management theory with two different approaches to the definition that both share a common idea; management from afar.
Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.
Madrassas of Pakistan are Islamic seminaries in Pakistan, known as Madaris-e-Deeniya in Urdu.
Mahbub ul Haq (محبوب الحق; 24 February 1934 – 16 July 1998) was a Pakistani game theorist, economist and an international development theorist who served as the 13th Finance Minister of Pakistan from 10 April 1985 until 28 January 1988.
Major non-NATO ally (MNNA) is a designation given by the United States government to close allies that have strategic working relationships with the US Armed Forces but are not members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
A majority is the greater part, or more than half, of the total.
Majority rule is a decision rule that selects alternatives which have a majority, that is, more than half the votes.
Malik Meraj Khalid (ملک معراج خالد; 20 September 1915 – 13 June 2003), was a Pakistani left wing statesman and Marxist philosopher who served as Prime Minister of Pakistan in an acting capacity from November 1996 until February 1997.
Mamnoon Hussain (ممنون حسین; born 23 December 1940) is a Pakistani businessman and conservative politician who is the 12th President of Pakistan, in office since 2013.
A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water.
Manzoor Ahmed, DSc (Urdu: منظور احمد; born 11 March 1934) is a Pakistani scientist and philosopher of science.
The Marco Polo sheep (Ovis ammon polii) is a subspecies of argali sheep, named after Marco Polo.
Mardān (Pashto,; Urdu; Pashto) is located in Mardan District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan.
A maritime boundary is a conceptual division of the Earth's water surface areas using physiographic or geopolitical criteria.
The markhor (Capra falconeri; مرغومی marǧūmi; Persian/Urdu), also known as the screw horn goat, is a large species of wild goat that is found in northeastern Afghanistan, northern and central Pakistan, Northern India, southern Tajikistan, southern Uzbekistan and in the Himalayas.
Martensite, named after the German metallurgist Adolf Martens (1850–1914), most commonly refers to a very hard form of steel crystalline structure, but it can also refer to any crystal structure that is formed by diffusionless transformation.
Marwari (Mārwāṛī; also rendered Marwadi, Marvadi) is a Rajasthani language spoken in the Indian state of Rajasthan.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
Material physics is the use of physics to describe the physical properties of materials.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.
The Mayor of London is the head of the executive body of the Greater London Authority.
Mazar-e-Quaid, also known as the Jinnah Mausoleum or the National Mausoleum, is the final resting place of Quaid-e-Azam ("Great Leader") Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
Mehrgarh (Balochi: Mehrgaŕh; مهرګړ; مہرگڑھ), sometimes anglicized as Mehergarh or Mehrgar, is a Neolithic (7000 BCE to c. 2500/2000 BCE) site located near the Bolan Pass on the Kacchi Plain of Balochistan, Pakistan, to the west of the Indus River valley.
Menander I Soter (Μένανδρος Α΄ ὁ Σωτήρ, Ménandros A' ho Sōtḗr, "Menander I the Saviour"; known in Indian Pali sources as Milinda) was an Indo-Greek King of the Indo-Greek Kingdom (165Bopearachchi (1998) and (1991), respectively. The first date is estimated by Osmund Bopearachchi and R. C. Senior, the other Boperachchi/155 –130 BC) who administered a large empire in the Northwestern regions of the Indian Subcontinent from his capital at Sagala.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Mīān Muhammad Bakhsh (میاں محمد بخش.) was a Sufi saint and a Punjabi Hindko poet.
Mian Saqib Nisar (میاں ثاقب نثار, born 18 January 1954), is the 25th and current Chief Justice of Pakistan, in office since 31 December 2016.
Middle Eastern cuisine is the cuisine of the various countries and peoples of the Middle East.
In international relations, a middle power is a sovereign state that is not a superpower nor a great power, but still has large or moderate influence and international recognition.
A middle school (also known as intermediate school or junior high school) is an educational stage which exists in some countries, providing education between primary school and secondary school.
Military coups in Pakistan began in 1958 and there have been three successful attempts.
A military exercise or war game is the employment of military resources in training for military operations, either exploring the effects of warfare or testing strategies without actual combat.
The military history of Pakistan (تاريخ عسكری پاكِستان.) encompasses an immense panorama of conflicts and struggles extending for more than 2,000 years across areas constituting modern Pakistan, and the greater South Asia.
The United Kingdom, along with most of its Dominions and Crown colonies declared war on Nazi Germany in September 1939, after the German invasion of Poland.
Minar-e-Pakistan (مینارِ پاکستان) is a public monument located in, adjacent to the Walled City of Lahore, in the Pakistani province of Punjab.
A miniseries (or mini-series, also known as a serial in the UK) is a television program that tells a story in a predetermined, limited number of episodes.
The Education Minister of Pakistan heads the Ministry of Education.
The Ministry of Labour of Pakistan is a government ministry responsible for Labour relations in Pakistan.
The Ministry of Overseas Pakistanis and Human Resource Development (وزارت بیرون ملک مقیم پاکستانی و انسانی وسائل, abbreviated as MoOPHRD) is a ministry of the Government of Pakistan that oversees matters concerning Overseas Pakistanis and human resource development in Pakistan.
The Ministry of Railways (وزارت ريلوے, Wazarat-e-Railway, abbreviated as MoR) is a ministry of the Government of Pakistan tasked with planning, administrating and overseeing government policies for the development of the national rail network, Pakistan Railways.
Mirza Kalich Beg (مرزا قليچ بيگ) is a scholar known for his contributions to the Sindhi literature.
Mogadishu (Muqdisho), known locally as Xamar or Hamar, is the capital and most populous city of Somalia.
Muhammad Ali Jauhar (10 December 1878 – 4 January 1931), also known as Maulana Mohammad Ali Jauhar (Arabic: مَولانا مُحمّد علی جَوہر), was an Indian Muslim leader, activist, scholar, journalist and a poet, and was among the leading figures of the Khilafat Movement.
Mohenjo-daro (موئن جو دڙو, meaning 'Mound of the Dead Men'; موئن جو دڑو) is an archaeological site in the province of Sindh, Pakistan.
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
Mongoose is the popular English name for 29 of the 34 species in the 14 genera of the family Herpestidae, which are small feliform carnivorans native to southern Eurasia and mainland Africa.
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
Montane ecosystems refers to any ecosystem found in mountains.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
Morus, a genus of flowering plants in the family Moraceae, comprises 10–16 species of deciduous trees commonly known as mulberries, growing wild and under cultivation in many temperate world regions.
Motorways of Pakistan (پاکستان کی موٹروے) are a network of multiple-lane, high-speed, controlled-access highways in Pakistan, which are owned, maintained and operated federally by Pakistan's National Highway Authority.
The movement to impeach Pervez Musharraf was an August 2008 attempt by opposition parties comprising the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP), Pakistan Muslim League (N) (PML-N), Awami National Party (ANP), and Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam to force Pakistan's President Pervez Musharraf out of office.
The mugger crocodile (Crocodylus palustris.
Mughal architecture is the type of Indo-Islamic architecture developed by the Mughals in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries throughout the ever-changing extent of their empire in the Indian subcontinent.
The Mughal emperors, from the early 16th century to the early 18th century, built and ruled the Mughal Empire on the Indian subcontinent, mainly corresponding to the modern countries of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
The Muhajir people (also spelled Mahajir and Mohajir) (مهاجر) are Muslim immigrants, of multi-ethnic origin, and their descendants, who migrated from various regions of India after the independence of Pakistan.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah (محمد علی جناح ALA-LC:, born Mahomedali Jinnahbhai; 25 December 1876 – 11 September 1948) was a lawyer, politician, and the founder of Pakistan.
Muhammad Asad (محمد أسد /muħammad ʔasad/, محمد أسد, born Leopold Weiss; 12 July 1900 – 20 February 1992) was a Jewish-born Austro-Hungarian Muslim journalist, traveler, writer, linguist, thinker, political theorist, diplomat and Islamic scholar.
‘Imād ad-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Qāsim ath-Thaqafī (عماد الدين محمد بن القاسم الثقفي; c. 695715) was an Umayyad general who conquered the Sindh and Multan regions along the Indus River (now a part of Pakistan) for the Umayyad Caliphate.
Muhammad Iqbal (محمد اِقبال) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938), widely known as Allama Iqbal, was a poet, philosopher, and politician, as well as an academic, barrister and scholar in British India who is widely regarded as having inspired the Pakistan Movement.
Muhammad Suhail Zubairy, HI, SI, FPAS (born 19 October 1952), is a University Distinguished Professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the Texas A&M University and is the inaugural holder of the Munnerlyn-Heep Chair in Quantum Optics.
Admiral Mohammad Zakaullah (Urdu: (Urdu: محمد ذكاءالله; b. 10 January 1958),, is a retired four-star rank admiral in the Pakistan Navy, who was the 15th Chief of Naval Staff of the Pakistan Navy. He was later replaced by Admiral Zafar Mahmood abbasi. He is noted for his sportsmanship, having represented Pakistan at the Olympics for a sailing class category, for which he is a recipient of a national honor. As naval chief, Admiral Zakaullah is noted for revolutionizing the role of the navy, emphasizing the role of the navy in economic corridor with China and took initiatives to strengthened ties with the Turkish Navy. He also played an active role in establishing the very low frequency facility to provide communications with the submarines as well as ensuring the second-strike capability by commissioning the cruise missile system in the strategic command of the Navy.
Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (12 August 1924 – 17 August 1988) was a Pakistani four-star general who served as the 6th President of Pakistan from 1978 until his death in 1988, after declaring martial law in 1977.
"Sharization" or "Islamisation" (محمد ضیاء الحق کی اسلامی حکمرانی) was the "primary" policy, or "centerpiece" of the government of General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, the ruler of Pakistan from 1977 until his death in 1988.
Air Chief Marshal Mujahid Anwar Khan is a four-star rank air force general and the Chief of Air Staff of the Pakistan Air Force.
Mujahideen (مجاهدين) is the plural form of mujahid (مجاهد), the term for one engaged in Jihad (literally, "holy war").
The Mukti Bahini (মুক্তি বাহিনী translates as 'Freedom Fighters', or Liberation Forces; also known as the Bangladesh Forces) is a popular Bengali term which refers to the guerrilla resistance movement formed by the Bangladeshi military, paramilitary and civilians during the War of Liberation that transformed East Pakistan into Bangladesh in 1971.
Multan (Punjabi, Saraiki, مُلتان), is a Pakistani city and the headquarters of Multan District in the province of Punjab.
Multan International Airport (مُلتان بین الاقوامی ہوائی اڈہ) is an international airport located 4 km west of Multan, Pakistan.
A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The Society of the Muslim Brothers (جماعة الإخوان المسلمين), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood (الإخوان المسلمون), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna in 1928.
Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 12th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into modern Afghanistan and Pakistan as early as the time of the Rajput kingdoms in the 8th century.
Muslim nationalism in South Asia is the political and cultural expression of nationalism, founded upon the religious tenets and identity of Islam, of the Muslims of South Asia.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
Mutual assured destruction or mutually assured destruction (MAD) is a doctrine of military strategy and national security policy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by two or more opposing sides would cause the complete annihilation of both the attacker and the defender (see pre-emptive nuclear strike and second strike).
Muzaffarabad (مُظفَّرآباد) is the capital of the Pakistani territory of Azad Kashmir.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
The Minimum Credible Deterrence (MCD; officially named N-deterrence), is a defence and strategic principle on which the atomic weapons programme of Pakistan is based.
Nadia Ali (نادیہ علی., born 3 August 1980) is a Pakistani-American singer-songwriter.
Naeem Ashraf Raja (Urdu: نعیم اشرف راجہ) is the Director of biodiversity in the Federal Government of Pakistan.
Nanga Parbat (Urdu), locally known as Diamer, is the ninth highest mountain in the world at above sea level.
Nasirul Mulk (ناصر الملک,; born 17 August 1950) is the 7th Caretaker Prime Minister of Pakistan who previously served as the 22nd Chief Justice of Pakistan.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
Qaumi Assembly Pakistan (قومی اسمبلئ پاکستان or National Assembly of Pakistan (ایوانِ زیریں پاکستان) is the lower house of the bicameral Majlis-e-Shura, which also comprises the President of Pakistan and Aiwan-e Bala (upper house). The Qaumi Assembly and the Aiwan-e Bala both convene at Parliament House in Islamabad. The National Assembly is a democratically elected body consisting of a total of 342 members who are referred to as Members of the National Assembly (MNAs), of which 272 are directly elected members and 70 reserved seats for women and religious minorities. A political party must secure 172 seats to obtain and preserve a majority. Members are elected through the first-past-the-post system under universal adult suffrage, representing electoral districts known as National Assembly constituencies. According to the constitution, the 70 seats reserved for women and religious minorities are allocated to the political parties according to their proportional representation. Each National Assembly is formed for a five-year term, commencing from the date of the first sitting, after which it is automatically dissolved. Currently the National Assembly can not be dissolved by the President of Pakistan, it is dissolved by the Prime Minister of Pakistan. Election for 13th National Assembly was held on 18 February 2008. On March 17, 2013 13th National Assembly was dissolved on completion of its five-year term under Article 52 of the Constitution. Pakistani general election, 2013 (for the 14th National Assembly) was held on May 11, 2013. Members of 14th National Assembly took oath on June 1, 2013. The 14th National Assembly dissolved on 31 May 2018 after completing its 5 year term.
The National Command Authority, (Urdu: نيشنل كمانڈ اتھارٹى; abbreviated as NCA), is the apex civilian led command to oversee the employment, policy formulation, exercises, deployment, research and development, and operational command and control of Pakistan's nuclear arsenals.
The National Counter Terrorism Authority (قومی انسداد دہشت گردی اختیار) (reporting name: NACTA) is an Internal Counterterrorism Authority of Pakistan.
The National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (قومی بجلی مقررات اختیار, abbreviated as NEPRA) is responsible for regulating the electricity supply in Pakistan.
The 185,000-member National Guard (قومیمحافظ), is a paramilitary force comprising the Mujahid Force and the Janbaz Force, a locally recruited militia mainly charged with air defense, and two programs similar to the United States Reserve Officers Training Corps, the National Cadet Corps and the Women's Guard.
The National Highway Authority (مقتدرہ قومی شاہراہ), abbreviated NHA, is a statutory body under the Ministry of Communications (MoCom).
The National Highways & Motorway Police (قومی شاہراہ و موٹروے پولیس), abbreviated NH&MP, is a police force in Pakistan that is responsible for enforcement of traffic and safety laws, security and recovery on Pakistan's National Highways and Motorway network.
National Highways of Pakistan (پاکستان کی قومی شاہراہ) are a network of toll highways in Pakistan, which are owned, maintained and operated by the National Highways Authority under the Ministry of Communications.
The National Intelligence Directorate (Urdu: نيشنل انٹلیجنس ڈائريكٹوريٹ; NID), is a national intelligence estimate authority to integrate foreign, military and domestic intelligence in the national interests of Pakistan.
A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.
The National Library of Pakistan (Urdu), is the national and the research library located in the vicinity of the Constitutional Avenue, Islamabad, Pakistan.
A national poet or national bard is a poet held by tradition and popular acclaim to represent the identity, beliefs and principles of a particular national culture.
National Refinery Limited is a Pakistani oil refinery based in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
A national sport is considered to be an intrinsic part of the culture of a nation.
The Nationalization process in Pakistan (or historically simply regarded as the "Nationalization in Pakistan") was a policy measure programme in the economic history of Pakistan, first introduced, promulgated and implemented by people-elected Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and the Pakistan Peoples Party to lay the foundation of socialist economics reforms to improve the growth of national economy of Pakistan.
Naval Headquarters (NHQ) is the headquarters of Pakistan Navy established in 1947 at Karachi.
Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif (Urdu/میاں محمد نواز شریف, born 25 December 1949) is a Pakistani business magnate and former politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Pakistan for three non-consecutive terms, all of the three terms were unsuccessful.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Nergis Mavalvala is a Pakistani-American astrophysicist known for her role in the first observation of gravitational waves.
The new wave of British heavy metal (commonly abbreviated as NWOBHM) was a nationwide musical movement that started in the United Kingdom in the late 1970s and achieved international attention by the early 1980s.
The Next Eleven (known also by the numeronym N-11) are the eleven countries – Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines, Turkey, South Korea and Vietnam – identified by Goldman Sachs investment banker and economist Jim O'Neill in a research paper as having a high potential of becoming, along with the BRICS countries, among the world's largest economies in the 21st century.
The nilgai or blue bull (literally meaning "blue cow"; Boselaphus tragocamelus) is the largest Asian antelope and is endemic to the Indian subcontinent.
Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.
The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
Non-denominational Muslims is an umbrella term that has been used for and by Muslims who do not belong to or do not self-identify with a specific Islamic denomination.
North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) was a province of British India and subsequently of Pakistan.
Nowshera (Pashto: نوښار, pr. Nowkhaar) is the chief city of Nowshera District in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan, and is one of the largest cities in the province.
Nuclear command and control (NC2) is the command and control of nuclear weapons, that is the "activities, processes, and procedures performed by appropriate military commanders and support personnel that, through the chain of command, allow for senior-level decisions on nuclear weapons employment.".
The Nuclear doctrine of Pakistan is a theoretical concept of military strategy that promotes deterrence by guaranteeing an immediate "massive retaliation" to an aggressive attack against the state.
A nuclear family, elementary family or conjugal family is a family group consisting of two parents and their children (one or more).
As of 2017, nuclear power in Pakistan is provided by 5 commercial nuclear power plants.
A nuclear power plant or nuclear power station is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
The Objectives Resolution was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan on March 12, 1949.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Oil and Gas Development Company Limited commonly known as OGDCL is a Pakistani multinational oil and gas company.
Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.
Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.
An Ommaya reservoir is an intraventricular catheter system that can be used for the aspiration of cerebrospinal fluid or for the delivery of drugs (e.g. chemotherapy) into the cerebrospinal fluid.
Operation Black Thunderstorm was an aggressive military operation that commenced on April 26, 2009 conducted by the Pakistan Army, with the aim of retaking Buner, Lower Dir, Swat and Shangla districts from the Taliban after the militants took control of them since the start of the year.
Operation Cyclone was the code name for the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) program to arm and finance the mujahideen, in Afghanistan from 1979 to 1989, prior to and during the military intervention by the USSR in support of its client, the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.
Operation Fair Play was the code name for the 5 July 1977 coup by Pakistan Chief of Army Staff General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, overthrowing the government of Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.
Operation Gothic Serpent was a military operation conducted by United States special operations forces during the Somali Civil War with the primary mission of capturing faction leader Mohamed Farrah Aidid.
The Operation Rah-e-Nijat (Path to Salvation; Urdu: آپریشن راہ نجات) was a strategic offensive military operation by the unified command of Pakistan Armed Forces against the Tehrik-i-Taliban (TTP) and their extremist allies in the South Waziristan area of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas that began on June 19, 2009; a major ground-air offensive was subsequently launched on October 17.
Operation Searchlight was a planned military operation carried out by the Pakistan Army to curb the Bengali nationalist movement in the erstwhile East Pakistan in March 1971, which the Pakistani state justified on the basis of anti-Bihari violence by Bengalis in early March.
Operation Zarb-e-Azb (Pashto/آپریشن ضربِ عضب ALA-LC) was a joint military offensive conducted by the Pakistan Armed Forces against various militant groups, including the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, the East Turkestan Islamic Movement, Lashkar-e-Jhangvi, al-Qaeda, Jundallah and the Haqqani network. The operation was launched on 15 June 2014 in North Waziristan along the Pakistan-Afghanistan border as a renewed effort against militancy in the wake of the 8 June attack on Jinnah International Airport in Karachi, for which the TTP and the IMU claimed responsibility. As of 14 July 2014, the operation internally displaced about 929,859 people belonging to 80,302 families from North Waziristan. Part of the war in North-West Pakistan, up to 30,000 Pakistani soldiers were involved in Zarb-e-Azb, described as a "comprehensive operation" to flush out all foreign and local militants hiding in North Waziristan. The operation has received widespread support from the Pakistani political, defence and civilian sectors. As a consequence, the overall security situation improved and terrorist attacks in Pakistan dropped to a six-year low since 2008. Zarb-e-Azb was followed by Operation Radd-ul-Fasaad which began in February 2017, following a resurgence in terrorist incidents.
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; منظمة التعاون الإسلامي; Organisation de la coopération islamique) is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.3 billion as of 2009 with 47 countries being Muslim Majority countries.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Pakistan: Pakistan – sovereign country located in South Asia.
Overseas Pakistanis (بیرون ملک مقیم پاکستانی) refers to Pakistani people who live outside of Pakistan.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Indo-Aryan language spoken on the Pothohar Plateau in northern Punjab, in most of the Pakistani polity of Azad Kashmir, and in western areas of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir is known by a variety of names, the most common of which are Pahari and Pothwari (or Pothohari).
Pak-Arab Refinery (PARCO) is a fully integrated energy company of Pakistan.
The Pakistan Academy of Letters (PAL) is a national academy with its main focus on Pakistani literature and related fields.
The Pakistan Academy of Sciences (Urdu: پاکستان اكيڈ مى ﺁف سائنسز; abbreviated as: PAS), is a learned society of sciences, which described itself as "a repository of the highest scientific talent available in the country." Established in 1953 in Lahore, Punjab, the Academy acts as a consultative forum and scientific advisor to the Pakistan government on important aspects on the affairs of all forms of science– the social and physical sciences.
The Pakistan Air Force (PAF) (پاک فِضائیہ—, or alternatively پاکیستان هاوایی فوج, reporting name: PAF) is the aerial warfare branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces, tasked primarily with the aerial defence of Pakistan, with a secondary role of providing air support to the Pakistan Army and the Pakistan Navy.
Pakistan is one of nine states to possess nuclear weapons. Pakistan began development of nuclear weapons in January 1972 under Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, who delegated the program to the Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Munir Ahmad Khan with a commitment to having the bomb ready by the end of 1976. Since PAEC, consisting of over twenty laboratories and projects under nuclear engineer Munir Ahmad Khan, was falling behind schedule and having considerable difficulty producing fissile material, Abdul Qadeer Khan was brought from Europe by Bhutto at the end of 1974. As pointed out by Houston Wood, Professor of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, in his article on gas centrifuges, "The most difficult step in building a nuclear weapon is the production of fissile material"; as such, this work in producing fissile material as head of the Kahuta Project was pivotal to Pakistan developing the capability to detonate a nuclear bomb by the end of 1984.Levy, Adrian and Catherine Scott-Clark, Deception: Pakistan, the United States, and the Secret Trade in Nuclear Weapons. New York. Walker Publishing Company. 1977: page 112. Print. The Kahuta Project started under the supervision of a coordination board that oversaw the activities of KRL and PAEC. The Board consisted of A G N Kazi (secretary general, finance), Ghulam Ishaq Khan (secretary general, defence), and Agha Shahi (secretary general, foreign affairs), and reported directly to Bhutto. Ghulam Ishaq Khan and General Tikka Khan appointed military engineer Major General Ali Nawab to the program. Eventually, the supervision passed to Lt General Zahid Ali Akbar Khan in President General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq's Administration. Moderate uranium enrichment for the production of fissile material was achieved at KRL by April 1978. Pakistan's nuclear weapons development was in response to the loss of East Pakistan in 1971's Bangladesh Liberation War. Bhutto called a meeting of senior scientists and engineers on 20 January 1972, in Multan, which came to known as "Multan meeting". Bhutto was the main architect of this programme, and it was here that Bhutto orchestrated nuclear weapons programme and rallied Pakistan's academic scientists to build the atomic bomb in three years for national survival. At the Multan meeting, Bhutto also appointed Munir Ahmad Khan as chairman of PAEC, who, until then, had been working as director at the nuclear power and Reactor Division of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in Vienna, Austria. In December 1972, Abdus Salam led the establishment of Theoretical Physics Group (TPG) as he called scientists working at ICTP to report to Munir Ahmad Khan. This marked the beginning of Pakistan's pursuit of nuclear deterrence capability. Following India's surprise nuclear test, codenamed Smiling Buddha in 1974, the first confirmed nuclear test by a nation outside the permanent five members of the United Nations Security Council, the goal to develop nuclear weapons received considerable impetus. Finally, on 28 May 1998, a few weeks after India's second nuclear test (Operation Shakti), Pakistan detonated five nuclear devices in the Ras Koh Hills in the Chagai district, Balochistan. This operation was named Chagai-I by Pakistan, the underground iron-steel tunnel having been long-constructed by provincial martial law administrator General Rahimuddin Khan during the 1980s. The last test of Pakistan was conducted at the sandy Kharan Desert under the codename Chagai-II, also in Balochistan, on 30 May 1998. Pakistan's fissile material production takes place at Nilore, Kahuta, and Khushab Nuclear Complex, where weapons-grade plutonium is refined. Pakistan thus became the seventh country in the world to successfully develop and test nuclear weapons. Although, according to a letter sent by A.Q. Khan to General Zia, the capability to detonate a nuclear bomb using highly enriched uranium as fissile material produced at KRL had been achieved by KRL in 1984.
The Pakistan Antarctic Programme (پاکستان جنوبی قطب برنامه, abbreviated as PAP) is a scientific administrative division of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST) which represents the Government of Pakistan on the continent of Antarctica.
The Pakistan Armed Forces (پاکستان مُسَلّح افواج, Pākistān Musallah Afwāj) are the military forces of Pakistan.
Pakistan Armed Forces deployments include all Pakistani military deployments that are stationed outside Pakistan and serving in other countries.
Pakistan Army (پاک فوج Pak Fauj (IPA: pɑk fɒ~ɔd͡ʒ); Reporting name: PA) is the land-based force of the Pakistan Armed Forces.
The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC; Urdu) is an independent governmental authority and a scientific research institution, concerned with research and development of nuclear power, promotion of nuclear science, energy conservation and the peaceful usage of nuclear technology.
The Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (پاکستان نشریات), branded as Radio Pakistan (رادیو پاکستان), is a Pakistani federal corporation that serves as the national public radio and television broadcaster.
Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority (پاکستان سول ایوی ایشن اتھارٹی) (abbreviated as PCAA) is a public sector autonomous body, which oversees and regulates all aspects of civil aviation in Pakistan.
The Pakistan Declaration (titled Now or Never; Are We to Live or Perish Forever?) was a pamphlet written and published by Choudhary Rahmat Ali, on 28 January 1933, in which the word Pakstan (without the letter "i") was used for the first time and was presented in the Round Table conferences in 1933.
Pakistan International Airlines (پاکستان انٹرنیشنل ایئر لائنز) commonly referred to by the abbreviation PIA (پیآئیاے) is the national flag carrier of Pakistan.
The Pakistan Marines (Urdu); English IPA: pɑkʰ məriːniz (or/ simply Marines سمندریوں); reporting name PM), is an expeditionary and naval warfare uniform service branch of the Pakistan Navy that consists of active duty, high-ranking officers and other personnel of the Navy. The Pakistan Marines are responsible for providing force projection from the sea, using the mobility of the Pakistan Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. Established in 1990, it is estimated to comprise about 3,200 active-duty personnel from the Navy as of 2017. In the Pakistani military leadership structure, the Marines are a component of the Pakistan Navy, often working closely with the Navy for training, executing expeditionary operations and logistics purposes. They are not a separate branch of the armed forces. The Marines were first formed as an amphibious battalion on 1 June 1971, in East-Pakistan as naval infantry to execute operations; however after poor performance in the 1971 war with India, they were disbanded in 1974. In 1990, the Marines were re-established by Commander Obaidullah; since then they have been a part of Navy, often conducting operations with other Pakistani naval forces. Pakistan Marines are primarily tasked with defending naval installations while also guarding and monitoring the disputed Sir Creek border with India. During their training at the Marines Training School, military exercises are occasionally conducted in conjunction with the United States Marine Corps. As befits their close association with the Navy, the PM share the same ranks as the rest of the Pakistan Navy but, their military codes and training are the same as in the Pakistan Army. In 2010, Marines, in close co-ordination with the Pakistan Army, Navy, and Air Force, were working around the clock to rescue villagers trapped by the country's worst deluge in 80 years.
The Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e-Pakistan (تحریک پاکستان –) was a religious political movement in the 1940s that aimed for and succeeded in the creation of Pakistan from the Muslim-majority areas of the British Indian Empire.
The Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz) (پاکستان مسلم لیگ (ن) PML-N) is a centre-right conservative party in Pakistan.
The Pakistan national cricket team (پاکستان قومی کرکٹ ٹیم), popularly referred to as the Shaheens (شاہینز), Green Shirts and Men in Green, is administered by the Pakistan Cricket Board (PCB).
The Pakistan Navy (rtl; Pɑkistan Bahri'a) (reporting name: PN) is the naval warfare branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces, responsible for Pakistan's of coastline along the Arabian Sea, and the defence of important civilian harbours and military bases.
The Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority پاکستان نيؤكلر ريگيلرٹوى اثھارٹى; Acronym: PNRA), is mandated by Government of Pakistan to regulate use of nuclear energy, radioactive sources and use of ionizing radiations. The mission of PNRA is to protect the public, radiation workers and environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiations by formulating and implementing effective regulations and building a relationship of trust with the licensees and maintain transparency in its actions and decisions. Although, the concept of nuclear regulatory existed in 1965 but it gained full government commission in 2001, with the establishment Nuclear Command Authority. Headquartered in Islamabad, this agency was established in 2001 after President Justice (retired) Rafiq Tarar signed the executive decree "Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority Ordinance No.III" in 2000, and was first opened its operation in 2001.
The Pakistan Penal Code usually called PPC (Majmū'ah-yi ta'zīrāt-i Pākistān) is a penal code for all offences charged in Pakistan.
The Pakistan Peoples Party (پاکِستان پیپلز پارٹی, commonly referred to as the PPP) is a left-wing, socialist-progressive political party of Pakistan.
Pakistan Railways (پاکستان ریلویز) is the national, state-owned railway company of Pakistan.
The Pakistan Rangers (پاکستان رےنجرز) are a paramilitary law enforcement organization in Pakistan and have a primary mission of securing important sites such as Pakistan's International Border with India as well as employed in internal security operations, and providing assistance to the police in maintaining law and order.
Pakistan Refinery Limited is located at Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
Pakistan Standard Time (پاکستان معیاری وقت, abbreviated as PST or sometimes PKT) is UTC+05:00 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
Pakistan State Oil (قومی تیل پاکستان; reporting name: PSO) is a Karachi-based Pakistani state-owned multinational petroleum corporation involved in marketing and distribution of petroleum products.
Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) (پاکستان تحريک انصاف, English: Pakistan Movement for Justice) is a political party in Pakistan founded in 1996 by former national cricket captain Imran Khan.
Pakistan Television Corporation (پاكِستان ٹیلی وژن نیٹ ورک; reporting name: PTV) is a public and commercial broadcasting television network, as well as a mass-media state-owned megacorporation, with headquarters at Islamabad, Pakistan.
Pakistan's role in the War on Terror is a widely discussed topic among policy-makers of various countries, political analysts and international delegates around the world.
The term Pakistani clothing refers to the ethnic clothing that is typically worn by people in the country of Pakistan and by the people of Pakistani origin.
Pakistani dramas (پاکستانی ڈرامہ) refers to televised miniseries produced in Pakistan, with distinctive features that set it apart from regular Western television series or soap operas.
Pakistani English or Paklish is the group of English language varieties spoken and written in Pakistan.
Pakistani English literature refers to English literature that has been developed and evolved in Pakistan, as well as by members of the Pakistani diaspora who write in the English language.
Pakistan has a wide variety of folklore, mostly circulated regionally.
General elections were held in Pakistan on 7 December 1970.
General elections were held in Pakistan on 3 February 1997 to elect the National Assembly of Pakistan and the four provincial assemblies.
General elections were held in Pakistan on 18 February 2008, after being postponed from 8 January 2008.
General elections were held in Pakistan on 11 May 2013 to elect the members of the 14th National Assembly and to the four provincial assemblies of Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
The Pakistani Instrument of Surrender (পাকিস্তানের আত্মসমর্পণের দলিল, Pākistānēr Atmasamarpaṇēr Dalil) was a written agreement that enabled the surrender of the Pakistan Armed Forces on 16 December 1971 at the Ramna Race Course garden in Dhaka, thereby ending the Bangladesh Liberation War.
The Pakistani intelligence community comprises the various intelligence agencies of Pakistan that work internally and externally to manage, research and collect intelligence necessary for national security.
The missile research and development program was the Pakistan Ministry of Defence secretive program for the comprehensive research and the development of guided missiles.
Pakistani nationalism refers to the political, cultural, linguistic, historical, religious and geographical expression of patriotism by the people of Pakistan, of pride in the history, heritage and identity of Pakistan, and visions for its future.
The Pakistani philosophy is the philosophical activity or the philosophical academic output both within Pakistan and abroad.
Pakistani pop music refers to popular music forms in Pakistan.
Pakistani rock is a variety of rock music that is largely produced in Pakistan.
The Pakistani rupee (روپیہ / ALA-LC:; sign: ₨; code: PKR) is the currency of Pakistan.
The consumption of tea in Pakistan, where it is called chai, its name in Urdu, is of central significance to its culture.
The Pala Empire was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal.
Palas (پالس) is a tehsil and valley in Kolai-Palas District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan.
The Pamir Mountains, or the Pamirs, are a mountain range in Central Asia at the junction of the Himalayas with the Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, Hindu Kush, Suleman and Hindu Raj ranges.
Parallel computing is a type of computation in which many calculations or the execution of processes are carried out concurrently.
The federal paramilitary forces of Pakistan consist of various uniformed organisations largely equipped with light infantry weapons and charged with a range of internal and external duties.
The Paris Agreement (Accord de Paris) is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) dealing with greenhouse gas emissions mitigation, adaptation, and finance starting in the year 2020.
The Parliament of Pakistan (مجلس شوریٰ پاکستان —) is the federal and supreme legislative body of Pakistan.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
The political history of Pakistan (پاکستان کی سیاسی تاريخ.) is the narrative and analysis of political events, ideas, movements, and leaders of Pakistan.
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.
In politics, a party chair (often party chairman/-woman/-person or party president) is the presiding officer of a political party.
Pashto (پښتو Pax̌tō), sometimes spelled Pukhto, is the language of the Pashtuns.
Pashto cinema (پشتو سنیما, د پښتو سينما), also known by its sobriquet Pollywood (پالېوډ), refers to the Pashto language film industry of Pakistani cinema based in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Pashto literature and poetry (پښتو ليكنې) refers to literature and poetry in Pashto language.
The Pashtuns (or; پښتانه Pax̌tānə; singular masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pukhtuns), historically known as ethnic Afghans (افغان, Afğān) and Pathans (Hindustani: پٹھان, पठान, Paṭhān), are an Iranic ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
The Periods of Stagflation (or also attribute as Stagflation in Pakistan, Pakistan Stagflation or Inflation and unemployment in Pakistan), is a generic on-going period of economic, political and social stagflation in the economic context, which had been affecting the national economic growth of Pakistan in its successive decades of its history.
Pakistan Ambassador to the United Nations or officially the Permanent Representative of Pakistan to the United Nations is the diplomatic position representing Pakistan on all platforms of the United Nations (UN) in New York City.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Persian literature (ادبیات فارسی adabiyāt-e fārsi), comprises oral compositions and written texts in the Persian language and it is one of the world's oldest literatures.
A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.
Pervez Musharraf (پرویز مشرف; born 11 August 1943) is a Pakistani politician and a retired four-star army general who was the tenth President of Pakistan from 2001 until tendering resignation, to avoid impeachment, in 2008.
Peshawar (پېښور; پشاور; پشور) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
The petroleum industry, also known as the oil industry or the oil patch, includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting (often by oil tankers and pipelines), and marketing of petroleum products.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
PFDC Sunsilk Fashion Week is an annually fashion event held in Lahore and Karachi in Pakistan.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus,, of the family Pinaceae.
Pir or Peer (پیر, literally "old ", "elder") is a title for a Sufi master or spiritual guide.
Pita in Greek, sometimes spelled pitta (mainly UK), also known as Arabic bread, Lebanese bread, or Syrian bread, is a soft, slightly leavened flatbread baked from wheat flour, which originated in Western Asia, most probably Mesopotamia around 2500 BC.
Pokhran-II was the series of five nuclear bomb test explosions conducted by India at the Indian Army's Pokhran Test Range in May 1998.
Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.
The politics of India takes place within the framework of its constitution.
The politics of Pakistan takes place within the framework established by the constitution.
The politics of Saudi Arabia takes place in the context of a totalitarian absolute monarchy with some Islamic lines, where the King is both the head of state and government.
The Port of Karachi (کراچی بندرگاہ Bandar gāh Karāchī) is one of South Asia's largest and busiest deep-water seaports, handling about 60% of the nation's cargo (25 million tons per annum) located in Karachi, Pakistan.
The Port Muhammad Bin Qasim (بندر گاہ محمد بن قاسم Bandar-gāh Muhammad bin Qāsim), also known as Port Qasim, is a deep-water seaport in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan, on the coastline of the Arabian Sea.
The post–Cold War era is the period in world history from the dissolution of the Soviet Union on 9:00 am,December 26, 1991 to the present.
Poverty in Pakistan has fallen dramatically, independent bodies supported estimates of a considerable fall in the statistic by the 2007-08 fiscal year, when it was estimated that 17.2% of the total population lived below the poverty line.
A preemptive war is a war that is commenced in an attempt to repel or defeat a perceived imminent offensive or invasion, or to gain a strategic advantage in an impending (allegedly unavoidable) war shortly before that attack materializes.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
The President of Pakistan (صدر مملکت پاکستان —), is the ceremonial head of state of Pakistan and a figurehead who represents the "unity of the Republic." in Chapter 1: The President, Part III: The Federation of Pakistan in the Constitution of Pakistan.
The Press Freedom Index is an annual ranking of countries compiled and published by Reporters Without Borders based upon the organisation's own assessment of the countries' press freedom records in the previous year.
The Prime Minister of Pakistan (وزِیرِ اعظم —,; lit. "Grand Vizier") is the head of government of Pakistan and designated as the "chief executive of the Republic".
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
Private universities are typically not operated by governments, although many receive tax breaks, public student loans, and grants.
The Privatization process in Pakistan (sometimes referred to as Denationalization programme or simply the Privatization in Pakistan) was a policy measure programme in the economic period of Pakistan.
The provincial languages of Pakistan are a set of languages that are spoken and used in the five Provinces of Pakistan (Punjab, Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Gilgit–Baltistan, and Balochistan).
A public university is a university that is predominantly funded by public means through a national or subnational government, as opposed to private universities.
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
The Punjab Police (Punjabi, Urdu: پنجاب پلس) is the law and order agency responsible for policing, reducing and controlling all criminal cases in the province of Punjab, Pakistan.
Punjab (Urdu, Punjabi:, panj-āb, "five waters") is Pakistan's second largest province by area, after Balochistan, and its most populous province, with an estimated population of 110,012,442 as of 2017.
Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
Punjabi literature, specifically literary works written in the Punjabi language, is characteristic of the historical Punjab of India and Pakistan and the Punjabi diaspora.
The Punjabis (Punjabi:, ਪੰਜਾਬੀ), or Punjabi people, are an ethnic group associated with the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, who speak Punjabi, a language from the Indo-Aryan language family.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
General Qamar Javed Bajwa (قمر جاوید باجوہ; born 11 November 1960),, is the 10th and current Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army.
Qasba Gujrat (قصبه گُجرات) is a small town in District Muzaffargarh, Punjab, Pakistan.
The Qaumi Taranah (قومی ترانہ,, lit. “National Anthem”), also known as (پاک سرزمین,, lit. “The Sacred Land”), is the national anthem of Pakistan.
Qawwali (Nastaʿlīq:; Punjabi: ਕਵਾਲੀ (Gurmukhi); Hindi: क़व्वाली; Bangla: কাওয়ালি) is a form of Sufi devotional music popular in South Asia: in the Punjab and Sindh regions of Pakistan; in Hyderabad, Delhi and other parts of India, especially North India; as well as Dhaka, Chittagong and Sylhet divisions of Bangladesh.
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
Quetta (کوټه; کویته; کوٹه; کوئٹہ) is the provincial capital and largest city of Balochistan, Pakistan.
Quetta International Airport (Pashtoکوټې نړیوال هوايي ډګر); is located at Quetta, the provincial capital of Balochistan, Pakistan.
The Quit India Movement or the India August Movement, was a movement launched at the Bombay session of the All-India Congress Committee by Mahatma Gandhi on 8 August 1942, during World War II, demanding an end to British Rule of India.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Quranism (القرآنية; al-Qur'āniyya) describes any form of Islam that accepts the Qur'an as the only sacred text through which Allah revealed himself to mankind, but rejects the religious authority, reliability, and/or authenticity of the Hadith collections.
The Rai Dynasty (c. 524–632 CE) was at power during the Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Sindh, in modern Pakistan.
Rajput (from Sanskrit raja-putra, "son of a king") is a large multi-component cluster of castes, kin bodies, and local groups, sharing social status and ideology of genealogical descent originating from the Indian subcontinent.
Ramadan (رمضان,;In Arabic phonology, it can be, depending on the region. also known as Ramazan, romanized as Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (Sawm) to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief.
Rawalpindi (Punjabi, راولپِنڈى), commonly known as Pindi (پِنڈی), is a city in the Punjab province of Pakistan.
Rawalpindi Cantonment is a large cantonment located in Rawalpindi, Punjab province, Pakistan.
A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).
In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region.
Rehbar was series of sounding rocket launches into the upper atmosphere and the edge of space.
The state religion in Pakistan is Islam, which is practiced by 96% of the population.
Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
U.S. President Richard Nixon's 1972 visit to China (officially the People's Republic of China or PRC) was an important strategic and diplomatic overture that marked the culmination of the Nixon administration's resumption of harmonious relations between the United States and China.
Riz Ahmed (born 1 December 1982), also known as by his stage name, Riz MC, is a British Pakistani actor, rapper, and activist.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
The Rohingya people are a stateless Indo-Aryan-speaking people who reside in Rakhine State, Myanmar (also known as Burma).
Rounaq Jahan (রওনক জাহান; born 1944) is a Bangladeshi political scientist, feminist leader and author.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
Ruchir Sharma is an Indian investor who has written widely on global economics and politics.
Rudolph Joseph Rummel (October 21, 1932 – March 2, 2014) was professor of political science who taught at the Indiana University, Yale University, and University of Hawaii.
Sheikh Rukn-ud-Din Abul Fateh (Persian: رکن الدین ابوالفتح), commonly known by the title (Shah) Rukn-e-Alam ("Pillar of the World") (1251–1335), was an eminent Sufi saint from Multan in modern-day Pakistan who belonged to Suhrawardiyya Sufi order.
Sheikh Muhammad Ikram (Urdu: شیخ محمد اکرام; b. 10 September 1908 – 17 January 1973) better known as S. M. Ikram, was a Pakistani historian, biographer, and littérateur.
Saadat Hasan Manto (سعادت حسن منٹو,; 11 May 1912 – 18 January 1955) was a Pakistani writer, playwright and author born in British India.
Syed Sadequain Ahmed Naqvi Retrieved 9 February 2018 Retrieved 9 February 2018 (سیّد صادِقَین احمد نقوی), Tamgha-e-Imtiaz, Pride of Performance, Sitara-e-Imtiaz, also often referred to as Sadequain Naqqash, was a Pakistani artist, best known for his skills as a calligrapher and a painter.
Sadiq Aman Khan (born 8 October 1970) is a British politician serving as Mayor of London since 2016.
Sadiq Sanjrani (صادق سنجرانی; born 14 April 1978) is a Pakistani politician who is the 8th and current Chairman of the Senate of Pakistan.
Sajid Javid (born 5 December 1969) is a British Conservative Party politician and former managing director at Deutsche Bank.
The Salafi movement or Salafist movement or Salafism is a reform branch or revivalist movement within Sunni Islam that developed in Egypt in the late 19th century as a response to European imperialism.
Salimuzzaman Siddiqui (سلیم الزّماں صدّیقی; 19 October 1897 – 14 April 1994), HI, MBE, SI, DPhil, FPAS, FRS was a Pakistani organic chemist specialising in natural product chemistry.
SAMAA TV (سماء) is a Pakistani news and entertainment television network.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sara Suleri Goodyear, born Sara Suleri (born June 12, 1953), is an American author and professor emeritus of English at Yale University, where her fields of study and teaching include Romantic and Victorian poetry and an interest in Edmund Burke.
Saraiki (سرائیکی, also spelt Siraiki, or less often Seraiki) is an Indo-Aryan language of the Lahnda (Western Punjabi) group, spoken in the south-western half of the province of Punjab in Pakistan.
The Saraikis (سرائیکی قوم), also known as Multanis, are an ethnolinguistic group in central and southeastern Pakistan, primarily southern Punjab.
Sargodha (Punjabi and سرگودھا) is the 11th largest city in Pakistan with a population of 1.5 million.
Air Commodore Abdus Sattar Alvi (Urdu: عبد ستار ىلوى),, is a retired one-star rank air force general and a fighter pilot in the Pakistan Air Force, who is renown for his gallantry actions during his participation in the third Indo-Pakistani in 1971, and served as an military advisor in the Syrian Air Force during the Yom Kippur War of 1973.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Sayeeda Hussain Warsi, Baroness Warsi (سعیده حسین وارثی, born 28 March 1971) is a British lawyer, politician and member of the House of Lords. From 2010-12, she was co-Chair of the Conservative Party. She served in David Cameron's Cabinet, first as the Minister without portfolio between 2010–12, then as the Senior Minister of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Office and as the Minister of State for Faith and Communities, until her resignation citing her disagreement with the Government's policy on the Israel–Gaza conflict in August 2014. Warsi grew up in a family of Pakistani Muslim immigrants living in West Yorkshire. She became a solicitor with the Crown Prosecution Service. In 2004, she left the CPS to stand, unsuccessfully, for election to Parliament. In 2005 Warsi came under intense controversy after campaigning to ban teachings about homosexuality in schools fearing it might "promote same-sex relationships." She also claimed that Labour lowering the age of consent from 18 to 16 left teenagers vulnerable to being "propositioned for homosexual relations." These comments led Britain's leading gay rights group, Stonewall, to denounce her as being homophobic. After being raised to the peerage in 2007, Warsi served as Shadow Minister for Community Cohesion and Social Action. The first female Muslim to attend Cabinet, Lady Warsi came to further prominence when, at her first meeting in Downing Street, she wore a traditional South Asian shalwar kameez.
Science and technology is a growing field in Pakistan and has played an important role in the country's development since its founding.
A science park (also called a "university research park", or a "science and technology park") is defined as being a property-based development that accommodates and fosters the growth of tenant firms and that are affiliated with a university (or a government and private research bodies) based on proximity, ownership, and/or governance.
The Second Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan (آئین پاکستان میں دوسری ترمیم) became a part of the Constitution of Pakistan on September 7, 1974.
The Secondary School Certificate, also called SSC or Matriculation examination, is a public examination in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan conducted by educational boards as completion exam of secondary education in these countries.
Secretary is a title often used in organizations to indicate a person having a certain amount of authority, power, or importance in the organization.
Sehwan (سيوهڻ شريف, سیہون; also commonly referred to as Sehwan Sharif, or Noble Sehwan, is a historic city located in Jamshoro District of Sindh province in Pakistan and is situated on the west bank of the Indus north-west of Hyderabad. The city is renowned for being home of one of Pakistan's most important Sufi shrines, the Shrine of Lal Shahbaz Qalandar. Due to the popularity of its Sufi shrine, the terms "Sehwan" and "Qalandar" are often used interchangeably in Pakistan. Sehwan is one of Pakistan's most important spiritual centres, along with other shrines such as the Shrine of Abdullah Shah Ghazi in Karachi, Data Durbar Complex in Lahore, Bari Imam in Noorpur Shehan near Islamabad, and the lustrous tombs of the Suhrawardi sufis in Multan.
Seismicity is a measure which encompasses earthquake occurrences, mechanisms, and magnitude at a given geographical location.
Aiwan-e Bala (ایوانِ بالا) or Senate of Pakistan is the upper legislative chamber of the bicameral legislature of Pakistan, and together with the Qaumi Assembly makes up the Majlis-e-Shoora.
The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
Shabbir Ahmad Usmani (شبیر احمد عثمانی, Shabbīr Aḥmad ‘Usmānī; October 11, 1887December 13, 1949) was an Islamic scholar who supported the Pakistan Movement in the 1940s.
Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai (also referred to by the honorifics: Lakhino Latif, Latif Ghot, Bhittai, and Bhitt Jo Shah) (18 November 1689 – 1 January 1752) (شاه عبداللطيف ڀٽائي, شاہ عبداللطیف بھٹائی) was a Sindhi Sufi scholar, mystic, saint, and poet, widely considered to be the greatest Muslim poet of the Sindhi language.
The Shah Jahan Mosque, also known as the Jamia Masjid of Thatta (جامع مسجد ٹھٹہ), is a 17th-century building that serves as the central mosque for the city of Thatta, in the Pakistani province of Sindh.
Quṭb ad-Dīn Aḥmad Walī Allāh ibn ‘Abd ar-Raḥīm al-‘Umarī ad-Dihlawī (قطب الدين أحمد ولي الله بن عبد الرحيم العمري الدهلوي‎; 1703–1762), commonly known as Shah Waliullah Dehlawi, was an Islamic scholar, muhaddith reformer, historiographer, bibliographer, theologian, and philosopher.
Shaheen Air (شاہین ایئر) is a private Pakistani airline with its head office in Jinnah International Airport in Karachi.
The Shaheen Falcon (Falco peregrinus peregrinator) is a non-migratory subspecies of the peregrine falcon found mainly in the South Asia.
Shahid Khan (شاہد خان; born July 18, 1950),, 60 Minutes profile of Khan (aired October 28, 2012) also known as Shad Khan, is a Pakistani-American billionaire and business tycoon.
The Shalimar Gardens (Punjabi, شالیمار باغ), sometimes spelt Shalamar Gardens, is a Mughal garden complex located in Lahore, capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab.
Shalwar kameez, also spelled salwar kameez or shalwar qameez, is a traditional outfit originating in the Indian subcontinent.
The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), or Shanghai Pact, is a Eurasian political, economic, and security organisation, the creation of which was announced on 15 June 2001 in Shanghai, China by the leaders of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Charter, formally establishing the organisation, was signed in June 2002 and entered into force on 19 September 2003.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Shekhupura (شیخُوپُورہ, شیخُوپُور) is a city the Pakistani province of Punjab.
Shell Pakistan Limited (SPL) is a Pakistani subsidiary of the Royal Dutch Shell, plc and has been in South Asia for over 100 years.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Shina (Shina: (Perso-Arabic)) is a language from the Dardic sub-group of the Indo-Aryan languages family spoken by the Shina people, a plurality of the people in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, as well as in pockets in India such as in Dah Hanu, Gurez and Dras.
The Siachen conflict, sometimes referred to as the Siachen War, was a military conflict between India and Pakistan over the disputed Siachen Glacier region in Kashmir.
The Siachen Glacier (Hindi: सियाचिन ग्लेशियर, Urdu: سیاچن گلیشیر) is a glacier located in the eastern Karakoram range in the Himalayas at about, just northeast of the point NJ9842 where the Line of Control between India and Pakistan ends.
Sialkot (سيالكوٹ and سيالكوٹ) is a city in Punjab, Pakistan.
Sialkot International Airport is situated 14 km (8.7 mi) west of Sialkot in the Sialkot District of Pakistan.
The Siddi, also known as Sidi, Siddhi, Sheedi, or Habshi, are an ethnic group inhabiting India and Pakistan.
A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.
The Sikh Empire (also Sikh Khalsa Raj, Sarkar-i-Khalsa or Pañjab (Punjab) Empire) was a major power in the Indian subcontinent, formed under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who established a secular empire based in the Punjab.
Sikhism in the area of present-day Pakistan has an extensive heritage and history, although Sikhs form a small community in Pakistan today.
The Simla Agreement (or Shimla Agreement) was signed between India and Pakistan on 2 July 1972 in Simla, the capital city of Indian state of Himachal Pradesh.
Sindh (سنڌ; سِندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country.
The Sindh Police (سنڌ پوليس, سندھ پولیس) is a law enforcement agency established in 1843 under proclamation issued by Sir Charles Naipiar, who became the conqueror of the State of Sindh by defeating the forces of Talpur rules at battle of Miyani near Hyderabad on 20 March 1843.
Sindhi (سنڌي, सिन्धी,, ਸਿੰਧੀ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the historical Sindh region, spoken by the Sindhi people.
Sindhi literature ('''سنڌي ادب'''.) writers have contributed extensively in various forms of literature both in poetry and prose.
Sindhis (سنڌي (Perso-Arabic), सिन्धी (Devanagari), (Khudabadi)) are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group who speak the Sindhi language and are native to the Sindh province of Pakistan, which was previously a part of pre-partition British India.
The Sino-Indian War (भारत-चीन युद्ध Bhārat-Chīn Yuddh), also known as the Sino-Indian Border Conflict, was a war between China and India that occurred in 1962.
Sitara-e-Jurat (Star of Courage) is the third highest military award of Pakistan.
The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim; Arabic: النكسة, an-Naksah, "The Setback" or حرب ۱۹٦۷, Ḥarb 1967, "War of 1967"), also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between 5 and 10 June 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria.
Smiling BuddhaThis test has many code names.
The snow leopard or ounce (Panthera uncia) is a large cat native to the mountain ranges of Central and South Asia.
The Soan River (سواں), also referred to as the Swan, Sawan, or Sohan, is a river in Punjab, Pakistan.
The Soanian is an archaeological culture of the Lower Paleolithic in the Siwalik region of the Indian subcontinent.
Sobho Gianchandani (3 May 1920 – 8 December 2014) was a Pakistani Sindhi social scientist, and revolutionary writer.
Social philosophy is the study of questions about social behavior and interpretations of society and social institutions in terms of ethical values rather than empirical relations.
The influences of socialism and socialist movements in Pakistan have taken many different forms as a counterpart to political conservatism, from the groups like Lal Salam which is the Pakistani section of the International Marxist Tendency, The Struggle, to the Stalinist group like Communist Party through to the reformist electoral project enshrined in the birth of the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) While capitalism has always held its sway, the prevalence of the socialist ideology has nevertheless continued to be found in a number of instances in Pakistan's political past and prominent personalities.
Sohan Halwa (Urdu سوہن حلوہ) is a traditional dessert in Afghanistan, Iran, India and Pakistan, which is a variety of dense, sweet confection or halwa and believed to be Indian in origin.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is the regional intergovernmental organization and geopolitical union of nations in South Asia.
The South Asian river dolphin (Platanista gangetica) is an endangered freshwater or river dolphin found in the Indian subcontinent which is split into two subspecies, the Ganges river dolphin (P. g. gangetica)(~3,500 individuals) and the Indus river dolphin (P. g. minor)(~1,500 individuals).
The Soviet Air Forces (r (VVS), literally "Military Air Forces") was the official designation of one of the air forces of the Soviet Union.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.
The Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO) is an executive and bureaucratic space agency of the Government of Pakistan, responsible for the nation's public and civil space programme and for aeronautics and aerospace research.
Sparrows are a family of small passerine birds.
The Speaker of the National Assembly (Urdu: اسﭘيكر نيشنل اسمبلى); informally as Speaker National assembly, is the presiding official of the National Assembly of Pakistan– a lower house of the Parliament of Pakistan.
The Special Service Group (SSG) (عساکرء خدمات خصوصی) is the primary special operations force of the Pakistan Army.
A spruce is a tree of the genus Picea, a genus of about 35 species of coniferous evergreen trees in the family Pinaceae, found in the northern temperate and boreal (taiga) regions of the Earth.
The Sri Lanka national cricket team, nicknamed The Lions, is a full member of the International Cricket Council (ICC) with Test, One-Day International (ODI) and T20 International status.
A military staff (often referred to as general staff, army staff, navy staff, or air staff within the individual services) is a group of officers, enlisted and civilian personnel that are responsible for the administrative, operational and logistical needs of its unit.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is a business enterprise where the state has significant control through full, majority, or significant minority ownership.
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) is an international institute based in Sweden, dedicated to research into conflict, armaments, arms control and disarmament.
The striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena) is a species of hyena native to North and East Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus, Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent.
Sufi poetry has been written in many languages, both for private devotional reading and as lyrics for music played during worship, or dhikr.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Limited (SNGPL) was incorporated as a private limited Company in 1963 and converted into a public limited company in January 1964 under the Companies Act 1913 of British India, now Companies Ordinance 1984 of Pakistan, and is listed on the Pakistan Stock Exchange.
The Sui Southern Gas Company (SSGC) (Formerly Sui Gas Transmission Company Limited) was formed in 1955.
In clothing, a suit is a set of garments made from the same cloth, usually consisting of at least a jacket and trousers.
The Sulaiman Mountains (د كسي غرونه; Balochi/Urdu/کوه سليمان), or Kōh-e Sulaymān, are the southern extension of the Hindu Kush mountain system, located in the Zabul, Kandahar and Loya Paktia regions of Afghanistan, and in the southern Federally Administered Tribal Areas (South Waziristan and Frontier Region Dera Ismail Khan), most of northern Balochistan, and some of southwestern Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan.
Sunnah ((also sunna) سنة,, plural سنن) is the body of traditional social and legal custom and practice of the Islamic community, based on the verbally transmitted record of the teachings, deeds and sayings, silent permissions (or disapprovals) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, as well as various reports about Muhammad's companions.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The high performance supercomputing program started in mid-to-late 1980s in Pakistan.
A supermajority or supra-majority or a qualified majority, is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level of support which is greater than the threshold of one-half used for majority.
The Supreme Court of Pakistan (عدالت عظمیٰ پاکستان; Adālat-e-Uzma Pākistān) is the apex court in the judicial hierarchy of Pakistan.
Swāt (Pashto, Urdu: سوات) is a valley and an administrative district in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Syed Ahmad Taqvi bin Syed Muhammad Muttaqi KCSI (سید احمد خان.; 17 October 1817 – 27 March 1898), commonly known as Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, was an Indian Muslim pragmatist, Islamic reformist, philosopher of nineteenth century British India and the first who named the term "Two Nation theory" to the theory of separate nation of Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Born into a family with strong ties with Mughal court, Syed studied the Quran and sciences within the court. He was awarded honorary LLD from the University of Edinburgh. In 1838, Syed Ahmad entered the service of East India Company and went on to become a judge at a Small Causes Court in 1867, and retired from service in 1876. During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, he remained, loyal to the British Empire and was noted for his actions in saving European lives.Glasse, Cyril, The New Encyclopedia of Islam, Altamira Press, (2001) After the rebellion, he penned the booklet ''The Causes of the Indian Mutiny'' – a daring critique, at the time, of British policies that he blamed for causing the revolt. Believing that the future of Muslims was threatened by the rigidity of their orthodox outlook, Sir Syed began promoting Western–style scientific education by founding modern schools and journals and organising Muslim entrepreneurs. In 1859, Syed established Gulshan School at Muradabad, Victoria School at Ghazipur in 1863, and a scientific society for Muslims in 1864. In 1875, founded the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College, the first Muslim university in South Asia. During his career, Syed repeatedly called upon Muslims to loyally serve the British Empire and promoted the adoption of Urdu as the lingua franca of all Indian Muslims. Syed heavily critiqued the Indian National Congress. Syed maintains a strong legacy in Pakistan and Indian Muslims. He strongly influenced other Muslim leaders including Allama Iqbal and Jinnah. His advocacy of Islam's rationalist (Muʿtazila) tradition, and at broader, radical reinterpretation of the Quran to make it compatible with science and modernity, continues to influence the global Islamic reformation. Many universities and public buildings in Pakistan bear Sir Syed's name. Aligarh Muslim University celebrated his 200th birth centenary with much enthusiasm on 17 October 2017. Former President of India shri Pranab Mukherjee was the chief guest.
Syed Zafarul Hasan (14 February 1885 – 19 June 1949) was a prominent twentieth-century Muslim philosopher.
Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.
Takht-i-Bahi (تختِ باہی; "Throne of the water spring"), commonly mispronounced as Takht-i-Bhai (تخت بھائی; "Brother's throne"), is an Indo-Parthian archaeological site of an ancient Buddhist monastery in Mardan, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.
The genus Tamarix (tamarisk, salt cedar) is composed of about 50–60 species of flowering plants in the family Tamaricaceae, native to drier areas of Eurasia and Africa.
The Tamil people, also known as Tamilar, Tamilans, or simply Tamils, are a Dravidian ethnic group who speak Tamil as their mother tongue and trace their ancestry to the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, the Indian Union territory of Puducherry, or the Northern, Eastern Province and Puttalam District of Sri Lanka.
Master Tara Singh (24 June 1885, in Rawalpindi, Punjab – 22 November 1967, in Chandigarh) was a prominent Sikh political and religious leader in the first half of the 20th century.
The Tashkent Declaration was a peace agreement between India and Pakistan signed on 10 January 1966 that resolved the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.
Taxila (from Pāli: Takkasilā, Sanskrit: तक्षशिला,, meaning "City of Cut Stone" or " Rock") is a town and an important archaeological site in the Rawalpindi District of the Punjab, Pakistan, situated about north-west of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, just off the famous Grand Trunk Road.
Technology transfer, also called transfer of technology (TOT), is the process of transferring (disseminating) technology from the places and ingroups of its origination to wider distribution among more people and places.
Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP; تحریک طالبان پاکستان; "Taliban Movement of Pakistan"), alternatively referred to as the Taliban, is a terrorist group which is an umbrella organization of various militant groups based in the northwestern Federally Administered Tribal Areas along the Afghan border in Pakistan.
A tehsil (also known as a mandal, taluk, taluq or taluka) is an administrative division of some countries of South Asia.
Area codes in Pakistan are from two to five digits long; the smaller the city, the longer the prefix.
Television in Pakistan started in 1964, and the first live transmission of Pakistan Television began on November 26, 1964, in Lahore.
Terrorism in Pakistan has become a major and highly destructive phenomenon in recent years.
Texas A&M University (Texas A&M or A&M) is a coeducational public research university in College Station, Texas, United States.
The Textile industry in Pakistan is the largest manufacturing industry in Pakistan.
The Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert, is a large arid region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent that covers an area of and forms a natural boundary between India and Pakistan.
Thatta (ٺٽو) is a city in the Pakistani province of Sindh.
The Express Tribune is a major daily English-language newspaper based in Pakistan.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Nation is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States, and the most widely read weekly journal of progressive political and cultural news, opinion, and analysis.
The Nation is an English-language daily newspaper based in Lahore, Pakistan since 1986.
The News International, published in broadsheet size, is the largest English language newspaper in Pakistan.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
The Third Way is a position akin to centrism that tries to reconcile right-wing and left-wing politics by advocating a varying synthesis of centre-right economic and centre-left social policies.
Thomson Reuters Corporation is a Canadian multinational mass media and information firm.
The Timurid dynasty (تیموریان), self-designated as Gurkani (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān), was a Sunni Muslim dynasty or clan of Turco-Mongol lineageB.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006Encyclopædia Britannica, "", Online Academic Edition, 2007.
Tit for tat is an English saying meaning "equivalent retaliation".
The Tomb of Jahangir (مقبرہُ جہانگیر, جہانگير دا مقبرہ) is a 17th century mausoleum built for the Mughal Emperor Jahangir.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
The trade-to-GDP ratio is an indicator of the relative importance of international trade in the economy of a country.
Transport in Pakistan (پاکِستان نقل و حمل) is extensive and varied, and serves a population of over 191 million people.
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial flowering plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae.
The two-nation theory is the basis of the creation of Pakistan.
The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
The United Nations has played an important role in maintaining peace and order in Jammu and Kashmir soon after the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947, when a dispute erupted between the two States on the question of Jammu and Kashmir.
The UNESCO Science Prize is a biennial scientific prize awarded by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to "a person or group of persons for an outstanding contribution they have made to the technological development of a developing member state or region through the application of scientific and technological research (particularly in the fields of education, engineering and industrial development)." The candidates for the Science Prize are proposed to the Director-General of UNESCO by the governments of member states or by non-governmental organizations.
A Union Council (شیروان, Sherwan) forms the second-tier of local government and fifth administrative division in Pakistan.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC; Conseil économique et social des Nations unies, CESNU) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, responsible for coordinating the economic, social, and related work of 15 UN specialized agencies, their functional commissions and five regional commissions.
UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations programme with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.
UN peacekeeping missions involving Pakistan cover about 40 operations in Afghanistan and Pakistan occupied Kashmir.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 38, adopted on January 17, 1948, called upon the governments of India and Pakistan to refrain from in any way aggravating the situation in Kashmir and deploy any means at their disposal to improve it.
The United Provinces (UP) was a province of British India and, subsequently, Independent India.
The United States Census Bureau (USCB; officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
United States involvement in regime change has entailed both overt and covert actions aimed at altering, replacing, or preserving foreign governments.
The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
The University of Balochistan جامعه بلوچستان (also known as Balochistan University) is a public university located in the downtown area of Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan.
The University of California, San Diego is a public research university located in the La Jolla neighborhood of San Diego, California, in the United States.
The University of Karachi (جامعۂ كراچى; ڪراچي يونيورسٽي; or KU) is a public university university located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
The University of Peshawar (جامعۂ پشاور; د پېښور پوهنتون; abbreviated UoP; known more popularly as Peshawar University), is a public research university located in Peshawar, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
The University of Sindh (سنڌ يونيورسٽي; جامعه سندھ, informally known as Sindh University) is a public research university in the residential area of Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan.
The University of the Punjab (جامعہ پنجاب), also referred to as Punjab University, is a public research university located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature (or one of three chambers of a tricameral legislature), the other chamber being the lower house.
Urbanization in Pakistan has increased since the time of independence and has several different causes.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Urdu literature (ادبیات اردو) has a history that is inextricably tied to the development of Urdu, the register of the Hindustani language written in the Perso-Arabic script.
The urial (Ovis orientalis vignei), also known as the arkars or shapo, is a subspecies group of the wild sheep Ovis orientalis.
The Uyghurs or Uygurs (as the standard romanisation in Chinese GB 3304-1991) are a Turkic ethnic group who live in East and Central Asia.
Vengalil Krishnan Krishna Menon (3 May 1896 – 6 October 1974) was an Indian nationalist, diplomat, and politician, described by some as the second most powerful man in India, after his ally, 1st Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru.
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
The Vedic period, or Vedic age, is the period in the history of the northwestern Indian subcontinent between the end of the urban Indus Valley Civilisation and a second urbanisation in the central Gangetic Plain which began in BCE.
Religious violence in India includes targeted violence against Muslims.
During the Partition of India, violence against women was an extensive issue.
Vocational education is education that prepares people to work in various jobs, such as a trade, a craft, or as a technician.
The Wakhan Corridor (واخان دهلېز Wāxān Dahléz, دالان واخان) is a narrow strip of territory in northeastern Afghanistan that extends to China and separates Tajikistan from Pakistan.
Wakhi is an Indo-European language in the Eastern Iranian branch of the language family spoken today in Wakhan District, Afghanistan and also in Northern Pakistan, China, and Tajikistan.
The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.
The War in North-West Pakistan, also known as the War in Waziristan, is an armed conflict involving Pakistan, and armed militant groups such as the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), Jundallah, Lashkar-e-Islam (LeI), TNSM, al-Qaeda, and their Central Asian allies such as the ISIL–Khorasan (ISIL), Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, East Turkistan Movement, Emirate of Caucasus, and elements of organized crime.
The War on Terror, also known as the Global War on Terrorism, is an international military campaign that was launched by the United States government after the September 11 attacks in the United States in 2001.
The Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) (واٹر اینڈ پاور ڈیولپمنٹ اتھارٹی) is a government-owned public utility maintaining power and water in Pakistan, although it does not manage thermal power.
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
The Wazir Khan Mosque (Punjabi and; Masjid Wazīr Khān) is 17th century mosque located in the city of Lahore, capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab.
The western tragopan or western horned tragopan (Tragopan melanocephalus) is a medium-sized brightly plumed pheasant found along the Himalayas from north-eastern districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in northern Pakistan in the west to Uttarakhand within India to the east.
The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.
Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal species, but has come to include all plants, fungi, and other organisms that grow or live wild in an area without being introduced by humans.
The Worldwide Independent Network/Gallup International Association (WIN/GIA) was an international cooperation of independent market research and polling firms.
The experiences of Muslim women (Muslimāt, singular مسلمة Muslima) vary widely between and within different societies.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Economic Forum (WEF) is a Swiss nonprofit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva, Switzerland.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.6 billion people as of May 2018.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
The World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC) is a forum for the travel and tourism industry.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.
Yahoo! News is a news website that originated as an internet-based news aggregator by Yahoo!.
Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (آغا محمد یحییٰ خان; 4 February 1917 – 10 August 1980), widely known as Yahya Khan,, was the third President of Pakistan, serving in this post from 25 March 1969 until turning over his presidency in December 1971.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
The Yidgha language is an Eastern Iranian language of the Pamir group spoken in the upper Lotkoh Valley (Tehsil Lotkoh) of Chitral in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War, or October War (or מלחמת יום כיפור,;,, or حرب تشرين), also known as the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, was a war fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, by a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel.
Syed Yousuf Raza Gillani also spelled Gilani (Urdu:;; born 9 July 1952) is a Pakistani politician who served as 19th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 25 March 2008 until his retroactive disqualification and ouster by the Supreme Court of Pakistan on 26 April 2012.
Zain Javadd "Zayn" Malik (زین جواد ملک; born 12 January 1993), recording mononymously as Zayn, is an English singer and songwriter.
Zee News is an Indian news channel launched in 6 July 1999 and is the flagship property of Zee Media Corporation Limited, company and a subsidiary of Essel Group.The channel is owned by Subhash Chandra, an independent member of the Rajya Sabha.
The Zimbabwe cricket team toured Pakistan from 19 to 31 May 2015.
The Zippe-type centrifuge is a gas centrifuge designed to enrich the rare fissile uranium isotope Uranium-235 out of the mixture of isotopes found in naturally occurring uranium compounds.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
General Zubair Mahmood Hayat (Urdu:زبیر محمود حیات; b. 1960), is the 15th Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee.
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (5 January 1928 – 4 April 1979) was a Pakistani politician who served as the 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that as the 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973.
.pk is the designated Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Pakistan.
The United Kingdom Cabinet Mission of 1946 to India aimed to discuss the transfer of power from the British government to the Indian leadership, with the aim of preserving India's unity and granting it independence.
The 1958 Pakistani coup d'état refers to the events between October 7, when the President of Pakistan Iskander Mirza abrogated the Constitution of Pakistan and declared martial law, and October 27, when Mirza himself was deposed by Gen.
The 1970 Bhola cyclone was a devastating tropical cyclone that struck East Pakistan (present-day Bangladesh) and India's West Bengal on November 12, 1970.
The 1971 Men's Hockey World Cup was the inaugural tournament of the Hockey World Cup men's field hockey tournament.
The 1978 Men's Hockey World Cup was the fourth Hockey World Cup men's field hockey tournament.
The 1982 Men's Hockey World Cup was the fifth installment of the Hockey World Cup men's field hockey tournament.
The 1984 PSA Men's Hamdard World Open Squash Championship is the men's edition of the 1984 World Open, which serves as the individual world championship for squash players.
The 1987 Cricket World Cup (officially the Reliance Cup 1987) was the fourth edition of the ICC Cricket World Cup tournament.
The 1989 South Asian Games(or 4th SAF Games) were held in Islamabad, Pakistan from 20 October to 27 October 1989.
The 1990 Men's Hockey World Cup was the seventh instalment of the Hockey World Cup men's field hockey tournament.
The 1992 Cricket World Cup (officially the Benson & Hedges World Cup 1992) was the fifth staging of the Cricket World Cup, organised by the International Cricket Council (ICC).
The 1993 PSA Men's World Open Squash Championship is the men's edition of the 1993 World Open, which serves as the individual world championship for squash players.
The 1994 Hockey World Cup, was the eighth tournament of the Hockey World Cup men's field hockey tournament.
The 1996 Cricket World Cup, also called the Wills World Cup 1996 after its official sponsors, ITC's Wills brand, was the sixth Cricket World Cup, organised by the International Cricket Council (ICC).
The 1996 PSA Men's World Open Squash Championship is the men's edition of the 1996 World Open, which serves as the individual world championship for squash players.
The 1998 Pakistan Census is a detailed enumeration of the Pakistani population held in 1998 by the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, an agency of the Government of Pakistan.
The 1999 Cricket World Cup (officially known as ICC Cricket World Cup '99) was the seventh edition of the Cricket World Cup, organised by the International Cricket Council (ICC).
The 1999 Pakistani coup d'état was a bloodless coup d'état in which the Pakistan Army and then-Chief of Army Staff and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, General Pervez Musharraf, seized the control of the civilian government of publicly elected Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif on 12 October 1999.
The 2003 PSA Men's World Open Squash Championship is the men's edition of the 2003 World Open, which serves as the individual world championship for squash players.
The 2004 South Asian Games(or 9th SAF Games) were held in Islamabad, Pakistan in 2004.
The 2005 Kashmir earthquake occurred at on 8 October in Pakistan administered areas of Kashmir.
The 2007 ICC World Twenty20 was the inaugural Twenty20 cricket world championship, contested in South Africa from 11 to 24 September 2007.
The 2009 attack on the Sri Lanka national cricket team occurred on 3 March 2009, when a bus carrying Sri Lankan cricketers, part of a larger convoy, was fired upon by 12 gunmen, near Gaddafi Stadium in Lahore, Pakistan.
The 2009 ICC World Twenty20 was an international Twenty20 cricket tournament which took place in England in June 2009.
The 2017 Census of Pakistan was a detailed enumeration of the Pakistani population which began on 15 March 2017 and ended on 25 May 2017.
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